EIDE, Hallvar (N-6240 Örskog, NO)
1. Method for casting of shell structured layers, wherein a carpet shaped layer of a casting material, particularly in powdered condition, is supplied with a curing agent, characterized in that the powdered casting material prepared for addition of a curing agent is arranged on a web layer and curing agent is added.
2. Method according to claim 1, characterized in that the powdered material is arranged as a layer between two covering layer, one of which one is providing a permeable membrane for addition of curing agent, particularly water.
3. Method according to claims 1 or 2, characterized in that the addition of curing agent, particularly water, to the powdered concrete casting material is supplied from an external source.
4. Method according to one of the claims 1 to 3, characterized in that concrete is used for covering objects and substances expelling contamination.
5. Method according to one of the claims 1 to 3, characterized in that concrete is used for preparing layers not available for preparing moulds.
6. Device for carrying out the method according to claim 1, for casting shells, particularly of concrete, particularly for covering objects and substances emitting contaminants or for providing sealing membranes and/or supporting layers in construction and buildings work, characterized in that it comprises a two layer web (11, 13) providing a closed pocket (14) for receiving the casting material (15) as powder, and that at least one is the web layers is provided with means (17, 18) for the supply of a curing agent, particularly water, for curing the casting material.
7. Device according to claim 6, characterized in that the means for supply of curing liquid comprises a third web layer (17) making a pocket (16) for curing liquid (18) contacting one of the double web layers (13) providing the pocket for the casting material (15), and that this web layer (13) has perforations for introduction of curing liquid.
8. Device according to claim 7, characterized in that the pocket (16) for curing liquid includes a layer (18) of porous material for distributing curing liquid added to the pocket.
9. Device according to one of the claims 6 to 8, characterized in that the pocket (28) for receiving the curing substance is constituting a first tubular structure, for receiving flowable and possibly pumpable substances which are to be enclosed and shielded, and that the surrounding pocket (30) for containing and distributing curing liquid forms a second, surrounding tubular structure.
10. Device according to claim 9, characterized in that it is provided for arrangement on a seabed for accommodating contaminating drilling waste.
11. Device according to claim 10, characterized in that it is provided with self releasing (pressure operated) valves for inlet of curing liquid, particularly water from the surrounding water volume, or freshwater through a pipeline/hose.
12. Device according to one of the claims 6 to 11, characterized in that said two web layers for receiving powdered casting material is provided to have restrictions in the distance between the web layers, particularly with seams and/or by integrating a further web layer between said first two web layers.
13. Casting material for the method according to claim 1, characterized in being in a flexible carpet shaped form, particularly with powder, when being deposited.
14. Casting material according to claim 13, characterized in that it is incorporated in a matrix of bentonite, porous material or water free, water absorbing gel which is passive to curing.
15. Casting material according to one of the claims 13 and 14, characterized by containing a swelling agent.
16. Casting material according to one of the claims 13 to 15, characterized by containing up to 80 percent by weight of micronized aplite.
The invention relates to a method as stated in the introductory part of claim 1, for casting a concrete layer. Further it relates to a device as stated in the introductory part of claim 6, for carrying out this method. Finally, the invention relates to a casting material suitable for carrying out this method.
There is a need for covering and encapsulating various masses and objects. As an example is mentioned covering of ships wreck and contaminated ships cargos, waste disposals offshore and onshore.
Particularly offshore such covering has caused problems. Ships wrecks have been covered by depositing rock material. This may immobilize structures, but cannot prevent fluids and other contaminating material from dissipating from the wreck. This has caused costly elevation projects and attempts to empty ships wreck with contaminating content.
In connection with offshore works with oil and gas exploration, drilling waste is generated, which is met with increasing requirements for being made lastingly safe. It is known to fill contaminated mud in sacks or bags, for avoiding dissipation. But this will not provide safety against contamination from fluids and will not provide lasting safety.
The demand for covering waste on the sea bottom, being from petroleum activity or marine casualties, is large. Particularly this applies to cases with substances or wrecks containing radioactive substances or poisonous chemicals, which can be dissipating in sea water and contaminate marine organisms, particularly fish and similar animals. There is also a need for covering waste disposals and for providing sealing layers when making fundaments, building roads and dams and at establishing waste disposals.
Further, there is a need for preparing the ground for building permanent or temporary roads on soft grounds, using a concrete blanket, with particular qualities in the finished material and/or reinforcements for particular strengths. When casting floors, it may be necessary to provide a thin and strong layer of concrete, as a membrane, e.g. as a seal against moisture, radiation and similar.
Further there is a need for reinforcing columns with a tubular layer of a particularly strong casting material. Generally, there is a need for providing a strong protecting layer on different structures exposed to wear. An example is old bridges and pipelines. In connection with various construction project, e.g. building of dams, bridges, roads, there is a need for depositing layers of concrete without normal sheathing and where in situ casting is impossible, e.g. in slopes.
At certain casting processes, there is a need to prepare a shell of concrete, with an irregular structure not available for making moulds or sheathings.
A still further need exists for constructing emergency bridges or bypasses at natural disasters.
Casted shells may be needed for stabilizing uncompacted materials.
The main object of the invention is to provide a method for encapsulating or covering wrecked or undesirable objects or waste disposals with a shell with sufficient mechanical and chemical strength and durability to provide protection over a long time. This is mainly related to submarine use, and for covering waste offshore and onshore.
A particular object is for covering waste disposals from the oil operations on the seabed. This relates both to unfixed waste and waste collected in sacks or hose like containers. Further it is an object to provide a method for covering disposals of various kinds.
A further object is to provide a carpet structure for preparing artificial lakes by providing a waterproof and mechanically durable membrane.
The invention has also as an object to provide a device for carrying out this method, and which can be stored for future construction use, or for being prepared for an emergency covering of an area. The Invention
The invention relates primarily to a method for casting a shell layer of a casting material, where a carpet shaped layer of casting material, particularly powdered, is supplied with curing agent.
The powdered casting material is preferably placed between two covering webs, one of which is a permeable membrane for the supply of curing agent, particularly water. It is preferred that the supply of curing agent, particularly water, to the powdered casting material, may come from an external water supply. It is also possible to supply water from an inclosed water supply.
It is preferred to use concrete for casting, which is used for covering objects and substances vulnerable to leaking contaminations. It may also be used concrete for establishing carrying layers with forms and sizes not allowing the use of moulds. The invention also comprises a device for carrying out the method of claim 1, for casting of shell layers, particularly of concrete and particularly for covering objects and substances vulnerable to leaking contaminations or for providing sealing and/or protecting membranes in construction and building structures. This device comprises a double web layer providing a closed pocket for containing the casting material in a powdered form. At least one of the web layers is provided with means for supplying curing fluid, particularly water, for curing the casting material. Curing fluid, such as water, may be sprayed on a web layer allowing the permeation of water, or this web layer may have valves or openings which open in a water volume, with a certain pressure.
It is however particularly advantageous if the means for supplying curing fluid comprises a third web layer creating a pocket for containing curing fluid contacting one of the web layers providing a pocket for the casting material. This web layer may have perforations for letting in curing fluid/water.
The invention may also be used for other casting materials than normal concrete, e.g. mixtures of mineral substances and resin substances, also with different reinforcements.
It is preferred if said pocket for curing fluid has a layer of a porous material distributing the curing fluid over the pocket. Such a pocket may contain a first tubular structure for containing of flowable and possibly pumpable substances which is to be included and shielded. A second tubular pocket for containing and distributing curing fluid thus provides an enclosing and covering tubular structure.
The device according to the invention is preferably provided for depositing on a seabed for containing contaminating waste. It may be provided with self activating (pressure released) valves for intake of curing fluid, particularly water from the surrounding volume of water, or water supplied from a pipe/hose. It is preferred that the two web layers for containing powdered casting material are provided to form restricted areas with a limited distance between the web layers, particularly with seams and/or integrating a further web layer between the previous web layers. By using a swelling casting material and/or a swelling water distributing means, the seams or corresponding restricting means may be made to burst during the curing, to create a distribution of the cured layer during curing. This will provide a better continuity and a more uniform covering layer.
Casting material for carrying out the method of claim 1 should be deposited in the form of a flexible layer as a carpet, particularly being powdered. It may be enclosed in a matrix of porous material, or water free, water absorbing gel.
The powdered material may also contain reinforcement, e.g. in the form of carbon fibers.
This casting material may contain a swelling agent. It may preferably contain up to 80 percent by weight micronized aplite. Further details of the invention will appear from the following description of examples.
The invention is further described with reference to the examples of embodiments shown in the
Figure 1 is showing a section through the edge of a device according to the invention, Figure 2 is showing a section through an embodiment of the invention, used for covering a tubular mud container of a tight web layer, while
Figure 3 is showing an embodiment of the invention, with a carpet structure with seams providing a series of separate "pillows" with powdered material. Figure 1 is showing a part of a basic carpet structure to realize the invention. A lower web layer 11 is laminated at the edge 12 to a central web layer 13, said layers forming a pocket 14 for containing a casting material 15. The casting material 15 may be a powdered mixture adapted for curing at the supply of water.
The supply of water may come from a water pocket 16 adjoining the central web layer 13, being confined by an upper, tight layer 17. The water pocket 16 may contain a porous material 18 with the ability to absorb curing fluid and emit the fluid through the central layer 13 to the casting material. To this end, the central layer is provided with perforations or valves starting closed, but being sensitive to pressure, releasing curing fluid to start the curing process.
An example on a suitable means for this purpose is micronous volcanic ashes with a high content of montmortillonite. This material (bentonite) is swelling and thus able to press water into the curing material, being based on concrete material.
For supplying water or another curing fluid the upper layer 17 has a pipe connection 19 for convenient connection to a supply conduit.
In Figure 2 a section through an embodiment of the invention is shown, this embodiment is provided for being deposited on a seabed, e.g. in connection with a drilling operation generating drilling waste to be isolated and kept safe to leakage over an extended time. Centrally in this structure is a tubular container 20 containing mud 21. The container has a tubular shell with closed ends, and with a length being a multiple of the diameter. Used on a seabed 24, such a container will have a flattened cross section. The drilling mud 21 may be supplied by pumping or pouring through an injection pipe 22. To ensure release of any excess air or water which may be added to the sea water, a airing pipe 23 is arranged at the top of the flattened container 20, like the injection pipe.
The container 20 may be prepared of web material, preferably tight. It is surrounded by a kind of hose 25 which is fastened to the container 20 with two spacer walls 26, 27 at opposite sides. The spacer walls have a width corresponding to the thickness of the finished shell as will be described below. Between the container 20 and the hose 25 a tubular space 28 for casting material is created, similarly to the embodiment in Figure 1.
The hose 25 is surrounded by a further "hose" 29 for providing a tubular water compartment 30.
In the shown embodiment a series of valves 31 are shown in the outer hose 29, for the inlet of water for curing and further a series of valves 32 in the inner wall of the water compartment 30 for the release of water for curing the casting material in the tubular space 28. The valves 31 and 32 may be based on prior art principles for opening at an outside pressure exceeding a certain level.
Figure 3 shows a third embodiment wherein the carpet structure 33 is provided by enclosing the casting material as a powder between two web layers which are connected to a third covering layer 34 containing a water supplying layer, e.g. of powdered bentonite. The web layers are connected with crossing seams 35, 36, confining the content to a number of "pillows" 37. By using seams 35, 36 which can burst at a certain inner pressure and a water supply layer with swelling propertied, the enclosed inner material may be held during transport and storage and depositing and also achieve a leveling, to provide a relatively uniform and continuous layer of casted material. Casting material
The casting material for casting the shell is adapted to the field of use. It may be selected between various prior art casting material, primarily of a cement or corresponding base material with one or more aggregates and possibly a fiber reinforcement. It may be added a swelling agent in manner known per se, and concrete boosters, e.g. like micronized aplite in up to 80 percent by weight.
For reinforcing, various fiber materials may be used, such as carbon fibers. In this manner, layers and shells structures with mechanical strength and density to liquids may be provided with low consumption of material. The invention is providing a device for casting a shell structure of a strong and dense material, which is easy to transport and easy to arrange in situ.
The carpet structure may contain the needed liquid for curing in a separate inner room or being supplied with the necessary curing agent from the environment (in sea regions) or through a hose. Porous structures and water free and water permeable gels, which can absorb the necessary volume of powder for providing the finished shell structure, are conceivable. The porous material or the gel will make a matrix providing a certain mechanical strength and stability. This will simplify the transport and the depositing of the device according to the invention and provide a more predicable result. The invention can be adapted for various purposes. It can be used for constructing artificial seas, e.g. in desert regions. The casted layer may then have exposed surface and be provided with a pore structure giving fertile conditions for micro organisms, sea weed and similar. It is also conceivable to use the invention for building shell structures, silos and temporary storage buildings.