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Title:
METHOD OF BONDING FIBERS TO FORM A COMPOSITE STRUCTURE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/039627
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A method for bonding fibers includes providing a first fiber layer and a second fiber layer positioned below the first fiber layer to bond the first fiber layer with the second fiber layer. The method may also include providing a first and second buffer layer. The first buffer layer is positioned above the first fiber layer and the second buffer layer is positioned below the second fiber layer. Then, the method may further include bonding the first and second fiber layers by directing energy at the first buffer layer.

Inventors:
ERICKSON, Alan (6250 Tuttle Place, Unit 3Anchorage, Alaska, 99507, US)
BANBURY, Mackinzie (7031 West Cambridge Drive, Wasilla, Alaska, 99623, US)
Application Number:
US2017/048722
Publication Date:
March 01, 2018
Filing Date:
August 25, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
INDEMNIS, INC. (6250 Tuttle Place, Unit 3Anchorage, Alaska, 99507, US)
International Classes:
D04H1/54; B29C65/00; B29C65/04; B32B5/02; B32B7/04
Foreign References:
US20050181168A12005-08-18
US20100003452A12010-01-07
CA972274A1975-08-05
US20140259251A12014-09-18
US5976627A1999-11-02
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
TARLETON, E., Russell et al. (Seed Intellectual Property Law Group LLP, Suite 5400701 Fifth Avenu, Seattle Washington, 98104-7064, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

The disclosure is claimed as follows:

A method comprising:

providing a first fiber layer comprising an Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber;

providing a second fiber layer below the first fiber layer, wherein the second fiber layer comprises a UHMWPE fiber;

overlapping a portion of the first fiber layer and a portion of the second fiber layer to create a seam;

forming a composite structure at the seam by RF welding the first and second fiber layers together at the seam.

2. The method of claim 1, comprising providing a first additive layer between the first fiber layer and the second fiber layer prior to forming the composite staicture.

The method of claim 2, further comprising providing a second additive layer above the first fiber

4. The method of claim 1, wherein forming the composite stmcture comprises bonding the first and second fiber layers to each other.

5. The method of claim 4, further comprising providing a third additive layer below the second fiber layer.

6. The method of claim 5, wherein the first, second, third additive layers are made from at least one of polyester and poiyamides.

7. The method of claim 5, further comprising providing a buffer layer below the third additive layer.

8. The method of claim 7, wherein the buffer layer is made from si licone.

9. The method of claim 1, wherein at least one of the first and second fiber layers is a Dyneerna© composite fabrics layer,

10. The method of claim 1, wherein the energy is selected from the group consisting of radio-frequency energy, heat energy, ultrasonic energy, laser energy, and combinations thereof.

1 1. A method for bonding Dyneerna® composite fabrics, the method comprising:

providing a first Dyneerna® composite fabrics layer;

providing a second Dyneerna® composite fabrics layer below the first

Dyneerna® composite fabrics layer;

providing a first additive layer; and

directing energy at a seam area, wherein the seam area includes the first

Dyneerna® composite fabrics layer, the second Dyneerna® composite fabrics layer, and the first additive layer.

12. The method of claim 1 1, wherein the first additive layer is located between the first and second Dyneerna® composite fabrics layers.

13. The method of claim 1 1, wherein the first and second Dyneerna® composite fabrics layers are made from UHMWPE fibers.

14. The method of claim 1 1, further comprising providing a second additive layer above the first Dyneema® composite fabrics layer.

1 5. The method of claim 14, further comprising providing a third additive layer below the second Dyneema® composite fabrics layer.

16. The method of claim 1 5, wherein the first, second, third additive layers are made from at least one of polyester and polyamides.

17. The method of claim 16, further comprising providing a buffer layer below the third additive layer.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein the buffer layer is made from silicone.

19. The method of claim 1 1, wherein the directing the energy at the seam area bonds the first and second Dyneema® composite fabrics layers to each other.

20. A method for radio-frequency bonding fibers, the method comprising:

providing a first fiber layer,

providing a second fiber layer below the first layer;

providing a first additive layer; and

directing radio-frequency energy at a seam area, wherein the seam area includes the first fiber layer, the second fiber layer, and the first additive layer.

21. A product comprising:

a first fiber layer comprising a UHMWPE fiber; a second fiber layer located below the first fiber layer, wherein the second fiber layer comprises a UHMWPE fiber, wherein the first fiber layer and the second fiber layer are bonded together to form a composite structure.

22. The product of claim 21 further comprising a first additive layer adjacent at least one of the first and second fiber layers, wherein the first additive layer has been activated by directing energy at the first additive layer.

23. The product of claim 22, wherein the first additive layer is located between the first fiber layer and the second fiber layer.

24. The product of claim 22, wherein at least one of the first and second fiber layers is a Dyneema® composite fabrics layer,

25. The product of claim 22, wherein the directing of the energy- bonds the first and second fiber layers to each other.

26. The product of claim 22, further comprising providing a second additive layer above the first fiber layer.

27. The product of claim 26, further comprising providing a third additive layer below the second fiber layer.

28. The product of claim 27, wherein the first, second, third additive layers are made from at least one of polyester and polyamides.

29. The product of claim 27, further comprising providing a buffer layer below the third additive layer.

30. The product of claim 27, wherein the buffer layer is made from silicone.

31. The product of claim 21, wherein the energy is selected from the group consisting of radio-frequency energy, heat energy, ultrasonic energy, laser energy, and combinations thereof.

32. A product, made by a process comprising:

providing a first fiber layer comprising a UHMWPE fiber; providing a second fiber layer below the first fiber layer, wherein the second fiber layer comprises a UHMWPE fiber;

providing a first additive layer; and

activating the first additive layer by directing energy at the first additive layer.

33. The product of claim 32, wherein the first additive layer is located between the first fiber layer and the second fiber layer.

34. The product of claim 32, wherein at least one of the first and second fiber layers is a Dyneema® composite fabrics layer.

35. The product of claim 32, wherein the directing of the energy bonds the first and second fiber layers to each other.

36. The product of claim 32, wherein the process further comprises providing a second additive layer above the first fiber layer.

37. The product of claim 36, wherein the process further comprises providing a third additive layer below the second fiber layer.

38. The product of claim 37, wherein the first, second, third additive layers are made from at least one of polyester and poiyamides.

39. The product of claim 37, wherein the process further comprises providing a buffer layer below the third additive layer.

40. The product of claim 39, wherein the buffer layer is made from silicone.

41. The product of claim 32, wherein the energy is selected from the group consisting of radio-frequency energy, heat energy, ultrasonic energy, laser energy, and combinations thereof.

Description:
METHOD OF BONDING FIBERS TO FORM A COMPOSITE STRUCTURE

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application claims the benefit under 35 U. S.C. § 1 19(e) to U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/379,827 filed on August 26, 2016, which application is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

BACKGROUND

Technical Field

The present disclosure generally relates to methods of bonding fibers and, more specifically, to methods of bonding Ultra-High Molecular Weight

Polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers and fiber-reinforced laminates having the UHMWPE fibers and to the resulting composite structure.

Description of the Related Art

Dyneema* Composite fabrics, formerly or also known as Cuben Fiber, is a fiber-reinforced laminate that is a non-woven fabric. Dyneema® composite fabrics have many material property advantages, notably, its weight to strength ratio. This makes it a prime material for aerospace and mountaineering applications that require complex shapes while keeping weight to a minimum. Dyneema® composite fabrics are produced using Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (IJHMWPE) fibers, such as the DYNEEMA' 8 ' material, with thermoplastic polyurethane film.

DYNEEMA '8, is a registered trademark of the manufacturer DSM

Dyneema. The DYNEEMA '6, material is a super-strong fiber made from UHMWPE having long molecular chains that transfer load more effectively to the polymer backbone and thi s fiber layer gives Dyneema® composite fabrics its strength ,

DYNEEMA material is produced in a gel spinning process in which the UHMWPE fibers are drawn, heated, elongated, and cooled. For example, UHMWPE is added into a suitable solvent and spun through a spinnerette. Then, it is cooled, extracted, dried, and extended, to produce the final fibers. Unlike normal polyethylene having low orientation, low molecular weight, and low crystallinity, DYNEEMA* material has very high molecular orientation, high molecular weight, and high crystallinity. BRIEF SUMMARY

The present disclosure provides new and innovative methods of bonding fibers. An example method includes providing a first fiber layer and a second fiber layer positioned below the first fiber layer. The first and second fiber layers are bonded to each other. The method may also include providing a first and second buffer layer. The first buffer layer is positioned above the first fiber layer and the second buffer layer is positioned below the second fiber layer. Then, the method may further include bonding the first and second fiber layers by directing energy at the first buffer layer. The buffer layer is made from material with low dielectric properties such as silicone or polyester films.

The method also may include providing a first additive layer. In some implementations, the first additive layer is located between the first fiber layer and the second fiber layer. In some implementations, at least one of the first and second fiber layers is a Dyneema® composite fabrics layer. In some implementations, the directing of the energy may bond the first and second fiber layers to each other. The energy directed to is one or more of radio-frequency energy, heat energy, ultrasonic energy, or laser energy. The Dyneema© composite fabrics layer is made from UHMWPE fibers, such as DYNEEMA ® fibers. In other implementations, at least one of the first and second fiber layers is a UHMWPE fiber layer.

Another example method may also include providing a second additive layer above the first fiber layer and a third additive layer below the second fiber layer. The first, second, and third additive layers are made from at least one of polyester and polyamides.

Another example method includes providing a first Dyneema® composite fabrics layer and a second Dyneema® composite fabrics layer below the first Dyneema® composite fabrics layer. The method also includes providing a first additive layer and activating the first additive layer by directing energy at the first additive layer. In some implementations, the directing of the energy may bond the first and second fiber layers to each other.

In accordance with another aspect of the present disclosure, a composite structure is provided using the methods described herein.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS

The foregoing and other features and advantages of the present disclosure will be more readily appreciated as the same become better understood from the following detailed description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein

Figure I is a cross-sectional view of the seam area according to an example method of the present disclosure;

Figure 2 is a diagram that illustrates an example method to radio-frequency bond fibers according to an example method of the present disclosure,

Figure 3 is a flowchart illustrating an example method of bonding fibers; and

Figure 4 is a cross-sectional view of a composite structure formed in accordance with an alternative implementation of the present disclosure. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

In the following description, certain specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of various disclosed implementations. However, one skilled in the relevant art will recognize that implementations is practiced without one or more of these specific details, or with other methods, components, materials, etc. In other instances, well-known structures or components or both associated with welding apparatus, RF welders, fiber construction, and the like have not been shown or described in order to avoid unnecessarily obscuring descriptions of the

implementations. Unless the context requires otherwise, throughout the specification and claims that follow, the word "comprise ' " and variations thereof, such as "comprises" and "comprising" are to be construed in an open inclusive sense, that is, as "including, but not limited to." The foregoing applies equally to the words "including" and "having."

Reference throughout this description to "one implementation" or "an implementation" means that a particular feature, stnicture, or characteristic described in connection with the implementation is included in at least one implementation. Thus, the appearance of the phrases "in one implementation" or "in an implementation" in various places throughout the specification are not necessarily all referring to the same implementation. Furthermore, the particular features, structures, or characteristics are combined in any suitable manner in one or more implementations.

Described herein are methods of bonding fibers and the resulting composite structure. As discussed above, Dyneema® composite fabrics is a

fiber-reinforced laminate, produced using Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene fibers, such as the E)YNEElVi A '8, material, with polyester or fluoride films. However, the Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene fibers (such as DYNEEMA*) have a low melting point of around 250°F. Furthermore, prolonged exposure to temperatures above 180°F is going to compromise the integrity of the fibers.

Due to the low melting point of the UHMWPE fibers, attempts to bond the Dyneema® composite fabrics to itself via traditional fabric welding methods such as radio frequency (RF), ultrasonic, laser welding/laser enhanced bonding (LW/LEB), and hot-air welding (HA) have been unsuccessful, resulting in heat damage to the UHMWPE fibers. Ultimately, the process produces a bond that fails and tears at the edge of the weld seam. Currently, the accepted method for working with Dyneema® composite fabrics is to sew and tape the seams. This process may work for some applications, but falls short when a strong, airtight seam is required.

Aspects of the present disclosure address the above-noted deficiency by providing a method of bonding UHMWPE fibers and fiber-reinforced laminates having the UHMWPE fibers, such as Dyneema® composite fabrics, by providing an additive layer made from a dielectric modifier to the seam area. Dielectric modifiers are materials with an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electrical field. Examples of dielectric modifiers include but are not limited to polyester, polyamides (nylon), thermoplastic polyurethane and other polyurethane plastics, or ABS polymers to the seam area. It has surprisingly been found that the use of this additive layer during the bonding process unexpectedly enables the bonding of UHMWPE fibers or fiber-reinforced laminates or both with minimal heat damage. The polyester or polyamides, alone or in any combination, is added to the top, middle, or bottom of the Dyneema® composite fabrics to be bonded. It is added to all three sides (top, middle, bottom) or only two sides (e.g., top-middle, middle-bottom, top-bottom) of the

Dyneema© composite fabrics. A buffer layer, such as silicone, is also added. In this way, aspects of the present disclosure may offer a bond that has minimal damage to the UHMWPE fibers, and ultimately to the Dyneema© composite fabrics during the bonding process.

Figure 1 depicts a cross-sectional view of the seam area 100 according to an example method of the present disclosure. The seam area 100 includes a first fiber layer 1 10 and a second fiber layer 120. In some implementations, at least one of the first and second fiber layers 110-120 is a Dyneema® composite fabrics layer. The

Dyneema® composite fabrics layer is preferably made from UHMWPE fibers, such as DYNEEMA* fibers. In other implementations, at least one of the first and second fiber layers 1 10-120 is a UHMWPE fiber layer. In other implementations, the first fiber layer 1 10 is a Dyneema® composite fabrics layer and the second fiber layer 120 is a

UHMWPE fiber layer. In some implementations, the second fiber layer 120 located below the first fiber layer 110.

The seam area 100 may also include a first additive layer 130. In some implementations, the first additive layer 130 is located between the first and second fiber layers 110-120. For example, the first additive layer 130 is placed on the bottom surface of the first fiber layer 1 0 and on the top surface of the second fiber layer 120. In other implementations, the first additive lay er 130 is added to the top of the first fiber layer 1 10 or to the bottom of the second fiber layer 120. For example, the first additive layer 130 is placed on the top surface of the first fiber layer 110 or on the bottom surface of the second fiber layer 120. The first additive layer is preferably made from polyester or polyamides (nylon). The polyester or polyamides have a higher melting point than UHMWPE, such as DYNEE-MA* fibers. The polyester or polyamides is in essentially any form, such as fiber, flock, pellet, and powder. In some implementations, the polyester or polyamides is in the form of glue.

In some implementations, the seam area 100 may also include a second additive layer 140. The first and second additive layers 130-140 are added to two sides (e.g., top-middle, middle-bottom, top-bottom) of the first and second fiber layers 110-120. The second additive layer 140 is preferably made from polyester or polyamides (nylon).

In some implementations, the seam area 100 may also include a third additive layer 50. In this case, the first, second, and third additive layers 130-150 are added to all three sides (top, middle, bottom) of the first and second fiber layers 110-120. For example, the first additive layer 130 is located between the first and second fiber layers 110-120, the second additive layer 140 is placed above the first fiber layer 1 10, and the third additive layer 150 is placed below the second fiber layer 120. The third additive layer 150 is preferably made from polyester or polyamides (nylon). In some implementations, the polyester and polyamides used for the first, second, and third additive layers are coated with thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The first, second, and third additive layers are applied to the first fiber layer or the second fiber layer or to both using known application techniques, such as immersion, knife coating, transfer coating or placing precut pieces of the additive layers to the area intended to be welded.

In some implementations, the seam area 100 may further include a buffer lay er 160. In some implementations, the buffer layer 160 is a bottom layer of the seam area 100. For example, if the seam area 100 includes a first fiber layer 110, a second fiber layer 120 below the first fiber layer 120, and a first additive layer between the first fiber layer 110 and the second fiber layer 120, the buffer layer 160 is placed below the second fiber layer 120. If the seam area 100 includes first and second fiber layers 110-120 and first, second, and third additive layers 130- 50 on three sides (top - second additive layer 140, middle - first additive layer 130, and bottom - third additive layer 1 50) of the first and second fiber layers 110-120, the buffer layer 160 is placed below the third additive layer 150. In other implementations, the buffer layer 160 is a top layer of the seam area 100. In some implementations, the buffer layer 160 is made from materials with low dielectric properties such as silicone or polyester films, included but not limited to MYLAR 8 ' material. MYLAR* material is a specific family of plastic sheet products made from the resin Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), which is produced by DuPont Teijin Films™

A variety of bonding techniques is utilized to form the bond between the first fiber layer 1 10 and the second fiber layer 120, including radio frequency (RF) bonding, ultrasonic bonding, hot-air welding, and laser welding/laser enhanced bonding (LW/LEB). Radio frequency (RF) bonding, also known as dielectric bonding, uses RF energy to bond materials. RF electrodes deliver the RF energy to the materials being joined and this causes the molecules to oscillate, creating heat in the materials.

Ultrasonic bonding uses ultrasonic energy to create heat by directing high-frequency vibrations to the materials being joined under pressure. Laser welding and laser enhanced bonding are bonding techniques used to join multiple pieces of materials through the use of a laser and laser energy, respectively. Hot-air welding uses heat energy to bond materials by directing precise heat and pressure to the seam area.

Examples of the bonding process using a radio frequency bonding technique are described in greater detail below in connection with Figure 2.

Figure 2 is a diagram that illustrates an example method of bonding fibers using a RF bonding technique according to one implementation of the present disclosure. Unless otherwise explicitly noted or described, the seam area illustrated in Figure 2 can include similar or the same components as those of the seam area 100 illustrated in Figure I .

In some implementations, the RF welder 210 may include an upper platen 220 and a lower platen 230. The upper and lower platens 220-230 is an RF electrode configured to transfer RF energy to the seam area 100. In some

implementations, the RF welder 210 may also include a shaped die 240. In RF bonding, the upper and lower platens 220-230 may contact and compress the seam area 100. The upper and lower platens 220-230 may transfer the RF energy to the seam area 00 such that the seam area 100 is activated/exposed to a certain level of RF energy for a predetermined period of time. As the RF ' energy is absorbed by various layers of the seam area 100 (e.g., the first fiber layer 110, the second fiber layer 120, and/or the first additive layer 130), the temperature of the seam area may rise until

melting/semi -melting occurs at the seam area 100. In some implementations, the melting/semi -melting may occur at the interface between the first and second fiber layers 1 10-120 or at the interface between first additive layer 130 and the first/second fiber layers 110-120. Once the molten material is intermixed, the seam area is cooled off to form a bond between the first fiber layer 1 10 and the second fiber layer 120.

Remaining features and characteristics of the seam area 100 illustrated and described with respect to Figure 2 can otherwise be similar or the same as those described with the implementations depicted in Figure 1, including, but not limited to, characteristics of certain layers and the possible presence of the layers, such as the first and second fiber layers 1 10-120, the first, second, and third additive layers 130-150, and the buffer layer 60 as described and illustrated herein. For example, the seam area may also include a buffer layer 160. Due to the poor dielectric property of Dyneema® composite fabrics, Dyneema® composite fabrics could catch on fire during the RF bonding process. It has surprisingly been found that the silicone or polyester film (e.g., MYLAR ' *) unexpectedly acts as a buffer layer such that the likelihood of setting Dyneema® composite fabrics on fire during the RF ' bonding process could be drastically decreased.

Figure 3 shows a flowchart of an example method of bonding fibers. Although the example method 300 is described with reference to the flowchart illustrated in Figure 3, it will be appreciated that many other methods of performing the steps associated with the method may be used. For example, the order of some of the blocks or steps is changed, certain blocks or steps are combined with other blocks or steps, and some of the blocks or steps so described are optional. In the illustrated example, the method 300 includes providing a first fiber layer and a second fiber layer below the first fiber layer (blocks 305 and 310). In some implementations, at least one of the first and second fiber layers is a Dyneema® composite fabrics layer. In other implementations, at least one of the first and second fiber layers is a UHMWPE fiber layer, such as the DYNEEMA ® material. The method 300 may also include providing a first additive layer between the first and second fiber layers (block 315). Then, the method 300 may further include providing a second additive layer above the first fiber layer and a third additive layer below the second fiber layer (blocks 320 and 325). The first, second, and third additive layers are made from polyester or polyamides (nylon). The method 300 may include providing a buffer layer below the third additive layer (block 330). In some implementations, the buffer layer 160 is made from silicone or polyester film, such as MYLAR* ' material.

Subsequently, the method 300 includes activating the first additive layer by directing energy at the first additive layer (block 335). The energy directed to the first additive layer is radio-frequency energy, heat energy, ultrasonic energy, or laser energy.

The various implementations described above can be combined to provide further implementations. Aspects of the implementations can be modified, if necessary to employ concepts of the various patents, applications and publications to provide yet further implementations.

composite structure 402 in which the additive layers described above are omitted. Here, the composite structure 402 is in the form of a seam 405 that includes a first buffer layer 404, an adjacent first fiber layer 406, then an adjacent second fiber layer 408, and a final adjacent second buffer layer 410. It is to be understood that the first and second buffer layers 404, 410 may be formed from material as described above or any non- dielectric buffer. Accordingly, the steps of the method described above would be modified to eliminate the use of the additive layers. While only two fiber layers are described above, it is to be understood that more layers can be seamed together, including 3, 4, 5, 6, and up to 10 layers using the techniques described herein. When using the RF welder with this implementation of the disclosure, the two fiber layers are positioned between the upper and lower platens on the RF welder. The following specifications for the RF welder are provided by way of non- limiting example. Generally, the weld time would be 3 to 8 seconds (inclusive of the outer range numbers), with the current set at 5 to 12% of the machine' s power

(assuming a lOkW machine is used), and the pressure would be around 80 PSI. The time to cool under pressure would be about 5 to 8 seconds (inclusive of the outer range numbers).

In accordance with another aspect of the present disclosure, it is possible to combine these layers using spot welding techniques. In addition, one could use a dielectric modifier in connection with the fiber layers to match the spot welding.

Dielectric modifiers are materials with an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field. Examples of dielectric modifiers include, but are not limited to, Barex 210; Barex 218; PETG (Polyethylene Terphthatate Glycol); Pliofilm (Rubber Hydrochloride); Polyvinyl chloride (PVC); Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (adhesive emulsions), Saran (Polyvinylidene Chloride); ABS polymers, APET; PET

(Polyethylene Terphthatate); Polyurethane-vinyl film; or other dielectric materials.

In the spot application process, a first dielectric modifier is applied to first specific area of a first layer of high-strength fibrous material. A second dielectric modifier is then applied to a second specific area of a second layer of high-strength fibrous material. The first and second dielectric modifiers may be the same or different modifier material . The first and second layers of high-strength fibrous material may be the same or different fibrous material.

The first and second specific areas of the fibrous material are positioned at a seam location defined by where the first dielectric modifier and the second dielectric modifier abut and mirror each other, and in which the first layer and the second layer of fibrous material are on the outside of the seam. Energy is applied to the seam to activate the first and second dielectric modifier, which in turn forms a bond between the first and second layers of high-strength fibrous material. The energy may be one or more of radio-frequency energy, heat energy, ultrasonic energy, or laser energy. Although the foregoing method describes the bonding of two layers of high- strength fibrous materials, additional layers of high-strength fibrous materials may be bonded in a similar way. For example, a dielectric modifier is added to each layer of high-strength fibrous material with the dielectric modifiers overlapping when the energy is applied to the seam.

The process of applying the dielectric modifier to a specific area of the high-strength fibrous material can be carried out by a variety of methods, including but not limited to laminate with heat or utilization of an adhesive or a heated pressure element, extruded and applied as glue, or sprayed on.

In some implementations, an additional dielectric enhancer layer may be posited between the two layers of spot coated high-strength fibrous material to accelerate the energy transfer and allow the dielectric modifier to create a stronger weld or bond to the high-strength fibrous material. The dielectric enhancer layer may be made out of Nvlon fPoivarnide ; Polvamide: Polvurethane; PVC rigid; Rubber, compounded, Polyester; Polymide or other dielectrics.

These and other changes can be made to the implementations in light of the above-detailed description. In general, in the following claims, the terms used should not be construed to limit the claims to the specific implementations disclosed in the specification and the claims, but should be construed to include all possible implementations along with the full scope of equivalents to which such claims are entitled. Accordingly, the claims are not limited by the disclosure.