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Title:
METHOD FOR THE ECONOMIC MANUFACTURING OF METALLIC PARTS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/077137
Kind Code:
A9
Abstract:
The present invention relates to a method for the economic production of metallic parts, with high flexibility in the geometry attainable. It also relates to the material required for the manufacturing of those parts. The method of the present invention allows for a very fast manufacturing of the parts. Also some forming technologies applicable to polymers can be used. The method allows for the fast and economic production of complex geometry metallic parts.

Inventors:
VALLS ANGLÉS, Isaac (Calle José Abascal, 44 4º, Madrid, 28003, ES)
Application Number:
EP2016/076895
Publication Date:
February 08, 2018
Filing Date:
November 07, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
INNOMAQ 21, S.L. (Calle José Abascal, 44 4º, Madrid, 28003, ES)
International Classes:
C23C4/00; B21J13/02; B22F1/00; B22F3/00; B22F3/10; B22F3/105; B22F3/22; C22C1/04; C22C14/00; C22C19/03; C22C21/00; C22C33/02; C22C38/00; C22C38/06; C22C38/12; C22C38/38; C22C38/40; C23C14/00; C23C16/00; C23C24/00; C23C30/00; G03F7/20; C22C26/00; C22C29/00; C22C32/00
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ELZABURU S.L.P. (Calle Miguel Ángel 21, Madrid, 28010, ES)
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Claims:
Claims

1 A method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

a providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

b shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique resulting in a shaped component c subjecting the shaped component to at least one heat treatment at a temperature between 0.35 times the melting temperature of the low melting point alloy and 0.39 times the melting temperature of the high melting point alloy, until the component reaches a mechanical strength of at least 1 2 MPa, wherein, when there are more than two metallic alloys, the Tm of the low melting point alloy is defined as the melting temperature of the alloy having the lowest melting point among the

d alloys present in an amount of at least 1 % volume of the powder mixture, and the melting temperature of high melting point alloy is defined as the Tm of the alloy having the highest % volume among the high melting point alloys present in an amount of at least 3.8% volume of the powder mixture, and wherein any alloy having a melting temperature which is at least 110°C higher than the low melting point alloy is considered a high melting point alloy

2 A method according to claim 1 wherein the low melting point alloy is selected from AIGa, MgGa, NiGa, MnGa alloy containing at least 0.1 % by weight gallium

3 A method according to claim 1 to 2 wherein the low melting point alloy is AIGa containing at least 0 1 % gallium.

4. A method according to claim 1 to 3 wherein the low melting point alloy is AIGa containing at least 12% by weight gallium.

5 A method according to claims 1 to 4 wherein the high melting point alloy is a Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Al , W, Mo or Ti based alloy.

6 A method according to claim 1 to 5 wherein the shaping technique is selected from additive manufacturing (AM) or a polymer shaping technique.

7 A method according to any of claims 1 to 6 further comprising a step:

d. Subjecting the component obtained in step c. to a sinterization at a temperature at least 0.7 times the melting temperature of the high melting point alloy.

8. A photo-curable composition comprising a resin filled with metallic particles and optionally a photo-initiator characterized in that, the composition has an R value, determined as the difference between the reflection index of the particles and the absolute value of the difference between the refractive index of the particles and resin is 0.12 or more for a wavelength above 460 nm

9 Use of a mold manufactured by additive manufacturing which has a geometry that is the negative of the part to be manufactured , wherein the mold and is filled with a ceramic or metallic component to an apparent density below 68%.

10. aluminium based alloy with the following composition, all percentages in weight percent:

The rest consisting on aluminium and trace elements

1 1 A nickel based alloy with the following composition, all percentages in weight percent: e rest cons st ng on n c e an trace e ements

12 a titanium based allo havin the followin com osition, all ercenta es bein

13 an iron based alloy having the following composition, all percentages being in weight percent:

14. A method for manufacturing components with a thermoregulation systems that allow the enhance distribution of complex geometries within the component. A method for manufacturing molds, dies or other tools with a thermo-regulation functionality.

15. A method for manufacturing sweating/perspiring components that present high cooling rates. A method for processing a component that consists on a die having small holes that transport small fluid quantities to an active evaporation surface in the form of droplets.

16. A method based on the photopolymerization of a resin loaded with at least 6% of ceramic, metallic and/or intermetallic particles that cure at a wavelength above 460 nm.

17. A method based on the photopolymerization of a resin loaded with at least 6% of metallic particles that cure at a wavelength above 460 nm.

18. A composition characterized in that there is at least a 1.2% of the volume (taking only the metallic and intermetallic constituents into account) where the content of the main alloying element (taking into account the mean composition of all mostly metallic or intermetallic particles) is smaller than a 70% in weight when the mixture of powders is made, or in general before the shaping stage of the process, and the amount of this volume (volume where the content of the main alloying element is smaller) is reduced at least an 1 1 % of its original size after the whole processing and post-processing are concluded.

19 A composition characterized in that There exists at least one low melting point element whose concentration in weight is at least a 2,2% greater than the mean content of this element (taking into account the mean composition of all mostly metallic or intermetallic particles) in at least a 1 ,2% of the volume (taking only the metallic and intermetallic constituents into account) when the mixture of powders is made, or in general before the shaping stage of the process, and the amount of this volume (volume where the concentration of at least one low melting point element is higher) is reduced at least an 1 1 % of its original size after the whole processing and post-processing are concluded.

Description:
METHOD FOR THE ECONOMIC MANUFACTURING OF METALLIC PARTS

Field of the invention

The present invention relates to a method for the economic production of metallic additive manufacturing parts It also relates to the material required for the manufacturing of those parts The method of the present invention allows for a very fast manufacturing of the parts Also some forming technologies applicable to polymers can be used

Summary

Materials properties are arguably one of the main limitation to engineering evolution Often materials with higher mechanical resistance are desired together with other properties Evolution in this area are mostly attained trough improvements in the understanding of the effect of alloying and microstructures attainable trough thermo-mechanical processing and lately even more trough the improvement of manufacturing processes Another of the main limitations is design, and its implementation possibilities In the past decades a great effort has been invested in the investigation of structures with exceptional properties, many replicated from evolutionary optimization in nature. The so-called bionic or nature replication structures, are often quite complex and thus not easy to manufacture with the conventional manufacturing systems. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a set of technologies that have broadly increased the accuracy with which many structures can be replicated Unfortunately Additive Manufacturing of metals is still a high cost manufacturing route mostly due to the high cost of the systems employed and the manufacturing speeds attainable in those high cost additive manufacturing systems

For very high end applications as is the case in aeronautics, nuclear, military and tooling applications amongst others, a lot of attention is played in maximizing material performance. In this applications often complex (and cost intensive) manufacturing processes are employed, and the materials employed are also very often costly to manufacture

In recent years significant efforts have been invested into reducing the cost of the materials required for additive manufacturing (normally powders and thin wires) Increase the speed of manufacturing of the AM machines and reduce their cost. Unfortunately, many technologically relevant materials have a quite high melting point, which means a quite high power density is required for their melting and the thermal management is challenging, since most metals have a noticeable thermal expansion coefficient. A nice characteristic of several AM materials is that they not require post-processing in the sense of a Heat Treatment (HT) after the AM process But the material reaching the highest values of engineering relevant properties often require a HT after the AM process. Also the accuracy levels and rugosity presently attainable in an economic way through AM of metals is not sufficient for several applications, requiring a manufacturing post-processing

The AM methods suitable for metallic materials based on localized melting (eventually sintering) tend to have speed limitations due to the high energy associated to the melting, and the complexity of trying to manage the thermal stresses. The whole manufactured component can be kept at a high temperature to reduce thermal gradient to the melting pool and thus reduce thermal stresses to better manage warpage, but it is energetically quite costly and the efficiency is limited Also the systems based on the usage of an inked glue or binder, require a sintering-like treatment where often shape retention is compromised for large and complex shapes unless very laborious steps are taken Isotropy is often a challenge for AM of metallic components.

The additive manufacturing of polymeric materials is considerably more advanced and economic Although some important constraints still exist in the kinds of materials that can be used, different technologies have been evolved to a point where the manufacturing of several components is already economically viable Mostly due to the lower softening, and melting points of polymers and also due to the ability to set or cure trough exposition to certain wavelengths of some resins or through a chemical reaction, considerable faster deposition rates that in the case of metals are attainable. In most cases inhibitors have also been developed to further enhance the complexity of parts that can be manufactured Also many systems are less costly to manufacture than the systems required for the AM of metals.

Also some AM systems are quite effective for rather small pieces with very complex geometries and quite hollow (considerably more air than material) But for rather massive structures or pieces, where most of the body enclosed by the contour of the piece is filled with material, almost all systems are rather inefficient unless the AM is applied to an already existing part Building from scratch of filled pieces is not effective

Other manufacturing processes can be applied as a shaping step, besides AM with some of the materials of the present invention. They need to be fast manufacturing processes. Most polymer shaping methodologies are an option (injection molding, blow-molding, thermoforming , casting, compression, pressing RIM, extrusion, rotomolding dip molding, foam shaping . ). As an example the case of injection molding can be taken, where a process exist called Metal Injection Molding (MIM), which allows the obtaining of metallic components, but which is limited to a few hundred grams. With the method and materials of the present invention, much larger components can be manufactured, with enhanced functionality and in a considerably more economical way

In the present invention a method is developed for the construction of cost effective pieces trough AM, or eventually another fast shaping process. The method is often valid for pieces with any kind of air to material ratio, and any kind of size or geometry

Additive manufacturing using curable resins loaded is known for some ceramics: silica, alumina, hydroxyapatite The main limitation is the limited selection of ceramics available and achievable size pieces, are only possible because small parts

Also known additive manufacturing curable resins loaded by other metals and ceramics and even when very low particulate fillers used in the resin and subsequent infiltration proceeds to metal or other liquid. In these cases the volume fraction of the particles of interest is low

The method has several realizations depending on the particular piece to be manufactured.

For pieces with a low air/material ratio, a system based on the configuration by removal can be employed For pieces with a high air/material ratio, a shaping system based on aggregation or conformation is often preferred. Different shaping systems can be employed for the manufacturing of the piece either simultaneously or sequentially The method of the present invention can work directly on direct metal aggregation, but for many applications it is though very advantageous to have a mixed polymer metal material.

The method of the present invention often includes at least one stage of conformation in which a base particulate material is employed where at least one polymeric material and at least one metallic material are present simultaneously Then the consolidation for the preliminary shaping is mainly made through the polymeric material. In most cases a post processing operation takes place to consolidate the metallic material.

For many instances and AM systems the inventor has seen that it is very advantageous to have at least two different metallic materials in the feedstock, and even more advantageous when at least two of the materials have a considerable difference in their melting points Furthermore it is for many systems advantageous if at least one of the metallic materials starts to melt before the shape retention of the polymeric matrix is completely lost. In some cases it is also very advantageous when the metallic material with lower melting point can diffuse into the base metallic material without causing severe embritt!ement For some applications it is also interesting that at least one of the metallic materials is an alloy with a wide range of melting temperature, particularly interesting for applications with complex geometries is when this alloy is one with a low melting start point One further advantage can be attained, especially when a liquid phase is desirable, by choosing a system whose melting point will increase when diffusion takes place to be able to control the liquid phase volume fraction throughout all the process.

The present invention is especially advantageous for the light weight construction. Complex geometries can be attained with difficult to deform metallic base materials (high mechanical strength metallic materials desirable for light weight construction often have limited formability). Complex geometries allow to replicate optimized designs in nature for the maximum performance with the minimum material volume. Also alloys of light materials can be used : Ti, Al, Mg, Li. . Also some denser material but where very high mechanical properties can be achieved even in aggressive environments in the basis of Ni, Fe, Co, Cu, Mo, W. Ta

State of the Art

Solid freeform fabrication or rapid prototyping (RP) is the automatic construction of physical objects using additive manufacturing (AM) technology, which is colloquially referred to as "3D printing". This technology builds up parts and components by adding materials one layer at a time based on a computerized 3D solid model It is considered by many authors as "the third industrial revolution " as it allows design optimization and production of customized parts on-demand. AM technologies can be classified in several categories, as presented in the document F2792 - 12a by the ASTM International, where seven classifications are considered: i) binder jetting, ii) directed energy deposition, iii) material extrusion, iv) material jetting, v ) powder bed fusion, vi) sheet lamination, and vii) vat photopo!ymerization. Each technology classification includes a set of different material classifications and discrete manufacturing technologies Thus, AM includes numerous technologies such as fused deposition modelling, selective laser sintering/melting, laser engineered net shaping , 3D printing, direct ink writing, laminated object manufacturing, digital light processing, and stereolithography among others. A wide range of ceramic, polymeric and metallic materials can be used in additive manufacturing and each technological classification have been developed towards a particular type of materials. Thus, the most extensively studied materials are polymers, for which the early studies focused on. Many common plastics and polymers (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, polycarbonates, polylactide, polyamide, etc.) can be used, as well as waxes and epoxy based resins. The technologies included in binder jetting, material extrusion, material jetting, sheet lamination, and vat photopolymerization allow fabricating polymer 3D materials. For ceramics the most commonly used AM technologies are: fused deposition modeling (FDM), selective laser sintering/melting (SLS/SLM), 3D printing, direct ink writing, laminated object manufacturing, stereolithography, and digital light processing. In what respect to metallic components, these have always been a challenge for additive manufacturing technologies, as insufficient mechanical properties and high cost have been continuously pointed as the main drawbacks for its deployment Laser sintering/melting processes are the main and most widely studied technologies for 3D-printing of metals, in which the feedstock is mainly presented in powder form although there are some systems using metal wire. Like other additive manufacturing systems, laser sintering/melting obtains the geometrical information from a 3D CAD model. The different process variations are based on the possible inclusion of other materials (e.g. multicomponent metal-polymer powder mixtures etc.) and subsequent post-treatments. The processes using powder feedstock are carried out through the selective melting of adjacent metal particles in a layer-by-layer fashion until the desired shape. This can be done in an indirect or direct form, The indirect form uses the process technology of polymers to manufacture metallic parts, where metal powders are coated with polymers. The relatively low melting of the polymer coating with respect the metallic material aid connecting the metal particles after solidification. The direct laser process includes the use of special multicomponent powder systems. Selective laser melting (SLM) is an enhancement of the direct selective laser sintering and a sintering process is subsequently applied at high temperatures in order to attain densification. However, the melting and re-melting processes create a large temperature gradient between the powder bed layers, which consequently affects the quality of the final metallic piece. This effect is even increased in metals with a high melting point, where expensive systems are required. These shortcomings have been addressed by several publications. Bampton et al presented an invention (US5745834) related to the free form fabrication of metallic components using selective laser binding through transient liquid sintering. The blended powders used in this invention were comprised of a parent or base metal alloy (75-85%), a lower melting temperature metal alloy (5-15%) and a polymer binder (5- 15%). The base metals considered were metallic elements such as nickel, iron, cobalt, copper, tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, titanium, and aluminium. As for the low-melting temperature metal alloy, this could be chosen among base metals with melting point depressants (Boron, silicon, carbon or phosphorus) in order to lower the melting point of the base alloy by approximately 300°-400°C. The method of SLS considered in this invention and other powder-based AM technologies strongly rely in the powder characteristics. Plastic, metal or ceramic particles can be coated with an adhesive and sinterable and/or glass forming fine-grained material as in the invention reported by Pfeifer & Shen in US2006/0251535 A1. In their work, fine grained material (which could be submicron or nanoparticles of plastic, metals or ceramics) is coated with organic or organo-metallic polymeric compounds. In the case of metallic powders, fine-grained material is preferably formed by Cu , Sn, Zn, Al, Bi, Fe and/or Pb. The activation of the adhesive could take place by laser irradiation which is made to sinter, or at least partially melt it in order to form bridges between adjacent powder particles. If the thermal treatment is performed below the glass-forming or sintering temperature of the powder material, virtually no sintering shrinkage of the complete body or green compact occurs. A green component is also obtained in other types of 3d-printing technologies as in the work of Walter Lengauer in DE102013004182, where a printing composition was presented for direct fused deposition modelling (FDM) process. The printing composition consists of an organic binder component of one or more polymers and an inorganic powder component consisting of metals or ceramic materials. The green compact formed could be subsequently subjected to a sintering process for obtaining the final component. A limited resolution and size of the components is imposed in FDM processes, as well as in other 3d-printing variations, like direct metal fabrication. In this aspect, Canzona et al presented a method (US2005/0191200 A) of direct metal fabrication to form a metal part which has a relative density of at least 96%. The powder blend presented in that work comprised a parent metal alloy, a powdered lower-melting-temperature alloy, and two organic polymer binders (a thermoplastic and a thermosetting organic polymers). Their powder blend could be used in other powder- bed related methods, such as in selective laser sintering where a supersolidus liquid phase sintering is carried out. Like in the work presented by Bampton, the lower-melting-temperature alloy is made by introducing into the alloy a minor amount of boron or scandium as the eutectic forming element. The abovementioned inventions, though intended to improve the characteristics of metal components fabricated by AM technologies, have not been able to provide an economical method for metal 3d- printing, especially when large components are intended . Therefore, the present invention aims at providing an innovative method for the economical manufacturing of large components by AM and other shaping methods known in the state of the art.

DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1 - Binary phase diagram of Al - Ga (Temperature vs. Ga composition) FIGURE 2 - Binary phase diagram of Al - Mg (Temperature vs. Mg composition)

FIGURE 3 - Types of interstices in the packing of spheres. Octahedral holes are formed by six spheres. Tetrahedral holes are formed by four spheres.

FIGURE 4 - Types of coating for metallic particles

FIGURE 5 - Channels for cooling and heating in a thermoregulatory system. FIGURE 6 - Formation of drops in a sweating component. 6A - Cross section of a system with sub- superficial fluid channels, formation of drops. 6B - Distribution of the tube outlets. 6C - Mould part manufactured by additive manufacturing.

FIGURE 7 - Implementation of the heat & cool technology.

FIGURE 8 - Comparison of lightweight construction of a B-Pilar with conventional methods and the method of the present invention.

FIGURE 9 - Die component or mould with large hollows and tubular conductions of fluids in hollow zones.

FIGURE 10 - Introduction into the mold made by AM of a polymerizable resin containing in suspension the particles of interest. Evacuation of the mold.

FIGURE 11 - Die component or mould with large hollows and tubular conductions of fluids in hollow zones. The active surface is shown.

Description of the invention

In an embodiment the present invention refers to new Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, W, Mo, Al and Ti alloys . In an embodiment these new alloys are used for the fast and economic manufacture of metallic components.

The present invention is particularly suitable for building components in aluminum or aluminum alloys. In particular it is especially suitable for building components with the composition expressed above in weight percent.

In an embodiment refers to a aluminium based alloy with the following composition, all percentages in weight percent:

The rest consisting on aluminium and trace elements

The nominal composition expressed herein can refer to particles with higher volume fraction and / or the general final composition. In cases where the presence of immiscible particles as ceramic reinforcements, graphene, nanotubes or other these are not counted on the nominal composition.

In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to , H, He, Xe, F, Ne, Na, , P, S, CI, Ar, K, Br, Kr, Sr, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, I, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au , Hg , Tl, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md , No, Lr, Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt. The inventor has found that it is important for some applications of the present invention limit the content of trace elements to amounts of less than 1.8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even below 0.03% by weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the alloy such as reducing cost production of the alloy and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the alloy.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the aluminium based alloy. In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have a content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1.4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the aluminium based alloy.

There are applications wherein aluminium based alloys are benefited from having a high aluminium (%AI) content but not necessary the aluminium being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment %AI is above 1 .3%, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87% In an embodiment %AI is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 %, in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %AI is not the majority element in the aluminium based alloy.

For certain applications, it is especially interesting to use alloys with %Ga, %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. Particularly interesting is the use of these low melting point promoting elements with the presence of %Ga of more than 2.2%, preferably more than 12%, more preferably 21 % or more and even 54% or more. The aluminum alloy has in an embodiment %Ga in the alloy is above 32 ppm, in other embodiment above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment above 0.015%, and even in other embodiment above 0.1 %, in another embodiment generally has a 0 8% or more of the element (in this case% Ga), preferably 2.2% or more, more preferably 5.2% or more and even 12% or more. But there are other applications depending of the desired properties of the aluminium based alloy wherein %Ga contents of 30% or less are desired. In an embodiment the %Ga in the aluminium based alloy is less than 29%, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1.2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the aluminium based alloy It has been found that in some applications the% Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by Bi% (until %Bi maximum content of 20% by weight, in case %Ga being greater than 20%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial) with the amounts described in this paragraph for %Ga + %Bi. In some applications it is advantageous total replacement ie the absence of Ga%. It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and/or %Bi by %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn, %Rb or %ln with the amounts described above in this paragraph, in this case for %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another). These elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point.

For some applications it is more interesting alloy with these elements directly and not incorporate them in separate particles. For some applications it is even interesting the use of particles mainly formed with these elements with a desirable content of% Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + Zn% +% Rb +% In greater than 52%, preferably greater than 76%, more preferably above 86% and even higher than 98%. The final content of these elements in the component will depend on the volume fractions employed, but for some applications often move in the ranges described above in this paragraph. A typical case is the use of % Sn and %Ga alloys to have liquid phase sintering at low temperatures with high potential to break oxide films that may have other particles (usually the majority particles). % Sn content and% Ga is adjusted with the equilibrium diagram for controlling the volume content of liquid phase desired in the different post-processing temperatures, also the volume fraction of the particles of this alloy. For certain applications the% Sn and/or % Ga may be partially or completely replaced by other elements of the list (ie can be alloys without Sn% or% Ga). It is also possible get to do it with important content of elements not present in this list such as the case of %Mg and for certain applications with any of the preferred alloying elements for the target alloy.

The case of scandium (Sc) is exemplifying, because using them very interesting mechanical properties may be reached, but its cost makes interesting from an economic point of view to use the amount needed for the application of interest. Its high deoxidizing power is also interesting during alloys processing but also a challenge to maximize performance. So depending on the application you can move from situations wherein is not a desired element, in these applications it is preferred %Sc being in a low concentration, in an embodiment less than 0.9%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.3%, in other embodiment less than 0.1 %, in other embodiment less than 0.01 % and even in other embodiment absent from the aluminium based alloy, to a situations wherein a high content of this element is desired, in an embodiment 0.6% by weight or more, in another embodiment preferably 1 .1 % by weight or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1 .6% by weight or more and even in another embodiment 4.2% or more.

It has been found that for some applications aluminum alloys the presence of silicon (% Si) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in contents of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment preferably 2.1 % or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more or even in another embodiment 1 1 % or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental in which case contents of less than 0.2% by weight are desired, preferably less than 0.08%. more preferably less than 0.02% and even less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as with all elements for certain applications. For other applications in an embodiment contents of less than 39.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 23.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 9.7% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 3.4% by weight are desired, and even in another embodiment contents of less than 1.4% by weight are desired.

It has been found that for some applications of aluminum alloys the presence of iron (% Fe) is desirable, in an embodiment typically in contents of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.6% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 19.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 13.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 6.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of aluminum alloys the presence of copper (% Cu) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.06% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 12.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 6.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of aluminum alloys the presence of manganese (% Mn) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.1 % by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.6% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 12.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 6.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of aluminum alloys the presence of magnesium (% Mg) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 1.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more or even in another embodiment 1 1 % or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 34.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 22.6% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired , are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications. If magnesium is used mainly as destroying the alumina film on aluminum particles or aluminum alloy (sometimes it is introduced as a separate powder magnesium or magnesium alloy and also sometimes alloyed directly to the aluminum particles or alloy aluminum and also sometimes other particles such as particles of low melting) the final content of% Mg can be quite small, in these applications often greater than 0.001 % content, preferably greater than 0.02% is desired , more preferably greater than 0.12% and even 3.6% above.

It has been found that for some applications in aluminum alloys the presence of nitrogen (% N) is desirable, typically in contents of 0.2% by weight or higher, preferably 1 2% or more, more preferably 3.2% or more or even 6.2% or more. For some applications it is interesting that the consolidation and/or densification of the particles with aluminum is carried out in atmosphere with high nitrogen content thus often reaction occurs particularly if consolidation and/or densification (eg sintering with or without liquid phase) occurs at elevated temperatures, the nitrogen will react with the aluminum and/or other elements forming nitrides and thus will appear as an element in the final composition. In these cases it is often useful to have in the final composition a nitrogen content of 0.002% or higher, preferably 0.02% or higher, more preferably 0.4% or higher and even 2.2% or higher.

The preceding two paragraphs also apply to alloys of other basic elements as described in future paragraphs (Ti, Fe, Ni, Mo, W, Li, Co, ...) when an aluminum alloy or aluminum is used as a low- melting point element. For some applications indications shown in the preceding two paragraphs refers to the particles of aluminum alloy or aluminum alone, for some other applications indications shown in the preceding two paragraphs it refers to the final composition but the values of percentage by weight have to be corrected by the weight fraction of aluminum particles or aluminum alloy with respect to total particles. This applies, for some applications, when used as low melting point particle any other type of particle that oxidizes rapidly in contact with air, such as magnesium alloys and magnesium, etc.

It has been found that for some applications of aluminum alloys the presence of Sn (% Sn) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 1.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more or even in another embodiment 1 1 % or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of aluminum alloys the presence of zinc (% Zn) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.1 % by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more or even in another embodiment 1 1 % or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of aluminum alloys the presence of chromium (%Cr) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 1.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more or even in another embodiment 1 1 % or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of aluminum alloys the presence of titanium (%Ti) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.05% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 23.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 17.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 13.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of aluminum alloys the presence of zirconium (%Zr) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.05% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 7.1 % by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 3.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications

It has been found that for some applications of aluminum alloys the presence of Boron (%B) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.05% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 0.42% or more or even in another embodiment 1.2% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 4.8% by weight are desired, , in another embodiment contents of less than 3.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.08% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.02%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.004% and even in another embodiment less than 0.0002%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of molybdenum (% Mo) and / or tungsten (% W) may be detrimental, for these applications a lower % Mo+ 1/2% W content is desirable, in an embodiment less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 1.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Mo is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Mo being absent from the aluminium based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of molybdenum and tungsten at higher levels is desirable, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of 1.2% Mo +% W exceeding 1 .2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 5.2% and even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of nickel (% Ni) may be detrimental , for these applications is desirable a %Ni content in an embodiment of less than 28%, in other embodiment preferably less than 19.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 18%, in other embodiment preferably less than 14.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 1 1 .6%, in other embodiment more preferably less than 8%, and even in other embodiment less than 0.8% There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ni is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ni being absent from the aluminium based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nickel at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on ductility and toughness is desired, and/or and increase on strength and/or to improve weldability is required, for those applications in an embodiment amounts higher than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment higher than 0.65% by weight in another embodiment amounts higher than 1.2% by weight are desired, in other embodiment higher than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 6% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 8.3% by weight in other embodiment more preferably higher than 12%, in other embodiment more preferably higher than 16.2% and even in other embodiment higher than 22%.

There are applications wherein the presence of %As in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %As amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %As may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %As amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3% In an embodiment %As is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %As being absent from the aluminium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Li in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Li amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Li may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Li amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. In an embodiment %l_i is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Li being absent from the aluminium based alloy. There are applications wherein the presence of %V in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %V amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %V may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %V amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than ' 1.3%. In an embodiment %V is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %V being absent from the aluminium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Te in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Te amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Te may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Te amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 3%. In an embodiment %Te is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Te being absent from the aluminium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %La in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %La amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1.3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %La may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %La amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 3%. In an embodiment %La is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %La being absent from the aluminium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Se in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Se amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Se may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Se amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1.3%. In an embodiment %Se is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Se being absent from the aluminium based alloy.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of tantalum (% Ta) and/or niobium (%Nb) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ta+%Nb content in an embodiment of less than 14.3%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0 8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ta and/or %Nb are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ta and/or %Nb being absent from the aluminium based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts of %Ta and/or %Nb are desirable, especially %Nb is added when an improve on the resistance to intergranular corrosion and/or enhance on mechanical properties at high temperatures is desired, for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Nb+%Ta greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 6% and even in another embodiment greater than 12%.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ca in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ca amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ca may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ca amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 3%. In an embodiment %Ca is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ca being absent from the aluminium based alloy.

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of Cobalt (% Co) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a % Co content of less than 28% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 26.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 23.4%, preferably less than 19.9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment preferably less than 13.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 8.8% by weight, more preferably less than 6.1 %, more preferably less than 4.2%, more preferably less than 2.7%, and even in another embodiment less than 1.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Co is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Co being absent from the aluminium based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of cobalt in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hardness and/or tempering resistance are required For these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 5.9%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 7.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 9.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 12% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 15.4%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 18.9%, and even in another embodiment greater than 22%. There are other applications wherein it is desirable the %Co in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0. 15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .6 %.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Hf in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Hf amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Hf may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Hf amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %Hf is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Hf being absent from the aluminium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of Germanium (%Ge) is desired . In an embodiment, the %Ge is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.09%, in other embodiment above 0.4%, in other embodiment above 0.91 %, in other embodiment above 1 .39 %, in other embodiment above 2.15%, in other embodiment above 3.4%, in other embodiment above 4.6%, in other embodiment above 6.3%, and even in other embodiment above 7.1 %. Although there are other applications wherein %Ge may be limited. In other embodiment the %Ge is less than 9.3%, in other embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 6.3%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.45%, in other embodiment less than 1.3%. here are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ge is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ge being absent from the aluminium based alloy

There are applications wherein the presence of antimony (%Sb) is desired. In an embodiment, the %Sb is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.09%, in other embodiment above 0.4%, in other embodiment above 0.91 %, in other embodiment above 1.39 %, in other embodiment above 2.15%, in other embodiment above 3.4%, in other embodiment above 4.6%, in other embodiment above 6.3%, and even in other embodiment above 7.1 %. Although there are other applications wherein %Sb may be limited. In other embodiment the %Sb is less than 9.3%, in other embodiment less than7.4%, in other embodiment less than 6.3%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.45%, in other embodiment less than 1.3%. here are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Sb is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Sb being absent from the aluminium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of cerium (%Ce) is desired. In an embodiment, the %Ce is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.09%, in other embodiment above 0.4%, in other embodiment above 0.91 %, in other embodiment above 1.39 %, in other embodiment above 2.15%, in other embodiment above 3.4%, in other embodiment above 4.6%, in other embodiment above 6.3%, and even in other embodiment above 7.1 %. Although there are other applications wherein %Ce may be limited. In other embodiment the %Ce is less than 9.3%, in other embodiment less than7.4%, in other embodiment less than 6.3%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.45%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. here are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ce is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ce being absent from the aluminium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of beryllium (%Be) is desired. In an embodiment, the %Mo is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.09%, in other embodiment above 0.4%, in other embodiment above 0.91 %, in other embodiment above 1.39 %, in other embodiment above 2.15%, in other embodiment above 3.4%, in other embodiment above 4.6%, in other embodiment above 6.3%, and even in other embodiment above 7.1 %. Although there are other applications wherein %Be may be limited. In other embodiment the %Be is less than 9.3%, in other embodiment less than7.4%, in other embodiment less than 6.3%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.45%, in other embodiment less than 1.3%. here are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Be is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Be being absent from the aluminium based alloy.

The elements described in the preceding paragraphs may be desired separately or the combination of some of them or even all of them , as expected.

It has been seen that for some applications the excessive content of cesium , tantalum and thallium and can be detrimental, for these applications it is desirable the sum of %Cs +%Ta+%TI less than 0.29, preferably less than 0.18%, more preferably less than 0.8%, and even less than 0.08% (without being mentioned, as in all instances in this document where amounts are mentioned as upper limits, 0% nominal content or nominal absence of the element, it is not only possible but is often desirable) .

It has been seen that for some applications the excessive content of gold and silver can be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment it is desirable the sum of %Au +%Ag less than 0.09%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.04%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.008%, and even in another embodiment less than 0.002%.

It has been found that for some applications when high contents of %Ga and %Mg (both above 0.5%), it is often desirable to have hardening elements for solid solution, precipitation or hard second phase forming particles. In this sense, the sum %Mn +%Si +%Fe +%Cu +%Cr +%Zn +%V +%Ti +%Zr for these applications, in an embodiment is desirably greater than 0.002% by weight in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.02%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.3% and even in another embodiment higher than 1 .2%.

It has been found that for some applications when %Ga content is lower than 0.1 %, it is often desirable to have some limitation in hardening elements for solid solution, precipitation or hard second phase forming particles. In this sense, in an embodiment the sum %Cu +% Si +%Zn is desirably less than 21 % by weight for these applications, in another embodiment preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 9% or even in another embodiment less than 3.8%.

It has been found that for some applications when content% Ga below 1 % and there is significant presence of %Cr (between 3% and 5%), it is often desirable to have hardening elements for solid solution or precipitation or forming hard particles second stage. In this sense, the sum% Mg +% Cu in an embodiment is desirably higher than 0.52% by weight for these applications, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.82%, more preferably greater than 1 .2% and even higher than 3.2%. and / or the sum of %Ti +% Zr is desirable in another embodiment exceeds 0.012% by weight, preferably in another embodiment greater than 0055%, more preferably in another embodiment greater than 0.12% by weight and even in another embodiment higher than 0.55%.

It has been found that for some applications, especially those requiring a high mechanical strength, high resistance to high temperatures and / or high corrosion resistance, which can be very beneficial combination of gallium (% Ga) and scandium (% Sc) . For these applications it is often desirable in an embodiment to have Sc contents above 0.1 2% wt%, preferably above 0.52%, more preferably greater than 0.82% and even 1 .2% above. For these applications simultaneously is often desirable to have excess Ga 0.12% wt%, preferably above 0.52%, more preferably greater than 0.8%, more preferably greater than 2.2 more% and even higher 3.5%. For some of these applications is also interesting to further magnesium (Mg%), in another embodiment it is often desirable to have % Mg above 0.6 % by weight, preferably greater than 1 .2%, more preferably in another embodiment greater than 4.2% and even in another embodiment more than 6%. For some of these applications, especially improved resistance to corrosion is required, it is also interesting for the presence of zirconium (% Zr), in another embodiment often in excess of 0.06% weight amounts, preferably above in another embodiment 0.22%, more preferably in another embodiment above 0.52 % and even in another embodiment greater than 1 .2%. Obviously, like all other paragraphs herein any other element may be present in the amounts described in the preceding and coming paragraphs.

There are several elements such as Sr that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Si and/or Mg and/or Cu contents; For these applications in an embodiment with %Si between 9.3% and 1 1 .8% and/or %Mg between 0.098% and 0.53%, %Sr is below 28.9 ppm , even in another embodiment with %Si between 9.3% and 1 1 ,8% and/or %Mg between 0.098% and 0.53%, Sr is absent from the composition. In another embodiment embodiment with %Si between 9.3% and 1 1 .8% and/or %Mg between 0.,098% and 0.53%, %Sr is above 303 ppm . In another embodiment with %Cu between 0.98% and 2.8% and/or %Mg between 0.098% and 3.16%, %Sr is below 48.9 ppm o even is absent composition. Even in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.98% and 2.8% and/or %Mg between 0.098% and 3.16%, %Sr is above 0.51 %.

There are several applications wherein the presence of Na and Li in the composition is detrimental for the overall properties of the aluminium based alloy especially for certain Si and/or Ga and/or Mg contents. In an embodiment with %Si between 9.8% and 15.8% and/or %Mg above 0.157% and/or %Ga above 0.157%, %Na is below 29.7 ppm or even absent from the composition and/or %Li is below 29.7 ppm or even absent from the composition. Even in another embodiment with %Si between 9.8% and 15.8% and/or %Mg above 0.157% and/or %Ga above 0.157%, %Na is above 42ppm and/or %Li is above 42 ppm.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as Hg may be detrimental especially for certain Ga contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Ga between 0.0098% and 2.3%, %Hg is lower than 0.00098% or even Hg is absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Ga between 0.0098% and 2.3%, %Hg is higher than 0.1 1 %.

There are several elements such as Pb that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Si contents; For these applications in an embodiment with %Si between 0.98% and 12.3%, %Pb is below 2.8% or even absent from the composition. Even in another embodiment %Si between 0.98% and 12.3%, %Pb is above 15.3%.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as Co may be detrimental especially for certain Si and/or Mg contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Si between 0.017% and 1 .65% and/or %Mg between 0.24% and 6.65%, %Co is lower than 0.24% or even Co is absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Si between 0.017% and 1 .65% and/or %Mg between 0.24% and 6.65%, %Co is higher than 2.1 1 %.

There are several elements such as Ag that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Si and/or Mg and/or Cu contents. In an embodiment with %Si between 7.3% and 1 1 .6% and/or %Mg between 0.47% and 0.73% and/or %Cu between 3.57% and 4.92%, %Ag is below 0.098% or even is absent from the composition. Even in another embodiment with %Si between 7.3% and 1 1.6% and/or %Mg between 0.47% and 0.73% and/or %Cu between 3.57% and 4.92%, %Ag is above 0.33%.

There are several elements such rare earth (RE) elements that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Si and/or Mg and/or Ga contents; For these applications in an embodiment with %Si between 3.97% and 15.6% and/or %Mg between 0.097% and 5.23%, %RE is below 0.097% or even RE are absent from the composition. Even in another embodiment %Si between 0.37% and 1 1.6% and/or %Mg between 0.37% and 1 1 .23% and/or %Ga between 0.00085% and 0.87%, %RE is below 0.00087% or even RE are absent from the composition. In another embodiment %Si between 0.37% and 11 ,6% and/or %Mg between 0.37% and 1 1.23% and/or %Ga between 0.00085% and 0.87%, %RE is above 0.087%.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as Ga may be detrimental especially for certain Si contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Si between 3.98% and 14.3%, %Ga is lower than 0.098%. Even in another embodiment with %Si between 3.98% and 14.3%, %Ga is above 2.33%.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as Sn may be detrimental especially for certain Si contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Si between 3.98% and 14.3%, %Sn is lower than 0.098% or even is absent from the composition. Even in another embodiment with %Si between 3.98% and 14.3%, %Sn is above 2.33%.

There are several elements such as Pb, Sn, In, Sb and Bi that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Si and/or Mg and/or Cu and/or Fe and/or Ga contents. In an embodiment with presence of Si and/or Mg and/or Cu and/or Fe and/or Ga, elements such as Pb and/or Sn and/or In and/or Sb and/or Bi are absent from the composition.

There are several applications wherein the presence of Ce and Er in the composition is detrimental for the overall properties of the aluminium based alloy especially for certain Si and/or Mg contents. In an embodiment with %Si between 6.77% and 7.52% and/or %Mg between 0.246% and 0.356%, %Ce is below 0.017% or even absent from the composition and/or %Er is below 0.0098% or even absent from the composition. Even in another embodiment with %Si between 6.77% and 7.52% and/or %Mg between 0.246% and 0.356%, %Ce is above 0.047% and/or %Er is above 0.033%.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as Te may be detrimental especially for certain Si contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Si between 7.87% and 12.7%, %Te is lower than 0.043% or even is absent from the composition Even in another embodiment with %Si between 7.87% and 12.7%, %Te is above 3.33%.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as In and Zn may be detrimental especially for certain Fe contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Fe between 0.48% and 3.33%, %ln is lower than 0.0098% or even is absent from the composition and/or %Zn is lower than 1.09% or even is absent from the composition . Even in another embodiment with %Fe between 0.48% and 3.33%, %ln is above 2.33% and/or %Zn is above 4.33%.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as Fe and Ni may be detrimental especially for certain Si and/or Mg and/or Fe contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Si between 0.018% and 2.63% and/or %Mg between 0.58% and 2.33%, %Ni is lower 0.47% or higher than 3.53%. In another embodiment with %Si between 0.018% and 1.33% and/or %Mg between 2.58% and 10.33%, %Ni is lower 1.98% or higher than 6.03%. In another embodiment with %Si between 5.97% and 19.63% and/or %Mg between 0.18% and 6.33%, %Fe is lower 0.087% or higher than 1.73%. Even in another embodiment with %Si between 0.0087% and 2.73% and/or %Mg between 0.58% and 3.83%, %Fe is lower 0.0098% or higher than 2.93%. In another embodiment with %Fe between 0.27% and 3.63%, %Ni is lower 0.078% or higher than 3.93%.

There are some applications wherein the presence of compounds phase in the aluminium based alloy is detrimental. In an embodiment the % of compound phase in the composition is below 79%, in another embodiment is below 49%, in another embodiment is below 19%, in another embodiment is below 9%, in another embodiment is below 0.9% and even in another embodiment the compound phase is absent from the aluminium based alloy. There are other applications wherein the presence of compounds in the aluminium based alloy is beneficial. In another embodiment the % of compound phase in the aluminium based alloy is above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment is above 0.3%, in another embodiment is above 3%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another is above 43% and even in another embodiment is above 73%.

For some applications it is desirable that the above alloys have a melting point below 890 °C, preferably below 640 °C the, more preferably below 180 °C or even below 46 °C.

Any of the above Al alloy can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

The use of terms such as "below", "above", "or more", "from," "to," "up to," "at least," "greater than," "less than," and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of an aluminium alloy for manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components.

The present invention is particularly suitable for the manufacture of components that can benefit from the properties of certain light elements and alloys, especially Mg, Li, Cu, Zn, Sn. (Copper and tin are not considered light alloys by its density but given its diffusion capacity are considered in this group in the present invention). In this case all the above for aluminum alloys applies both in range level and all the comments made on all paragraphs that refer to the aluminum based alloys for special applications, regarding maximum levels and / or minimum desired and / or preferred of these elements. Given that the rest will no longer be Al and minor elements, but the element in question (Mg / Li / Cu / Zn / Sn) and minority elements to be treated equally in the case of% Al. The only thing that happens is that the% Al and the base element in question (Mg / Li / Cu / Zn / Sn) exchange their numerical values.

The present invention is particularly suitable for the manufacture of components that can benefit from the properties of nickel and its alloys. Especially applications requiring high mechanical resistance at high temperatures y/o aggressive environments. In this sense, applying certain rules of alloy design and thermo-mechanical treatments, it is possible obtain very interesting features for applications in chemical industry, energy transformation, transport, tools, other machines or mechanisms, etc.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a nickel based alloy having the following composition, all percentages being in weight percent:

The rest consisting on Nickel (Ni) and trace elements

wherein %Ceq=%C + 0.86 * %N + 1 .2 * %B

There are applications wherein nickel based alloys are benefited from having a high nickel (%Ni) content but not necessary the nickelbeing the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment %Ni is above 1 .3%, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %Ni is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 , in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %Ni is not the majority element in the nickel based alloy .

In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to: H , He, Xe, Be, 0, F, Ne, Na, Mg, CI, Ar, K, Sc, Br, Kr, Sr, Tc, Ru , Rh, Ag, I , Xe, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm , Sm , Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm , Yb, Lu, Re, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Po, At, Rn , Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U , Np, Pu, Am , Cm , Bk, Cf, Es, Fm , Md, No, Lr, Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt alone and/or in combination. The inventor has seen that for several applications of the present invention it is important to limit the presence of trace elements to less than 1 .8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even less than 0.03% in weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the steel, such as reducing cost production of the steel , and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the steel.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the nickel based alloy . In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have a content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the nickel based alloy .

There are other applications wherein the presence of trace elements may reduce the cost of the alloy or attain any other additional beneficial effect without affecting the nickel based alloy desired properties. In an embodiment each individual trace element has content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8% in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%.

For several applications it is especially interesting the use of alloys containing %Ga %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. Particularly interesting is the use of these low melting point promoting elements with the presence of more than 2.2% in weight of %Ga, preferably more than 1 2%, and even more than 21 % or more. Once incorporated and evaluating the overall composition measured as indicated in this application, the nickel resulting alloy in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment above 0.015%, in another embodiment above 0.03%, and even in other embodiment above 0.1 %, in another embodiment has generally a 0.2% or more of the element (in this case %Ga) , in another embodiment preferably 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more, and even in another embodiment 12% or more. For certain applications it is especially interesting the use of particles with Ga only for tetrahedral interstices and not necessary for all interstices, for these applications is desirable a %Ga of more than 0.02% by weight, preferably more than 0.06%, more preferably more than 0.12% by weight and even more than 0.16%. But there are other applications depending of the desired properties of the nickel based alloy wherein %Ga contents of 30% or less are desired. In an embodiment the %Ga in the nickel based alloy is less than 29%, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than1 6%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the nickel based alloy . It has been found that in some applications the %Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by %Bi (until %Bi maxim um content of 1 0% by weight, in case %Ga being greater than 10%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial)with the amounts described above in this paragraph for % Ga + Bi%. In some applications it is advantageous total replacement ie the absence of Ga%. It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and / or %Bi by %Cd , % Cs, % Sn, %Pb, % Zn, % Rb or % with the amounts described in this paragraph, in this case for %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln, wherein depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nom inal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application wherein the elements in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another) . These elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point.

For some applications it is more interesting alloy with these elements directly and not incorporate them in separate particles. For some applications it is even interesting the use of particles mainly formed with these elements with a desirable content of % Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + Zn% +% Rb +% In greater than 52%, preferably greater than 76%, more preferably above 86% and even higher than 98%. The final content of these elements in the component will depend on the volume fractions employed, but for some applications often move in the ranges described above in this paragraph. A typical case is the use of % Sn and %Ga alloys to have liquid phase sintering at low temperatures with high potential to break oxide films that may have other particles (usually the m ajority particles) . % Sn content and% Ga is adjusted with the equilibrium diagram for controlling the volume content of liquid phase desired in the different post-processing temperatures, also the volume fraction of the particles of this alloy. For certain applications the % Sn and/or % Ga may be partially or completely replaced by other elements of the list (ie can be alloys without Sn% or% Ga). It is also possible get to do it with important content of elements not present in this list such as the case of %Mg and for certain applications with any of the preferred alloying elements for the target alloy.

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of chrom ium (% Cr) may be detrimental , for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a %Cr content of less than 39% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 8.8% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 1 .8%. There are other applications wherein even a lower %Cr content is desired, in an embodiment the %Cr in the nickel based alloy is less than 1 .6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%, in other embodiment less than 0.8%, in other embodiment less than 0.4%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Cr is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Cr being absent from the nickel based alloy . By contrast there are applications wherein the presence of chromium at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high corrosion resistance and/or resistance to oxidation at high temperatures is required for these applications; for these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 3.6%, in another embodiment preferably greater than 5.5 % by weight, more preferably above 6.1 %, more preferably above 8.9%, more preferably above 10.1 %, more preferably above 1 3.8%, more preferably above 1 6.1 %, more preferably above 1 8.9%, in another embodiment more preferably over 22%, more preferably above 26.4%, and even in another embodiment greater than 32% .But there are also other applications wherein a lower preferred minimum content is desired. In an embodiment, the %Cr in the nickel based alloy is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.045%, n other embodiment above 0.1 %, in other embodiment above 0.8%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .3%. There are other applications wherein a high content of %Cr is desired. In another embodiment of the invention the %Cr in the alloy is above 42.2%, and even above 46.1 %.

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive aluminum (% Al) can be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a %AI content of less than 1 2.9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 0.4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 8.4%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, preferably less than 3.4%, preferably less than 2.7%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %AI is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %AI being absent from the molybdenum based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of alum inum at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high hardening and/or environmental resistance are required, for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts, in another embodiment greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.4%preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.8%, in another embodiment preferably greater than 6.1 %, in another embodiment preferably greater than 7.3% ,in another embodiment more preferably above 8.2% and even in another embodiment above 1 2%. For some applications the aluminum is mainly to unify particles in form of low melting point alloy, in these cases it is desirable to have at least 0.2% aluminum in the final alloy, preferably greater than 0.52%, more preferably greater than 1 .02% and even higher than 3.2%. For some applications it is interesting to have a certain relationship between the aluminum content (% Al) and gallium content (% Ga). If we call S tothe output parameter of % Al = S * % Ga, then for some applications it is desirable to have S greater than or equal to 0.72, preferably greater than or equal to 1 .1 , more preferably greater than or equal to 2.2 and even greater than or equal to 4.2. If we call T to the parameter resulting from % Ga = T * % Al for some applications it is desirable to have a T value greater than or equal to 0.25, preferably greater than or equal to 0.42, more preferably greater than or equal to 1 .6 and even greater than or equal to 4.2 . It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of % Ga by % Bi,% Cd,% Cs,% Sn,% Pb% Zn,% Rb or % In with the amounts described in this paragraph, and to the definitions of s and T, the % Ga is replaced by the sum :% Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + Zn% +% Rb +% in, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any of the items may be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another ).

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of Cobalt (% Co) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a % Co content of less than 28% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 26.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 23.4%, preferably less than 19.9%,in another embodiment preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment preferably less than 13.4%,in another embodiment more preferably less than 8.8% by weight, more preferably less than 6.1 %, more preferably less than 4.2%, more preferably less than 2.7%, and even in another embodiment less than 1 .8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Co is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Co being absent from the molybdenum based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of cobalt in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hardness and/or tempering resistance are required. For these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 5.9%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 7.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 9.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 12% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 15.4%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 18.9%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 22% and even in another embodiment greater than 32%. There are other applications wherein it is desirable the %Co in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0. 15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .6 %.

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive carbon equivalent (% Ceq) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a % Ceq content in an embodiment of less than 1 .4% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.46% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.08%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ceq is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ceq being absent from the nickel based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of carbon equivalent in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 0.12% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.52% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.82% and even in another embodiment greater than 1 .2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the presence of excess carbon (%C) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a % C content in an embodiment of less than 0.38% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.26%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.1 8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.09% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.009%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %C is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %C being absent from the nickel based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of carbon at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on mechanical strength and/or hardness is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 0.02% byweight are desirable, preferably in another embodiment greater than 0.12% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.22% and even in another embodiment greater than 0.32% .

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of boron (%B) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a % B content of less than 0.9% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.65%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.16% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.006%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %B is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %B being absent from the nickel based alloy . In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of boron in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in another embodiment above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 200 ppm , in another embodiment preferably above 0.1 %, in another embodiment preferably above 0.35%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.52% and even in another embodiment above 1.2%. It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of boron (% B) may be detrimental and it is preferable its absence (it may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, in an embodiment less than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably less to 0.008%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.0008% and even in another embodiment less than 0.00008%)

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of nitrogen (% N) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a %N content of less than 0 4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.16% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.006%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %N is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %N being absent from the nickel based alloy In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nitrogen in higher amounts is desirable especially when a high resistance to localized corrosion is desired. For these applications in an embodiment above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 200 ppm, in another embodiment preferably above 0.1 %, and even in another embodiment preferably above 0.35%. It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of nitrogen (% N) may be detrimental and it is preferable in an embodiment to its absence (may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, in another embodiment less than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably less to 0.008%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.0008% and even in another embodiment less than 0.00008%).

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of zirconium (%Zr) and / or hafnium (%Hf) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a content of %Zr +% Hf of less than 12.4% by weight, in another embodiment less than 9.8%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, I in another embodiment less than 6.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4 8%, preferably less than 3.2%, preferably less than 2.6%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Zr and/or %Hf are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Zr and/or %Hf being absent from the nickel based alloy In contrast there are applications where the presence of some of these elements at higher levels is desirable, especially where a high hardening and/or environmental resistance is required, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of% Zr +% Hf greater than 0.1 % by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6%, in another embodiment more preferably above 7.9%, or even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of molybdenum (% Mo) and / or tungsten (% W) may be detrimental, for these applications a lower % Mo+ 1/2% W content is desirable in an embodimentless than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 1.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Mo and/or %W is/are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Mo and/or W being absent from the nickel based alloy .In contrast there are applications where the presence of molybdenum and tungsten at higher levels is desirable, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of 1.2% Mo +% W exceeding 1.2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 5.2% and even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of rhenium (%Re) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Re content less than 41 .8% by weight, preferably less than 24.8%, more preferably less than 1 1 .78% by weight and even less than 1.45%. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of rhenium in higher amounts is desirable for these applications are desirable amounts exceeding 0 6% by weight, preferably greater than 1.2% by weight, more preferably greater than 13.2%, even above 22 2%. There are even applications wherein in an embodiment %Re is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Re being absent from the alloy.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of Vanadium (%V) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %V content less than 6.3%,in another embodiment less than 4.8% by weight, in another embodiment less than 3.9%, in another embodiment less than 2.7%, in another embodiment less than 2.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 1.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.78% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.45%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %V is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %V being absent from the nickel based alloy .In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of vanadium in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 0.01 % by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 2.2% and even in another embodiment above 4.2%.

It has been that for some applications, excessive presence of copper (% Cu) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Cu content of less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 12 7%, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 7.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 5.4%, in another embodimentmore preferably less than 4.5% by weightin another embodiment more preferably less than 3.3% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.6% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .4% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.9%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Cu is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Cu being absent from the nickel based alloy . In contrast there are applications where the presence of copper at higher levels is desirable, especially when corrosion resistance to certain acidsand/or improved machinability and/or decrease work hardening is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment greater than 1.3% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 2.55% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 3.6% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 4.7% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 6% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 8% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 12% and even in another embodiment exceeding 16% .

It has been that for some applications the presence of excessive iron (%Fe) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Fe content of less than 58% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 36%, in another embodiment preferably less than 24%, preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 12% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 10 3% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 7.5%, even in another embodiment less than 5.9%, in another embodiment less than 3.7%, in another embodiment less than 2.1 %, or even in another embodiment less than 1.3%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Fe is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Fe being absent from the nickel based alloy . In contrast there are applications where the presence of iron at higher levels is desirable, for these applications are desirable amountsin an embodiment greater than 0.1 % by weigh, in another embodiment greater than 1.3% by weight, g in another embodiment reater than 2.7% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment greater than 6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 8% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 22% and even in another embodiment greater than 42% .

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of titanium (% Ti) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable % Ti content in an embodiment of less than 9% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 7.6%, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.1 %,in another embodiment preferably less than 4.5%, in another embodiment preferably less than 3.3%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.9% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8, and even in another embodiment less than 0.9%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ti is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ti being absent from the nickel based alloy . In contrast there are applications where the presence of titanium in higher amounts is desirable, especially when an increase on mechanical properties at high temperatures are desired. For these applications are desirable amountsin an embodimentgreater than 0.01 %, in another embodiment greater than 0.2%, in another embodiment greater than 0.7%, in another embodiment greater than 1.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6% or even in another embodiment above 12%. It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of tantalum (%Ta) and/or niobium (%Nb) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ta+%Nb content in an embodiment of less than 17.3%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ta and/or %Nb are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ta and/or %Nb being absent from the nickel based alloy .In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts of %Ta and/or %Nb are desirable, especially Nb is added when an improve on the resistance to intergranular corrosion and/or enhance on mechanical properties at high temperatures is desired. for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Nb+%Ta greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, in another embodimentmore preferably greater than 6% and even in another embodiment greater than 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of yttrium (%Y), cerium (%Ce) and/or lanthanide (%La) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Y+%Ce+%La content in an embodiment of less than 12.3%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Y and/or %Ce and/or %La are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Y and/or %Ce and/or %La being absent from the nickel based alloy . In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts are desirable, especially when a high hardness is desired, for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Y+%Ce+%La greater than 0 1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6% or even in another embodiment above 12% .

There are applications wherein the presence of %As in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %As amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %As may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %As amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %As is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %As being absent from the nickel based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Te in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Te amount above 0 0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Te may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Te amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%. in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Te is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Te being absent from the nickel based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Se in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Se amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Se may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Se amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %Se is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Se being absent from the nickel based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Sb in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Sb amount above 0 0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Sb may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Sb amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Sb is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Sb being absent from the nickel based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ca in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ca amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1.3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ca may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ca amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Ca is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ca being absent from the nickel based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ge in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ge amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ge may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ge amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %Ge is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ge being absent from the nickel based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %P in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %P amount above 0 0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %P may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %P amount in an embodiment less than 4.9%, in other embodiment less than 3.4%, in other embodiment less than 2.8%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %P is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Sb being absent from the nickel based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Si in higher amounts is desirable, especially when an increase on strength and/or resistance to oxidation is desired. For these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Si amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, and even in other embodiment above 1.3%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Si may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Si amount in an embodiment less than 1 4%, in other embodiment less than 0.8%, in other embodiment less than 0.4%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %Si is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Si being absent from the nickel based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Mn in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hot ductility and/or an increase on strength, toughness and/or hardenability and/or increase of solubility of nitrogen is desired. For these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Mn amount above 0.0001 %. in other embodiment above 0.15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, in other embodiment above 1.3%, and even in other embodiment above 1.9%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Mn may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Mn amount in an embodiment less than 2 7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %Mn is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Mn being absent from the nickel based alloy

There are applications wherein the presence of %S in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %S amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, in other embodiment above 1.3%, and even in other embodiment above 1.9 %. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %S may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %S amount in an embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %S is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %S being absent from the nickel based alloy .

For some applications when aluminum is used as low melting point element or any other type of particle that oxidizes rapidly in contact with air, such as magnesium, etc. is used as low melting point element. If magnesium is used mainly as destroying the alumina film on aluminum particles or aluminum alloy (sometimes it is introduced as a separate powder magnesium or magnesium alloy and also sometimes alloyed directly to the aluminum particles or alloy aluminum and also sometimes other particles such as low melting particles) the final content of% Mg can be quite small, in these applications often greater than 0.001 % content, preferably greater than 0.02% is desired , more preferably greater than 0.12% and even 3.6% above.

For some applications it is interesting that the consolidation and / or densification of the particles with aluminum is carried out in atmosphere with high nitrogen content which often reaction occurs particularly if consolidation and / or densification (eg sintering with or without liquid) phase occurs at elevated temperatures, the nitrogen will react with the aluminum and / or other elements forming nitrides and thus appear as an element in the final composition. In these cases it is often useful to have in the final composition a nitrogen content of 0.002% or higher, preferably 0.02% or higher, more preferably 0.4% or higher and even 2.2% or higher. There are some applications wherein the presence of compounds phase in the nickel based alloy is detrimental. In an embodiment the % of compound phase in the alloy is below 79%, in another embodiment is below 49%, in another embodiment is below 19%, in another embodiment is below 9%, in another embodiment is below 0.9% and even in another embodiment compounds are absent from the composition There are other applications wherein the presence of compounds in the nickel based alloy is beneficial. In another embodiment % of compound phase in the alloy is above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment is above 0.3%, in another embodiment is above 3%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 43% and even in another embodiment the is above 73%.

For several applications it is especially interesting the use of nickel based alloys for coating materials, such as for example alloys and /or other ceramic, concrete, plastic, etc components to provide with a particular functionality the covered material such as for example, but not limited to cathodic and/or corrosion protection. For several applications it is desired having a coating layer with a thickness in the micrometre or mm range. In an embodiment the Nickel based alloy is used as a coating layer. In an embodiment the nickel based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 1 .1 micrometer, in another embodiment the nickel based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 21 micrometer, in another embodiment the nickel based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 10 micrometre, in another embodiment the nickel based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 510micrometre, in another embodiment the nickel based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 1.1 mm and even in another embodiment the nickel based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 11 mm. In another embodiment the nickel based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 27mm, in another embodiment the nickel based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 17mm, in another embodiment the nickel based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 7 7mm, in another embodiment the nickel based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 537micrometer, in another embodiment the nickel based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 1 17micrometre, in another embodiment the nickel based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 27micrometre and even in another embodiment the nickel based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 7.7micrometre.

For several applications it is especially interesting the use of nickel based alloy having a high mechanical resistance. For those applications in an embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the nickel based alloy is above 52MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is above 72MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is above 82MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is above 102MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is above 1 12MPa and even in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is above 122MPa. In another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 147MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 127MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 1 17MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 107MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 87MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 77MPa and even in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 57MPa.

There are several technologies that are useful to deposit the nickel based alloy in a thin film; in an embodiment the thin film is deposited using sputtering, in another embodiment using thermal spraying, in another embodiment using galvanic technology, in another embodiment using cold spraying, in another embodiment using sol gel technology, in another embodiment using wet chemistry, in another embodiment using physical vapor deposition (PVD), in another embodiment using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), in another embodiment using additive manufacturing, in another embodiment using direct energy deposition, and even in another embodiment using LENS cladding.

There are several applications that may benefit from the nickel based alloy being in powder form. In an embodiment the nickel based alloy is manufactured in form of powder. In another embodiment the powder is spherical. In an embodiment refers to a spherical powder with a particle size distribution which may be unimodal, bimodal, trimodal and even multimodal depending of the specific application requirements.

The nickel based alloy is useful for the production of casted tools and ingots, including big cast or ingots, alloys in powder form, large cross-sections pieces, hot work tool materials, cold work materials, dies, molds for plastic injection, high speed materials, supercarburated alloys, high strength materials, high conductivity materials or low conductivity materials, among others.

For some applications it is desirable that the above alloys have a melting point below 890 °C, preferably below 640 °C , more preferably below 180 °C or even below 46 °C. There are several elements such as Cr, Fe and V that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Ga contents; For these applications in an embodiment with %Ga between 5.2% and 13.8%, the total content of Cr and/or V is below 17%, even in another embodiment with %Ga between 5.2% and 13.8%, the total content of Cr and/or V is above 25%. In another embodiment with %Ga between 18 at % and 34 at.%, %Fe is below 14 at.%. Even in another embodiment with %Ga between 18 at % and 34 at.%, %Fe is above 47 at.%.

There are several applications wherein the presence of Mo, Fe, Y, Ce, Mn and Re in the composition is detrimental for the overall properties of the nickel based alloy especially for certain Cr and/or Ga contents. In an embodiment with %Cr between 1 1 % and 17% and/or %Ga between 4% and 9%, %Mo is below 4% or even absent from the composition and/or %Fe is below 2.3% or even absent from the composition. Even in another embodiment with %Cr between 1 1 % and 17% and/or %Ga between 4% and 9%, %Mo is above 8.7% and/or %Fe is above 1 1.6%. In another embodiment with %Cr between 5.2% and 15.7% and/or %Ga between 3.6% and 7.2%, %Y is below 0.1 % or even absent from the composition and/or %Ce is below 0.03% or even absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Cr between 5 2% and 15.7% and/or %Ga between 3.6% and 7.2%, %Y is above 0.74% and/or %Ce is above 0.33%. In another embodiment with %Cr between 9.7% and 23.7% and/or %Ga between 0.6% and 8.2%, %Mn is below 0.36% or even absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Cr between 9.7% and 23.7% and/or %Ga between 0.6% and 8.2%, %Mn is above 2.6%. In another embodiment with %Cr between 6.2% and 8.7% and/or %Ga between 6.2% and 8.7 %, %Mo is below 0.6% or even absent from the composition and/or %Re is below 2.03% or even absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Cr between 6.2% and 8.7% and/or %Ga between 6.2% and 8.7 %, %Mo is above 2.74% and/or %Re is above 4.33%.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as Sc, Al, Ge, Y, W, Si, Pd and rare earth elements (RE) may be detrimental especially for certain Cr contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Cr between 1 1.1 % and 16.6%, the total content of %Sc and/or %RE is lower than 0.087% or even in another embodiment Sc and RE are absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Cr between 1 1.1 % and 16.6%, the total content of %Sc and/or %RE is lower than 0.87%. In another embodiment with %Cr between 17.1 % and 26.1 %, %AI is below 4.3% or even absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Cr between 17.1 % and 26.1 %, %AI is above 1 1 .3%. In another embodiment with presence of Cr, Pd is preferred to be absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Cr between 9 at.% and 51 at.%, the total content of Al and/or Si is below 4 at.%. In another embodiment with %Cr between 9 at.% and 51 at.%, the total content of Al and/or Si is above 26 at.%. In another embodiment with %Cr between 9% and 23 %, %AI is below 0.87% or even absent from the composition and/or %Si is below 0.37% or even absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Cr between 9% and 23 %, %AI is above 6.87% and/or %Si is above 3.37%. In another embodiment with %Cr between 6.8% and 22.3%, %Ge is below 0.37% or even absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Cr between 14.1 % and 32.1 %, %Y is below 0.3% or even absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Cr between 14.1 % and 32.1 %, %Y is above 1 37%. Even in another embodiment with %Cr between 0.087% and 8.1 %, %W is below 3.3% or even absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Cr between 0.087% and 8.1 %, %W is above 1 1.3%.

There are several applications wherein the presence of Ca, In, Y, and rare earth elements (RE) in the composition is detrimental for the overall properties of the nickel based alloy. For these applications in an embodiment %Ca and/or %RE are absent from the composition. In another embodiment, %Y is below 0.0087 at % or even absent from the composition. In another embodiment %Y is above 0.37 at.%. Even in another embodiment, %ln is lower than 0.8% or even In is absent from the composition.

There are several elements such as In, Sn and Sb that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Co and Fe contents; For these applications in an embodiment with %Co and/or %Fe between 0.0087 at.% and 17.8 at.%, the total content of In and/or Sn and/or Sb is below 4.1 at.%. Even in another embodiment with %Co and/or %Fe between 0.0087 at % and 17.8 at.%, the total content of In and/or Sn and/or Sb is above 19.2 at.%.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as Ta and Hf may be detrimental especially for certain Cr and Al contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Cr between 1 .1 % and 16.6% and/or %AI between 2.1 % and 7.6%, %Ta is below 0.87% or even absent from the composition and/or %Hf is below 0.13% or even absent from the composition. Even in another embodiment with Cr between 1.1 % and 16.6% and/or %AI between 2.1 % and 7.6%, %Hf is above 4.1 %.

Any of the above-described nickel alloy can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible. The use of terms such as "below", "above", "or more", "from," "to," "up to," "at least," "greater than," "less than," and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of any nickel alloy for manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components.

The present invention is particularly suitable for applications that can benefit from iron-based alloys with high mechanical resistance. There are many applications that can benefit from an alloy iron base with high mechanical strength, to name a few: structural elements (in the transport industry, construction, energy transformation ...), tools (molds, dies, ...), drives or elements mechanical, etc. Applying certain rules of alloy design and processing these iron base alloys high strength may be provided with high environmental resistance (resistance to oxidation, corrosion, ...). In particular it is especially suitable for building components with a composition expressed below.

In an embodiment the invention refers to an iron based alloy having the following composition, all percentages being in weight percent:

There are applications wherein iron based alloys are benefited from having a high iron (%Fe) content but not necessary iron being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment %Fe is above 1.3%. in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %Fe is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 , in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %Fe is not the majority element in the iron based alloy.

In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to: H, He, Xe, Be, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, CI, Ar, K, Sc, Br, Kr, Sr, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, I, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd , Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu , Re, Os, lr, Pt, Au , Hg, Tl, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr, Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt alone and/or in combination. The inventor has seen that for several applications of the present invention it is important to limit the presence of trace elements to less than 1 .8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even less than 0.03% in weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the steel, such as reducing cost production of the steel, and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the steel.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the iron based alloy. In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have a content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1.4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are other applications wherein the presence of trace elements may reduce the cost of the alloy or attain any other additional beneficial effect without affecting the iron based alloy desired properties. In an embodiment each individual trace element has content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8% in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%.

For several applications especially when sinterization in liquid phase is desired or at least high mobility is interesting the use of alloys containing %Ga, %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. Particularly interesting is the use of these low melting point promoting elements with the presence of more than 2.2% in weight of %Ga, preferably more than 12%, and even more than 15.3% or more. Once incorporated and evaluating the overall composition measured as indicated in this application, the iron resulting alloy in an embodiment %Ga in the alloy is above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment above 0.015%, and even in other embodiment above 0.1 %, in another embodiment has generally a 0.2% or more of the element (in this case %Ga), in another embodiment preferably 1.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more, and even in another embodiment 12% or more. For certain applications it is especially interesting the use of particles with Ga only for tetrahedral interstices and not necessary for all interstices, for these applications is desirable a %Ga of more than 0.02% by weight, preferably more than 0.06%, more preferably more than 0.12% by weight and even more than 0 16%. But there are other applications depending of the desired properties of the iron based alloy wherein %Ga contents of less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1.2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the iron based alloy. It has been found that in some applications the %Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by %Bi (until %Bi maximum content of 10% by weight, in case %Ga being greater than 10%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial) with the amounts described above in this paragraph for % Ga + Bi%. In some applications it is advantageous total replacement ie the absence of Ga%. It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and / or %Bi by %Cd, % Cs, % Sn, %Pb, % Zn, % Rb or ln% with the amounts described in this paragraph, in this case for %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln, wherein depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application wherein the elements in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another). These elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point.

For some applications it is more interesting alloyed with these elements directly and not be incorporated into separate particles.

For some applications it is more interesting alloy with these elements directly and not incorporate them in separate particles. For some applications it is even interesting the use of particles mainly formed with these elements with a desirable content of% Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + Zn% +% Rb +% In greater than 52%, preferably greater than 76%, more preferably above 86% and even higher than 98%. The final content of these elements in the component will depend on the volume fractions employed, but for some applications often move in the ranges described above in this paragraph. A typical case is the use of % Sn and %Ga alloys to have liquid phase sintering at low temperatures with high potential to break oxide films that may have other particles (usually the majority particles). % Sn content and% Ga is adjusted with the equilibrium diagram for controlling the volume content of liquid phase desired in the different post-processing temperatures, also the volume fraction of the particles of this alloy. For certain applications the% Sn and/or % Ga may be partially or completely replaced by other elements of the list (ie can be alloys without Sn% or% Ga). It is also possible get to do it with important content of elements not present in this list such as the case of %Mg and for certain applications with any of the preferred alloying elements for the target alloy.

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of nickel (% Ni) may be detrimental , for these applications is desirable a %Ni content in an embodiment of less than 24%, in other embodiment preferably less than 19.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 16%, in other embodiment preferably less than 14.8%, in other embodiment more preferably less than 12%, and even in other embodiment less than 7.5%. For several applications it will be desired also lower %Ni , in an embodiment %Ni is preferably less than 6.3%, and even in other embodiment less than 4.8. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nickel at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on ductility and toughness is desired, and/or and increase on strength and/or to improve weldability is required, for those applications in an embodiment amounts higher than 3.7% by weight, in other embodiment higher than 6% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 8.3% by weight in other embodiment more preferably higher than 8%, in other embodiment more preferably higher than 16.2% and even in other embodiment higher than 16%.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Si in higher amounts is desirable, especially when an increase on strength and/or resistance to oxidation is desired. For these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Si amount above 0.01 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, in other embodiment above 1.6%, in other embodiment above 2.6 %, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Si may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Si amount in an embodiment less than 3.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .8%, in other embodiment less than 0.8%, in other embodiment less than 0.4%.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Mn in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hot ductility and/or an increase on strength, toughness and/or hardenability and/or increase of solubility of nitrogen is desired. For these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Mn amount above 0.01 %, in other embodiment above 0.3 %, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, and even in other embodiment above 1.9%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Mn may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Mn amount in an embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%.

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of chromium (% Cr) may be detrimental , for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a %Cr content of less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 9.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 8.8% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 6%. There are other applications wherein even a lower %Cr content is desired , in an embodiment the %Cr in the iron based alloy is less than 4.6%, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .9%. By contrast there are applications wherein the presence of chromium at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high corrosion resistance and/or resistance to oxidation at high temperatures is required for these applications; for these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 1 .2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 2.6%, in another embodiment preferably greater than 5.5 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably above 6.1 %, in another embodiment more preferably over 7%, in another embodiment more preferably above 10.4%, and even in another embodiment greater than 16%.

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive aluminum (% Al) can be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a %AI content of less than 12.9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 10.4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 8.4%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.1%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, preferably less than 3.4%, preferably less than 2.7%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of aluminum at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high hardening and/or environmental resistance are required, for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts, in another embodiment greater than 1.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.4% preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.8%, in another embodiment preferably greater than 6.1 %, in another embodiment preferably greater than 7.3% ,in another embodiment more preferably above 8.2% and even in another embodiment above 12%. For some applications the aluminum is mainly to unify particles in form of low melting point alloy, in these cases it is desirable to have at least 0.2% aluminum in the final alloy, preferably greater than 0.52%, more preferably greater than 1.02% and even higher than 3.2%. For some applications it is interesting to have a certain relationship between the aluminum content (% Al) and gallium content (% Ga). If we call S tothe output parameter of % Al = S * % Ga, then for some applications it is desirable to have S greater than or equal to 0.72, preferably greater than or equal to 1 .1 , more preferably greater than or equal to 2.2 and even greater than or equal to 4.2. If we call T to the parameter resulting from% Ga = T * % Al for some applications it is desirable to have a T value greater than or equal to 0.25, preferably greater than or equal to 0.42, more preferably greater than or equal to 1 .6 and even greater than or equal to 4.2 . It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of% Ga by% Bi,% Cd,% Cs,% Sn,%Pb,% Zn,%Rb or %ln with the amounts described in this paragraph, and to the definitions of s and T, the % Ga is replaced by the sum :% Ga +% Bi +%Cd +%Cs +% Sn +% Pb + %Zn +% Rb +% in, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any of the items may be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another ).

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of cobalt (% Co) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a %Co content of less than 9.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 5.8%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.6%, in another embodiment preferably less than 3.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.8% by weight, more preferably less than 1 .4%, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Co is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Co being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of cobalt in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hardness and/or tempering resistance are required .For these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 4%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 5.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 6.4%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 8% and even in another embodiment greater than 12%. There are other applications wherein it is desirable the %Co in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0. 15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .6 %.

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive carbon equivalent (% Ceq) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a %Ceq content in an embodiment of less than 2.4% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 2.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .95%, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.9% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.58%. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of carbon equivalent in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 0.27% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.52% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.82% and even in another embodiment greater than 1 .2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the presence of excess carbon (% C) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a % C content in an embodiment of less than 1 .8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.9%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.58% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.44%. In contrast there are applications where the presence of carbon at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on mechanical strength and/or hardness is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 0.27% by weight are desirable, preferably in another embodiment greater than 0.52% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.82% and even in another embodiment greater than 1 .2% .

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of boron (% B) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a % B content of less than 1 .8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.9%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.06% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.006%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %B is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %B being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of boron in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in another embodiment above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 200 ppm , in another embodiment preferably above 0.1 %, in another embodiment preferably above 0.35%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.52% and even in another embodiment above 1 .2%. It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of boron (% B) may be detrimental and it is preferable its absence (it may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, in an embodiment less than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably less to 0.008%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.0008% and even in another embodiment less than 0.00008%).

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of nitrogen (% N) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a % N content of less than 0.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.1 6% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.006%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %N is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %N being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nitrogen in higher amounts is desirable especially when a high resistance to localized corrosion is desired. For these applications in an embodiment above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 200 ppm , in another embodiment preferably above 0.1 %, and even in another embodiment preferably above 0.35%. It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of nitrogen (% N) may be detrimental and it is preferable in an embodiment to its absence (may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, in another embodiment less than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably less to 0.008%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.0008% and even in another embodiment less than 0.00008%).

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of titanium (%Ti) , zirconium (%Zr) and/or hafnium (%Hf) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a content of %Ti+%Zr +% Hf of less than 12.4% by weight, in another embodiment less than 9.8%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment less than 6.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, preferably less than 3.2%, preferably less than 2.6%,in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ti and/or %Zr and/or %Hf are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ti and/or %Zr and/or %Hf being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of some of these elements at higher levels is desirable, especially where a high hardening and/or environmental resistance is required, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of %Ti +% Zr +% Hf greater than 0.1 % by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6%, in another embodiment more preferably above 7.9%, or even in another embodiment above 1 2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of molybdenum (%Mo) and/or tungsten (%W) may be detrimental, for these applications a lower %Mo + 1 /2%W content is desirable in an embodiment less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 1 .8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Mo is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Mo being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of molybdenum and tungsten at higher levels is desirable, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of %Mo + 1 /2%W exceeding 1 .2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 5.2% and even in another embodiment above 1 2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of Vanadium (%V) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %V content less than 1 1 .3%, in another embodiment less than 9.8% by weight, in another embodiment less than 6.9%, in another embodiment less than 2.7%, in another embodiment less than 2.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.78% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.45%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %V is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %V being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of vanadium in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 0.01 % by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 4.2% and even in another embodiment above 1 0.2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of tantalum (% Ta) and/or niobium (%Nb) may be detrimental , for these applications is desirable %Ta+%Nb content in an embodiment of less than 14.3%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ta and/or %Nb are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ta and/or %Nb being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts of %Ta and/or %Nb are desirable, especially Nb is added when an improve on the resistance to intergranular corrosion and/or enhance on mechanical properties at high temperatures is desired, for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Nb+%Ta greater than 0.1% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 6% and even in another embodiment greater than 12%.

It has been that for some applications, excessive presence of copper (%Cu) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Cu content of less than 8.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 7.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 5.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.5% by weight in another embodiment more preferably less than 3.3% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.6% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 ,4% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.9% There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Cu is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Cu being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of copper at higher levels is desirable, especially when corrosion resistance to certain acids and/or improved machinability and/or decrease work hardening is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment greater than 1.3% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 3.6% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 6% by weight and even in another embodiment exceeding 7.6% .

There are applications wherein the presence of %S in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %S amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, and even in other embodiment above 1.9 % In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %S may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %S amount in an embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %S is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %S being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Se in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Se amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Se may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Se amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4% In an embodiment %Se is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Se being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Te in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Te amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Te may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Te amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4% In an embodiment %Te is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Te being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %As in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %As amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %As may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %As amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %. in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %As is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %As being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Sb in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Sb amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Sb may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Sb amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Sb is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Sb being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ca in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ca amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ca may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ca amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %Ca is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ca being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %P in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %P amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %P may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %P amount in an embodiment less than 4.9%, in other embodiment less than 3.4%, in other embodiment less than 2.8%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %P is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %P being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ge in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ge amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ge may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ge amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Ge is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ge being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Y in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Y amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Y may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Y amount in an embodiment less than 4.9%, in other embodiment less than 3.4%, in other embodiment less than 2.8%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Y is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Y being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ce in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ce amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ce may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ce amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Ce is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ce being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %La in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %La amount above 0.0001%, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %La may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %La amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %La is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %La being absent from the iron based alloy.

For some applications when aluminum is used as low melting point element or any other type of particle that oxidizes rapidly in contact with air, such as magnesium, etc. is used as low melting point element. If magnesium is used mainly as destroying the alumina film on aluminum particles or aluminum alloy (sometimes it is introduced as a separate powder magnesium or magnesium alloy and also sometimes alloyed directly to the aluminum particles or alloy aluminum and also sometimes other particles such as low melting particles) the final content of% Mg can be quite small, in these applications often greater than 0.001 % content, preferably greater than 0 02% is desired , more preferably greater than 0.12% and even 3.6% above.

For some applications it is interesting that the consolidation and / or densification of the particles with aluminum is carried out in atmosphere with high nitrogen content which often reaction occurs particularly if consolidation and / or densification (eg sintering with or without liquid) phase occurs at elevated temperatures, the nitrogen will react with the aluminum and / or other elements forming nitrides and thus appear as an element in the final composition. In these cases it is often useful to have in the final composition a nitrogen content of 0.002% or higher, preferably 0.02% or higher, more preferably 0.4% or higher and even 2.2% or higher.

There are several elements such as Sn that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Cr and/or C contents; For these applications in an embodiment with %Cr between 0.47% and 5.8% and/or C between 0.7% and 2.74%, %Sn is below 0.087% or even absent from the composition, even in another embodiment with %Cr between 0.47% and 5.8% and/or C between 0.7% and 2.74%, %Sn is above 0.92%.

There are several applications wherein the presence of Si and B in the composition is detrimental for the overall properties of the steel, especially for certain Cu and/or B contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 atomic % (at.%) and 3.33 at.%, the total content of %B and/or %Si is below 4.77 at.%, in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at % and 3.33 at.%, the total content of %B and/or %Si is below 1.33 at.%, in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is below 2.4 at % and/or %Si is below 5.77 at.% , in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at % and 3.33 at.%, %B is above 16.2 at.% and/or %Si is above 27.2 at.% In another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, the total content of %B and %Si is above 31 at.%, in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at % and 3.33 at.%, the total content of %B and %Si is above 31 at.%. In another embodiment with %Cu between 0.3 at % and 1 .7 at.%, %B is below 4.2 at.% and/or %Si is below 8.77 at % , in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.3 at % and 1.7 at.%, %B is above 9.2 at % and/or %Si is above 17.2 at.%. In another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at % and 3.33 at.%, %B is below 9.77 at.%, in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is above 22.2 at % even in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is above 32.2 at.%. In another embodiment with %Cu between 0.97 at % and 3.33 at.%, %B is below 9.77 at.%, in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.97 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is above 22.2 at.%. In another embodiment with %B between 0.97 at.% and 33.33 at.%, the total content of %B and/or %Si is below 1 .33 at.%, in another embodiment with %B between 0.97 at % and 33.33 at.%, the total content of %B and/or %Si is above 33.33 at.%.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as Si and B may be detrimental especially for certain Al and Ga contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %AI between 1.87 at. % and 16.6 at.%, %B is lower than 3.87%. In another embodiment with %AI between 1.87 at. % and 16.6 at.%, %B is higher than 23.87%. Even in another embodiment with %AI between 1 .87 at. % and 16.6 at.% and/or %Ga between 0.43 at.% and 5.2 at.%, %B is below 1.33 at % and/or %Si is below 0.43 at.%. In another embodiment with %AI between 1.87 at. % and 16.6 at.% and/or %Ga between 0.43 at.% and 5.2 at.%, %B is above 1 1.33 at.% and/or %Si is above 5.43 at.%.

There are several elements such as Co that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Ni contents; For these applications in an embodiment with %Ni between 24.47% and 35.8%, %Co is lower than 12.6%. Even in nother embodiment with %Ni between 24.47% and 35.8%, %Co is higher than 26.6%.

There are several elements such as rare earth elements (RE) that are detrimental in specific applications; For these applications in an embodiment RE are absent from the composition.

For some applications it is desirable that the above alloys have a melting point below 890 °C, preferably below 640 °C , more preferably below 180 °C or even below 46 °C.

Any of the above Fe alloy can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

The use of terms such as "below", "above", "or more", "from," "to," "up to," "at least," "greater than," less than," and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of an iron alloy for manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components.

The present invention is very interesting for applications that benefit from the properties of tool steels. It is a further implementation of the present invention the production of resins capable of polymerizing radiation loaded with tool steel particles. In this sense they are considered particles of tool steels having the composition those described below, or those combined with other results in the composition described below in way to be interpreted herein.

In an embodiment the invention refers to an iron based alloy having the following composition, all percentages being in weight percent:

The rest consisting on iron (Fe) and trace elements

wherein

%Ceq = %C + 0.86 * %N + 1.2 * %B,

Characterized in that

%Cr + %V + %Mo + %W + %Nb + %Ta + %Zr + %Ti > 3

There are applications wherein iron based alloys are benefited from having a high iron (%Fe) content but not necessary iron being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment %Fe is above 1 .3%, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %Fe is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 , in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %Fe is not the majority element in the iron based alloy.

In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to: H, He, Xe, Be, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, CI, Ar, K, Sc, Br, Kr, Sr, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, I, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr, Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt alone and/or in combination. The inventor has seen that for several applications of the present invention it is important to limit the presence of trace elements to less than 1.8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even less than 0.03% in weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the steel, such as reducing cost production of the steel, and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the steel.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the iron based alloy. In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have a content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1.4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are other applications wherein the presence of trace elements may reduce the cost of the alloy or attain any other additional beneficial effect without affecting the iron based alloy desired properties. In an embodiment each individual trace element has content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1.4%, in other embodiment below 0.8% in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%.

For several applications especially when sinterization in liquid phase is desired or at least high mobility is interesting the use of alloys containing %Ga %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. Particularly interesting is the use of these low melting point promoting elements with the presence of more than 2.2% in weight of %Ga, preferably more than 12%and even more than 14.2% or more. Once incorporated and evaluating the overall composition measured as indicated in this application, the iron resulting alloy in an embodiment %Ga in the alloy is above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment above 0.015%, and even in other embodiment above 0.1 %, in another embodiment has generally a 0.2% or more of the element (in this case %Ga), in another embodiment preferably 1.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more, and even in another embodiment 12% or more. For certain applications it is especially interesting the use of particles with Ga only for tetrahedral interstices and not necessary for all interstices, for these applications is desirable a %Ga of more than 0.02% by weight, preferably more than 0.06%, more preferably more than 0.12% by weight and even more than 0.16%. But there are other applications depending of the desired properties of the iron based alloy wherein %Ga contents of less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1.2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the iron based alloy. It has been found that in some applications the %Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by %Bi (until %Bi maximum content of 10% by weight, in case %Ga being greater than 10%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial) with the amounts described above in this paragraph for %Ga +Bi%. In some applications it is advantageous total replacement ie the absence of Ga%. It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and / or %Bi by %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn, % Rb or ln% with the amounts described in this paragraph, in this case for %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln, wherein depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application wherein the elements in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another). These elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point.

For some applications it is more interesting alloy with these elements directly and not incorporate them in separate particles. For some applications it is even interesting the use of particles mainly formed with these elements with a desirable content of% Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + Zn% +% Rb +% In greater than 52%, preferably greater than 76%, more preferably above 86% and even higher than 98%. The final content of these elements in the component will depend on the volume fractions employed, but for some applications often move in the ranges described above in this paragraph. A typical case is the use of % Sn and %Ga alloys to have liquid phase sintering at low temperatures with high potential to break oxide films that may have other particles (usually the majority particles). % Sn content and% Ga is adjusted with the equilibrium diagram for controlling the volume content of liquid phase desired in the different post-processing temperatures, also the volume fraction of the particles of this alloy. For certain applications the% Sn and/or % Ga may be partially or completely replaced by other elements of the list (ie can be alloys without Sn% or% Ga). It is also possible get to do it with important content of elements not present in this list such as the case of %Mg and for certain applications with any of the preferred alloying elements for the target alloy.

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of nickel (%Ni) may be detrimental , for these applications is desirable a %Ni content in an embodiment of less than 8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 4.6%, in other embodiment preferably less than 2.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 2.3%, in other embodiment more preferably less than 1.8%, and even in other embodiment less than 0.008%. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nickel at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on ductility and toughness is desired, and/or and increase on strength and/or to improve weldability is required, for those applications in an embodiment amounts higher than 0.1% by weight, in another embodiment higher than 0.65% by weight, in other embodiment higher than 1 .2% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 1 .6% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 2.2%, in other embodiment more preferably higher than 5.2%, in other embodiment more preferably higher than 7.3% and even in other embodiment higher than 1 1 %.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Mn in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hot ductility and/or an increase on strength, toughness and/or hardenability and/or increase of solubility of nitrogen is desired. For these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Mn amount above 0.01 %, in other embodiment above 0.3 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1.3%, and even in other embodiment above 1.9%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Mn may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Mn amount in an embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%and even absent in other embodiment. It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of chromium (%Cr) may be detrimental , for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a %Cr content of less than 1 4% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 3.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.8% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.08%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Cr is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Cr being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of chromium at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high corrosion resistance and/or resistance to oxidation at high temperatures is required for these applications; for these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 1 .2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 2.6%, in another embodiment preferably greater than 5.5 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably above 6.1 %, in another embodiment more preferably over 7%, in another embodiment more preferably above 1 0.4%, and even in another embodiment greater than 1 6%.

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive aluminum (% Al) can be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a %AI content of less than 1 2.9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 0.4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 8.4%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, preferably less than 3.4%, preferably less than 2.7%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of aluminum at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high hardening and/or environmental resistance are required, for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts, in another embodiment greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.4% preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.8%, in another embodiment preferably greater than 6.1 %, in another embodiment preferably greater than 7.3% ,in another embodiment more preferably above 8.2% and even in another embodiment above 1 2%. For some applications the alum inum is mainly to unify particles in form of low melting point alloy, in these cases it is desirable to have at least 0.2% aluminum in the final alloy, preferably greater than 0.52%, more preferably greater than 1 .02% and even higher than 3.2%.

For some applications it is interesting to have a certain relationship between the aluminum content (% Al) and gallium content (% Ga). If we call S tothe output parameter of % Al = S * % Ga, then for some applications it is desirable to have S greater than or equal to 0.72, preferably greater than or equal to 1 .1 , more preferably greater than or equal to 2.2 and even greater than or equal to 4.2. If we call T to the parameter resulting from % Ga = T * % Al for some applications it is desirable to have a T value greater than or equal to 0.25, preferably greater than or equal to 0.42, more preferably greater than or equal to 1 .6 and even greater than or equal to 4.2 . It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of % Ga by% Bi,% Cd,% Cs,% Sn,% Pb,% Zn,% Rb or% In with the amounts described in this paragraph, and to the definitions of s and T, the % Ga is replaced by the sum :% Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + Zn% +% Rb +% in, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any of the items may be absent and have a nom inal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another ) .

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of cobalt (%Co) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a %Co content of less than 9.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 5.8%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.6%, in another embodiment preferably less than 3.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.8% by weight, more preferably less than 1 .4%, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Co is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Co being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of cobalt in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hardness and/or tempering resistance are required. For these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 4%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 5.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 6.4%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 8% and even in another embodiment greater than 1 2%. There are other applications wherein it is desirable the %Co in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0. 1 5 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .6 %.

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive carbon equivalent (%Ceq) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a %Ceq content in an embodiment of less than 2.4% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 2.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .95%, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.9% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.38%. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of carbon equivalent in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 0.27% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.42% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.82% and even in another embodiment greater than 1 .2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the presence of excess carbon (%C) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a %C content in an embodiment of less than 1 .8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.9%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.58% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.44%. In contrast there are applications where the presence of carbon at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on mechanical strength and/or hardness is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 0.27% by weight are desirable, preferably in another embodiment greater than 0.32% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.42% and even in another embodiment greater than 1 .2% .

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of boron (%B) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a %B content of less than 1 .8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.9%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.06% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.006%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %B is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %B being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of boron in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in another embodiment above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 200 ppm , in another embodiment preferably above 0.1 %, in another embodiment preferably above 0.35%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.52% and even in another embodiment above 1 .2%. It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of boron (%B) may be detrimental and it is preferable its absence (it may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, in an embodiment less than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably less to 0.008%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.0008% and even in another embodiment less than 0.00008%).

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive nitrogen (% N) can be harmful, for these applications is desirable a % N content ofless than 1 .4% by weight, preferably less than 0.9%, more preferably less than 0.06% by weight and even less than 0.006%. By contrast there are applications where the presence of nitrogen in higher amounts is desirable for these applications above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, preferably above 200 ppm , more preferably greater than 0.2% and even above 1 .2%.

It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of nitrogen (% N) may be harmful and it is preferable to its absence (may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, less than 0.1 % by weight, preferably less to 0.008%, more preferably less than 0.0008% and even less than 0.00008%).

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of zirconium (%Zr) and / or hafnium (%Hf) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a content of %Zr + %Hf of less than 1 1 .4% by weight, in another embodiment less than 9.8%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, I in another embodiment less than 6.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, preferably less than 3.2%, preferably less than 2.6%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Zr and/or %Hf are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Zr and/or %Hf being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of some of these elements at higher levels is desirable, especially where a high hardening and/or environmental resistance is required, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of %Zr + %Hf greater than 0.1 % by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6%, in another embodiment more preferably above 7.9%, or even in another embodiment above 9.1 %.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of molybdenum (%Mo) and/or tungsten (%W) may be detrimental, for these applications a lower %Mo + 1 /2% W content is desirable in an embodiment less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 1 .8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Mo is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Mo being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of molybdenum and tungsten at higher levels is desirable, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of %Mo + 1/2%W exceeding 1.2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 5.2% and even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Si may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Si amount in an embodiment less than 3.4%, in other embodiment less than 1.8%, in other embodiment less than 0.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 0.45%, in an embodiment more preferably less than 0.8% by weight, and even in an embodiment less than 0.08% and even in another embodiment absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of %Si in higher amounts is desirable, especially when an increase on strength and/or resistance to oxidation is desired. For these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Si amount above 0.01%, in other embodiment above 0.27%, in other embodiment preferably above 0.52%, in other embodiment more preferably above 0.82%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of Vanadium (%V) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %V content less than 1 1.3%, in another embodiment less than 9.8% by weight, in another embodiment less than 6.9%, in another embodiment less than 2.7%, in another embodiment less than 2.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 1.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.78% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.45%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %V is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %V being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of vanadium in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 0.01 % by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 4.2% and even in another embodiment above 10.2%.

It has been found that there are applications where the presence of titanium is desirable, especially when an increase on mechanical properties at high temperatures are desired. Normally in amounts in an embodiment greater than 0.05% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 1.2% or even in another embodiment above 4%. In contrast for some applications, the excessive presence of titanium (% Ti) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable % Ti content in an embodiment of less than 1 .8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 1.4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.8%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ti is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ti being absent from the iron based alloy.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of tantalum (%Ta) and/or niobium (%Nb) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ta+%Nb content in an embodiment of less than 14.3%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ta and/or %Nb are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ta and/or %Nb being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts of %Ta and/or %Nb are desirable, especially Nb is added when an improve on the resistance to intergranular corrosion and/or enhance on mechanical properties at high temperatures is desired, for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Nb+%Ta greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 6% and even in another embodiment greater than 12%.

It has been that for some applications, excessive presence of copper (%Cu) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Cu content of less than 8.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 7.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 5.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.5% by weight in another embodiment more preferably less than 3.3% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.6% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.4% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.9%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Cu is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Cu being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of copper at higher levels is desirable, especially when corrosion resistance to certain acids and/or improved machinability and/or decrease work hardening is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment greater than 1.3% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 3.6% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 6% by weight and even in another embodiment exceeding 7.6%.

There are applications wherein the presence of %S in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %S amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, and even in other embodiment above 1 9%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %S may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %S amount in an embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %S is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %S being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Se in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Se amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1.3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Se may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Se amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %Se is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Se being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Te in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Te amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Te may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Te amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Te is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Te being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %As in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %As amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %As may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %As amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %As is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %As being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Sb in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Sb amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Sb may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Sb amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Sb is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Sb being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ca in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ca amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ca may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ca amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %Ca is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ca being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %P in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %P amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %P may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %P amount in an embodiment less than 4.9%, in other embodiment less than 3.4%, in other embodiment less than 2.8%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %P is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %P being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ge in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ge amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.1 5%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ge may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ge amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Ge is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ge being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Y in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Y amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Y may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Y amount in an embodiment less than 4.9%, in other embodiment less than 3.4%, in other embodiment less than 2.8%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Y is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Y being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ce in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ce amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.1 5%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ce may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ce amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Ce is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ce being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %La in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %La amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %La may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %La amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %La is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %La being absent from the iron based alloy.

It has been found that for some applications it is interesting to have a silicon content simultaneously and / or manganese with generally high presence of zirconium and / or titanium which sometimes can be replaced by chrom ium. In this case the condition% Cr +% V +% Mo +% W +% Nb +% Ta +% Zr +% Ti> 3 is reduced to% Cr +% V +% Mo +% W +% Nb +% Ta +% Zr +% Ti> 1 .5. For these cases it has been found that %Mn +%Si are desireable above 1 .55%, preferably greater than 2.2%, more preferably 5.5% higher and even higher than 7.5%. For some applications of these cases it has been found that the content of % Mn +% Si should not be excessive, in these cases it is desirable to have contained less than 14%, preferably less than 9%, more preferably less than 6.8% and even below 5.9%. For some of these cases it has been seen that it is desirable to have %Mn content exceeding 2.1 % , preferably greater than 4.1 %, more preferably greater than 6.2% and even higher than 8.2%. For some of these cases has been that excessive content of % Mn can be harmful and is convenient to have % Mn content of less than 14%, preferably less than 9%, more preferably less than 6.8% and even less than 4.2%. For some of these cases it has been seen that it is convenient to have %Si content above 1 .2% preferably greater than 1 .6%, more preferably greater than 2.1 % and even higher than 4.2%. For some of these cases it has been seen that an excessive content of % Si can be harmful and is convenient to have % Si content less than 9%, preferably less than 4.9%, more preferably less than 2.9% and even less than 1 .9%. For some of these cases it has been seen that it is desirable to have %Ti content above 0.55% preferably greater than 1 .2%, more preferably greater than 2.2% and even higher than 4.2%. For some of these cases has been that excessive content of % Ti can be harmful and is convenient to have contents of % Ti less than 8%, preferably less than 4%, more preferably less than 2.8% and even less than 0.8%. For some of these cases it has been seen that it is desirable to have higher contents of % Zr to 0.55%, preferably greater than 1 .55%, more preferably greater than 3.2% and even higher than 5.2%. For some of these cases has been that excessive content of% Zr can be harmful and is convenient to have content of% Zr less than 8%, preferably less than 5.8%, more preferably less than 4.8% and even less than 1.8%. For some of these cases it has been seen that it is desirable to have higher contents of% C to 0.31 %, preferably greater than 0.41 %, more preferably greater than 0.52% and even higher than 1.05%. For some of these cases has been that excessive content of% C can be harmful and is convenient to have content% lower C 2.8%, preferably less than 1.8%, more preferably less than 0.9% and even less than 0.48%. Obviously for these and other elements apply the requirements of special applications of the rest of the section they are all compatible with the special applications described in this paragraph (as in the rest of the document). These alloys are especially interesting for some applications if bainitic treatments are performed and / or treatments retained austenite to have large increases in hardness with the application of a low temperature treatment (below 790 ° C, preferably below 690 0 C, more preferably below 590 ° C and even below 490 0 C). It is suitable for some applications microstructure set to have a hardness increase of 6HRc or more, preferably 1 1 HRc or more, more preferably 16HRc or more and even more 21 HRc or. (If the microstructure is fine adjusted in some cases may be passed around to 200HB to 60 HRc in the low temperature treatment. Particles of these alloys are especially interesting also for processes of AM of metal melt particles (as is the case for many of the alloys presented herein although no special mention is made).

For some applications when aluminum is used as low melting point element or any other type of particle that oxidizes rapidly in contact with air, such as magnesium, etc. is used as low melting point element. If magnesium is used mainly as destroying the alumina film on aluminum particles or aluminum alloy (sometimes it is introduced as a separate powder magnesium or magnesium alloy and also sometimes alloyed directly to the aluminum particles or alloy aluminum and also sometimes other particles such as low melting particles) the final content of% Mg can be quite small, in these applications often greater than 0.001 % content, preferably greater than 0.02% is desired , more preferably greater than 0.12% and even 3.6% above.

For some applications it is interesting that the consolidation and / or densification of the particles with aluminum is carried out in atmosphere with high nitrogen content which often reaction occurs particularly if consolidation and / or densification (eg sintering with or without liquid) phase occurs at elevated temperatures, the nitrogen will react with the aluminum and / or other elements forming nitrides and thus appear as an element in the final composition. In these cases it is often useful to have in the final composition a nitrogen content of 0.002% or higher, preferably 0.02% or higher, more preferably 0.4% or higher and even 2.2% or higher.

There are several elements such as Sn that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Cr and/or C contents; For these applications in an embodiment with %Cr between 0.47% and 5.8% and/or C between 0.7% and 2.74%, %Sn is below 0.087% or even absent from the composition, even in another embodiment with %Cr between 0.47% and 5.8% and/or C between 0.7% and 2.74%, %Sn is above 0.92%.

There are several applications wherein the presence of Si and B in the composition is detrimental for the overall properties of the steel, especially for certain Cu and/or B contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 atomic % (at.%) and 3.33 at.%, the total content of %B and/or %Si is below 4.77 at.%, in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at % and 3.33 at.%, the total content of %B and/or %Si is below 1 .33 at.%, in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is below 2.4 at.% and/or %Si is below 5.77 at % , in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is above 16.2 at.% and/or %Si is above 27.2 at.%. In another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, the total content of %B and %Si is above 31 at.%, in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at % and 3.33 at.%, the total content of %B and %Si is above 31 at.%. In another embodiment with %Cu between 0.3 at.% and 1.7 at.%, %B is below 4.2 at.% and/or %Si is below 8.77 at.% , in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.3 at % and 1.7 at.%, %B is above 9.2 at.% and/or %Si is above 17.2 at.%. In another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is below 9.77 at.%, in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is above 22.2 at.% even in another embodiment with %Cu between 0 097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is above 32.2 at.%. In another embodiment with %Cu between 0.97 at % and 3.33 at.%, %B is below 9.77 at %, in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.97 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is above 22.2 at.%. In another embodiment with %B between 0.97 at.% and 33.33 at.%, the total content of %B and/or %Si is below 1.33 at.%, in another embodiment with %B between 0.97 at % and 33.33 at.%, the total content of %B and/or %Si is above 33.33 at.%.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as Si and B may be detrimental especially for certain Al and Ga contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %AI between 1.87 at % and 16.6 at.%, %B is lower than 3.87%. In another embodiment with %AI between 1.87 at. % and 16.6 at.%, %B is higher than 23.87%. Even in another embodiment with %AI between 1 .87 at. % and 16.6 at.% and/or %Ga between 0.43 at.% and 5.2 at.%, %B is below 1 .33 at.% and/or %Si is below 0.43 at.%. In another embodiment with %AI between 1 .87 at. % and 16.6 at.% and/or %Ga between 0.43 at.% and 5.2 at.%, %B is above 1 1 .33 at.% and/or %Si is above 5.43 at.%.

There are several elements such as Co that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Ni contents; For these applications in an embodiment with %Ni between 24.47% and 35.8%, %Co is lower than 1 2.6%. Even in nother embodiment with %Ni between 24.47% and 35.8%, %Co is higher than 26.6%.

There are several elements such as rare earth elements (RE) that are detrimental in specific applications; For these applications in an embodiment RE are absent from the composition.

For some applications it is desirable that the above alloys have a melting point below 890 ° C, preferably below 640 ° C , more preferably below 180 ° C or even below 46 ° C.

Any of the above Fe alloy can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

The use of terms such as "below " , "above " , "or more " , "from , " "to, " "up to, " "at least, " "greater than, " "less than, " and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of an iron alloy for manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components.

The present invention is particularly suitable for building components in iron or iron alloys. In particular it is especially suitable for building components with a composition expressed below.

In an embodiment the invention refers to an iron based alloy having the following composition, all percentages being in weight percent:

The rest consisting on iron (Fe) and trace elements

There are applications wherein iron based alloys are benefited from having a high iron (%Fe) content but not necessary iron being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment %Fe is above 1 .3%, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %Fe is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 %, in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %Fe is not the majority element in the iron based alloy.

In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to: H, He, Xe, Be, 0, F, Ne, Na, , P, S, CI, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm , Sm , Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am , Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm , Md, No, Lr, Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt alone and/or in combination. The inventor has seen that for several applications of the present invention it is important to limit the presence of trace elements to less than 1 .8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even less than 0.03% in weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the steel, such as reducing cost production of the steel, and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the steel.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the iron based alloy. In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have a content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the iron based alloy.

There are other applications wherein the presence of trace elements may reduce the cost of the alloy or attain any other additional beneficial effect without affecting the iron based alloy desired properties. In an embodiment each individual trace element has content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8% in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%.

Desirable amounts of the individual elements for different applications may continue in this case the pattern in terms of desirable quantities as described in the preceding paragraphs identical to the case of high mechanical strength iron based alloys or the case of tool steels alloys, in both cases with the exception of the% elements C,% B,% N and %Cr and / or %Ni. in the case of corrosion resistant alloys.

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of nickel (%Ni) may be detrimental , for these applications is desirable a %Ni content in an embodiment of less than 8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 4.7%, in other embodiment preferably less than 2.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 2.3%, in other embodiment more preferably less than 1.8%, and even in other embodiment less than 0.008%ln contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nickel at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on ductility and toughness is desired, and/or and increase on strength and/or to improve weldability is required, for those applications in an embodiment amounts higher than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment higher than 0.65% by weight, in other embodiment higher than 1 .2% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 8.3% by weight in other embodiment preferably higher than 3.2%, in other embodiment more preferably higher than 5.2% and even in other embodiment higher than 18%.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Si in higher amounts is desirable, especially when an increase on strength and/or resistance to oxidation is desired. For these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Si amount above 0.01 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.6%, even in other embodiment above 1 .1 %. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Si may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Si amount in an embodiment less than 0.8%, in other embodiment less than 0.4%.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Mn in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hot ductility and/or an increase on strength, toughness and/or hardenability and/or increase of solubility of nitrogen is desired. For these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Mn amount above 0.01 %, in other embodiment above 0.3%, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, in other embodiment above 1.3%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .9% In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Mn may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Mn amount in an embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%.

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of chromium (%Cr) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a %Cr content of less than 14%, in other embodiment less than 3.8%, in other embodiment less than 0.8%, in other embodiment less than 0.8%. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of chromium at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high corrosion resistance and/or resistance to oxidation at high temperatures is required for these applications; for these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 1.2% by weight are desirable, in other embodiment amounts exceeding 1 .6% by weight in other embodiment amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight and even in another embodiment preferably above 2.8%.

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive aluminum (%AI) can be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a %AI content of less than 2.3%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%, and even absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of aluminum at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high hardening and/or environmental resistance are required , for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts, in another embodiment greater than 1 .2% by weight, and even in another embodiment above 1.9%.

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of cobalt (%Co) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a %Co content of less than 5.8%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.6%, in another embodiment preferably less than 3.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.8% by weight, more preferably less than 1 .4%, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Co is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Co being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of cobalt in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hardness and/or tempering resistance are required .For these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 4%, and even in another embodiment preferably higher than 5.6%. There are other applications wherein it is desirable the %Co in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .6 %.

It has been found that for some applications, the presence of excess carbon (%C) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a %C content in an embodiment of less than 1 .8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.48% by weight in another embodiment, more preferably less than 0.18% and even in other embodiment 0.008%. In contrast there are applications where the presence of carbon at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on mechanical strength and/or hardness is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 0.02% by weight are desirable, preferably in another embodiment greater than 0.12% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.42% and even in another embodiment greater than 3.2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of boron (%B) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a %B content of less than 0.48% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.19%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.06% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.006%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %B is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %B being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of boron in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in another embodiment above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 200 ppm, in another embodiment preferably above 0.12%, and even in other embodiment greater than 0.52%. It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of boron (%B) may be detrimental and it is preferable its absence (it may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, in an embodiment less than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably less to 0.008%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.0008% and even in another embodiment less than 0.00008%).

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of nitrogen (%N) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a %N content of less than 0.46%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.18% by weight in another embodiment preferably less than 0.06% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0006%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %N is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %N being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nitrogen in higher amounts is desirable especially when a high resistance to localized corrosion is desired. For these applications in an embodiment above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 200 ppm, in another embodiment preferably above 0.2%, and even in another embodiment preferably above 0.52%. It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of nitrogen (%N) may be detrimental and it is preferable in an embodiment to its absence (may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, in another embodiment less than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably less to 0.008%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.0008% and even in another embodiment less than 0.00008%).

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of titanium (%Ti), zirconium (%Zr) and/or hafnium (%Hf) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a content of %Ti + %Zr + %Hf of less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment less than 6.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, preferably less than 3.2%, preferably less than 2.6%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ti and/or %Zr and/or %Hf are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ti and/or %Zr and/or %Hf being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of some of these elements at higher levels is desirable, especially where a high hardening and/or environmental resistance is required, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of %Ti + %Zr + %Hf greater than 0.1 % by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 5.2%, or even in another embodiment above 6%. It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of molybdenum (%Mo) and/or tungsten (%W) may be detrimental, for these applications a lower %Mo + 1 /2 %W content is desirable in an embodiment less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 1 .8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Mo is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Mo being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of molybdenum and tungsten at higher levels is desirable, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of %Mo + 1/2 %W exceeding 1.2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 5.2% and even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of Vanadium (%V) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %V content less than 3.8%, in another embodiment less than 2 7%, in another embodiment less than 2.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 1.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.78% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0 45%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %V is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %V being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of vanadium in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 0.01 % by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.2% by weight, and even in another embodiment above 2.9%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of tantalum (%Ta) and/or niobium (%Nb) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ta+%Nb content in an embodiment of less than 4.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 3.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ta and/or %Nb are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ta and/or %Nb being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts of %Ta and/or %Nb are desirable, especially Nb is added when an improve on the resistance to intergranular corrosion and/or enhance on mechanical properties at high temperatures is desired, for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Nb+%Ta greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, and even in another embodiment greater than 2.9%.

It has been that for some applications, excessive presence of copper (% Cu) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Cu content of less than 1 6% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .4% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.9%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Cu is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Cu being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of copper at higher levels is desirable, especially when corrosion resistance to certain acids and/or improved machinability and/or decrease work hardening is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment greater than 0.6% by weight, and even in another embodiment exceeding 1.1 % .

There are applications wherein the presence of %La in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %La amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 1 .6%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .9%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %La may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %La amount in an embodiment less than 2 6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %La is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %La being absent from the iron based alloy.

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of magnesium (%Mg) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a %Mg content of less than 9.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 5.8%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.6%, in another embodiment preferably less than 3.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.8% by weight, more preferably less than 1.4%, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Mg is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Mg being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of magnesium in higher amounts is desirable. For these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 4%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 5.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 6.4%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 8% and even in another embodiment greater than 12%. There are other applications wherein it is desirable the %Mg in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0. 15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, and even in other embodiment above 1.6 %.

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of zinc (%Zn) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a % Zn content of less than 9.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 5.8%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.6%, in another embodiment preferably less than 3.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.8% by weight, more preferably less than 1.4%, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Zn is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Zn being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of zinc in higher amounts is desirable. For these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 4%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 5.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 6.4%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 8% and even in another embodiment greater than 12%. There are other applications wherein it is desirable the %Zn in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, and even in other embodiment above 1.6%.

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of lithium (%Li) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a %Li content of less than 9.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 5.8%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.6%, in another embodiment preferably less than 3.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.8% by weight, more preferably less than 1.4%, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Li is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Li being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of lithium in higher amounts is desirable. For these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 4%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 5.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 6.4%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 8% and even in another embodiment greater than 12%. There are other applications wherein it is desirable the %Li in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0. 15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, and even in other embodiment above 1.6 %.

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of scandium (%Sc) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a %Sc content of less than 9.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 5.8%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.6%, in another embodiment preferably less than 3.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.8% by weight, more preferably less than 1.4%, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Sc is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Sc being absent from the iron based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of scandium in higher amounts is desirable. For these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 4%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 5.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 6.4%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 8% and even in another embodiment greater than 12%. There are other applications wherein it is desirable the %Sc in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0. 15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, and even in other embodiment above 1.6 %.

For some applications when aluminum is used as low melting point element or any other type of particle that oxidizes rapidly in contact with air, such as magnesium, etc. is used as low melting point element. If magnesium is used mainly as destroying the alumina film on aluminum particles or aluminum alloy (sometimes it is introduced as a separate powder magnesium or magnesium alloy and also sometimes alloyed directly to the aluminum particles or alloy aluminum and also sometimes other particles such as low melting particles) the final content of% Mg can be quite small, in these applications often greater than 0.001 % content, preferably greater than 0.02% is desired , more preferably greater than 0.12% and even above 3.6%.

For some applications it is interesting that the consolidation and / or densification of the particles with aluminum is carried out in atmosphere with high nitrogen content which often reaction occurs particularly if consolidation and / or densification (eg sintering with or without liquid) phase occurs at elevated temperatures, the nitrogen will react with the aluminum and / or other elements forming nitrides and thus appear as an element in the final composition. In these cases it is often useful to have in the final composition a nitrogen content of 0.002% or higher, preferably 0.02% or higher, more preferably 0.4% or higher and even 2.2% or higher.

There are several elements such as Sn that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Cr and/or C contents; For these applications in an embodiment with %Cr between 0.47% and 5.8% and/or C between 0.7% and 2.74%, %Sn is below 0.087% or even absent from the composition, even in another embodiment with %Cr between 0.47% and 5.8% and/or C between 0.7% and 2.74%, %Sn is above 0.92%.

There are several applications wherein the presence of Si and B in the composition is detrimental for the overall properties of the steel, especially for certain Cu and/or B contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 atomic % (at .%) and 3.33 at.%, the total content of %B and/or %Si is below 4.77 at.%, in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, the total content of %B and/or %Si is below 1 .33 at.%, in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is below 2.4 at.% and/or %Si is below 5.77 at.% , in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is above 16.2 at.% and/or %Si is above 27.2 at.%. In another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, the total content of %B and %Si is above 31 at.%, in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, the total content of %B and %Si is above 31 at.%. In another embodiment with %Cu between 0.3 at.% and 1 .7 at.%, %B is below 4.2 at.% and/or %Si is below 8.77 at.% , in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.3 at.% and 1 .7 at.%, %B is above 9.2 at.% and/or %Si is above 17.2 at.%. In another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is below 9.77 at.%, in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is above 22.2 at.% even in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.097 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is above 32.2 at.%. In another embodiment with %Cu between 0.97 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is below 9.77 at.%, in another embodiment with %Cu between 0.97 at.% and 3.33 at.%, %B is above 22.2 at.%. In another embodiment with %B between 0.97 at.% and 33.33 at.%, the total content of %B and/or %Si is below 1 .33 at.%, in another embodiment with %B between 0.97 at.% and 33.33 at.%, the total content of %B and/or %Si is above 33.33 at.%.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as Si and B may be detrimental especially for certain Al and Ga contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %AI between 1 .87 at. % and 1 6.6 at.%, %B is lower than 3.87%. In another embodiment with %AI between 1 .87 at. % and 16.6 at.%, %B is higher than 23.87%. Even in another embodiment with %AI between 1 .87 at. % and 16.6 at.% and/or %Ga between 0.43 at.% and 5.2 at.%, %B is below 1 .33 at.% and/or %Si is below 0.43 at.%. In another embodiment with %AI between 1 .87 at. % and 16.6 at.% and/or %Ga between 0.43 at.% and 5.2 at.%, %B is above 1 1 .33 at.% and/or %Si is above 5.43 at.%.

There are several elements such as Co that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Ni contents; For these applications in an embodiment with %Ni between 24.47% and 35.8%, %Co is lower than 1 2.6%. Even in nother embodiment with %Ni between 24.47% and 35.8%, %Co is higher than 26.6%.

There are several elements such as rare earth elements (RE) that are detrimental in specific applications; For these applications in an embodiment RE are absent from the composition.

For some applications it is desirable that the above alloys have a melting point below 890 ° C, preferably below 640 ° C , more preferably below 180 ° C or even below 46 ° C.

Any of the above Fe alloy can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

The use of terms such as "below " , "above " , "or more " , "from , " "to, " "up to, " "at least, " "greater than, " "less than, " and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of an iron alloy for manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components.

The present invention is particularly suitable for the manufacture of components that can benefit from the properties of titanium and its alloys. Especially applications requiring high mechanical resistance at high temperatures y/o aggressive environments. In this sense, applying certain rules of alloy design and thermo-mechanical treatments, it is possible obtain very interesting features for applications in chemical industry, energy transformation, transport, tools, other machines or mechanisms, etc.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a titanium based alloy having the following composition, all percentages being in weight percent:

The rest consisting on titanium (Ti) and trace elements

wherein %Ceq=%C + 0.86 * %N + 1 .2 * %B

There are applications wherein titanium based alloys are benefited from having a high titanium (%Ti) content but not necessary the titanium being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment %Ti is above 1 .3%, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %Ti is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 , in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %Ti is not the majority element in the titanium based alloy .

In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to: H, He, Xe, Be, 0, F, Ne, Na, Mg, CI, Ar, K, Sc, Br, Kr, Sr, Tc, Rh, Ag, I, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, TI, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am , Cm , Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr, Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt alone and/or in combination. The inventor has seen that for several applications of the present invention it is important to limit the presence of trace elements to less than 1 .8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even less than 0.03% in weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the steel, such as reducing cost production of the steel, and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the steel.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the titanium based alloy .In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have a content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the titanium based alloy .

There are other applications wherein the presence of trace elements may reduce the cost of the alloy or attain any other additional beneficial effect without affecting the titanium based alloy desired properties. In an embodiment each individual trace element has content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8% in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%.

For several applications it is especially interesting the use of alloys containing %Ga %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. Particularly interesting is the use of these low melting point promoting elements with the presence of more than 1 2%, and even more than 21 % or more. Once incorporated and evaluating the overall composition measured as indicated in this application, the titanium resulting alloy in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment above 0.015%, in another embodiment above 0.03%, and even in other embodiment above 0.1 %, in another embodimenthas generally a 0.2% or more of the element (in this case %Ga), in another embodiment preferably 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment preferably 1.35% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more, and even in another embodiment 12% or more. For certain applications it is especially interesting the use of particles with Ga only for tetrahedral interstices and not necessary for all interstices, for these applications is desirable a %Ga of more than 0.04% by weight, preferably more than 0.12%, more preferably more than 0.24% by weight and even more than 0.32%. But there are other applications depending of the desired properties of the titanium based alloy wherein %Ga contents of 30% or less are desired. In an embodiment the %Ga in the titanium based alloy is less than 29%, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than16%, in other embodiment less than9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the titanium based alloy It has been found that in some applications the %Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by %Bi (until %Bi maximum content of 10% by weight, in case %Ga being greater than 10%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial) with the amounts described abovein this paragraph for % Ga + Bi%. In some applications it is advantageous total replacement ie the absence of Ga%. It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and / or %Bi by %Cd , % Cs, % Sn, %Pb, % Zn, % Rb or % with the amounts described in this paragraph, in this case for %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln, wherein depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application wherein the elements in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another). These elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point.

For some applications it is more interesting alloy with these elements directly and not incorporate them in separate particles. For some applications it is even interesting the use of particles mainly formed with these elements with a desirable content of% Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + Zn% +% Rb +% In greater than 52%, preferably greater than 76%, more preferably above 86% and even higher than 98%. The final content of these elements in the component will depend on the volume fractions employed, but for some applications often move in the ranges described above in this paragraph. A typical case is the use of % Sn and %Ga alloys to have liquid phase sintering at low temperatures with high potential to break oxide films that may have other particles (usually the majority particles). % Sn content and% Ga is adjusted with the equilibrium diagram for controlling the volume content of liquid phase desired in the different post-processing temperatures, also the volume fraction of the particles of this alloy. For certain applications the % Sn and/or % Ga may be partially or completely replaced by other elements of the list (ie can be alloys without Sn% or% Ga). It is also possible get to do it with important content of elements not present in this list such as the case of %Mg and for certain applications with any of the preferred alloying elements for the target alloy.

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of chromium (% Cr) may be detrimental , for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a %Cr content of less than 39% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 8.8% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 1.8%. There are other applications wherein even a lower %Cr content is desired, in an embodiment the %Cr in the titanium based alloy is less than 1 .6%, in other embodiment less than 1.2%, in other embodiment less than 0.8%, in other embodiment less than 0.4%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Cr is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Cr being absent from the titanium based alloy By contrast there are applications wherein the presence of chromium at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high corrosion resistance and/or resistance to oxidation at high temperatures is required for these applications; for these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 3.6%, in another embodiment preferably greater than 5.5 % by weight, more preferably above 6.1 %, more preferably above 8.9%, more preferably above 10.1 %, more preferably above 13.8%, more preferably above 16.1 %, more preferably above 18.9%, in another embodiment more preferably over 22%, more preferably above 26.4%, and even in another embodiment greater than 32% .But there are also other applications wherein a lower preferred minimum content is desired. In an embodiment, the %Cr in the titanium based alloy is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.045%, n other embodiment above 0.1 %, in other embodiment above 0.8%,and even in other embodiment above 1.3%. There are other applications wherein a high content of %Cr is desired. In another embodiment of the invention the %Cr in the alloy is above 42.2%, and even above 46.1 %. It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive alum inum (%AI) can be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %AI content lower than 28% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 8%, in another embodiment preferably less than 14.3%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 8.8% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.7% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %AI is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %AI being absent from the titanium based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of aluminum at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high hardening and/or environmental resistance are required, for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment are desirable amounts greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment are desirable amounts greater than 1 .35% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 6.3% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 12% and even in another embodiment over 22%. For some applications the aluminum is mainly to unify particles in form of low melting point alloy, in these cases it is desirable to have at least 0.2% alum inum in the final alloy, preferably greater than 0.52%, more preferably greater than 1 .02% and even higher than 3.2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of rhenium (%Re) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Re content less than 4.8% by weight, preferably less than 2.8%, more preferably less than 1 .78% by weight and even less than 0.45%. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of rhenium in higher amounts is desirable for these applications are desirable amounts exceeding 0.6% by weight, preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, more preferably greater than 2.6%, even above 3.8%.There are even applications wherein in an embodiment %Re is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Re being absent from the alloy.

For some applications it is interesting to have a certain relationship between the aluminum content (% Al) and gallium content (% Ga). If we call S tothe output parameter of % Al = S "% Ga, then for some applications it is desirable to have S greater than or equal to 0.72, preferably greater than or equal to 1 .1 , more preferably greater than or equal to 2.2 and even greater than or equal to 4.2. If we call T to the parameter resulting from %Ga = T * % Al for some applications it is desirable to have a T value greater than or equal to 0.25, preferably greater than or equal to 0.42, more preferably greater than or equal to 1 .6 and even greater than or equal to 4.2 . It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga by% Bi ,% Cd,% Cs,% Sn,% Pb,% Zn,% Rb or %ln with the amounts described in this paragraph, and to the definitions of s and T, the % Ga is replaced by the sum :%Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + %Zn +% Rb +% in, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any of the items may be absent and have a nom inal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another ) .

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of Cobalt (% Co) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a % Co content of less than 28% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 26.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 23.4%, preferably less than 1 9.9%,in another embodiment preferably less than 1 8%, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 3.4%,in another embodiment more preferably less than 8.8% by weight, more preferably less than 6.1 %, more preferably less than 4.2%, more preferably less than 2.7%, and even in another embodiment less than 1 .8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Co is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Co being absent from the titanium based alloy. ln contrast there are applications wherein the presence of cobalt in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hardness and/or tempering resistance are required. For these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 5.9%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 7.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 9.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 1 2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 1 5.4%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 18.9%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 22% and even in another embodiment greater than 32%. There are other applications wherein it is desirable the %Co in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0. 1 5 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .6 %.

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive carbon equivalent (% Ceq) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a % Ceq content in an embodiment of less than 1 .8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .1 %, in another embodiment less than 0.8%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.46% by weight in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.18% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.08%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ceq is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ceq being absent from the titanium based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of carbon equivalent in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 0.12% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.22% in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.52% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.82% and even in another embodiment greater than 1 .2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the presence of excess carbon (% C) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a % C content in an embodiment of less than 0.38% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.26%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.1 8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.09% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.009%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %C is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %C being absent from the titanium based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of carbon at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on mechanical strength and/or hardness is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 0.02% byweight are desirable, preferably in another embodiment greater than 0.12% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.22% and even in another embodiment greater than 0.32% .

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of boron (% B) may be detrimental, for these applications in anembodiment is desirable a % B content of less than 0.9% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.65%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.018% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.006%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %B is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %B being absent from the titanium based alloy .In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of boron in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in another embodiment above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 200 ppm , in another embodiment preferably above 0.1 %, in another embodiment preferably above 0.35%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.52% and even in another embodiment above 1 .2%. It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of boron (% B) may be detrimental and it is preferable its absence (it may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, in an embodiment less than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably less to 0.008%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.0008% and even in another embodiment less than 0.00008%).

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of nitrogen (% N) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a % N content of less than 0.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.16% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.006%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %N is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %N being absent from the titanium based alloy . In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nitrogen in higher amounts is desirable especially when a high resistance to localized corrosion is desired. For these applications in an embodiment above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 200 ppm , in another embodiment preferably above 0.1 %, and even in another embodiment preferably above 0.35%. It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of nitrogen (% N) may be detrimental and it is preferable in an embodiment to its absence (may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, in another embodiment less than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably less to 0.008%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.0008% and even in another embodiment less than 0.00008%).

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of zirconium (% Zr) and / or hafnium (% Hf) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a content of %Zr +% Hf of less than 12.4% by weight, in another embodiment less than 9.8%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, I in another embodiment less than 6.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, preferably less than 3.2%, preferably less than 2.6%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 0.8%.There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Zr and/or %Hf are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Zr and/or %Hf being absent from the titanium based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of some of these elements at higher levels is desirable, especially where a high hardening and/or environmental resistance is required, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of% Zr +% Hf greater than 0.1 % by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6%, in another embodiment more preferably above 7.9%,or even in another embodiment above 12%. For some applications if oxygen content is higher of 500 ppm, it has been seen that often is desired having % Zr +% Hf below 3.8% by weight, preferably less than 2.8%, more preferably below 1 .4% and even below 0 08%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of molybdenum (% Mo) and / or tungsten (% W) may be detrimental, for these applications a lower % Mo+ 1/2% W content is desirable in an embodiment less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 1 .8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Mo and/or %W is/are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Mo and/or W being absent from the titanium based alloy .In contrast there are applications where the presence of molybdenum and tungsten at higher levels is desirable, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of 1.2% Mo +% W exceeding 1 .2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 5.2% and even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of Vanadium (% V) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %V content less than 12.3%, in another embodiment less than 8.7% by weight, in another embodiment less than 4.8% by weight, in another embodiment less than 3.9%, in another embodiment less than 2.7%, in another embodiment less than 2.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.78% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.45%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %V is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %V being absent from the titanium based alloy .In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of vanadium in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 0.01 % by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .35% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 4.2%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 5.6%, %and even in another embodiment above 6.2%.

It has been that for some applications, excessive presence of copper (% Cu) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Cu content of less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 12.7%, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 7.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 5.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.5% by weightin another embodiment more preferably less than 3.3% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.6% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .4% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.9%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Cu is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Cu being absent from the titanium based alloy . In contrast there are applications where the presence of copper at higher levels is desirable, especially when corrosion resistance to certain acidsand/or improved machinability and/or decrease work hardening is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment greater than 1.3% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 2.55% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 3.6% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 4.7% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 6% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 8% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 12% and even in another embodiment exceeding 16% .

It has been that for some applications the presence of excessive iron (% Fe) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Fe content of less than 38% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 36%, in another embodiment preferably less than 24%, preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 12% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 10.3% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 7.5%, even in another embodiment less than 5.9%, in another embodiment less than 3.7%, in another embodiment less than 2.1 %, or even in another embodiment less than 1.3%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Fe is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Fe being absent from the titanium based alloy . In contrast there are applications where the presence of iron at higher levels is desirable, for these applications are desirable amountsin an embodiment greater than 0.1 % by weigh, in another embodiment greater than 1.3% by weight, g in another embodiment reater than 2.7% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment greater than 6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 8% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 22% and even in another embodiment greater than 32% .

It has been that for some applications the presence of excessive nickel (% Ni) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ni content of less than 19% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 12.6%, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, preferably less than 4.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.9% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.3% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.9%There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ni is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ni being absent from the titanium based alloy . In contrast there are applications where the presence of nickel at higher levels is desirable, for these applications are desirable amounts in an embodiment greater than 0.1 % by weigh, in another embodiment greater than 1.2% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 2.7% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 8.3% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 12.3% and even in another embodiment greater than 22% .

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of tantalum (%Ta) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ta content in an embodiment of less than 3.8%, in another embodiment preferably less than 1.8% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.08% There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ta is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ta being absent from the titanium based alloy . In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts of %Ta are desirable.for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Ta greater than 0.01 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1.2%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 2.6% and even in another embodiment greater than 3.2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of niobium (%Nb) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable Nb content in an embodiment of less than 48%, in another embodiment preferably less than 28% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Nbis detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Nb being absent from the titanium based alloy . In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts of %Nb are desirable, especially Nb is added when an improve on the resistance to intergranular corrosion and/or enhance on mechanical properties at high temperatures is desired, for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Nb greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 12% and even in another embodiment greater than 52%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of yttrium (%Y), cerium (%Ce) and/or lanthanide (%La) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Y+%Ce+%La content in an embodiment of less than 12.3%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Y and/or %Ce and/or %La are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Y and/or %Ce and/or %La being absent from the titanium based alloy . In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts are desirable, especially when a high hardness is desired, for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Y+%Ce+%La greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6% or even in another embodiment above 12% .

There are applications wherein the presence of %As in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %As amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %As may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %As amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %As is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %As being absent from the titanium based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Te in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Te amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Te may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Te amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Te is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Te being absent from the titanium based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Se in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Se amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Se may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Se amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Se is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Se being absent from the titanium based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Sb in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Sb amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Sb may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Sb amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Sb is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Sb being absent from the titanium based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ca in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ca amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.1 5%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ca may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ca amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Ca is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ca being absent from the titanium based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ge in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ge amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ge may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ge amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Ge is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ge being absent from the titanium based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %P in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %P amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %P may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %P amount in an embodiment less than 4.9%, in other embodiment less than 3.4%, in other embodiment less than 2.8%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %P is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Sb being absent from the titanium based alloy .

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive silicon (% Si) can be detrimental, for these applications is desirable % Si content less than 0.8% by weight, preferably less than 0.46%, more preferably less than 0.18% by weight and even less than 0.08%. By contrast there are applications where the presence of silicon in higher amounts is desirable for these applications amounts greater than 0.12% by weight are desirable, preferably greater than 0.52% by weight, more preferably greater than 1 .2% and even above 2.2% .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Mn in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hot ductility and/or an increase on strength, toughness and/or hardenability and/or increase of solubility of nitrogen is desired. For these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Mn amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .9%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Mn may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Mn amount in an embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %Mn is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Mnbeing absent from the titanium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %S in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %S amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.1 5 %, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .9 %. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %S may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %S amount in an embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %S is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %S being absent from the titanium based alloy.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of excessive tin (% Sn) can be detrimental, for these applications is desirable % Sn content less than 4.8 wt%, preferably less than 1 .8%, more preferably less than 0.78% by weight and even less than 0.45%. By contrast there are applications where the presence of tin in higher amounts is desirable for these applications amounts greater than 0.6% by weight are desirable, preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, more preferably greater than 3.2% and even above 6.2%.

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of palladium (% Pd) can be detrimental, for these applications is desirable % Pd content less than 0.9% by weight, preferably less than 0.4%, more preferably less than 0.018% by weight and even less than 0.006%. By contrast there are applications where the presence of palladium in higher amounts is desirable for these applications above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, preferably above 200 ppm, more preferably greater than 0.52% and even above 1 .2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of rhenium (% Re) can be detrimental, for these applications is desirable % Re content less than 0.9 wt%, preferably less than 0.4%, more preferably less than 0.01 8% by weight and even less than 0.006%. By contrast there are applications where the presence of rhenium in higher amounts is desirable for these applications above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, preferably above 200 ppm, more preferably greater than 0.52% and even above 1 .2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of ruthenium (% Ru) can be detrimental, for these applications is desirable % Ru content less than 0.9 wt%, preferably less than 0.4%, more preferably less than 0.01 8% by weight and even less than 0.006%. By contrast there are applications where the presence of ruthenium in higher amounts is desirable for these applications above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, preferably above 200 ppm, more preferably greater than 0.52% and even above 1 .2%.

For some applications when alum inum is used as low melting point element or any other type of particle that oxidizes rapidly in contact with air, such as magnesium , etc. is used as low melting point element. If magnesium is used mainly as destroying the alumina film on aluminum particles or aluminum alloy (sometimes it is introduced as a separate powder of magnesium or magnesium alloy and also sometimes alloyed directly to the aluminum particles or alum inum alloy and also sometimes other particles such as low melting particles) the final content of % Mg can be quite small, in these applications often greater than 0.001 % content, preferably greater than 0.02% is desired , more preferably greater than 0.1 2% and even above 3.6%.

For some applications it is interesting that the consolidation and / or densification of the particles with aluminum is carried out in atmosphere with high nitrogen content which often reaction occurs particularly if consolidation and / or densification (eg sintering with or without liquid) phase occurs at elevated temperatures, the nitrogen will react with the aluminum and / or other elements form ing nitrides and thus appear as an element in the final composition. In these cases it is often useful to have in the final composition a nitrogen content of 0.002% or higher, preferably 0.02% or higher, more preferably 0.4% or higher and even 2.2% or higher.

There are several elements such as Mo and B that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Al contents; For these applications in an embodiment with %AI between 1 .7% and 6.7%, %Mo is below 6.8%, or even Mo is absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %AI between 41 .7% and 6.7%, %Mo is above 13.2%. In another embodiment with %AI between 2.3% and 7.7%, %B is below 0.01 %, or even B is absent from the composition. Even in another embodiment with %AI between 2.3% and 7.7%, %B is above 3.1 1 %.

There are several elements such as P, C, N and B that are detrimental in specific applications; For these applications in an embodiment with, P, C, N and B are absent from the composition.

There are several elements such as Pd, Ag, Au, Cu, Hg and Pt that are detrimental in specific applications; For these applications in an embodiment Pd, Ag, Au, Cu, Hg and Pt are absent from the composition.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as rare earth elements (RE), including La and Y, may be detrimental especially for certain Ti contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Ti between 32.5% and 62.5%, %RE, including La and Y, is lower than 0.087% or even RE including, La and Y, are absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Ti between 32.5% and 62.5. %RE, including La and Y, is higher than 17. Even in another embodiment with any Ti content, %RE is lower than 1.3% or even RE are absent from the composition. In another embodiment with any Ti content, %RE is higher than 16.3%.

There are some applications wherein the presence of compounds phase in the titanium based alloy is detrimental. In an embodiment the % of compound phase in the alloy is below 79%, in another embodiment is below 49%, in another embodiment is below 19%, in another embodiment is below 9%, in another embodiment is below 0.9% and even in another embodiment compounds are absent from the composition. There are other applications wherein the presence of compounds in the titanium based alloy is beneficial. In another embodiment % of compound phase in the alloy is above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment is above 0.3%, in another embodiment is above 3%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 43% and even in another embodiment the is above 73%.

For several applications it is especially interesting the use of titanium based alloys for coating materials, such as for example alloys and /or other ceramic, concrete, plastic, etc components to provide with a particular functionality the covered material such as for example, but not limited to cathodic and/or corrosion protection. For several applications it is desired having a coating layer with a thickness in the micrometre or mm range. In an embodiment the Titanium based alloy is used as a coating layer. In In an embodiment the titanium based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 1 .1 micrometer, in another embodiment the titanium based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 21 micrometer, in another embodiment the titanium based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 10 micrometre, in another embodiment the titanium based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 510micrometre, in another embodiment the titanium based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 1.1 mm and even in another embodiment the titanium based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 1 1 mm. In another embodiment the titanium based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 27mm, in another embodiment the titanium based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 17mm, in another embodiment the titanium based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 7.7mm, in another embodiment the titanium based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 537micrometer, in another embodiment the titanium based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 1 17micrometre, in another embodiment the titanium based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 27micrometre and even in another embodiment the titanium based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 7.7micrometre.

For several applications it is especially interesting the use of titanium based alloy having a high mechanical resistance. For those applications in an embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the titanium based alloy is above 52MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is above 72MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is above 82MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is above 102MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is above 112MPa and even in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is above 122MPa. In another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 147MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 127MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 1 17MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 107MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 87MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 77MPa and even in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 57MPa.

There are several technologies that are useful to deposit the titanium based alloy in a thin film; in an embodiment the thin film is deposited using sputtering, in another embodiment using thermal spraying, in another embodiment using galvanic technology, in another embodiment using cold spraying, in another embodiment using sol gel technology, in another embodiment using wet chemistry, in another embodiment using physical vapor deposition (PVD), in another embodiment using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), in another embodiment using additive manufacturing, in another embodiment using direct energy deposition, and even in another embodiment using LENS cladding.

There are several applications that may benefit from the titanium based alloy being in powder form. In an embodiment the titanium based alloy is manufactured in form of powder. In another embodiment the powder is spherical. In an embodiment refers to a spherical powder with a particle size distribution which may be unimodal, bimodal, trimodal and even multimodal depending of the specific application requirements

For some applications it is desirable that the above alloys have a melting point below 890 "C, preferably below 640 °C , more preferably below 180 °C or even below 46 °C.

The titanium based alloy is useful for the production of casted tools and ingots, including big cast or ingots, alloys in powder form, large cross-sections pieces, hot work tool materials, cold work materials, dies, molds for plastic injection, high speed materials, supercarbu rated alloys, high strength materials, high conductivity materials or low conductivity materials, among others.

Any of the Ti based alloys can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

The use of terms such as "below", "above ", "or more", "from," "to," "up to," "at least," "greater than," "less than," and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a titanium alloy for manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a cobalt based alloy having the following composition, all percentages being in weight percent:

%Ceq= 0-1.5 % C = 0 - 0.5 %N =0-0.45 %B =0-1.8

%Cr= 0 - 50 %W= 0 - 25 %Si= 0 - 2 %Mn= 0 - 3

%AI= 0 - 15 %Mo= 0 - 20 %Ni= 0 - 50 %Ti= 0 - 14

%Ta = 0 - 5 %2r = 0 - 8 %Hf = 0 - 6, %V= 0 - 8

%Nb = 0 - 15 %Cu = 0 - 20 %Fe = 0 - 70 %S= 0 - 3

%Se = 0 - 5 %Te = 0 - 5 %Bi = 0 - 10 %As= 0 - 5

%Sb = 0 - 5 %Ca = 0 - 5, %P = 0 - 6 %Ga = 0 - 30

%La = 0 - 5 %Rb = 0 - 10 %Cd = 0 - 10 %Cs = 0 - 10

%Sn = 0 - 10 %Pb = 0 - 10 %Zn = 0 - 10 %ln = 0 - 10

%Ge = 0 - 5 %Y = 0 - 5 %Ce = 0 - 5 %Be = 0 - 10

The rest consisting on Cobalt (Co and trace elements

wherein %Ceq=%C + 0.86 * %N + 1.2 * %B

There are applications wherein cobalt based alloys are benefited from having a high Cobalt (%Co) content but not necessary the cobalt being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment %Co is above 1.3%, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %Co is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%. in another embodiment is less than 41 , in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %Co is not the majority element in the cobalt based alloy

In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to: H, He. Xe, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, CI, Ar, K, Sc, Br, Kr, Sr, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, I, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Re, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, TI, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr, Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt alone and/or in combination. The inventor has seen that for several applications of the present invention it is important to limit the presence of trace elements to less than 1 .8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even less than 0.03% in weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the alloy, such as reducing cost production of the alloy, and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the alloyl.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the cobalt based alloy. In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have a content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the cobalt based alloy.

There are other applications wherein the presence of trace elements may reduce the cost of the alloy or attain any other additional beneficial effect without affecting the cobalt based alloy desired properties. In an embodiment each individual trace element has content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8% in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%.

For several applications it is especially interesting the use of alloys containing %Ga %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. It is particularly interesting the use of low melting point phases Particularly interesting is the use of these low melting point promoting elements with the presence of more than 2.2% in weight of %Ga, preferably more than 12%, more preferably 21 % or more, the cobalt resulting alloy in other embodiment above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment above 0.015%, and even in other embodiment above 0.1 %, in another embodiment has generally a 0.2% or more of the element (in this case %Ga), in another embodiment preferably 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more, and even in another embodiment 12% or more. For certain applications it is especially interesting the use of particles with Ga only for tetrahedral interstices and not necessary for all interstices, for these applications is desirable a %Ga of more than 0.02% by weight, preferably more than 0.06%, more preferably more than 0.12% by weight and even more than 0.16%. But there are other applications depending of the desired properties of the cobalt based alloy wherein %Ga contents of 30% or less are desired. In an embodiment the %Ga in the cobalt based alloy is less than 29%, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the cobalt based alloy. It has been found that in some applications the %Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by %Bi (until %Bi maximum content of 10% by weight, in case %Ga being greater than 10%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial)with the amounts described above in this paragraph for % Ga + %Bi. In some applications it is advantageous total replacement ie the absence of %Ga. It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and / or %Bi by %Cd, % Cs, % Sn, %Pb, % Zn, % Rb or % with the amounts described in this paragraph, in this case for %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln, wherein depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application wherein the elements in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another). These elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point.

For some applications it is more interesting alloy with these elements directly and not incorporate them in separate particles. For some applications it is even interesting the use of particles mainly formed with these elements with a desirable content of % Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + Zn% +% Rb +% In greater than 52%, preferably greater than 76%, more preferably above 86% and even higher than 98%. The final content of these elements in the component will depend on the volume fractions employed, but for some applications often move in the ranges described above in this paragraph. A typical case is the use of % Sn and %Ga alloys to have liquid phase sintering at low temperatures with high potential to break oxide films that may have other particles (usually the majority particles). % Sn content and% Ga is adjusted with the equilibrium diagram for controlling the volume content of liquid phase desired in the different post-processing temperatures, also the volume fraction of the particles of this alloy. For certain applications the % Sn and/or % Ga may be partially or completely replaced by other elements of the list (ie can be alloys without Sn% or % Ga). It is also possible get to do it with important content of elements not present in this list such as the case of %Mg and for certain applications with any of the preferred alloying elements for the target alloy. It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of chromium (%Cr) may be detrimental , for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a %Cr content of less than 39% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 8.8% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 1 .8%. There are other applications wherein even a lower %Cr content is desired, in an embodiment the %Cr in the tungsten bases alloy is less than 1 .6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%, in other embodiment less than 0.8%, in other embodiment less than 0.4%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Cr is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Cr being absent from the cobalt based alloy. By contrast there are applications wherein the presence of chromium at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high corrosion resistance and/or resistance to oxidation at high temperatures is required for these applications; for these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 3.6%, in another embodiment preferably greater than 5.5 % by weight, more preferably above 6.1 %, more preferably above 8.9%, more preferably above 10.1 %, more preferably above 13.8%, more preferably above 16.1 %, more preferably above 18.9%, in another embodiment more preferably over 22%, more preferably above 26.4%, and even in another embodiment greater than 32%. But there are also other applications wherein a lower preferred minimum content is desired. In an embodiment, the %Cr in the cobalt based alloy is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.045%, in other embodiment above 0.1 %, in other embodiment above 0.8%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .3%. There are other applications wherein a high content of %Cr is desired. In another embodiment of the invention the %Cr in the alloy is above 42.2%, and even above 46.1 %.

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive aluminum (% Al) can be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a %AI content of less than 12.9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 10.4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 8.4%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, preferably less than 3.4%, preferably less than 2.7%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %AI is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %AI being absent from the cobalt based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of aluminum at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high hardening and/or environmental resistance are required, for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts, in another embodiment greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.4% preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.8%, in another embodiment preferably greater than 6.1 %, in another embodiment preferably greater than 7.3%, in another embodiment more preferably above 8.2% and even in another embodiment above 12%. For some applications the aluminum is mainly to unify particles in form of low melting point alloy, in these cases it is desirable to have at least 0.2% aluminum in the final alloy, preferably greater than 0.52%, more preferably greater than 1 .02% and even higher than 3.2%.

For some applications it is interesting to have a certain relationship between the aluminum content (% Al) and gallium content (% Ga). If we call S tothe output parameter of % Al = S * % Ga, then for some applications it is desirable to have S greater than or equal to 0.72, preferably greater than or equal to 1 .1 , more preferably greater than or equal to 2.2 and even greater than or equal to 4.2. If we call T to the parameter resulting from % Ga = T * % Al for some applications it is desirable to have a T value greater than or equal to 0.25, preferably greater than or equal to 0.42, more preferably greater than or equal to 1 .6 and even greater than or equal to 4.2 . It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of % Ga by % Bi,% Cd,% Cs,% Sn,% Pb ,% Zn,% Rb or % In with the amounts described in this paragraph, and to the definitions of s and T, the %Ga is replaced by the sum :% Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + Zn% +% Rb +% in, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any of the items may be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another ).

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of tungsten (%W) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a %W content of less than 28% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 23.4%,preferably less than 19.9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment preferably less than 13.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 8.8% by weight, more preferably less than 6.1 %, more preferably less than 4.2%, more preferably less than 2.7%, and even in another embodiment less than 1 .8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %W is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %W being absent from the cobalt based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of tungsten in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hardness and/or tempering resistance are required. For these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 5.9%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 7.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 9.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 12% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 15.4%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 18.9%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 22% and even in another embodiment greater than 32%. There are other applications wherein it is desirable the %W in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0. 15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .6 %.

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive carbon equivalent (%Ceq) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a % Ceq content in an embodiment of less than 1.4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 1.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.46% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.08%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ceq is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ceq being' absent from the cobalt based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of carbon equivalent in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 0.12% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.52% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.82% and even in another embodiment greater than 1.2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the presence of excess carbon (%C) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a %C content in an embodiment of less than 0.38% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.26%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.18%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.09% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.009%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %C is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %C being absent from the cobalt based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of carbon at higher levels is desirable.especially when an increase on mechanical strength and/or hardness is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 0.02% byweight are desirable, preferably in another embodiment greater than 0.12% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.22% and even in another embodiment greater than 0.32% .

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of boron (%B) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a % B content of less than 0.9% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.65%,in another embodiment preferably less than 0.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.16% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.006%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %B is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %B being absent from the cobalt based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of boron in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in another embodiment above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 200 ppm, in another embodiment preferably above 0.1 %, in another embodiment preferably above 0.35%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.52% and even in another embodiment above 1.2%. It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of boron (%B) may be detrimental and it is preferable its absence (it may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, in an embodiment less than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably less to 0.008%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.0008% and even in another embodiment less than 0.00008%)

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of nitrogen (%N) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a %N content of less than 0.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0 16% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.006%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %N is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %N being absent from the cobalt based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nitrogen in higher amounts is desirable especially when a high resistance to localized corrosion is desired. For these applications in an embodiment above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 200 ppm, in another embodiment preferably above 0.1 %, and even in another embodiment preferably above 0.35%. It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of nitrogen (%N) may be detrimental and it is preferable in an embodiment to its absence (may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, in another embodiment less than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably less to 0.008%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.0008% and even in another embodiment less than 0 00008%).

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of zirconium (%Zr) and / or hafnium (%Hf) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a content of %Zr +% Hf of less than 12.4% by weight, in another embodiment less than 9.8%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment less than 6.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, preferably less than 3.2%, preferably less than 2.6%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Zr and/or %Hf are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Zr and/or %Hf being absent from the cobalt based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of some of these elements at higher levels is desirable, especially where a high hardening and/or environmental resistance is required, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of% Zr +% Hf greater than 0.1 % by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6%, in another embodiment more preferably above 7.9%, or even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of molybdenum (% Mo) and / or tungsten (% W) may be detrimental, for these applications a lower % Mo+ 1/2% W content is desirable in an embodiment less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 1.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Mo is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Mo being absent from the cobalt based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of molybdenum and tungsten at higher levels is desirable, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of 1.2% Mo +% W exceeding 1.2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 5.2% and even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of Vanadium (%V) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %V content less than 6.3%, in another embodiment less than 4.8% by weight, in another embodiment less than 3.9%, in another embodiment less than 2.7%, in another embodiment less than 2.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 1.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.78% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.45%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %V is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %V being absent from the cobalt based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of vanadium in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 0.01 % by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 2.2% and even in another embodiment above 4.2%.

It has been that for some applications, excessive presence of copper (%Cu) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Cu content of less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 12.7%, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 7.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 5.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.5% by weight in another embodiment more preferably less than 3.3% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.6% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .4% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.9%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Cu is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Cu being absent from the cobalt based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of copper at higher levels is desirable, especially when corrosion resistance to certain acids and/or improved machinability and/or decrease work hardening is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment greater than 1.3% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 2.55% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 3.6% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 4.7% by weight.in another embodiment greater than 6% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 8% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 12% and even in another embodiment exceeding 16% .

It has been that for some applications the presence of excessive iron (%Fe) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Fe content of less than 58% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 36%, in another embodiment preferably less than 24%, preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 12% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 10.3% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 7.5%, even in another embodiment less than 5.9%, in another embodiment less than 3.7%, in another embodiment less than 2.1%, or even in another embodiment less than 1.3%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Fe is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Fe being absent from the cobalt based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of iron at higher levels is desirable, for these applications are desirable amounts in an embodiment greater than 0.1 % by weigh, in another embodiment greater than 1.3% by weight, g in another embodiment greater than 2.7% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment greater than 6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 8% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 22% and even in another embodiment greater than 42%. .

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of titanium (%Ti) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ti content in an embodiment of less than 9% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 7.6%, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.5%, in another embodiment preferably less than 3.3%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.9% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8, and even in another embodiment less than 0.9%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ti is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ti being absent from the cobalt based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of titanium in higher amounts is desirable, especially when an increase on mechanical properties at high temperatures are desired. For these applications are desirable amounts in an embodiment greater than 0.01 %, in another embodiment greater than 0.2%, in another embodiment greater than 0.7%, in another embodiment greater than 1.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6% or even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of tantalum (%Ta) and/or niobium (%Nb) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ta+%Nb content in an embodiment of less than 17.3%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ta and/or %Nb are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ta and/or %Nb being absent from the cobalt based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts of %Ta and/or %Nb are desirable, especially Nb is added when an improve on the resistance to intergranular corrosion and/or enhance on mechanical properties at high temperatures is desired . For these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Nb+%Ta greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 6% and even in another embodiment greater than 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of yttrium (%Y), cerium (%Ce) and/or lanthanide (%La) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Y+%Ce+%La content in an embodiment of less than 12.3%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Y and/or %Ce and/or %La are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Y and/or %Ce and/or %La being absent from the cobalt based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts are desirable, especially when a high hardness is desired, for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Y+%Ce+%La greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1.2 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6% or even in another embodiment above 12% .

There are applications wherein the presence of %As in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %As amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %As may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %As amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %As is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %As being absent from the cobalt based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Te in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Te amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1.3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Te may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Te amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%,in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 4%. In an embodiment %Te is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Te being absent from the cobalt based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Se in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Se amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Se may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Se amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %Se is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Se being absent from the cobalt based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Sb in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Sb amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Sb may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Sb amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4% In an embodiment %Sb is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Sb being absent from the cobalt based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ca in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ca amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ca may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ca amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %Ca is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ca being absent from the cobalt based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ge in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ge amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ge may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ge amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Ge is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ge being absent from the cobalt based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %P in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %P amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %P may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %P amount in an embodiment less than 4.9%, in other embodiment less than 3.4%, in other embodiment less than 2.8%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %P is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Sb being absent from the cobalt based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Si in higher amounts is desirable, especially when an increase on strength and/or resistance to oxidation is desired. For these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Si amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, and even in other embodiment above 1.3%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Si may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Si amount in an embodiment less than 1 .4%, in other embodiment less than 0.8%, in other embodiment less than 0.4%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %Si is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Si being absent from the cobalt based alloy. There are applications wherein the presence of %Mn in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hot ductility and/or an increase on strength, toughness and/or hardenability and/orincrease of solubility of nitrogen isdesired. For these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Mn amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .9%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Mn may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Mn amount in an embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %Mn is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Mn being absent from the cobalt based alloy. There are applications wherein the presence of %S in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %S amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .9 %. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %S may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %S amount in an embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %S is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %S being absent from the cobalt based alloy.

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of nickel (% Ni) may be detrimental , for these applications is desirable a %Ni content in an embodiment of less than 28%, in other embodiment preferably less than 19.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 18%, in other embodiment preferably less than 14.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 1 1 .6%, in other embodiment more preferably less than 8%, and even in other embodiment less than 0.8% There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ni is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ni being absent from the cobalt based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nickel at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on ductility and toughness is desired, and/or and increase on strength and/or to improve weldability is required, for those applications in an embodiment amounts higher than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment higher than 0.65% by weight in another embodiment amounts higher than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in other embodiment higher than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 6% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 8.3% by weight in other embodiment more preferably higher than 12%, inother embodiment more preferably higher than 16.2% and even in other embodiment higher than 22%.

For some applications when aluminum is used as low melting point element or any other type of particle that oxidizes rapidly in contact with air, such as magnesium, etc. is used as low melting point element. If magnesium is used mainly as destroying the alumina film on aluminum particles or aluminum alloy (sometimes it is introduced as a separate powder of magnesium or magnesium alloy and also sometimes alloyed directly to the aluminum particles or aluminum alloy and also sometimes other particles such as low melting particles) the final content of % Mg can be quite small, in these applications often greater than 0.001 % content, preferably greater than 0.02% is desired , more preferably greater than 0.12% and even above 3.6%

For some applications it is interesting that the consolidation and / or densification of the particles with aluminum is carried out in atmosphere with high nitrogen content which often reaction occurs particularly if consolidation and / or densification (eg sintering with or without liquid) phase occurs at elevated temperatures, the nitrogen will react with the aluminum and / or other elements forming nitrides and thus appear as an element in the final composition. In these cases it is often useful to have in the final composition a nitrogen content of 0.002% or higher, preferably 0.02% or higher, more preferably 0.4% or higher and even 2.2% or higher.

There are several elements such as Pd that are detrimental in specific applications especially for high %Cr contents; for these applications in an embodiment with %Cr higher than 19% the %Pd in the cobalt based alloy is preferred below 51 ppm, and even in another embodiment Pd is preferred to be absent from the alloy.

There are several elements such as Pd, Pt, Au, Ir, Os, Rh and Ru that are detrimental in specific applications especially for high %Cr contents; for these applications in an embodiment with %Cr higher than 1 5,3% the sum of %Pd, %Pt, %Au, %lr, %Os, %Rh and %Ru in the cobalt based alloy is preferred below 25%, and even in another embodiment with presence of Cr the sum of %Pd, %Pt, %Au, %lr, %Os, %Rh and %Ru is preferred to be 0%.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as C, W, Co, N, Ga and Re may be detrimental for certain Cr contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Cr higher than 1 1 ,8% and lower than 30,1 % the %C in the cobalt based alloy is preferred to be higher than 0,12%. In another embodiment with %Cr higher than 1 1 ,8% and lower than 30, 1 % the %W in the cobalt based alloy is preferred to be lower than 7,8%, in another embodiment with %Cr higher than 1 1 ,8% and lower than 30, 1 % the %Co in the cobalt based alloy is preferred to be higher than 69% or lower than 42%. In another embodiment with %Cr above 10,2% the %N in the cobalt based alloy is preferred to be 0%. In another embodiment with %Cr higher than 1 1 ,8% and lower than 30, 1 %, Re is preferred to be absent from the alloy. Even in another embodiment with %Cr lower than 41 % and higher than 9,9%, %Ga is preferred to be higher than 20,3% or lower than 0,9%

There are several elements such as rare earth elements that are detrimental in specific applications. For these applications, in an embodiment the sum of rare earth elements (%) is preferred to be below 14.6%, and even in another embodiment the sum of rare earth elements is preferred to be 0.

There are several applications wherein the presence of B, Si, Al, Mn, Ge, Fe and Ni in the composition is detrimental for the overall properties of the cobalt based alloy. In an embodiment the alloy does not contain Si and B at the same time, in another embodiment the alloy does not contain Fe and Ni at the same time, in another embodiment the alloy does not contain Al and Ni at the same time, in another embodiment the alloy does not contain Si and Ni at the same time, in another embodiment the alloy does not contain Mn and Ge at the same time. Even in another embodiment the alloy does not contain Mn, Si and B at the same time.

There are several properties of the alloy such as magnetic properties that are detrimental in specific applications. In an embodiment the cobalt based alloy is preferred not to be magnetic.

There are other applications wherein the presence of certain elements such as Re are detrimental for certain properties especially for embodiments containing Co, Si and Ti. For these applications in an embodiment containing Co, Si and Ti at the same time, Re is absent from the alloy.

There are several elements such as Ti, P, Zn and Ni that are detrimental in specific applications especially for some %Ga contents; for these applications in an embodiment with presence of %Ga, elements such as Ti and/or P and/or Zn are absent from the alloy. Even in another embodiment with presence of %Ga, elements such as Ti and/or P and/or Zn are absent from the alloy and/or elements such as Ni are present in the composition.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as Fe, Ni, Mn, and Al may be detrimental. For these applications, in an embodiment containing Fe and/or Ni, %AI is preferred below 2,9% and/or Mn is absent from the alloy. Even in another embodiment containing Fe and/or Ni, %AI is preferred above 13, 1 % and/or Mn is absent from the alloy.

. For some applications it is desirable that the above alloys have a melting point below 890 ° C, preferably below 640 °C , more preferably below 180 °C or even below 46 ° C.

There are some applications wherein the presence of compounds phase in the cobalt based alloy is detrimental. In an embodiment the % of compound phase in the composition is below 79%, in another embodiment is below 49%, in another embodiment is below 19%, in another embodiment is below 9%, in another embodiment is below 0.9% and even in another embodiment the compound phase is absent from the Cobalt based alloy. There are other applications wherein the presence of compounds in the cobalt based alloy is beneficial. In another embodiment the % of compound phase in the Cobalt based alloy is above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment is above 0.3%, in another embodiment is above 3%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another is above 43% and even in another embodiment is above 73%.

For several applications it is especially interesting the use of cobalt based alloys for coating materials, such as for example alloys and /or other ceramic, concrete; plastic, etc components to provide with a particular functionality the covered material such as for example, but not limited to cathodic and/or corrosion protection. For several applications it is desired having a coating layer with a thickness in the micrometreor mm range. In an embodiment the Cobalt based alloy is used as a coating layer. In another embodiment the Cobalt based alloy is used as a coating layer with a thickness above 0.1 1 micrometres, in another embodiment the Cobalt based alloy is used as a coating layer with a thickness above 1.1 micrometres, in another embodiment the coating layer has a thickness above 21 micrometres, in another embodiment above 105 micrometres, in another embodiment above 510 micrometres, in another embodiment above 1.1 mm and even in another embodiment above 1 1 mm. For other applications a thinker layer is desired. In an embodiment the Cobalt based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 17mm, in another embodiment below 7 7mm, in another embodiment below 537micrometres, in another embodiment below 1 17micrometres, in another embodiment below 27micrometres and even in another embodiment below 7.7micrometres.

There are several technologies that are useful to deposit the cobalt based alloy in a thin film; in an embodiment the thin film is deposited using sputtering, in another embodiment using thermal spraying, in another embodiment using galvanic technology, in another embodiment using cold spraying, in another embodiment using sol gel technology, in another embodiment using wet chemistry, in another embodiment using physical vapor deposition (PVD), in another embodiment using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), in another embodiment using additive manufacturing, in another embodiment using direct energy deposition, and even in another embodiment using LENS cladding.

There are several applications that may benefit from the cobalt based alloy being in powder form . In an embodiment the cobalt based alloy is manufactured in form of powder. In another embodiment the powder is spherical.

The present invention is particularly suitable for the manufacture of components that can benefit from the properties of cobalt and its alloys. Especially applications requiring high strength at elevated temperature, high elastic modulus and / or high densities (and resulting properties such as the ability to minimize vibration, ...). In this sense, applying certain rules of alloy design and thermo-mechanical treatments, it is possible obtain very interesting features for applications in chemical industry, energy transformation, transport, tools, other machines or mechanisms, etc.

The cobalt based alloy is useful for the production of casted tools and ingots, including big cast or ingots, alloys in powder form, large cross-sections pieces, hot work tool materials, cold work materials, dies, molds for plastic injection, high speed materials, supercarburated alloys, high strength materials, high conductivity materials or low conductivity materials, among others.

Any of the above Co based alloy can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

The use of terms such as "below", "above", "or more", "from ," "to," "up to," "at least," "greater than," "less than," and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment refers to a copper based alloy with the following composition, all percentages in weight percent:

%Si: 0 - 50 (commonly 0 - 20) ; %AI: 0 - 20; %Mn: 0 - 20

%Zn: 0 - 15; %Li: 0 - 10; %Sc: 0 - - 10; %Fe: 0 - 30;

%Pb: 0 - 20; %Zr: 0 - - 10; %Cr: 0 - 20; %V: 0 - 10;

%Ti: 0 - 30; %Bi: 0 - - 20; %Ga: 0 - - 60; %N : 0 - 2;

%B: 0 - 5; %Mg: 0 - 50 (commonly 0 - 20); %Ni: 0 - 50;

%W: 0 - 10; %Ta: 0 - 5; %Hf : 0 - 5; %Nb: 0 - 10;

%Co: 0 - 30; %Ce: 0 - 20; %Ge: 0 - - 20; %Ca: 0 - 10;

%ln: 0 - 20; %Cd: 0 - 10; %Sn: 0 - - 40; %Cs: 0 - 20;

%Se: 0 - 10; %Te: 0 - 10; %As: 0 - - 10; %Sb: 0 - 20;

%Rb: 0 - 20; %La: 0 - - 10; %Be: 0 - - 15; %Mo: 0 - 10

%C: 0 - 5; %0: 0 - 15;

The rest consisting on copper and trace elements

The nominal composition expressed herein can refer to particles with higher volume fraction and / or the general final composition. In cases where the presence of immiscible particles as ceramic reinforcements, graphene, nanotubes or other these are not counted on the nominal composition.

In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to, H, He, Xe, F, Ne, Na, P, S, CI, Ar, K, Br, Kr, Sr, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, I, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm , Sm , Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm , Yb, Lu, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am , Cm , Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr, Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt. The inventor has found that it is important for some applications of the present invention limit the content of trace elements to amounts of less than 1 .8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even below 0.03% by weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the alloy, such as reducing cost production of the alloy and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the alloy. There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the copper based alloy. In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have a content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the copper based alloy.

There are applications wherein copper based alloys are benefited from having a high copper (%Cu) content but not necessary the copper being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment %Cu is above 1 .3%, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %AI is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 %, in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %Cu is not the majority element in the copper based alloy. For certain applications, it is especially interesting to use alloys with %Ga, %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. Particularly interesting is the use of these low melting point promoting elements with the presence of %Ga of more than 2.2%, preferably more than 12%, more preferably 21 % or more and even 54% or more. The copper alloy has in an embodiment %Ga in the alloy is above 32 ppm , in other embodiment above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment above 0.015%, and even in other embodiment above 0.1 %, in another embodiment generally has a 0.8% or more of the element (in this case% Ga), preferably 2.2% or more, more preferably 5.2% or more and even 12% or more. But there are other applications depending of the desired properties of the copper based alloy wherein %Ga contents of 30% or less are desired. In an embodiment the %Ga in the copper based alloy is less than 29%, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the copper based alloy. It has been found that in some applications the % Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by Bi% (until %Bi maximum content of 20% by weight, in case %Ga being greater than 20%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial) with the amounts described in this paragraph for %Ga + %Bi. In some applications it is advantageous total replacement ie the absence of Ga%. It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and/or %Bi by %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn, %Rb or %ln with the amounts described above in this paragraph, in this case for %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Fib +%ln, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another). These elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point.

For some applications it is more interesting alloy with these elements directly and not incorporate them in separate particles. For some applications it is even interesting the use of particles mainly formed with these elements with a desirable content of% Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + Zn% +% Rb +% In greater than 52%, preferably greater than 76%, more preferably above 86% and even higher than 98%. The final content of these elements in the component will depend on the volume fractions employed, but for some applications often move in the ranges described above in this paragraph. A typical case is the use of % Sn and %Ga alloys to have liquid phase sintering at low temperatures with high potential to break oxide films that may have other particles (usually the majority particles). % Sn content and% Ga is adjusted with the equilibrium diagram for controlling the volume content of liquid phase desired in the different post-processing temperatures, also the volume fraction of the particles of this alloy. For certain applications the % Sn and/or % Ga may be partially or completely replaced by other elements of the list (ie can be alloys without Sn% or % Ga). It is also possible get to do it with important content of elements not present in this list such as the case of %Mg and for certain applications with any of the preferred alloying elements for the target alloy.

The case of scandium (Sc) is exemplifying, because using them very interesting mechanical properties may be reached, but its cost makes interesting from an economic point of view to use the amount needed for the application of interest. Its high deoxidizing power is also interesting during alloys processing but also a challenge to maximize performance. So depending on the application you can move from situations wherein is not a desired element, in these applications it is preferred %Sc being in a low concentration, in an embodiment less than 0.9%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.3%, in other embodiment less than 0.1 %, in other embodiment less than 0.01 % and even in other embodiment absent from the copper based alloy, to a situations wherein a high content of this element is desired, in an embodiment 0.6% by weight or more, in another embodiment preferably 1 .1 % by weight or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1 .6% by weight or more and even in another embodiment 4.2% or more.

It has been found that for some applications copper alloys the presence of silicon (% Si) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in contents of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment preferably 2.1 % or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more or even in another embodiment 1 1 % or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental in which case contents of less than 0.2% by weight are desired, preferably less than 0.08%, more preferably less than 0.02% and even less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as with all elements for certain applications. For other applications in an embodiment contents of less than 39.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 23.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.7% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 3.4% by weight are desired, and even in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .4% by weight are desired.

It has been found that for some applications of copper alloys the presence of iron (% Fe) is desirable, in an embodiment typically in contents of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.6% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1 .2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 9.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 13.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 6.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of copper alloys the presence of aluminium(% Al) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.06% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1 .2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 12.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 6.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of copper alloys the presence of manganese (% Mn) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.1 % by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.6% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1 .2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 12.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 6.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of copper alloys the presence of magnesium (% Mg) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more or even in another embodiment 1 1 % or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 34.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 22.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of copper alloys the presence of Sn (% Sn) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more or even in another embodiment 1 1 % or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of copper alloys the presence of zinc (% Zn) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.1 % by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more or even in another embodiment 1 1 % or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of copper alloys the presence of chromium (%Cr) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more or even in another embodiment 1 1 % or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of copper alloys the presence of titanium (%Ti) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.05% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1 .2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 23.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 17.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 13.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of copper alloys the presence of zirconium (%Zr) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.05% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1 .2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 7.1 % by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 3.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of copper alloys the presence of Boron (%B) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.05% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 0.42% or more or even in another embodiment 1 .2% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 4.8% by weight are desired, , in another embodiment contents of less than 3.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.08% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.02%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.004% and even in another embodiment less than 0.0002%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications in aluminum alloys the presence of nitrogen (% N) is desirable, typically in contents of 0.2% by weight or higher, preferably 1 .2% or more, more preferably 3.2% or more or even 4.8% or more. For some applications it is interesting that the consolidation and/or densification of the particles with aluminum is carried out in atmosphere with high nitrogen content thus often reaction occurs particularly if consolidation and/or densification (eg sintering with or without liquid phase) occurs at elevated temperatures, the nitrogen will react with the aluminum and/or other elements forming nitrides and thus will appear as an element in the final composition. In these cases it is often useful to have in the final composition a nitrogen content of 0.002% or higher, preferably 0.02% or higher, more preferably 0.4% or higher and even 2.2% or higher.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of molybdenum (% Mo) and / or tungsten (% W) may be detrimental, for these applications a lower % Mo+ 1/2% W content is desirable, in an embodiment less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 1 .8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Mo is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Mo being absent from the copper based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of molybdenum and tungsten at higher levels is desirable, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of % Mo+ 1 /2% W exceeding 1 .2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 5.2% and even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of nickel (% Ni) may be detrimental , for these applications is desirable a %Ni content in an embodiment of less than 28%, in other embodiment preferably less than 19.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 18%, in other embodiment preferably less than 14.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 1 1 .6%, in other embodiment more preferably less than 8%, and even in other embodiment less than 0.8% There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ni is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ni being absent from the copper based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nickel at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on ductility and toughness is desired, and/or and increase on strength and/or to improve weldability is required, for those applications in an embodiment amounts higher than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment higher than 0.65% by weight in another embodiment amounts higher than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in other embodiment higher than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 6% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 8.3% by weight in other embodiment more preferably higher than 12%, in other embodiment more preferably higher than 16.2% and even in other embodiment higher than 22%.

There are applications wherein the presence of %As in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %As amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %As may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %As amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. In an embodiment %As is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %As being absent from the copper based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Li in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Li amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Li may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Li amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. In an embodiment %Li is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Li being absent from the copper based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %V in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %V amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %V may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %V amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. In an embodiment %V is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %V being absent from the copper based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Te in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Te amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.1 5%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Te may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Te amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. In an embodiment %Te is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Te being absent from the copper based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %La in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %La amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %La may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %La amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. In an embodiment %La is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %La being absent from the copper based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Se in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Se amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.1 5%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Se may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Se amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. In an embodiment %Se is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Se being absent from the copper based alloy.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of tantalum (% Ta) and/or niobium (%Nb) may be detrimental , for these applications is desirable %Ta+%Nb content in an embodiment of less than 14.3%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ta and/or %Nb are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ta and/or %Nb being absent from the copper based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts of %Ta and/or %Nb are desirable, especially %Nb is added when an improve on the resistance to intergranular corrosion and/or enhance on mechanical properties at high temperatures is desired, for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Nb+%Ta greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 6% and even in another embodiment greater than 12%. There are applications wherein the presence of %Ca in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ca amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.1 5%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ca may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ca amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. In an embodiment %Ca is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ca being absent from the copper based alloy.

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of Cobalt (% Co) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a % Co content of less than 28% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 26.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 23.4%, preferably less than 19.9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 8%, in another embodiment preferably less than 13.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 8.8% by weight, more preferably less than 6.1 %, more preferably less than 4.2%, more preferably less than 2.7%, and even in another embodiment less than 1 .8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Co is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Co being absent from the copper based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of cobalt in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hardness and/or tempering resistance are required .For these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 5.9%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 7.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 9.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 12% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 15.4%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 18.9%, and even in another embodiment greater than 22%. There are other applications wherein it is desirable the %Co in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0. 15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .6 %.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Hf in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Hf amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Hf may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Hf amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Hf is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Hf being absent from the copper based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of Germanium (%Ge) is desired. In an embodiment, the %Ge is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.09%, in other embodiment above 0.4%, in other embodiment above 0.91 %, in other embodiment above 1 .39 %, in other embodiment above 2.15%, in other embodiment above 3.4%, in other embodiment above 4.6%, in other embodiment above 6.3%, and even in other embodiment above 7.1 %. Although there are other applications wherein %Ge may be limited. In other embodiment the %Ge is less than 9.3%, in other embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 6.3%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.45%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. here are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ge is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ge being absent from the copper based alloy. There are applications wherein the presence of antimony (%Sb) is desired. In an embodiment, the %Sb is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.09%, in other embodiment above 0.4%, in other embodiment above 0.91 %, in other embodiment above 1 .39 %, in other embodiment above 2.15%, in other embodiment above 3.4%, in other embodiment above 4.6%, in other embodiment above 6.3%, and even in other embodiment above 7.1 %. Although there are other applications wherein %Sb may be limited. In other embodiment the %Sb is less than 9.3%, in other embodiment less than7.4%, in other embodiment less than 6.3%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.45%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. here are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Sb is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Sb being absent from the copper based alloy. There are applications wherein the presence of cerium (%Ce) is desired. In an embodiment, the %Ce is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.09%, in other embodiment above 0.4%, in other embodiment above 0.91 %, in other embodiment above 1 .39 %, in other embodiment above 2.15%, in other embodiment above 3.4%, in other embodiment above 4.6%, in other embodiment above 6.3%, and even in other embodiment above 7.1 %. Although there are other applications wherein %Ce may be limited. In other embodiment the %Ce is less than 9.3%, in other embodiment less than7.4%, in other embodiment less than 6.3%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.45%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. here are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ce is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ce being absent from the copper based alloy. There are applications wherein the presence of beryllium (%Be) is desired. In an embodiment, the %Mo is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.09%, in other embodiment above 0.4%, in other embodiment above 0.91 %, in other embodiment above 1 .39 %, in other embodiment above 2.15%, in other embodiment above 3.4%, in other embodiment above 4.6%, in other embodiment above 6.3%, and even in other embodiment above 7.1 %. Although there are other applications wherein %Be may be limited. In other embodiment the %Be is less than 9.3%, in other embodiment less than7.4%, in other embodiment less than 6.3%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.45%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. here are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Be is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Be being absent from the copper based alloy. The elements described in the preceding paragraphs may be desired separately or the combination of some of them or even all of them , as expected.

It has been seen that for some applications the excessive content of cesium , tantalum and thallium and can be detrimental, for these applications it is desirable the sum of %Cs +%Ta+%TI less than 0.29, preferably less than 0.18%, more preferably less than 0.8%, and even less than 0.08% (without being mentioned, as in all instances in this document where amounts are mentioned as upper limits, 0% nominal content or nominal absence of the element, it is not only possible but is often desirable) .

It has been seen that for some applications the excessive content of gold and silver can be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment it is desirable the sum of %Au +%Ag less than 0.09%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.04%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.008%, and even in another embodiment less than 0.002%.

It has been found that for some applications when high contents of %Ga and %Mg (both above 0.5%), it is often desirable to have hardening elements for solid solution, precipitation or hard second phase forming particles. In this sense, the sum %Mn +%Si +%Fe +%AI +%Cr +%Zn +%V +%Ti +%Zr for these applications, in an embodiment is desirably greater than 0.002% by weight in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.02%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.3% and even in another embodiment higher than 1 .2%.

It has been found that for some applications when %Ga content is lower than 0.1 %, it is often desirable to have some limitation in hardening elements for solid solution, precipitation or hard second phase forming particles. In this sense, in an embodiment the sum %AI +% Si +%Zn is desirably less than 21 % by weight for these applications, in another embodiment preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 9% or even in another embodiment less than 3.8%.

It has been found that for some applications when content% Ga below 1 % and there is significant presence of% Cr (between 3% and 5%), it is often desirable to have hardening elements for solid solution or precipitation or forming hard particles second stage. In this sense, the sum% Mg +% Al in an embodiment is desirably higher than 0.52% by weight for these applications, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.82%, more preferably greater than 1 .2% and even higher than 3.2%. and / or the sum of %Ti +% Zr is desirable in another embodiment exceeds 0.012% by weight, preferably in another embodiment greater than 0055%, more preferably in another embodiment greater than 0.12% by weight and even in another embodiment higher than 0.55%.

It has been found that for some applications, especially those requiring a high mechanical strength, high resistance to high temperatures and / or high corrosion resistance, which can be very beneficial combination of gallium (% Ga) and scandium (% Sc) . For these applications it is often desirable in an embodiment to have contents above 0.12% Sc wt%, preferably above 0.52%, more preferably greater than 0.82% and even above 1 .2% For these applications simultaneously is often desirable to have Ga in excess of 0.12% wt%, preferably above 0.52%, more preferably greater than 0.8%, more preferably greater than 2.2 more% and even higher 3.5%. For some of these applications is also interesting to further magnesium (%Mg), in another embodiment it is often desirable to have %Mg above 0.6 % by weight, preferably greater than 1 .2%, more preferably in another embodiment greater than 4.2% and even in another embodiment more than 6%. For some of these applications, especially improved resistance to corrosion is required, it is also interesting for the presence of zirconium (% Zr), in another embodiment often in excess of 0.06% weight amounts, preferably above in another embodiment 0.22%, more preferably in another embodiment above 0.52 % and even in another embodiment greater than 1 .2%. Obviously, like all other paragraphs herein any other element may be present in the amounts described in the preceding and coming paragraphs.

For some applications when aluminum is used as low melting point element or any other type of particle that oxidizes rapidly in contact with air, such as magnesium, etc. is used as low melting point element. If magnesium is used mainly as destroying the alumina film on aluminum particles or aluminum alloy (sometimes it is introduced as a separate powder of magnesium or magnesium alloy and also sometimes alloyed directly to the aluminum particles or aluminum alloy and also sometimes other particles such as low melting particles) the final content of % Mg can be quite small, in these applications often greater than 0.001 % content, preferably greater than 0.02% is desired , more preferably greater than 0.12% and even above 3.6%

For some applications it is interesting that the consolidation and / or densification of the particles with aluminum is carried out in atmosphere with high nitrogen content which often reaction occurs particularly if consolidation and / or densification (eg sintering with or without liquid) phase occurs at elevated temperatures, the nitrogen will react with the aluminum and / or other elements forming nitrides and thus appear as an element in the final composition. In these cases it is often useful to have in the final composition a nitrogen content of 0.002% or higher, preferably 0.02% or higher, more preferably 0.4% or higher and even 2.2% or higher.

There are several elements such as Ag and Mn that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Ga contents; For these applications in an embodiment with %Ga between 4.3% and 16.7%, %Ag is below 18.8%, or even Ag is absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Ga between 4.3% and 16.7%, %Ag is above 44%. In another embodiment with %Ga between 4.3% and 12.7%, %Mn is below 7.8%, or even Mn is absent from the composition. Even in another embodiment with %Ga between 4.3% and 12.7%, %Mn is above 14.8%. %. In another embodiment with %Ga between 1 .5% and 4.1 %, %Ag is below 5.8%, or even Ag is absent from the composition. Even in another embodiment with %Ga between 1 .5% and 4.1 %, %Ag is above 10.8%.

There are several elements such as P, S, As, Pb and B that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Ga contents; For these applications in an embodiment with %Ga between 0.0008% and 6.3%, at least one of P, S, As, Pb and B are absent from the composition.

It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as P may be detrimental especially for certain Fe and/or Cocontents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Fe between 0.0087% and 3.8%, %P is lower than 0.0087% or even P is absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Fe between 0.0087% and 3.8%, %Pis higher than 0.17%, in another embodiment with %Fe between 0.0087% and 3.8%, %P is higher than 0.35%, in another embodiment with %Fe between 0.0087% and 3.8%, %P is higher than 0.56% and even in another embodiment with %Fe between 0.0087% and 3.8%, %P is higher than 1 .8%. In another embodiment with %Co between 0.0087% and 3.8%, %P is lower than 0.008% or even absent from the composition. Even in another embodiment with Co between 0.0087% and 3.8%, %P is higher than 0.68%.

There are several applications wherein the presence of Si, P, Sn and Fe in the composition is detrimental for the overall properties of the copper based alloyespecially for certain Ni and/or Zncontents. In an embodiment with %Ni between 0.34% and 5.2%, %Si is below 0.03% or even absent from the composition or %Si is above 2.3%. Even in another embodiment with %Ni between 0.087% and 32.8%, %P is below 0.087% or absent from the composition or %P is above 0.48% and/or %Sn is belowO.08% or even absent or %Sn is above 3.87%. In another embodiment with %Ni between 0.87% and 2.8%, %Fe is below 1 .22% or absent from the composition or %Fe is above 3.24%. Even in another embodiment with %Zn between 0.087% and 4.2%, %Si is below 4.1 % or %Si is higher than 6.1 %. In another embodiment where the copper alloy contains Zn, %P is absent from the composition or %P is above 45ppm .

There are several elements such as P, Sb, As and Bi that are detrimental in specific applications; For these applications in an embodiment at least one ofP, Sb, As and Bi areabsent from the composition. There are several applications wherein the presence of Nb and Ti in the composition is detrimental for the overall properties of the copper based alloyespecially for certain Fe and/or Cr contents. In an embodiment with %Fe and/or %Cr above 0.0086%, %Nb and/or %Ti is below 0.087% or even absent from the composition.

There are several elements such as Cd, Cr, Co, Pd and Si that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Ga, Ge and Sb contents; For these applications in an embodiment containing Ga and/or Ge and/or Sb, at least one of Cd, Cr, Co, Pd and Si are absent from the composition. It has been found that for some applications, certain contents of elements such as In, Eu, Tm, Cr, Co, B and Si may be detrimental especially for certain Ga contents. For these applications in an embodiment with %Ga between 0.087% and 0.31 %, %Cr is lower than 0.77% and/or %Co is lower than 0.97% or even at least one of them absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Ga between 0.087% and 0.31 %, %Cr is higher than 1 .77% and/or %Co is higher than 1 .97%. In an embodiment with %Ga between 2.37% and 7.31 %, %Si is lower than 1 7.7% and/or %B is lower than 1 .27% or even at least one of them absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Ga between 2.37% and 6.31 %, %Si is higher than 27.7% and/or %B is higher than 5.1 7%. Even in another an embodiment with %Ga between 0.37% and 1 .31 %, %ln is lower than 4.7% even absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %Ga between 0.37% and 1 .31 %, %ln is higher than 1 1 .7%. In another embodiment with %Ga between 0.025% and 0.061 %, %Eu is below 0.025% and/or %Tm is below 0.01 5% or even at least one of them absent from the composition. In an embodiment with %Ga between 0.025% and 0.061 %, %Eu is above 0.051 % and/or %Tm is above 0.041 %.

There are several elements such as Co that are detrimental in specific applications especially for certain Al contents; For these applications in an embodiment with %AI between 5.3% and 14.3%, %Co is lower than 0.37% or even is absent from the composition. In another embodiment with %AI between 5.3% and 14.3%, %Co is higher than 3.37%

There are several elements such as rare earth elements (RE) that are detrimental in specific applications; For these applications in an embodiment RE are absent from the composition.

There are some applications wherein the presence of compounds phase in the copper based alloy is detrimental. In an embodiment the % of compound phase in the composition is below 79%, in another embodiment is below 49%, in another embodiment is below 19%, in another embodiment is below 9%, in another embodiment is below 0.9% and even in another embodiment the compound phase is absent from the copper based alloy. There are other applications wherein the presence of compounds in the copper based alloy is beneficial. In another embodiment the % of compound phase in the copper based alloy is above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment is above 0.3%, in another embodiment is above 3%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another is above 43% and even in another embodiment is above 73%.

For some applications it is desirable that the above alloys have a melting point below 890 ° C, preferably below 640 ° C the, more preferably below 180 ° C or even below 46 ° C.

Any of the above Cu alloy can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

The use of terms such as "below", "above", "or more", "from," "to," "up to," "at least," "greater than," "less than," and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of an copper alloy for manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a molybdenum based alloy having the following composition, all percentages being in weight percent:

%Ceq= 0-1 .5 % C = 0 - 0.5 %N =0-0.45 %B =0-1 .8

%Cr= 0 - 50 %Co= 0 - 40 %Si= 0 - 2 %Mn= 0 -3

%AI= 0 - 15 %Mo= 0 - 20 %Ni= 0 - 50 %Ti= 0 - 14

%Ta = 0 - 5 %Zr = 0 - 8 %Hf = 0 - 6, %V= 0 - 8

%Nb = 0 - 15 %Cu = 0 - 20 %Fe = 0 - 70 %S= 0 - 3

%Se = 0 - 5 %Te = 0 - 5 %Bi = 0 - 10 %As= 0 - 5

%Sb = 0 - 5 %Ca = 0 - 5, %P = 0 - 6 %Ga = 0 - 30

%Re = 0 - 50 %Rb = 0 - 10 %Cd = 0 - 10 %Cs = 0 - 10

%Sn = 0 - 10 %Pb = 0 - 10 %Zn = 0 - 10 %ln = 0 - 10

%Ge = 0 - 5 %Y = 0 - 5 %Ce = 0 - 5 %La = 0 - 5

The rest consisting on Molybdenum (Mo) and trace elements

wherein %Ceq=%C + 0.86 * %N + 1 .2 * %B There are applications wherein molybdenum based alloys are benefited from having a high molybdenum (%Mo) content but not necessary the molybdenum being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment %Mo is above 1 .3%, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %Mo is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 , in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %Mo is not the majority element in the molybdenum based alloy .

In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to: H, He, Xe, Be, 0, F, Ne, Na, Mg, CI, Ar, K, Sc, Br, Kr, Sr, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, I, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm , Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm , Yb, Lu, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am , Cm , Bk, Cf, Es, Fm , Md, No, Lr, Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt alone and/or in combination. The inventor has seen that for several applications of the present invention it is important to limit the presence of trace elements to less than 1 .8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even less than 0.03% in weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the steel, such as reducing cost production of the steel, and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the steel.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the molybdenum based alloy . In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have a content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the molybdenum based alloy .

There are other applications wherein the presence of trace elements may reduce the cost of the alloy or attain any other additional beneficial effect without affecting the molybdenum based alloy desired properties. In an embodiment each individual trace element has content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8% in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%.

For several applications it is especially interesting the use of alloys containing %Ga %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. Particularly interesting is the use of these low melting point promoting elements with the presence of more than 2.2% in weight of %Ga, preferably more than 12%, more preferably 21 % and even more than 24.2% or more Once incorporated and evaluating the overall composition measured as indicated in this application, the molybdenum resulting alloy in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment above 0.015%, in another embodiment above 0.03%, and even in other embodiment above 0.1 %, in another embodiment has generally a 0.2% or more of the element (in this case %Ga), in another embodiment preferably 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more, and even in another embodiment 12% or more. For certain applications it is especially interesting the use of particles with Ga only for tetrahedral interstices and not necessary for all interstices, for these applications is desirable a %Ga of more than 0.02% by weight, preferably more than 0.06%, more preferably more than 0.12% by weight and even more than 0.16%. But there are other applications depending of the desired properties of the molybdenum based alloy wherein %Ga contents of 30% or less are desired. In an embodiment the %Ga in the molybdenum based alloy is less than 29%, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the molybdenum based alloy . It has been found that in some applications the %Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by %Bi (until %Bi maximum content of 10% by weight, in case %Ga being greater than 1 0%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial) with the amounts described above in this paragraph for % Ga + Bi%. In some applications it is advantageous total replacement ie the absence of Ga%. It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and / or %Bi by %Cd, % Cs, % Sn, %Pb, % Zn, % Rb or % with the amounts described in this paragraph, in this case for %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln, wherein depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application wherein the elements in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another). These elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point.

For some applications it is more interesting alloy with these elements directly and not incorporate them in separate particles. For some applications it is even interesting the use of particles mainly formed with these elements with a desirable content of% Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + Zn% +% Rb +% In greater than 52%, preferably greater than 76%, more preferably above 86% and even higher than 98%. The final content of these elements in the component will depend on the volume fractions employed, but for some applications often move in the ranges described above in this paragraph. A typical case is the use of % Sn and %Ga alloys to have liquid phase sintering at low temperatures with high potential to break oxide films that may have other particles (usually the majority particles). % Sn content and% Ga is adjusted with the equilibrium diagram for controlling the volume content of liquid phase desired in the different post-processing temperatures, also the volume fraction of the particles of this alloy. For certain applications the % Sn and/or % Ga may be partially or completely replaced by other elements of the list (ie can be alloys without Sn% or % Ga). It is also possible get to do it with important content of elements not present in this list such as the case of %Mg and for certain applications with any of the preferred alloying elements for the target alloy.

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of chromium (% Cr) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a %Cr content of less than 39% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 8.8% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 1 .8%. There are other applications wherein even a lower %Cr content is desired, in an embodiment the %Cr in the molybdenum based alloy is less than 1 .6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%, in other embodiment less than 0.8%, in other embodiment less than 0.4%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Cr is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Cr being absent from the molybdenum based alloy . By contrast there are applications wherein the presence of chromium at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high corrosion resistance and/or resistance to oxidation at high temperatures is required for these applications; for these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 3.6%, in another embodiment preferably greater than 5.5 % by weight, more preferably above 6.1 %, more preferably above 8.9%, more preferably above 10.1 %, more preferably above 13.8%, more preferably above 1 6.1 %, more preferably above 18.9%, in another embodiment more preferably over 22%, more preferably above 26.4%,and even in another embodiment greater than 32% . But there are also other applications wherein a lower preferred minimum content is desired. In an embodiment, the %Cr in the molybdenum based alloy is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.045%, n other embodiment above 0.1 %, in other embodiment above 0.8%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .3%. There are other applications wherein a high content of %Cr is desired. In another embodiment of the invention the %Cr in the alloy is above 42.2%, and even above 46.1 %.

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive aluminum (% Al) can be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a %AI content of less than 12.9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 10.4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 8.4%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, preferably less than 3.4%, preferably less than 2.7%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %AI is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %AI being absent from the molybdenum based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of aluminum at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high hardening and/or environmental resistance are required, for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts, in another embodiment greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.4% preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.8%, in another embodiment preferably greater than 6.1 %, in another embodiment preferably greater than 7.3% , in another embodiment more preferably above 8.2% and even in another embodiment above 12%. For some applications the aluminum is mainly to unify particles in form of low melting point alloy, in these cases it is desirable to have at least 0.2% aluminum in the final alloy, preferably greater than 0.52%, more preferably greater than 1 .02% and even higher than 3.2%.

For some applications it is interesting to have a certain relationship between the aluminum content (%AI) and gallium content (%Ga). If we call S to the output parameter of %AI = S * %Ga, then for some applications it is desirable to have S greater than or equal to 0.72, preferably greater than or equal to 1 .1 , more preferably greater than or equal to 2.2 and even greater than or equal to 4.2. If we call T to the parameter resulting from %Ga = T * %AI for some applications it is desirable to have a T value greater than or equal to 0.25, preferably greater than or equal to 0.42, more preferably greater than or equal to 1 .6 and even greater than or equal to 4.2 . It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of % Ga by % Bi,% Cd,% Cs,% Sn,% Pb,% Zn,% Rb or % In with the amounts described in this paragraph, and to the definitions of s and T, the% Ga is replaced by the sum :% Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + Zn% +% Rb +% in, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any of the items may be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another ).

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of Cobalt (% Co) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a % Co content of less than 28% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 26.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 23.4%, preferably less than 19.9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 8%, in another embodiment preferably less than 13.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 8.8% by weight, more preferably less than 6.1 %, more preferably less than 4.2%, more preferably less than 2.7%, and even in another embodiment less than 1 .8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Co is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Co being absent from the molybdenum based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of cobalt in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hardness and/or tempering resistance are required .For these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 5.9%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 7.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 9.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 12% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 15.4%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 1 8.9%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 22% and even in another embodiment greater than 32%. There are other applications wherein it is desirable the %Co in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0. 15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .6 %.

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive carbon equivalent (% Ceq) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a % Ceq content in an embodiment of less than 1 .4% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.46% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.08%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ceq is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ceq being absent from the molybdenum based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of carbon equivalent in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 0.12% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.52% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.82% and even in another embodiment greater than 1 .2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the presence of excess carbon (% C) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a % C content in an embodiment of less than 0.38% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.26%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.18%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.09% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.009%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %C is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %C being absent from the tmolybdenum based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of carbon at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on mechanical strength and/or hardness is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 0.02% by weight are desirable, preferably in another embodiment greater than 0.12% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.22% and even in another embodiment greater than 0.32% .

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of boron (% B) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a % B content of less than 0.9% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.65%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.16% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.006%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %B is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %B being absent from the molybdenum based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of boron in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in another embodiment above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 200 ppm, in another embodiment preferably above 0.1 %, in another embodiment preferably above 0.35%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.52% and even in another embodiment above 1 .2%. It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of boron (% B) may be detrimental and it is preferable its absence (it may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, in an embodiment less than 0.1% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less to 0.008%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.0008% and even in another embodiment less than 0.00008%).

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of nitrogen (% N) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a % N content of less than 0.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.16% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.006%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %N is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %N being absent from the molybdenum based alloy . In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nitrogen in higher amounts is desirable especially when a high resistance to localized corrosion is desired. For these applications in an embodiment above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 200 ppm, in another embodiment preferably above 0.1 %, and even in another embodiment preferably above 0.35%. It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of nitrogen (% N) may be detrimental and it is preferable in an embodiment to its absence (may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, in another embodiment less than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably less to 0.008%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.0008% and even in another embodiment less than 0.00008%).

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of zirconium (% Zr) and / or hafnium (% Hf) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a content of %Zr +% Hf of less than 12.4% by weight, in another embodiment less than 9.8%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, I in another embodiment less than 6.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, preferably less than 3.2%, preferably less than 2.6%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Zr and/or %Hf are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Zr and/or %Hf being absent from the molybdenum based alloy . In contrast there are applications where the presence of some of these elements at higher levels is desirable, especially where a high hardening and/or environmental resistance is required, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of% Zr +% Hf greater than 0.1 % by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.1% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6%, in another embodiment more preferably above 7.9%, or even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of molybdenum (% Mo) and / or tungsten (% W) may be detrimental, for these applications a lower % Mo+ 1/2% W content is desirable in an embodiment less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 1 .8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Mo is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Mo being absent from the molybdenum based alloy . In contrast there are applications where the presence of molybdenum and tungsten at higher levels is desirable, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of 1.2% Mo +% W exceeding 1.2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 5.2% and even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of Vanadium (% V) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %V content less than 6.3%, in another embodiment less than 4.8% by weight, in another embodiment less than 3.9%, in another embodiment less than 2.7%, in another embodiment less than 2.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.78% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.45%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %V is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %V being absent from the molybdenum based alloy . In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of vanadium in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 0.01 % by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 2.2% and even in another embodiment above 4.2%.

It has been that for some applications, excessive presence of copper (% Cu) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Cu content of less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 12.7%, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 7.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 5.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.5% by weight in another embodiment more preferably less than 3.3% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.6% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .4% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.9%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Cu is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Cu being absent from the molybdenum based alloy . In contrast there are applications where the presence of copper at higher levels is desirable, especially when corrosion resistance to certain acids and/or improved machinability and/or decrease work hardening is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment greater than 1 .3% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 2.55% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 3.6% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 4.7% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 6% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 8% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 12% and even in another embodiment exceeding 16% .

It has been that for some applications the presence of excessive iron (% Fe) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Fe content of less than 58% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 36%, in another embodiment preferably less than 24%, preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 12% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 10.3% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 7.5%, even in another embodiment less than 5.9%, in another embodiment less than 3.7%, in another embodiment less than 2.1 %, or even in another embodiment less than 1.3%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Fe is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Fe being absent from the molybdenum based alloy In contrast there are applications where the presence of iron at higher levels is desirable, for these applications are desirable amounts in an embodiment greater than 0.1 % by weigh, in another embodiment greater than 1 .3% by weight, g in another embodiment reater than 2.7% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment greater than 6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 8% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 22% and even in another embodiment greater than 42% .

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of titanium (% Ti) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable % Ti content in an embodiment of less than 9% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 7.6%, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.5%, in another embodiment preferably less than 3.3%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.9% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8, and even in another embodiment less than 0.9%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ti is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ti being absent from the molybdenum based alloy . In contrast there are applications where the presence of titanium in higher amounts is desirable, especially when an increase on mechanical properties at high temperatures are desired. For these applications are desirable amounts in an embodiment greater than 0.01 %, in another embodiment greater than 0.2%, in another embodiment greater than 0.7%, in another embodiment greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6% or even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of tantalum (% Ta) and/or niobium (%Nb) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ta+%Nb content in an embodiment of less than 17.3%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ta and/or %Nb are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ta and/or %Nb being absent from the molybdenum based alloy . In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts of %Ta and/or %Nb are desirable, especially Nb is added when an improve on the resistance to intergranular corrosion and/or enhance on mechanical properties at high temperatures is desired, for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Nb+%Ta greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 6% and even in another embodiment greater than 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of yttrium (%Y), cerium (%Ce) and/or lanthanide (%La) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Y+%Ce+%La content in an embodiment of less than 12.3%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Y and/or %Ce and/or %La are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Y and/or %Ce and/or %La being absent from the molybdenum based alloy . In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts are desirable, especially when a high hardness is desired, for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Y+%Ce+%La greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1.2 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6% or even in another embodiment above 12% .

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of rhenium (%Re) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Re content less than 41 .8% by weight, preferably less than 24.8%, more preferably less than 1 1 .78% by weight and even less than 1.45%. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of rhenium in higher amounts is desirable for these applications are desirable amounts exceeding 0.6% by weight, preferably greater than 1.2% by weight, more preferably greater than 13.2%, even above 22.2% . There are even applications wherein in an embodiment %Re is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Re being absent from the alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %As in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %As amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2 6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %As may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %As amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %As is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %As being absent from the molybdenum based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Te in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Te amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2 6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Te may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Te amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Te is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Te being absent from the molybdenum based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Se in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Se amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2 6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Se may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Se amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %Se is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Se being absent from the molybdenum based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Sb in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Sb amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2 6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Sb may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Sb amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Sb is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Sb being absent from the molybdenum based alloy There are applications wherein the presence of %Ca in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ca amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1.3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ca may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ca amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %Ca is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ca being absent from the molybdenum based alloy

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ge in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ge amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ge may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ge amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Ge is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ge being absent from the molybdenum based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %P in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %P amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %P may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %P amount in an embodiment less than 4.9%, in other embodiment less than 3.4%, in other embodiment less than 2.8%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %P is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Sb being absent from the molybdenum based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Si in higher amounts is desirable, especially when an increase on strength and/or resistance to oxidation is desired. For these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Si amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, and even in other embodiment above 1.3%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Si may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Si amount in an embodiment less than 1 .4%, in other embodiment less than 0.8%, in other embodiment less than 0.4%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %Si is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Si being absent from the molybdenum based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %Mn in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hot ductility and/or an increase on strength, toughness and/or hardenability and/or increase of solubility of nitrogen is desired. For these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Mn amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .9%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Mn may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Mn amount in an embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %Mn is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Mn being absent from the molybdenum based alloy .

There are applications wherein the presence of %S in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %S amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, in other embodiment above 1.3%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .9 %. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %S may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %S amount in an embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %S is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %S being absent from the molybdenum based alloy .

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of nickel (% Ni) may be detrimental , for these applications is desirable a %Ni content in an embodiment of less than 28%, in other embodiment preferably less than 19.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 18%, in other embodiment preferably less than 14.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 1 1 .6%, in other embodiment more preferably less than 8%, and even in other embodiment less than 0.8% There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ni is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ni being absent from the molybdenum based alloy . In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nickel at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on ductility and toughness is desired, and/or and increase on strength and/or to improve weldability is required, for those applications in an embodiment amounts higher than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment higher than 0.65% by weight in another embodiment amounts higher than 1.2% by weight are desired, in other embodiment higher than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 6% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 8.3% by weight in other embodiment more preferably higher than 12%, in other embodiment more preferably higher than 16.2% and even in other embodiment higher than 22%.

For some applications it is desirable that the above alloys have a melting point below 890 ° C, preferably below 640 °C , more preferably below 180 °C or even below 46 °C. For some applications when aluminum is used as low melting point element or any other type of particle that oxidizes rapidly in contact with air, such as magnesium, etc. is used as low melting point element. If magnesium is used mainly as destroying the alumina film on aluminum particles or aluminum alloy (sometimes it is introduced as a separate powder of magnesium or magnesium alloy and also sometimes alloyed directly to the aluminum particles or aluminum alloy and also sometimes other particles such as low melting particles) the final content of % Mg can be quite small, in these applications often greater than 0.001 % content, preferably greater than 0.02% is desired , more preferably greater than 0.12% and even above 3.6%.

For some applications it is interesting that the consolidation and / or densification of the particles with aluminum is carried out in atmosphere with high nitrogen content which often reaction occurs particularly if consolidation and / or densification (eg sintering with or without liquid) phase occurs at elevated temperatures, the nitrogen will react with the aluminum and / or other elements forming nitrides and thus appear as an element in the final composition. In these cases it is often useful to have in the final composition a nitrogen content of 0.002% or higher, preferably 0.02% or higher, more preferably 0.4% or higher and even 2.2% or higher.

There are some applications wherein the presence of compounds phase in the molybdenum based alloy is detrimental. In an embodiment the % of compound phase in the alloy is below 79%, in another embodiment is below 49%, in another embodiment is below 19%, in another embodiment is below 9%, in another embodiment is below 0.9% and even in another embodiment compounds are absent from the composition. There are other applications wherein the presence of compounds in the molybdenum based alloy is beneficial. In another embodiment % of compound phase in the alloy is above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment is above 0.3%, in another embodiment is above 3%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 43% and even in another embodiment the is above 73%.

For several applications it is especially interesting the use of molybdenum based alloys for coating materials, such as for example alloys and /or other ceramic, concrete, plastic, etc components to provide with a particular functionality the covered material such as for example, but not limited to cathodic and/or corrosion protection. For several applications it is desired having a coating layer with a thickness in the micrometre or mm range. In an embodiment the Molybdenum based alloy is used as a coating layer. In In an embodiment the molybdenum based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 1 .1 micrometer, in another embodiment the molybdenum based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 21 micrometer, in another embodiment the molybdenum based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 10 micrometre, in another embodiment the molybdenum based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 5l 0micrometre, in another embodiment the molybdenum based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 1 .1 mm and even in another embodiment the molybdenum based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness above 1 1 mm. In another embodiment the molybdenum based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 27mm, in another embodiment the molybdenum based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 1 7mm, in another embodiment the molybdenum based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 7.7mm, in another embodiment the molybdenum based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 537micrometer, in another embodiment the molybdenum based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 1 17 micrometre, in another embodiment the molybdenum based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 27 micrometre and even in another embodiment the molybdenum based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 7.7 micrometre.

For several applications it is especially interesting the use of molybdenum based alloy having a high mechanical resistance. For those applications in an embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the molybdenum based alloy is above 52MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is above 72MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is above 82MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is above 102MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is above 1 12MPa and even in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is above 122MPa. In another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 147MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 127MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 1 17MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below l 07MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 87MPa, in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 77MPa and even in another embodiment the resultant mechanical resistance of the alloy is below 57MPa.

There are several technologies that are useful to deposit the molybdenum based alloy in a thin film ; in an embodiment the thin film is deposited using sputtering, in another embodiment using thermal spraying, in another embodiment using galvanic technology, in another embodiment using cold spraying, in another embodiment using sol gel technology, in another embodiment using wet chemistry, in another embodiment using physical vapor deposition (PVD), in another embodiment using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), in another embodiment using additive manufacturing, in another embodiment using direct energy deposition, and even in another embodiment using LENS cladding.

There are several applications that may benefit from the molybdenum based alloy being in powder form. In an embodiment the molybdenum based alloy is manufactured in form of powder. In another embodiment the powder is spherical. In an embodiment refers to a spherical powder with a particle size distribution which may be unimodal, bimodal, trimodal and even multimodal depending of the specific application requirements.

The present invention is particularly suitable for the manufacture of components that can benefit from the properties of molybdenum and its alloys. Especially applications requiring high mechanical resistance at high temperatures. In this sense, applying certain rules of alloy design and thermo-mechanical treatments, it is possible obtain very interesting features for applications in chemical industry, energy transformation, transport, tools, other machines or mechanisms, etc..

The molybdenum based alloy is useful for the production of casted tools and ingots, including big cast or ingots, alloys in powder form, large cross-sections pieces, hot work tool materials, cold work materials, dies, molds for plastic injection, high speed materials, supercarburated alloys, high strength materials, high conductivity materials or low conductivity materials, among others.

Any of the above Mo based alloys can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

The use of terms such as "below", "above", "or more", "from," "to," "up to," "at least," "greater than," "less than," and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of molybdenum based alloy for manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a tungsten based alloy having the following composition, all percentages being in weight percent:

The rest consisting on Tungsten (W) and trace elements

wherein %Ceq=%C + 0.86 * %N + 1.2 *%B

There are applications wherein tungsten based alloys are benefited from having a high tungsten (%w) content but not necessary the tungsten being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment %W is above 1.3%, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %W is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 , in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %W is not the majority element in the tungsten based alloy.

In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to: H, He, Xe, Be, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, CI, Ar, K, Sc, Br, Kr, Sr, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, I, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm , Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm , Yb, Lu, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am , Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm , Md, No, Lr, Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt alone and/or in combination. The inventor has seen that for several applications of the present invention it is important to limit the presence of trace elements to less than 1 .8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even less than 0.03% in weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the steel, such as reducing cost production of the steel, and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the steel.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the tungsten based alloy. In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have a content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the tungsten based alloy.

There are several elements such as %K that are detrimental in specific applications. In an embodiment the %K in the tungsten based alloy is preferred below 1 .98 ppm , and even in another embodiment K is preferred to be absent from the alloy.

There are other applications wherein the presence of trace elements may reduce the cost of the alloy or attain any other additional beneficial effect without affecting the tungsten based alloy desired properties. In an embodiment each individual trace element has content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8% in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%.

For several applications it is especially interesting the use of alloys containing %Ga %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. Particularly interesting is the use of these low melting point promoting elements with the presence of more than 2.2% in weight of %Ga, preferably more than 12%, more preferably 21 % and even more than 54% or more Once incorporated and evaluating the overall composition measured as indicated in this application, the tungsten resulting alloy in an embodiment %Ga in the alloy is above 32 ppm, in other embodiment above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment above 0.01 5%, and even in other embodiment above 0.1 %, in another embodiment has generally a 0.2% or more of the element (in this case %Ga), in another embodiment preferably 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more, and even in another embodiment 12% or more. For certain applications it is especially interesting the use of particles with Ga only for tetrahedral interstices and not necessary for all interstices, for these applications is desirable a %Ga of more than 0.02% by weight, preferably more than 0.06%, more preferably more than 0.12% by weight and even more than 0.16%. But there are other applications depending of the desired properties of the tungsten based alloy wherein %Ga contents of 30% or less are desired. In an embodiment the %Ga in the tungsten based alloy is less than 29%, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the tungsten based alloy. It has been found that in some applications the %Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by %Bi (until %Bi maximum content of 10% by weight, in case %Ga being greater than 10%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial) with the amounts described above in this paragraph for % Ga + Bi%. In some applications it is advantageous total replacement ie the absence of Ga%. It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and / or %Bi by %Cd, % Cs, % Sn, %Pb, % Zn, % Rb or % with the amounts described in this paragraph, in this case for %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln, wherein depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application wherein the elements in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another). These elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point.

For some applications it is more interesting alloy with these elements directly and not incorporate them in separate particles. For some applications it is even interesting the use of particles mainly formed with these elements with a desirable content of% Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + Zn% +% Rb +% In greater than 52%, preferably greater than 76%, more preferably above 86% and even higher than 98%. The final content of these elements in the component will depend on the volume fractions employed, but for some applications often move in the ranges described above in this paragraph. A typical case is the use of % Sn and %Ga alloys to have liquid phase sintering at low temperatures with high potential to break oxide films that may have other particles (usually the majority particles). % Sn content and% Ga is adjusted with the equilibrium diagram for controlling the volume content of liquid phase desired in the different post-processing temperatures, also the volume fraction of the particles of this alloy. For certain applications the% Sn and/or % Ga may be partially or completely replaced by other elements of the list (ie can be alloys without Sn% or% Ga). It is also possible get to do it with important content of elements not present in this list such as the case of %Mg and for certain applications with any of the preferred alloying elements for the target alloy.

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of chromium (% Cr) may be detrimental , for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a %Cr content of less than 39% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 8.8% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 1 .8%. There are other applications wherein even a lower %Cr content is desired, in an embodiment the %Cr in the tungsten bases alloy is less than 1 .6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%, in other embodiment less than 0.8%, in other embodiment less than 0.4%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Cr is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Cr being absent from the tungsten based alloy. By contrast there are applications wherein the presence of chromium at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high corrosion resistance and/or resistance to oxidation at high temperatures is required for these applications; for these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 3.6%, in another embodiment preferably greater than 5.5 % by weight, more preferably above 6.1 %, more preferably above 8.9%, more preferably above 10.1 %, more preferably above 13.8%, more preferably above 1 6.1 %, more preferably above 18.9%, in another embodiment more preferably over 22%, more preferably above 26.4%,and even in another embodiment greater than 32% . But there are also other applications wherein a lower preferred minimum content is desired. In an embodiment, the %Cr in the tungsten based alloy is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.045%, n other embodiment above 0.1 %, in other embodiment above 0.8%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .3%. There are other applications wherein a high content of %Cr is desired. In another embodiment of the invention the %Cr in the alloy is above 42.2%, and even above 46.1 %.

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive aluminum (% Al) can be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a %AI content of less than 12.9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 10.4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 8.4%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, preferably less than 3.4%, preferably less than 2.7%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %AI is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %AI being absent from the tungsten based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of aluminum at higher levels is desirable, especially when a high hardening and/or environmental resistance are required, for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts, in another embodiment greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.4% preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.8%, in another embodiment preferably greater than 6.1 %, in another embodiment preferably greater than 7.3% , in another embodiment more preferably above 8.2% and even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of rhenium (%Re) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Re content less than 41 .8% by weight, preferably less than 24.8%, more preferably less than 1 1 .78% by weight and even less than 1 .45%. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of rhenium in higher amounts is desirable for these applications are desirable amounts exceeding 0.6% by weight, preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, more preferably greater than 13.2%, even above 22.2%.There are even applications wherein in an embodiment %Re is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Re being absent from the alloy.

For some applications it is interesting to have a certain relationship between the aluminum content (% Al) and gallium content (%Ga). If we call S to the output parameter of %AI = S * %Ga, then for some applications it is desirable to have S greater than or equal to 0.72, preferably greater than or equal to 1 .1 , more preferably greater than or equal to 2.2 and even greater than or equal to 4.2. If we call T to the parameter resulting from %Ga = T * %AI for some applications it is desirable to have a T value greater than or equal to 0.25, preferably greater than or equal to 0.42, more preferably greater than or equal to 1 .6 and even greater than or equal to 4.2 . It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of % Ga by % Bi,% Cd,% Cs,% Sn,% Pb,% Zn,% Rb or% In with the amounts described in this paragraph, and to the definitions of s and T, the% Ga is replaced by the sum:% Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + Zn% +% Rb +% in, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any of the items may be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another ). For some applications the aluminum is mainly to unify particles in form of low melting point alloy, in these cases it is desirable to have at least 0.2% aluminum in the final alloy, preferably greater than 0.52%, more preferably greater than 1.02% and even higher than 3.2%.

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of Cobalt (% Co) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a % Co content of less than 28% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 26.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 23.4%, preferably less than 19.9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment preferably less than 13.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 8.8% by weight, more preferably less than 6.1 %, more preferably less than 4.2%, more preferably less than 2.7%, and even in another embodiment less than 1.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Co is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Co being absent from the tungsten based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of cobalt in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hardness and/or tempering resistance are required For these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 5.9%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 7 6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 9.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 12% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 15.4%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 18.9%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 22% and even in another embodiment greater than 32%. There are other applications wherein it is desirable the %Co in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0. 15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .6 %.

It has been seen that for some applications the presence of excessive carbon equivalent (% Ceq) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a % Ceq content in an embodiment of less than 1 .4% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 1 .4%, in another embodiment preferably less than 1.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.46% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.08%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ceq is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ceq being absent from the tungsten based alloy In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of carbon equivalent in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 0.12% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.52% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.82% and even in another embodiment greater than 1.2%.

It has been found that for some applications, the presence of excess carbon (% C) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a % C content in an embodiment of less than 0.38% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.26%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.18%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.09% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.009%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %C is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %C being absent from the tungsten based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of carbon at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on mechanical strength and/or hardness is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts exceeding 0.02% by weight are desirable, preferably in another embodiment greater than 0.12% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.22% and even in another embodiment greater than 0.32% .

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of potassium (%K) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable a %K content of less than 528 ppm by weight, preferably less than 287 ppm, more preferably less than 108 ppm by weight, even less than 48.8 ppm and even less than 12.8 ppm. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of potassium in higher amounts is desirable. For these applications are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2 ppm by weight, preferably higher than 8.8 ppm by weight, more preferably greater than 58 ppm, even greater than 108 ppm and even greater than 578 ppm. There are even applications wherein in an embodiment %K is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %K being absent from the alloy.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of boron (% B) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a % B content of less than 0.9% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.65%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.16% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.006%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %B is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %B being absent from the tungsten based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of boron in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in another embodiment above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 200 ppm , in another embodiment preferably above 0.1 %, in another embodiment preferably above 0.35%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.52% and even in another embodiment above 1 .2%. It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of boron (% B) may be detrimental and it is preferable its absence (it may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, in an embodiment less than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably less to 0.008%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.0008% and even in another embodiment less than 0.00008%).

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of nitrogen (% N) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a % N content of less than 0.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.1 6% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.006%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %N is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %N being absent from the tungsten based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nitrogen in higher amounts is desirable especially when a high resistance to localized corrosion is desired. For these applications in an embodiment above 60 ppm amounts by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably above 200 ppm , in another embodiment preferably above 0.1 %, and even in another embodiment preferably above 0.35%. It has been seen that there are applications for which the presence of nitrogen (% N) may be detrimental and it is preferable in an embodiment to its absence (may not be economically viable remove beyond the content as an impurity, in another embodiment less than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably less to 0.008%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.0008% and even in another embodiment less than 0.00008%) .

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of zirconium (% Zr) and / or hafnium (% Hf) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable a content of %Zr +% Hf of less than 12.4% by weight, in another embodiment less than 9.8%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, I in another embodiment less than 6.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, preferably less than 3.2%, preferably less than 2.6%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Zr and/or %Hf are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Zr and/or %Hf being absent from the tungsten based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of some of these elements at higher levels is desirable, especially where a high hardening and/or environmental resistance is required, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of % Zr +% Hf greater than 0.1 % by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6%, in another embodiment more preferably above 7.9%, or even in another embodiment above 1 2%.

There are applications wherein the presence of Molybdenum is desired , especially when a high corrosion resistance is required and/or an increase on mechanical strength and /or on hardness at higher tempering temperatures due to its effect on carbide precipitation is required for those applications. In an embodiment, the %Mo is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.09%, in other embodiment above 0.4%, in other embodiment above 0.91 %, in other embodiment above 1 .39 %, in other embodiment above 2.1 5%, in other embodiment above 3.4%, in other embodiment above 4.6%, in other embodiment above 6.3%, and even in other embodiment above 7.1 %. Although there are other applications wherein %Mo may be lim ited. In other embodiment the %Mo is less than 9.3%, in other embodiment less than7.4%, in other embodiment less than 6.3%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.45%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. here are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Mo is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Mo being absent from the tungsten based alloy.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of molybdenum (% Mo) and / or tungsten (% W) may be detrimental, for these applications a lower % Mo+ 1 /2% W content is desirable in an embodiment less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 1 .8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Mo is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Mo being absent from the tungsten based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of molybdenum and tungsten at higher levels is desirable, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of 1.2% Mo +% W exceeding 1.2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 5.2% and even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of Vanadium (% V) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %V content less than 6.3%, in another embodiment less than 4.8% by weight, in another embodiment less than 3.9%, in another embodiment less than 2.7%, in another embodiment less than 2.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 1.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.78% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.45%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %V is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %V being absent from the tungsten based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of vanadium in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 0.01 % by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment exceeding 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 2.2% and even in another embodiment above 4.2%.

It has been that for some applications, excessive presence of copper (% Cu) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Cu content of less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 12.7%, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 7.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 5.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.5% by weight in another embodiment more preferably less than 3.3% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.6% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .4% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.9%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Cu is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Cu being absent from the tungsten based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of copper at higher levels is desirable, especially when corrosion resistance to certain acids and/or improved machinability and/or decrease work hardening is desired. For these applications in an embodiment amounts greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment greater than 1.3% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 2.55% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 3.6% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 4.7% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 6% by weight are desirable, in another , embodiment preferably greater than 8% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 12% and even in another embodiment exceeding 16% .

It has been that for some applications the presence of excessive iron (% Fe) may be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Fe content of less than 58% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 36%, in another embodiment preferably less than 24%, preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 12% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 10.3% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 7.5%, even in another embodiment less than 5.9%, in another embodiment less than 3.7%, in another embodiment less than 2.1 %, or even in another embodiment less than 1.3%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Fe is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Fe being absent from the tungsten based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of iron at higher levels is desirable, for these applications are desirable amounts in an embodiment greater than 0.1 % by weigh, in another embodiment greater than 1.3% by weight, g in another embodiment reater than 2.7% by weight, in another embodiment greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment greater than 6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 8% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 22% and even in another embodiment greater than 42% .

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of titanium (% Ti) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable % Ti content in an embodiment of less than 9% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 7.6%, in another embodiment preferably less than 6.1 %, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.5%, in another embodiment preferably less than 3.3%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 2.9% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8, and even in another embodiment less than 0.9%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ti is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ti being absent from the tungsten based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of titanium in higher amounts is desirable, especially when an increase on mechanical properties at high temperatures are desired. For these applications are desirable amounts in an embodiment greater than 0.01 %, in another embodiment greater than 0.2%, in another embodiment greater than 0.7%, in another embodiment greater than 1.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 4.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6% or even in another embodiment above 12%

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of tantalum (% Ta) and/or niobium (%Nb) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ta+%Nb content in an embodiment of less than 17.3%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%. in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8% There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ta and/or %Nb are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ta and/or %Nb being absent from the tungsten based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts of %Ta and/or %Nb are desirable, especially Nb is added when an improve on the resistance to intergranular corrosion and/or enhance on mechanical properties at high temperatures is desired, for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Nb+%Ta greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 6% and even in another embodiment greater than 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of yttrium (%Y), cerium (%Ce) and/or lanthanide (%La) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Y+%Ce+%La content in an embodiment of less than 12.3%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1 .8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Y and/or %Ce and/or %La are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Y and/or %Ce and/or %l_a being absent from the tungsten based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts are desirable , especially when a high hardness is desired, for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Y+%Ce+%La greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably above 6% or even in another embodiment above 12% .

There are applications wherein the presence of %As in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %As amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %As may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %As amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3, 1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %As is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %As being absent from the tungsten based ajloy,

There are applications wherein the presence of %Te in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Te amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Te may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Te amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2 7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %Te is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Te being absent from the tungsten based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Se in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Se amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2,6%, and even in other embodiment above 3,2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Se may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Se amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2 7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %Se is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Se being absent from the tungsten based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Sb in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Sb amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3 2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Sb may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Sb amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %Sb is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Sb being absent from the tungsten based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ca in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ca amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ca may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ca amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %Ca is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ca being absent from the tungsten based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ge in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ge amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2 6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ge may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ge amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1.4%. In an embodiment %Ge is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ge being absent from the tungsten based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %P in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %P amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %P may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %P amount in an embodiment less than 4.9%, in other embodiment less than 3.4%, in other embodiment less than 2.8%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%. In an embodiment %P is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %P being absent from the tungsten based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Si in higher amounts is desirable, especially when an increase on strength and/or resistance to oxidation is desired. For these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Si amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0 15%, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, and even in other embodiment above 1.3%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Si may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Si amount in an embodiment less than 1.4%, in other embodiment less than 0.8%, in other embodiment less than 0.4%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %Si is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Si being absent from the tungsten based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Mn in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hot ductility and/or an increase on strength, toughness and/or hardenability and/or increase of solubility of nitrogen is desired. For these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Mn amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, in other embodiment above 1.3%, and even in other embodiment above 1.9%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Mn may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Mn amount in an embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %Mn is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Mnbeing absent from the tungsten based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %S in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %S amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9 %, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, and even in other embodiment above 1.9 %. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %S may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %S amount in an embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 .4%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.2%. In an embodiment %S is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %S being absent from the tungsten based alloy.

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of nickel (% Ni) may be detrimental , for these applications is desirable a %Ni content in an embodiment of less than 28%, in other embodiment preferably less than 19.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 18%, in other embodiment preferably less than 14.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 1 1 .6%, in other embodiment more preferably less than 8%, and even in other embodiment less than 0.8% There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ni is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ni being absent from the tungsten based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nickel at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on ductility and toughness is desired, and/or and increase on strength and/or to improve weldability is required, for those applications in an embodiment amounts higher than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment higher than 0.65% by weight in another embodiment amounts higher than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in other embodiment higher than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 6% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 8.3% by weight in other embodiment more preferably higher than 12%, in other embodiment more preferably higher than 16.2% and even in other embodiment higher than 22%.

For some applications it is desirable that the above alloys have a melting point below 890 ° C, preferably below 640 ° C , more preferably below 180 ° C or even below 46 ° C.

For some applications when aluminum is used as low melting point element or any other type of particle that oxidizes rapidly in contact with air, such as magnesium, etc. is used as low melting point element. If magnesium is used mainly as destroying the alumina film on aluminum particles or aluminum alloy (sometimes it is introduced as a separate powder of magnesium or magnesium alloy and also sometimes alloyed directly to the aluminum particles or aluminum alloy and also sometimes other particles such as low melting particles) the final content of % Mg can be quite small, in these applications often greater than 0.001 % content, preferably greater than 0.02% is desired , more preferably greater than 0.12% and even above 3.6%.

For some applications it is interesting that the consolidation and / or densification of the particles with aluminum is carried out in atmosphere with high nitrogen content which often reaction occurs particularly if consolidation and / or densification (eg sintering with or without liquid) phase occurs at elevated temperatures, the nitrogen will react with the aluminum and / or other elements forming nitrides and thus appear as an element in the final composition. In these cases it is often useful to have in the final composition a nitrogen content of 0.002% or higher, preferably 0.02% or higher, more preferably 0.4% or higher and even 2.2% or higher.

For several applications it may be especially interesting the absence of carbides in the tungsten based alloy, there may be applications wherein it is particularly interesting the absence of tungsten carbides (WC) in the tungsten based alloy. In an embodiment tungsten %WC in the Tungsten based alloy is below 79%, in another embodiment is below 49%, in another embodiment is below 19%, in another embodiment is below 9% and even in another embodiment is below 0.9%. In another applications it may be especially interesting the presence of carbides in the alloy, there may be applications wherein it is particularly interesting the presence of tungsten carbides (%WC) in the tungsten based alloy. In an embodiment %WC in the Tungsten based alloy is above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment is above 0.3%, in another embodiment is above 3%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 43% and even in another embodiment is above 73%.

There are some applications wherein the presence of compounds phase in the tungsten based alloy is detrimental. In an embodiment the % of compound phase in the composition is below 79%, in another embodiment is below 49%, in another embodiment is below 19%, in another embodiment is below 9%, in another embodiment is below 0.9% and even in another embodiment the compound phase is absent from the Tungsten based alloy. There are other applications wherein the presence of compounds in the tungsten based alloy is beneficial. In another embodiment the % of compound phase in the Tungsten based alloy is above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment is above 0.3%, in another embodiment is above 3%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another is above 43% and even in another embodiment is above 73%

For several applications it is especially interesting the use of tungsten based alloys for coating materials, such as for example alloys and /or other ceramic, concrete, plastic, etc components to provide with a particular functionality the covered material such as for example, but not limited to cathodic and/or corrosion protection. For several applications it is desired having a coating layer with a thickness in the micrometre or mm range. In an embodiment the Tungsten based alloy is used as a coating layer. In another embodiment the Tungsten based alloy is used as a coating layer with a thickness above 1 .1 micrometres, in another embodiment the coating layer has a thickness above 21 micrometres, in another embodiment above 105 micrometres, in another embodiment above 510 micrometres, in another embodiment above 1 .1 mm and even in another embodiment above 1 1 mm. For other applications a thinker layer is desired. In an embodiment the Tungsten based alloy is used as a coating layer with thickness below 17mm , in another embodiment below 7.7mm, in another embodiment below 537 micrometres, in another embodiment below 1 17 micrometres, in another embodiment below 27 micrometres and even in another embodiment below 7.7 micrometres.

There are several technologies that are useful to deposit the tungsten based alloy in a thin film; in an embodiment the thin film is deposited using sputtering, in another embodiment using thermal spraying, in another embodiment using galvanic technology, in another embodiment using cold spraying, in another embodiment using sol gel technology, in another embodiment using wet chemistry, in another embodiment using physical vapor deposition (PVD), in another embodiment using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), in another embodiment using additive manufacturing, in another embodiment using direct energy deposition, and even in another embodiment using LENS cladding.

There are several applications that may benefit from the tungsten based alloy being in powder form. In an embodiment the tungsten based alloy is manufactured in form of powder. In another embodiment the powder is spherical. In an embodiment refers to a spherical powder with a particle size distribution which may be unimodal, bimodal, trimodal and even multimodal depending of the specific application requirements.

The present invention is particularly suitable for the manufacture of components that can benefit from the properties of tungsten and its alloys. Especially applications requiring high strength at elevated temperature, high elastic modulus and / or high densities (and resulting properties such as the ability to minimize vibration, ... ). In this sense, applying certain rules of alloy design and thermo-mechanical treatments, it is possible obtain very interesting features for applications in chemical industry, energy transformation, transport, tools, other machines or mechanisms, etc.

The tungsten based alloy is useful for the production of casted tools and ingots, including big cast or ingots, alloys in powder form, large cross-sections pieces, hot work tool materials, cold work materials, dies, molds for plastic injection, high speed materials, supercarburated alloys, high strength materials, high conductivity materials or low conductivity materials, among others.

Any of the above tungsten based alloys can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

The use of terms such as "below", "above", "or more", "from," "to," "up to," "at least," "greater than," "less than," and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of tungsten based alloy for manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components.

In an embodiment refers to a magnesium based alloy with the following composition, all percentages in wei ht ercent:

The rest consisting on magnesium and trace elements

The nominal composition expressed herein can refer to particles with higher volume fraction and / or the general final composition. In cases where the presence of immiscible particles as ceramic reinforcements, graphene, nanotubes or other these are not counted on the nominal composition. In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to, H, He, Xe, , F, Ne, Na, , P, S, CI, Ar, K, Br, Kr, Sr, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, I, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am , Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm , Md, No, Lr, Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt. The inventor has found that it is important for some applications of the present invention limit the content of trace elements to amounts of less than 1 .8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even below 0.03% by weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the alloy, such as reducing cost production of the alloy and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the alloy.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the magnesium based alloy. In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have a content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the magnesium based alloy.

There are applications wherein magnesium based alloys are benefited from having a high magnesium (%Mg) content but not necessary the magnesium being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment %Mgis above 1 .3%, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %AI is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 %, in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %Mg is not the majority element in the magnesium based alloy.

For certain applications, it is especially interesting to use alloys with %Ga, %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. Particularly interesting is the use of these low melting point promoting elements with the presence of %Ga of more than 2.2%, preferably more than 12%, more preferably 21 % or more and even 54% or more. The magnesium alloy has in an embodiment %Ga in the alloy is above 32 ppm, in other embodiment above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment above 0.01 5%, and even in other embodiment above 0.1 %, in another embodiment generally has a 0.8% or more of the element (in this case% Ga), preferably 2.2% or more, more preferably 5.2% or more and even 12% or more. But there are other applications depending of the desired properties of the magnesium based alloy wherein %Ga contents of 30% or less are desired. In an embodiment the %Ga in the magnesium based alloy is less than 29%, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 1 6%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the magnesium based alloy. It has been found that in some applications the % Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by Bi% (until %Bi maximum content of 10% by weight, in case %Ga being greater than 20%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial) with the amounts described in this paragraph for %Ga + %Bi. In some applications it is advantageous total replacement ie the absence of Ga%. It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and/or %Bi by %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn, %Rb or %ln with the amounts described above in this paragraph, in this case for %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another). These elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point.

For some applications it is more interesting alloy with these elements directly and not incorporate them in separate particles. For some applications it is even interesting the use of particles mainly formed with these elements with a desirable content of% Ga +% Bi +% Cd +% Cs +% Sn +% Pb + Zn% +% Rb +% In greater than 52%, preferably greater than 76%, more preferably above 86% and even higher than 98%. The final content of these elements in the component will depend on the volume fractions employed, but for some applications often move in the ranges described above in this paragraph. A typical case is the use of % Sn and %Ga alloys to have liquid phase sintering at low temperatures with high potential to break oxide films that may have other particles (usually the majority particles). % Sn content and% Ga is adjusted with the equilibrium diagram for controlling the volume content of liquid phase desired in the different post-processing temperatures, also the volume fraction of the particles of this alloy. For certain applications the% Sn and/or % Ga may be partially or completely replaced by other elements of the list (ie can be alloys without Sn% or% Ga) It is also possible get to do it with important content of elements not present in this list such as the case of %Mg and for certain applications with any of the preferred alloying elements for the target alloy.

The case of scandium (Sc) is exemplifying, because using them very interesting mechanical properties may be reached, but its cost makes interesting from an economic point of view to use the amount needed for the application of interest. Its high deoxidizing power is also interesting during alloys processing but also a challenge to maximize performance. So depending on the application you can move from situations wherein is not a desired element, in these applications it is preferred %Sc being in a low concentration, in an embodiment less than 0.9%, in other embodiment less than 0.6%, in other embodiment less than 0.3%, in other embodiment less than 0.1%, in other embodiment less than 0.01 % and even in other embodiment absent from the magnesium based alloy, to a situations wherein a high content of this element is desired, in an embodiment 0.6% by weight or more, in another embodiment preferably 1.1 % by weight or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1.6% by weight or more and even in another embodiment 4.2% or more.

It has been found that for some applications magnesium alloys the presence of silicon (% Si) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in contents of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 1.2% or more, in another embodiment preferably 2.1 % or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more or even in another embodiment 1 1 % or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental in which case contents of less than 0.2% by weight are desired, preferably less than 0.08%, more preferably less than 0.02% and even less than 0 004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as with all elements for certain applications. For other applications in an embodiment contents of less than 39.8% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 23.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 9.7% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 3.4% by weight are desired, and even in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .4% by weight are desired.

It has been found that for some applications of magnesium alloys the presence of iron (% Fe) is desirable, in an embodiment typically in contents of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.6% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 19.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 13.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 6.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight are desired , in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of magnesium alloys the presence of aluminium(% Al) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.06% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 12.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 6.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications For some applications the aluminum is mainly to unify particles in form of low melting point alloy, in these cases it is desirable to have at least 0.2% aluminum in the final alloy, preferably greater than 0.52%, more preferably greater than 1.02% and even higher than 3.2%. It has been found that for some applications of magnesium alloys the presence of manganese (% Mn) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.1 % by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.6% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1 2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 12 6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 6.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of magnesium alloys the presence of magnesium (% Mg) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 1.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more or even in another embodiment 1 1 % or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 34.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 22.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of magnesium alloys the presence of zinc (% Zn) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.1 % by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 1.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more or even in another embodiment 1 1 % or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0 08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of magnesium alloys the presence of chromium (%Cr) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more or even in another embodiment 1 1 % or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0 08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of magnesium alloys the presence of titanium (%Ti) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.05% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 23.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 17.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 13.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0 004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of magnesium alloys the presence of Sn (% Sn) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 1.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 6% or more or even in another embodiment 1 1% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0 004% Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of magnesium alloys the presence of zirconium (%Zr) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.05% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 7.1 % by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 3.3% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications of magnesium alloys the presence of Boron (%B) is desirable, typically in an embodiment in content of 0.05% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 0.42% or more or even in another embodiment 1 .2% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 4.8% by weight are desired , , in another embodiment contents of less than 3.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.08% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.02%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.004% and even in another embodiment less than 0.0002%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications in aluminum alloys the presence of nitrogen (% N) is desirable, typically in contents of 0.2% by weight or higher, preferably 1.2% or more, more preferably 3.2% or more or even 1 1 % or more. For some applications it is interesting that the consolidation and/or densification of the particles with aluminum is carried out in atmosphere with high nitrogen content thus often reaction occurs particularly if consolidation and/or densification (eg sintering with or without liquid phase) occurs at elevated temperatures, the nitrogen will react with the aluminum and/or other elements forming nitrides and thus will appear as an element in the final composition In these cases it is often useful to have in the final composition a nitrogen content of 0.002% or higher, preferably 0.02% or higher, more preferably 0.4% or higher and even 2.2% or higher.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of molybdenum (% Mo) and / or tungsten (% W) may be detrimental, for these applications a lower % Mo+ 1/2% W content is desirable, in an embodiment less than 14% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 9%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 4.8% by weight and even in another embodiment below 1 .8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Mo is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Mo being absent from the magnesium based alloy. In contrast there are applications where the presence of molybdenum and tungsten at higher levels is desirable, for these applications in an embodiment amounts of 1 .2% Mo +% W exceeding 1.2% by weight are desirable, in another embodiment preferably greater than 3.2% by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 5.2% and even in another embodiment above 12%.

It has been found that for some applications, excessive presence of nickel (% Ni) may be detrimental , for these applications is desirable a %Ni content in an embodiment of less than 28%, in other embodiment preferably less than 19.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than 18%, in other embodiment preferably less than 14.8%, in other embodiment preferably less than.,11 .6%, in other embodiment more preferably less than 8%, and even in other embodiment less than 0.8% There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ni is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ni being absent from the magnesium based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of nickel at higher levels is desirable, especially when an increase on ductility and toughness is desired, and/or and increase on strength and/or to improve weldability is required, for those applications in an embodiment amounts higher than 0.1% by weight, in another embodiment higher than 0.65% by weight in another embodiment amounts higher than 1.2% by weight are desired , in other embodiment higher than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 6% by weight, in other embodiment preferably higher than 8.3% by weight in other embodiment more preferably higher than 12%, in other embodiment more preferably higher than 16 2% and even in other embodiment higher than 22%.

There are applications wherein the presence of %As in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %As amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %As may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %As amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 3%. In an embodiment %As is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %As being absent from the magnesium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Li in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Li amount above 0 0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Li may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Li amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4, 1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1.3%. In an embodiment %Li is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Li being absent from the magnesium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %V in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %V amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %V may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %V amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1.3%. In an embodiment %V is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %V being absent from the magnesium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Te in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Te amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Te may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Te amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 3%. In an embodiment %Te is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Te being absent from the magnesium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %La in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %La amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %La may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %La amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 3%. In an embodiment %La is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %La being absent from the magnesium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Se in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Se amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Se may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Se amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. In an embodiment %Se is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Se being absent from the magnesium based alloy.

It has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of tantalum (% Ta) and/or niobium (%Nb) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ta+%Nb content in an embodiment of less than 14.3%, in another embodiment less than 7.8% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 4.8%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 1.8% by weight, and even in another embodiment less than 0.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein %Ta and/or %Nb are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications in an embodiment it is preferred %Ta and/or %Nb being absent from the magnesium based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein higher amounts of %Ta and/or %Nb are desirable, especially %Nb is added when an improve on the resistance to intergranular corrosion and/or enhance on mechanical properties at high temperatures is desired, for these applications in an embodiment is desired an amount of %Nb+%Ta greater than 0.1 % by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.6% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 1 .2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably greater than 2.1 % by weight, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 6% and even in another embodiment greater than 12%.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Ca in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Ca amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Ca may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Ca amount in an embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.6%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. In an embodiment %Ca is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ca being absent from the magnesium based alloy.

It has been seen that for some applications, the excessive presence of Cobalt (% Co) may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable in an embodiment a % Co content of less than 28% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 26.3%, in another embodiment preferably less than 23.4%, preferably less than 19.9%, in another embodiment preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment preferably less than 13.4%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 8.8% by weight, more preferably less than 6.1 %, more preferably less than 4.2%, more preferably less than 2.7%, and even in another embodiment less than 1.8%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Co is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Co being absent from the magnesium based alloy. In contrast there are applications wherein the presence of cobalt in higher amounts is desirable, especially when improved hardness and/or tempering resistance are required For these applications in an embodiment are desirable amounts exceeding 2.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 5.9%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 7.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 9.6%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 12% by weight, in another embodiment preferably higher than 15.4%, in another embodiment preferably higher than 18.9%, and even in another embodiment greater than 22%. There are other applications wherein it is desirable the %Co in an embodiment above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0. 15 %, in other embodiment above 0.9%, and even in other embodiment above 1 .6 %.

There are applications wherein the presence of %Hf in higher amounts is desirable for these applications in an embodiment is desirable %Hf amount above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.15%, in other embodiment above 0.9%, in other embodiment above 1 .3%, in other embodiment above 2.6%, and even in other embodiment above 3.2%. In contrast it has been found that for some applications, the excessive presence of %Hf may be detrimental, for these applications is desirable %Hf amount in an embodiment less than 4.4%, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.7%, in other embodiment less than 1 4%. In an embodiment %Hf is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Hf being absent from the magnesium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of Germanium (%Ge) is desired. In an embodiment, the %Ge is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.09%, in other embodiment above 0.4%, in other embodiment above 0.91 %, in other embodiment above 1 .39 %, in other embodiment above 2.15%, in other embodiment above 3.4%, in other embodiment above 4.6%, in other embodiment above 6.3%, and even in other embodiment above 7.1 %. Although there are other applications wherein %Ge may be limited. In other embodiment the %Ge is less than 9.3%, in other embodiment less than 7.4%, in other embodiment less than 6.3%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.45%, in other embodiment less than 1.3%. here are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ge is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ge being absent from the magnesium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of antimony (%Sb) is desired. In an embodiment, the %Sb is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.09%, in other embodiment above 0.4%, in other embodiment above 0.91 %, in other embodiment above 1.39 %, in other embodiment above 2.15%, in other embodiment above 3.4%, in other embodiment above 4.6%, in other embodiment above 6.3%, and even in other embodiment above 7.1 %. Although there are other applications wherein %Sb may be limited. In other embodiment the %Sb is less than 9.3%, in other embodiment less than7.4%, in other embodiment less than 6.3%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.45%, in other embodiment less than 1 ,3%. here are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Sb is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Sb being absent from the magnesium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of cerium (%Ce) is desired. In an embodiment, the %Ce is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.09%, in other embodiment above 0.4%, in other embodiment above 0.91 %, in other embodiment above 1.39 %, in other embodiment above 2.15%, in other embodiment above 3.4%, in other embodiment above 4.6%, in other embodiment above 6.3%, and even in other embodiment above 7.1 %. Although there are other applications wherein %Ce may be limited. In other embodiment the %Ce is less than 9.3%, in other embodiment less than7.4%, in other embodiment less than 6.3%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.45%, in other embodiment less than 1 .3%. here are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ce is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ce being absent from the magnesium based alloy.

There are applications wherein the presence of beryllium (%Be) is desired. In an embodiment, the %Mo is above 0.0001 %, in other embodiment above 0.09%, in other embodiment above 0.4%, in other embodiment above 0.91 %, in other embodiment above 1 .39 %, in other embodiment above 2.15%, in other embodiment above 3.4%, in other embodiment above 4.6%, in other embodiment above 6.3%, and even in other embodiment above 7.1 %. Although there are other applications wherein %Be may be limited. In other embodiment the %Be is less than 9.3%, in other embodiment less than7.4%, in other embodiment less than 6.3%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.1 %, in other embodiment less than 2.45%, in other embodiment less than 1.3%. here are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Be is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Be being absent from the magnesium based alloy.

The elements described in the preceding paragraphs may be desired separately or the combination of some of them or even all of them, as expected.

It has been seen that for some applications the excessive content of cesium, tantalum and thallium and can be detrimental, for these applications it is desirable the sum of %Cs +%Ta+%TI less than 0.29, preferably less than 0 18%, more preferably less than 0.8%, and even less than 0.08% (without being mentioned, as in all instances in this document where amounts are mentioned as upper limits, 0% nominal content or nominal absence of the element, it is not only possible but is often desirable) .

It has been seen that for some applications the excessive content of gold and silver can be detrimental, for these applications in an embodiment it is desirable the sum of %Au +%Ag less than 0.09%, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.04%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.008%, and even in another embodiment less than 0.002%.

It has been found that for some applications when high contents of %Ga and %Mg (both above 0.5%), it is often desirable to have hardening elements for solid solution, precipitation or hard second phase forming particles. In this sense, the sum %Mn +%Si +%Fe +%Cu +%Cr +%Zn +%V +%Ti +%Zr for these applications, in an embodiment is desirably greater than 0.002% by weight in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.02%, in another embodiment more preferably greater than 0.3% and even in another embodiment higher than 1 .2%.

It has been found that for some applications when %Ga content is lower than 0.1 %, it is often desirable to have some limitation in hardening elements for solid solution, precipitation or hard second phase forming particles. In this sense, in an embodiment the sum %Cu +% Si +%Zn is desirably less than 21 % by weight for these applications, in another embodiment preferably less than 18%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 9% or even in another embodiment less than 3.8%. It has been found that for some applications when content% Ga below 1 % and there is significant presence of% Cr (between 3% and 5%), it is often desirable to have hardening elements for solid solution or precipitation or forming hard particles second stage. In this sense, the sum% Mg +% Cu in an embodiment is desirably higher than 0.52% by weight for these applications, in another embodiment preferably greater than 0.82%, more preferably greater than 1 .2% and even higher than 3.2%. and / or the sum of %Ti +% Zr is desirable in another embodiment exceeds 0.012% by weight, preferably in another embodiment greater than 0055%, more preferably in another embodiment greater than 0.12% by weight and even in another embodiment higher than 0.55%.

It has been found that for some applications, especially those requiring a high mechanical strength, high resistance to high temperatures and / or high corrosion resistance, which can be very beneficial combination of gallium (% Ga) and scandium (% Sc) . For these applications it is often desirable in an embodiment to have contents above 0.12% Sc wt%, preferably above 0.52%, more preferably greater than 0.82% and even above 1 .2% For these applications simultaneously is often desirable to have Ga in excess of 0.12% wt%, preferably above 0.52%, more preferably greater than 0.8%, more preferably greater than 2.2 more% and even higher 3.5%. For some of these applications is also interesting to further magnesium (Mg%), in another embodiment it is often desirable to have% Mg above 0.6 % by weight, preferably greater than 1 .2%, more preferably in another embodiment greater than 4.2% and even in another embodiment more than 6%. For some of these applications, especially improved resistance to corrosion is required, it is also interesting for the presence of zirconium (% Zr), in another embodiment often in excess of 0.06% weight amounts, preferably above in another embodiment 0.22%, more preferably in another embodiment above 0.52 % and even in another embodiment greater than 1 .2%. Obviously, like all other paragraphs herein any other element may be present in the amounts described in the preceding and coming paragraphs.

For some applications when aluminum is used as low melting point element or any other type of particle that oxidizes rapidly in contact with air, such as magnesium, etc. is used as low melting point element. If magnesium is used mainly as destroying the alumina film on aluminum particles or aluminum alloy (sometimes it is introduced as a separate powder of magnesium or magnesium alloy and also sometimes alloyed directly to the aluminum particles or aluminum alloy and also sometimes other particles such as low melting particles) the final content of % Mg can be quite small, in these applications often greater than 0.001 % content, preferably greater than 0.02% is desired , more preferably greater than 0.12% and even above 3.6%.

For some applications it is interesting that the consolidation and / or densification of the particles with aluminum is carried out in atmosphere with high nitrogen content which often reaction occurs particularly if consolidation and / or densification (eg sintering with or without liquid) phase occurs at elevated temperatures, the nitrogen will react with the aluminum and / or other elements forming nitrides and thus appear as an element in the final composition. In these cases it is often useful to have in the final composition a nitrogen content of 0.002% or higher, preferably 0.02% or higher, more preferably 0.4% or higher and even 2.2% or higher.

There are several elements such as rare earth elements (RE) that are detrimental in specific applications; For these applications in an embodiment RE are absent from the composition.

There are some applications wherein the presence of compounds phase in the magnesium based alloy is detrimental. In an embodiment the % of compound phase in the composition is below 79%, in another embodiment is below 49%, in another embodiment is below 19%, in another embodiment is below 9%, in another embodiment is below 0.9% and even in another embodiment the compound phase is absent from the magnesium based alloy. There are other applications wherein the presence of compounds in the magnesium based alloy is beneficial. In another embodiment the % of compound phase in the magnesium based alloy is above 0.0001 %, in another embodiment is above 0.3%, in another embodiment is above 3%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another is above 43% and even in another embodiment is above 73%.

For some applications it is desirable that the above alloys have a melting point below 890 ° C, preferably below 640 ° C the, more preferably below 180 ° C or even below 46 ° C.

Any of the above Mg alloy can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

The use of terms such as "below", "above", "or more", "from ," "to," "up to," "at least," "greater than," "less than," and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a magnesium alloy for manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components. In an embodiment the present invention refers to AIGa, NiGa, CuGa, MgGa.SnGa and MgGa alloys. In an embodiment these gallium containing alloys are used for the fast and economic manufacture of metallic components.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a AIGa alloy with the following composition, all percentages in weight percent:

%Mg: 0 - 80 (commonly 0 - 20) ; %Ni: 0 - 15;

The rest consisting on aluminium and trace elements

In an embodiment he nominal composition expressed herein can refer to particles with lower volume fraction in the powder mixture and / or the general final composition of the low melting point alloy. In an embodiment in cases where the presence of immiscible particles as ceramic reinforcements, graphene, nanotubes or other these are also included in the alloy, their contribution to the alloy is not counted on the above nominal composition.

In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to B, N, Li, Sc, Ta, Si, Be, Ca, La Se, Te, As.Ge, Hf, Nb.Ce, C, H, He, 0, F, Ne, Na, P, S, CI, Ar, K, Br, Kr, Sr, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, I, Xe, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm , Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm , Yb, Lu, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm , Bk, Cf, Es, Fm , Md, No, Lr, Rf, db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt. The inventor has found that it is important for some applications of the present invention limit the content of trace elements to amounts of less than 1 .8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even below 0.03% by weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the steel, such as reducing cost production of the steel, and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the steel.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the AIGa alloy, especially when their have and important impact on the melting point of the alloy, depending of the elements present in the alloy. In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have a content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the AIGa alloy.

There are applications wherein AIGa alloys are benefited from having a high aluminium (%AI) content but not necessary the aluminium being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment Ga is the main component of the alloy. In an embodiment %AI is above 1 .3%, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %AI is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 %, in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %AI is not the majority element in the aluminium based alloy.

For certain applications, it is especially interesting to use alloys with %Ga, %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. In an embodiment it is particularly interesting having low melting point compounds providing the alloy with a low melting point. In an embodiment the AIGa alloy comprises a %Ga of more than 0.1 % by weight, in other embodiment more than 2.2%, in other embodiment more than 3.6%, in other embodiment more than 5.4%, in other embodiment more than 6.2%, in other embodiment more than 8.3%in other embodiment more than 12% in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 29%, in other embodiment more than 36%, and even in other embodiment more than 54%. There are other applications depending of the desired properties of the AIGa alloy, and sometimes also based in the cost of the alloy, where lower amounts or gallium are interesting, in an embodiment lower than 43%. In an embodiment the %Ga is less than 29% by weight, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the alloy. It has been found that in some applications the% Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by %Bi (in an embodiment the replacement is made until %Bi maximum content of 20% by weight in the alloy, in case %Ga being greater than 20%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial, and also replacement with other elements is possible). In an embodiment, this replacement also allow obtain a low melting point alloy with the amounts described in this paragraph for %Ga + %Bi. In some applications it is advantageous the total replacement of gallium, this means the absence of %. Ga in the alloy. It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and/or %Bi by %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn, %Rb or %ln, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another).

In an embodiment %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln, is more than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment more than 12%, in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 29%, in other embodiment more than 36%, and even in other embodiment more than 54%. In an embodiment and depending of the application the contain of these elements may be limited due its tendency to cause embrittlement in the alloy. In an embodiment %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln is less than 29% by weight, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%. In an embodiment not all of these element are present in the alloy at the same time. In an embodiment %Bi is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Ga is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Cd is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Cs is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Sn is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Pb is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Zn is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Rb is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %ln is absent from the alloy.

It has been found that for some applications an AIGa alloys the presence of %Fe, %W, %Mo and/or %Ti is desirable, but their use must be done carefully due are elements which in small contains, depending of the overall composition of the alloy, produce an increase in the melting point of the alloy.

In an embodiment the contain of %Fe in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1 .2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .9% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %W in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 3.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Mo in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1 .2% or more or even in another embodiment 1 .9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element. In an embodiment the contain of %Ti in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1.9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.4; in another embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.1 ; in another embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.01. In an embodiment any of them may be absent.

It has been found that for some applications an AIGa alloys the presence of %Co, %Ni, %Cr and %V is desirable, but their use must be done carefully due are elements which in small contains, depending of the overall composition of the alloy, produce an increase in the melting point of the alloy, although its effect is lower than produced by %Fe, %W, %Mo and/or %Ti.

In an embodiment the contain of %V in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .9% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there'are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Co in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 3.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Cr in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1.9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Ni in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1.9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment %Co+ %Ni+ %Cr + %V < 1.6; in another embodiment %Co+ %Cr + %V <0.8; in another embodiment %Co+ %Cr + %V <0.1. In an embodiment any of them may be absent.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of copper (% Cu) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.06% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0 004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of manganese (% Mn) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.06% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0 2% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 12.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 6.3% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications,

It has been found that for some applications the presence of magnesium (% Mg) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 1.2% or more, in another embodiment 6.4% or more or even in another embodiment 18.3% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 27.3% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than22.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

In an embodiment the elements described in the preceding paragraphs may be desired separately or the combination of some of them or even all of them, as expected.

In an embodiment there are several applications that may benefit from the AIGa alloy being in powder form. In an embodiment the disclosed AIGa alloy is especially suitable for use as low melting point alloy in powder form in the powder mixture. In an embodiment the AIGa alloy is manufactured in form of powder.

In the alloy preparation, in some cases these elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state to the AIGa alloy, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point. In an embodiment elements from the alloys used to obtain the AIGa alloy contains other elements, disclosed as trace elements in their composition.

In an embodiment this AIGa alloy is suitable for use in powder form in the powder mixture and in the method of the invention for manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component. In an embodiment this AIGa alloy is used as low melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment this AIGa alloy is used as low melting point alloy in a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy.

In an embodiment the GaAI alloys have a melting point below 890 °C, preferably below 640 °C the, more preferably below 180 ° C or even below 46 ° C.

In an embodiment this AIGa alloy is suitable for use in powder form in the powder mixture and in the method of the invention for manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component. In an embodiment this AIGa alloy is used as low melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment this AIGa alloy is used as low melting point alloy in a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy.

Any of the above-described GaAI alloys can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible. The use of terms such as "below", "above", "or more", "from ," "to," "up to," "at least," "greater than," "less than," and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a CuGa alloy with the following composition, all percentages in weight percent:

The rest consisting on copoper and trace elements

In an embodiment he nominal composition expressed herein can refer to particles with lower volume fraction in the powder mixture and / or the general final composition of the low melting point alloy. In an embodiment in cases where the presence of immiscible particles as ceramic reinforcements, graphene, nanotubes or other these are also included in the alloy, their contribution to the alloy is not counted on the above nominal composition.

In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to C, B, N, Li, Sc, Ta, Si, Be, Ca, La Se, Te, As.Ge, Hf, Nb.Ce, C, H, He, Xe, 0, I F, Ne, Na, Mg, P, S, CI, Ar, K, Br, Kr, Sr, Afldr-Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, I, Xe, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Re, Os, lr; Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr, Rf, db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt. The inventor has found that it is important for some applications of the present invention limit the content of trace elements to amounts of less than 1 .8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1% and even below 0.03% by weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the steel, such as reducing cost production of the steel, and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the steel.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the CuGa alloy, especially when their have and important impact on the melting point of the alloy, depending of the elements present in the alloy. In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have a content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the CuGa alloy.

There are applications wherein CuGa alloys are benefited from having a high copeper (%Cu) content but not necessary the copoper being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment Ga is the main component of the alloy. In an embodiment %Cu is above 1.3%, in another embodiment is above 3.1 %, in another embodiment is above 4.1 %, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %Cu is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 %, in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %AI is not the majority element in the CuGa alloy.

For certain applications, it is especially interesting to use alloys with %Ga, %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. In an embodiment it is particularly interesting having low melting point compounds providing the alloy with a low melting point. In an embodiment the CuGa alloy comprises a %Ga of more than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment more than 12%, in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 29%, in other embodiment more than 36%, and even in other embodiment more than 54%. There are other applications depending of the desired properties of the CuGa alloy, and sometimes also based in the cost of the alloy, where lower amounts or gallium are interesting, in an embodiment lower than 43%. In an embodiment the %Ga is less than 29% by weight, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the alloy. It has been found that in some applications the %Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by %Bi (in an embodiment the replacement is made until %Bi maximum content of 20% by weight in the alloy, in case %Ga being greater than 20%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial, and also replacement with other elements is possible). In an embodiment, this replacement also allow obtain a low melting point alloy with the amounts described in this paragraph for %Ga+%Bi. In some applications it is advantageous the total replacement of gallium , this means the absence of %Ga in the alloy It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and/or %Bi by %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %2n, %Rb or %ln, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another).

In an embodiment %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln, is more than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment more than 12%, in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 29%, in other embodiment more than 36%, and even in other embodiment more than 54%. In an embodiment and depending of the application the contain of these elements may be limited due its tendency to cause embrittlement in the alloy. In an embodiment %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln is less than 29% by weight, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1.2%. In an embodiment not all of these element are present in the alloy at the same time. In an embodiment %Bi is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Ga is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Cd is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Cs is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Sn is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Pb is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Zn is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Rb is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %ln is absent from the alloy.

It has been found that for some applications an CuGa alloys the presence of %Fe, %W, %Mo and/or %Ti is desirable, but their use must be done carefully due are elements which in small contains, depending of the overall composition of the alloy, produce an increase in the melting point of the alloy.

In an embodiment the contain of %Fe in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .9% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %W in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 3.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Mo in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1 .9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element. In an embodiment the contain of %Ti in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1 .9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.4; in another embodiment %Co+ %Cr + %V <0.1 ; in another embodiment %Co+ %Cr + %V <0.01 . In an embodiment any of them may be absent.

It has been found that for some applications an CuGa alloys the presence of %Co, %Ni, %Cr and %V is desirable, but their use must be done carefully due are elements which in small contains, depending of the overall composition of the alloy, produce an increase in the melting point of the alloy, although its effect is lower than produced by %Fe, %W, %Mo and/or %Ti.

In an embodiment the contain of %V in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excesive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .9% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0 4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Co in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 3.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Cr in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1 .9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Ni in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1 .9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment %Co+ %Ni+ %Cr + %V < 1.6; in another embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.8; in another embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.1 . In an embodiment any of them may be absent.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of aluminium (% Al) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.06% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired , are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of manganese (% Mn) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.06% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.2% or more, in another embodiment 1 .2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 12.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 6.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired , are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of magnesium (% Mg) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 1.2% or more, in another embodiment 6.4% or more or even in another embodiment 18.3% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 27.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than22.6% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

In an embodiment the elements described in the preceding paragraphs may be desired separately or the combination of some of them or even all of them, as expected.

In an embodiment there are several applications that may benefit from the CuGa alloy being in powder form. In an embodiment the disclosed CuGa alloy is especially suitable for use as low melting point alloy in powder form in the powder mixture. In an embodiment the CuGa alloy is manufactured in form of powder.

In the alloy preparation, in some cases these elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state to the CuGa alloy, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point. In an embodiment elements from the alloys used to obtain the CuGa alloy contains other elements, disclosed as trace elements in their composition.

In an embodiment the CuGa alloys have a melting point below 890 ° C, preferably below 640 ° C the, more preferably below 180 °C or even below 46 °C.

In an embodiment this CuGa alloy is suitable for use in powder form in the powder mixture and in the method of the invention for manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component. In an embodiment this CuGa alloy is used as low melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment this CuGa alloy is used as low melting point alloy in a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy.

The above-described CuGa alloy can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

The use of terms such as "below", "above", "or more", "from," "to," "up to," "at least," "greater than," "less than," and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a SnGa alloy with the following composition, all percentages in weight percent:

%Cu: 0 - 30; %Mn: 0 - 40; %Fe: 0 - 5; %Zn: 0 - 15;

The rest consisting on tin (Sn) and trace elements.

In an embodiment he nominal composition expressed herein can refer to particles with lower volume fraction in the powder mixture and / or the general final composition of the low melting point alloy. In an embodiment in cases where the presence of immiscible particles as ceramic reinforcements, graphene, nanotubes or other these are also included in the alloy, their contribution to the alloy is not counted on the above nominal composition.

In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to , B, N, Li, Sc, Ta, Si, Be, Ca, La Se, Te, As,Ge, Hf, Nb,Ce, C, H, He, , 0, F, Ne, Na, P, S, CI, Ar, K, Br, Kr, Sr, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, I, Xe, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm , Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm , Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr, Rf, db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt. The inventor has found that it is important for some applications of the present invention limit the content of trace elements to amounts of less than 1 .8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even below 0.03% by weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the steel, such as reducing cost production of the steel, and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the steel.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the SnGa alloy, especially when their have and important impact on the melting point of the alloy, depending of the elements present in the alloy. In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have a content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the SnGa alloy.

There are applications wherein SnGa alloys are benefited from having a high Sn content but not necessary the Sn being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment Ga is the main component of the alloy. In an embodiment %Sn is above 1 .3%, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %Sn is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 %, in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %Sn is not the majority element in the tin based alloy.

For certain applications, it is especially interesting to use alloys with %Ga, %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. In an embodiment it is particularly interesting having low melting point compounds providing the alloy with a low melting point. In an embodiment the SnGa alloy comprises a %Ga of more than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment more than 12%, in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 29%, in other embodiment more than 36%, and even in other embodiment more than 54%. There are other applications depending of the desired properties of the SnGa alloy, and sometimes also based in the cost of the alloy, where lower amounts or gallium are interesting, in an embodiment lower than 43%. In an embodiment the %Ga is less than 29% by weight, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 1 6%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the alloy. It has been found that in some applications the% Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by %Bi (in an embodiment the replacement is made until %Bi maximum content of 20% by weight in the alloy, in case %Ga being greater than 20%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial, and also replacement with other elements is possible) In an embodiment, this replacement also allow obtain a low melting point alloy with the amounts described in this paragraph for %Ga + %Bi. In some applications it is advantageous the total replacement of gallium, this means the absence of %. Ga in the alloy. It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and/or %Bi by %Cd, %Cs, , %Pb, %Zn, %Rb or %ln, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another).

In an embodiment %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln, is more than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment more than 12%, in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 29%, in other embodiment more than 36%, and even in other embodiment more than 54%. In an embodiment and depending of the application the contain of these elements may be limited due its tendency to cause embrittlement in the alloy. In an embodiment %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln is less than 29% by weight, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1.2%. In an embodiment not all of these element are present in the alloy at the same time. In an embodiment %Bi is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Ga is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Cd is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Cs is absent from the alloy In an embodiment %Pb is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Zn is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Rb is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %ln is absent from the alloy.

It has been found that for some applications an SnGa alloys the presence of %Fe, %W, %Mo and/or %Ti is desirable, but their use must be done carefully due are elements which in small contains, depending of the overall composition of the alloy, produce an increase in the melting point of the alloy.

In an embodiment the contain of %Fe in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1.9% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %W in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 3.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Mo in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1 ,9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Aluminium in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1.9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element. In an embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.4; in another embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.1 ; in another embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.01 . In an embodiment any of them may be absent.

It has been found that for some applications an SnGa alloys the presence of %Co, %Ni, %Cr and %V is desirable, but their use must be done carefully due are elements which in small contains, depending of the overall composition of the alloy, produce an increase in the melting point of the alloy, although its effect is lower than produced by %Fe, %W, %Mo and/or %Ti.

In an embodiment the contain of %V in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1 .2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excesive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .9% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0 0003%, In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Co in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 3.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Cr in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1 .2% or more or even in another embodiment 1 .9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Ni in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1 .9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment %Co+ %Ni+ %Cr + %V < 1 .6; in another embodiment %Co+ %Cr + %V <0 8; in another embodiment %Co+ %Cr + %V <0.1 . In an embodiment any of them may be absent.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of copper (% Cu) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.06% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1 ,2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of manganese (% Mn) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.06% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.2% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 12.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 6.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of magnesium (% Mg) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment 6.4% or more or even in another embodiment 18.3% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 27.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than22.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

In an embodiment the elements described in the preceding paragraphs may be desired separately or the combination of some of them or even all of them , as expected.

In an embodiment there are several applications that may benefit from the SnGa alloy being in powder form. In an embodiment the disclosed SnGa alloy is especially suitable for use as low melting point alloy in powder form in the powder mixture. In an embodiment the SnGa alloy is manufactured in form of powder.

In the alloy preparation, in some cases these elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state to the SnGa alloy, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point. In an embodiment elements from the alloys used to obtain the SnGa alloy contains other elements, disclosed as trace elements in their composition.

In an embodiment this SnGa alloy is suitable for use in powder form in the powder mixture and in the method of the invention for manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component. In an embodiment this SnGa alloy is used as low melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment this SnGa alloy is used as low melting point alloy in a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy.

In an embodiment the SnGa alloys have a melting point below 890 ° C, preferably below 640 ° C the, more preferably below 180 ° C or even below 46 ° C.

The above-described SnGa alloy can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

The use of terms such as "below", "above", "or more", "from ," "to," "up to," "at least," "greater than," "less than," and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a MgGa alloy with the following composition, all percentages in wei ht ercent:

The rest consisting on magnesium and trace elements. In an embodiment he nominal composition expressed herein can refer to particles with lower volume fraction in the powder mixture and /or the general final composition of the low melting point alloy.

In an embodiment in cases where the presence of immiscible particles as ceramic reinforcements, graphene, nanotubes or other these are also included in the alloy, their contribution to the alloy is not counted on the above nominal composition.

In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to Al, B, N, Li, Sc, Ta, Si, Be, Ca, La Se, Te, As.Ge, Hf, Nb, Ce, C, H, He, 0, F, Ne, Na, P, S, CI, Ar, K, Br, Kr, Sr, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, I, Xe, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm , Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm , Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, Md, No, Lr, Rf, db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt. The inventor has found that it is important for some applications of the present invention limit the content of trace elements to amounts of less than 1 .8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even below 0.03% by weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the steel, such as reducing cost production of the steel, and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the steel.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the MgGa alloy, especially when their have and important impact on the melting point of the alloy, depending of the elements present in the alloy. In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the MgGa alloy.

There are applications wherein MgGa alloys are benefited from having a high Magnesium content but not necessary the Magnesium being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment Ga is the main component of the alloy. In an embodiment %Magnesium is above 1 .3%, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %Magnesium is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 %, in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %Magnesium is not the majority element in the magnesium based alloy.

For certain applications, it is especially interesting to use alloys with %Ga, %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. In an embodiment it is particularly interesting having low melting point compounds providing the alloy with a low melting point. In an embodiment the MgGa alloy comprises a %Ga of more than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment more than 3.4%, in other embodiment more than 4.2% in other embodiment more than 6.8%, in other embodiment more than 12.1 % in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 29%, in other embodiment more than 36%, and even in other embodiment more than 54%. There are other applications depending of the desired properties of the GaAI alloy, and sometimes also based in the cost of the alloy, where lower amounts or gallium are interesting, in an embodiment lower than 43%. In an embodiment the %Ga is less than 29% by weight, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the alloy. It has been found that in some applications the% Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by %Bi (in an embodiment the replacement is made until %Bi maximum content of 20% by weight in the alloy, in case %Ga being greater than 20%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial, and also replacement with other elements is possible) In an embodiment, this replacement also allow obtain a low melting point alloy with the amounts described in this paragraph for %Ga + %Bi. In some applications it is advantageous the total replacement of gallium , this means the absence of %. Ga in the alloy. It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and/or %Bi by %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn, %Rb or %ln, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another). In an embodiment %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln, is more than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment more than 12%, in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 29%, in other embodiment more than 36%, and even in other embodiment more than 54%. In an embodiment and depending of the application the contain of these elements may be limited due its tendency to cause embrittlement in the alloy. In an embodiment %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln is less than 29% by weight, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1.2%. In an embodiment not all of these elements are present in the alloy at the same time. In an embodiment %Bi is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Ga is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Cd is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Cs is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Sn is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Pb is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Zn is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Rb is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %ln is absent from the alloy.

It has been found that for some applications an MgGa alloys the presence of %Fe, %W, %Mo and/or %Ti is desirable, but their use must be done carefully due are elements which in small contains, depending of the overall composition of the alloy, produce an increase in the melting point of the alloy.

In an embodiment the contain of %Fe in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1.9% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %W in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 3.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Mo in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1 .2% or more or even in another embodiment 1.9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Ti in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1.9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0 4; in another embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.1 ; in another embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.01. In an embodiment any of them may be absent.

It has been found that for some applications an MgGa alloys the presence of %Co, %Ni, %Cr and %V is desirable, but their use must be done carefully due are elements which in small contains, depending of the overall composition of the alloy, produce an increase in the melting point of the alloy, although its effect is lower than produced by %Fe, %W, %Mo and/or %Ti. In an embodiment the contain of %V in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excesive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .9% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Co in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1 .2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 3.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Cr in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1 .9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0 09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Ni in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1 .9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment %Co+ %Ni+ %Cr + %V < 1.6; in another embodiment %Co+ %Cr + %V <0.8; in another embodiment %Co+ %Cr + %V <0.1. In an embodiment any of them may be absent.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of copper (% Cu) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.06% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of manganese (% Mn) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.06% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.2% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 12.6% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 9.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 6.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of magnesium (% Mg) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment 6.4% or more or even in another embodiment 18.3% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 27.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than22.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

In an embodiment the elements described in the preceding paragraphs may be desired separately or the combination of some of them or even all of them , as expected.

In an embodiment there are several applications that may benefit from the MgGa alloy being in powder form. In an embodiment the disclosed MgGa alloy is especially suitable for use as low melting point alloy in powder form in the powder mixture. In an embodiment the MgGa alloy is manufactured in form of powder.

In the alloy preparation, in some cases these elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state to the MgGa alloy, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point. In an embodiment elements from the alloys used to obtain the MgGa alloy contains other elements, disclosed as trace elements in their composition.

In an embodiment this MgGa alloy is suitable for use in powder form in the powder mixture and in the method of the invention for manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component. In an embodiment this MgGa alloy is used as low melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment this MgGa alloy is used as low melting point alloy in a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy.

In an embodiment the MgGa alloys have a melting point below 890 ° C, preferably below 640 ° C the, more preferably below 180 ° C or even below 46 ° C.

The above-described MgGa alloy can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

The use of terms such as "below", "above", "or more", "from ," "to," "up to," "at least," "greater than," "less than," and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a MnGa alloy with the following composition, all percentages in weight percent:

The rest consisting on manganese and trace elements.

In an embodiment he nominal composition expressed herein can refer to particles with lower volume fraction in the powder mixture and /or the general final composition of the low melting point alloy. In an embodiment in cases where the presence of immiscible particles as ceramic reinforcements, graphene, nanotubes or other these are also included in the alloy, their contribution to the alloy is not counted on the above nominal composition. In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to B, N, Li, Sc, Ta, Si, Be, Ca, La Se, Te, As.Ge, Hf, Nb, Ce, C, H, HeO, F, Ne, Na, P, S, CI, Ar, K, Br, Kr, Sr, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, I, Xe, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm , Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm , Yb, Lu, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm , Bk, Cf, Es, Fm , Md, No, Lr, Rf, db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt. The inventor has found that it is important for some applications of the present invention limit the content of trace elements to amounts of less than 1 .8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even below 0.03% by weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the steel, such as reducing cost production of the steel, and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the steel.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the MnGa alloy, especially when their have and important impact on the melting point of the alloy, depending of the elements present in the alloy. In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1 .4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the MnGa alloy.

There are applications wherein MnGa alloys are benefited from having a high Manganese content but not necessary the Manganese being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment Ga is the main component of the alloy. In an embodiment %Manganese is above 1 .3%, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %Manganese is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 %, in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %Manganese is not the majority element in the manganese based alloy.

For certain applications, it is especially interesting to use alloys with %Ga, %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. In an embodiment it is particularly interesting having low melting point compounds providing the alloy with a low melting point. In an embodiment the MnGa alloy comprises a %Ga of more than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment more than 3.8%, in other embodiment more than 6.8% in other embodiment more than 9.3%, in other embodiment more than 12.2% in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 29%, in other embodiment more than 36%, and even in other embodiment more than 54%. There are other applications depending of the desired properties of the MnGa alloy, and sometimes also based in the cost of the alloy, where lower amounts or gallium are interesting, in an embodiment lower than 43%. In an embodiment the %Ga is less than 29% by weight, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the alloy. It has been found that in some applications the% Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by %Bi (in an embodiment the replacement is made until %Bi maximum content of 20% by weight in the alloy, in case %Ga being greater than 20%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial, and also replacement with other elements is possible) In an embodiment, this replacement also allow obtain a low melting point alloy with the amounts described in this paragraph for %Ga + %Bi. In some applications it is advantageous the total replacement of gallium , this means the absence of %. Ga in the alloy. It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and/or %Bi by %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn, %Rb or %ln, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another).

In an embodiment %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln, is more than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment more than 12%, in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 29%, in other embodiment more than 36%, and even in other embodiment more than 54%. In an embodiment and depending of the application the contain of these elements may be limited due its tendency to cause embrittlement in the alloy. In an embodiment %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln is less than 29% by weight, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1.2% In an embodiment not all of these element are present in the alloy at the same time. In an embodiment %Bi is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Ga is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Cd is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Cs is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Sn is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Pb is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Zn is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Rb is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %ln is absent from the alloy.

It has been found that for some applications an MnGa alloys the presence of %Fe, %W, %Mo and/or %Ti is desirable, but their use must be done carefully due are elements which in small contains, depending of the overall composition of the alloy, produce an increase in the melting point of the alloy.

In an embodiment the contain of %Fe in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1.9% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %W in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 3.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Mo in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1.9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Ti in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1.9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.4; in another embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.1 ; in another embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.01. In an embodiment any of them may be absent.

It has been found that for some applications an MnGa alloys the presence of %Co, %Ni, %Cr and %V is desirable, but their use must be done carefully due are elements which in small contains, depending of the overall composition of the alloy, produce an increase in the melting point of the alloy, although its effect is lower than produced by %Fe, %W, %Mo and/or %Ti.

In an embodiment the contain of %V in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excesive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .9% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element

In an embodiment the contain of %Co in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1 .2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 3.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Cr in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1.9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Ni in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1.9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment %Co+ %Ni+ %Cr + %V <1.6; in another embodiment %Co+ %Cr + %V <0.8; in another embodiment %Co+ %Cr + %V <0.1. In an embodiment any of them may be absent.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of copper (% Cu) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.06% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of Aluminium (% Al) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.06% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.2% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 12.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 6.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired , are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of magnesium (% Mg) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 1 .2% or more, in another embodiment 6.4% or more or even in another embodiment 18 3% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 27.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 22.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

In an embodiment the elements described in the preceding paragraphs may be desired separately or the combination of some of them or even all of them , as expected.

In an embodiment there are several applications that may benefit from the MnGa alloy being in powder form. In an embodiment the disclosed MnGa alloy is especially suitable for use as low melting point alloy in powder form in the powder mixture. In an embodiment the MnGa alloy is manufactured in form of powder.

In the alloy preparation, in some cases these elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state to the MnGa alloy, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point. In an embodiment elements from the alloys used to obtain the MnGa alloy contains other elements, disclosed as trace elements in their composition.

In an embodiment this MnGa alloy is suitable for use in powder form in the powder mixture and in the method of the invention for manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component. In an embodiment this MnGa alloy is used as low melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment this MnGa alloy is used as low melting point alloy in a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy.

In an embodiment the MnGa alloys have a melting point below 890 ° C, preferably below 640 ° C the, more preferably below 180 ° C or even below 46 ° C.

The above-described MnGa alloy can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

The use of terms such as "below", "above", "or more", "from ," "to," "up to," "at least," "greater than," "less than," and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a NiGa alloy with the following composition, all percentages in weight percent:

The rest consisting on nickel and trace elements.

In an embodiment he nominal composition expressed herein can refer to particles with lower volume fraction in the powder mixture and /or the general final composition of the low melting point alloy. In an embodiment in cases where the presence of immiscible particles as ceramic reinforcements, graphene, nanotubes or other these are also included in the alloy, their contribution to the alloy is not counted on the above nominal composition.

In this context trace elements refers to several elements, unless context clearly indicates otherwise, including but not limited to , B, N, Li, Sc, Ta, Si, Be, Ca, La Se, Te, As.Ge, Hf, Nb, Ce, C, H, He, 0, F, Ne, Na, P, S, CI, Ar, K, Br, Kr, Sr, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, I, Xe, Ba, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm , Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm , Yb, Lu, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm , Bk, Cf, Es, Fm , Md, No, Lr, Rf, db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt. The inventor has found that it is important for some applications of the present invention limit the content of trace elements to amounts of less than 1 .8%, preferably less than 0.8%, more preferably less than 0.1 % and even below 0.03% by weight, alone and/or in combination.

Trace elements can be added intentionally to attain a particular functionality to the steel, such as reducing cost production of the steel, and/or its presence may be unintentional and related mostly to the presence of impurities in the alloying elements and scraps used for the production of the steel.

There are several applications wherein the presence of trace elements is detrimental for the overall properties of the NiGa alloy, especially when their have and important impact on the melting point of the alloy, depending of the elements present in the alloy. In an embodiment all trace elements as a sum have content below 2.0%, in other embodiment below 1.4%, in other embodiment below 0.8%, in other embodiment below 0.2%, in other embodiment below 0.1 % or even below 0.06%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein trace elements are preferred being absent from the NiGa alloy.

There are applications wherein NiGa alloys are benefited from having a high Nickel content but not necessary the Nickel being the majority component of the alloy. In an embodiment Ga is the main component of the alloy. In an embodiment %Nickel is above 1.3%, in another embodiment is above 6%, in another embodiment is above 13%, in another embodiment is above 27%, in another embodiment is above 39%, another embodiment is above 53%, in another embodiment is above 69%, and even in another embodiment is above 87%. In an embodiment %Nickel is less than 99%, in another embodiment is less than 83%, in another embodiment is less than 69%, in another embodiment is less than 54%, in another embodiment is less than 48%, in another embodiment is less than 41 %, in another embodiment is less than 38%, and even in another embodiment is less than 25%. In another embodiment %Nickel is not the majority element in the nickel based alloy.

For certain applications, it is especially interesting to use alloys with %Ga, %Bi, %Rb, %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn and/or %ln. In an embodiment it is particularly interesting having low melting point compounds providing the alloy with a low melting point. In an embodiment the NiGa alloy comprises a %Ga of more than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment more than 12%, in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 29%, in other embodiment more than 36%, and even in other embodiment more than 54%. There are other applications depending of the desired properties of the NiGa alloy, and sometimes also based in the cost of the alloy, where lower amounts or gallium are interesting, in an embodiment lower than 43%. In an embodiment the %Ga is less than 29% by weight, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%. There are even some applications for a given application wherein in an embodiment %Ga is detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another, in these applications it is preferred %Ga being absent from the alloy. It has been found that in some applications the% Ga can be replaced wholly or partially by %Bi (in an embodiment the replacement is made until %Bi maximum content of 20% by weight in the alloy, in case %Ga being greater than 20%, the replacement with %Bi will be partial, and also replacement with other elements is possible) In an embodiment, this replacement also allow obtain a low melting point alloy with the amounts described in this paragraph for %Ga + %Bi. In some applications it is advantageous the total replacement of gallium, this means the absence of %. Ga in the alloy. It has been found that it is even interesting for some applications the partial replacement of %Ga and/or %Bi by %Cd, %Cs, %Sn, %Pb, %Zn, %Rb or %ln, where depending on the application may be interesting the absence of any of them (ie although the sum is in line with the values given any element can be absent and have a nominal content of 0%, this being advantageous for a given application where the items in question are detrimental or not optimal for one reason or another).

In an embodiment %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln, is more than 2.2% by weight, in other embodiment more than 12%, in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 21 % in other embodiment more than 29%, in other embodiment more than 36%, and even in other embodiment more than 54%. In an embodiment and depending of the application the contain of these elements may be limited due its tendency to cause embrittlement in the alloy. In an embodiment %Ga +%Bi +%Cd +%Cs +%Sn +%Pb + %Zn +%Rb +%ln is less than 29% by weight, in other embodiment less than 22%, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 6.4%, in other embodiment less than 4.1 %, in other embodiment less than 3.2%, in other embodiment less than 2.4%, in other embodiment less than 1 .2%. In an embodiment not all of these element are present in the alloy at the same time. In an embodiment %Bi is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Ga is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Cd is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Cs is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Sn is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Pb is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Zn is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %Rb is absent from the alloy. In an embodiment %ln is absent from the alloy. It has been found that for some applications an NiGa alloys the presence of %Fe, %W, %Mo and/or %Ti is desirable, but their use must be done carefully due are elements which in small contains, depending of the overall composition of the alloy, produce an increase in the melting point of the alloy.

In an embodiment the contain of %Fe in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .9% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %W in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 3.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Mo in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 1.9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Ti in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1 .2% or more or even in another embodiment 1 .9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.4; in another embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.1 ; in another embodiment %Fe+ %W+ %Mo + %Ti <0.01 . In an embodiment any of them may be absent.

It has been found that for some applications an NiGa alloys the presence of %Co, %Cr and %V is desirable, but their use must be done carefully due are elements which in small contains, depending of the overall composition of the alloy, produce an increase in the melting point of the alloy, although its effect is lower than produced by %Fe, %W, %Mo and/or %Ti.

In an embodiment the contain of %V in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 4% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excesive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .9% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Co in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 3.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.09% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment the contain of %Cr in the alloy is of 0.3% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.6% or more, in another embodiment 1 2% or more or even in another embodiment 1.9% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental and causes and excessive increase in the melting point, furthermore if other elements which tends to raise melting point are present at the same time in the alloy, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 1 .2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0 09% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 0.009% by weight and even in another embodiment less than 0.0003%. In an embodiment there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element.

In an embodiment %Co+ %Cr + %V <1.6; in another embodiment %Co+ %Cr + %V <0.8; in another embodiment %Co+ %Cr + %V <0.1. In an embodiment any of them may be absent.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of copper (% Cu) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.06% by weight or higher, in another embodiment preferably 0.2% or more, in another embodiment more preferably 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of Aluminium (% Al) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.06% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 0.2% or more, in another embodiment 1.2% or more or even in another embodiment 6% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 14.8% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 12.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 6.3% by weight are desired , in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1.8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

It has been found that for some applications the presence of magnesium (% Mg) is desirable, in an embodiment in content of 0.2% by weight or higher, in another embodiment 1.2% or more, in another embodiment 6.4% or more or even in another embodiment 18 3% or more. In contrast, in some applications the presence of this element is rather detrimental, in those cases in an embodiment contents of less than 27.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than22.6% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 14.4% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 9.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 4.2% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 2.3% by weight are desired, in another embodiment contents of less than 1 .8% by weight are desired, are desired in an embodiment contents of less than 0.2% by weight, in another embodiment preferably less than 0.08%, in another embodiment more preferably less than 0.02% and even in another embodiment less than 0.004%. Obviously there are cases where the desired nominal content is 0% or nominal absence of the element as occurs with all elements for certain applications.

In an embodiment the elements described in the preceding paragraphs may be desired separately or the combination of some of them or even all of them, as expected.

In an embodiment there are several applications that may benefit from the NiGa alloy being in powder form. In an embodiment the disclosed NiGa alloy is especially suitable for use as low melting point alloy in powder form in the powder mixture. In an embodiment the NiGa alloy is manufactured in form of powder. In the alloy preparation, in some cases these elements do not necessarily have to be incorporated in highly pure state to the NiGa alloy, but often it is economically more interesting the use of alloys of these elements, given that the alloys in question have sufficiently low melting point. In an embodiment elements from the alloys used to obtain the NiGa alloy contains other elements, disclosed as trace elements in their composition.

In an embodiment this NiGa alloy is suitable for use in powder form in the powder mixture and in the method of the invention for manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component. In an embodiment this NiGa alloy is used as low melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment this NiGa alloy is used as low melting point alloy in a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy.

In an embodiment the NiGa alloys have a melting point below 890 °C, preferably below 640 °C the, more preferably below 180 °C or even below 46 ° C.

The above-described NiGa alloy can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

The use of terms such as "below", "above", "or more", "from," "to," "up to," "at least," "greater than," "less than, " and the like, include the number recited and refer to ranges that can subsequently be broken down into sub-ranges.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least one metallic powder. In an embodiment this at least metallic powder comprises any Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al and Ti alloys in powder form. In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of the powder mixture for manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al and Ti based alloy refers to any existing alloy containing at least Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al and Ti respectively including also the Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al and Ti based alloys disclosed in the present application and any other Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al and Ti based alloy developed in the future which is suitable for the powder mixture and/or the method of the present application.

Examples of existing Ni based alloys are commercial pure and low alloy nickels (such as for example nickel 200, nickel 201 , nickel 205, nickel 270, nickel 290, permanickel alloy 300,duranickel alloy 301 among others) nickel-chromium and nickel chromium-iron series (such as for example alloy 600, nimonic alloys, alloy 600, alloy x750, alloy 718, alloy x, waspaloy, alloy 625, alloy g3/g30, alloy c-276, alloy 690 among others), iron-nickel-chromium alloys (such as alloy 800, alloy 800HT, alloy 801 , alloy 802, alloy 825 among others), nickel-iron low expansion alloys (such as invar, alloy 42, alloy 52 among others. Examples of existing Co based alloys are cobalt base material alloyed with chrome, nickel, and tungsten among others, such as grades MTEK 6, R30006, MTEK 21 , R30021 , MTEK 31 and R 30031 , Hastelloy, FSX-414 , F75 and F799 (Co-Cr-Mo alloys with very similar composition yet slightly different production processes), F90 (Co-Cr-W-Ni alloy), F562 ( Co-Ni-Cr-Mo-Ti alloy, Stellite. Examples of existing Al based alloys are Aluzinc, Al 2024 , Al 6061 , Al 3003, Duralumin, Alclad. In an embodiment Mo based alloys refers but is not limited to TZM, MHC, Mo-17.8Ni-4.3Cr-1.0Si-1.0Fe-0.8, Mo-3Mo2C. Examples of existing W based alloys are Tungsten, Nickel and Iron Alloys (HD17D, HD17.5, HD18D, HD18.5), Tungsten, Nickel and Copper Alloys (HD17, HD18), WHD 13, WHD 11 , WHD 14, WHD 12, WHD 15. Examples of existing Mg alloys are Magnox, AZ63, AZ81 , AZ31 , Elektron 21 , Elektron 675. Examples of existing Ti based alloys are Ti-5AL-2SN-ELI, Ti-8AL-1 MO-1V, Ti-6AI-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo, Ti-5AI-5Sn-2Zr- 2Mo, IMI 685, Ti 1 100, Ti 1 100,Ti6AI4V among others.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least two metallic powders. In another embodiment the powder mixture comprises at least two metallic powders with different melting point. In an embodiment the powder mixture comprises at least a low melting point alloy in powder form and a high melting point alloy in powder form. In an embodiment the low melting point metallic powder is selected from a Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al and Ti based alloy containing at least an element whose binary diagram with the selected alloy presents any kind of liquid phase at low allowing contents and low temperatures when added to the alloy. In an embodiment the low melting point alloy in powder form is selected from a Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al and Ti based alloy containing at least an element selected from: Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them among others. In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is selected from: gallium alloy, AIGa alloy, CuGa alloy, SnGa alloy, MgGa alloy, MnGa alloy, NiGa alloy, high manganese containing alloy, high manganese containing Fe based alloy further comprising carbon (steel), Al based alloy containing Mg, Al based alloy containing Sc, Al based alloy containing Sn, Al based alloy containing more than 90% by weight Al. In an embodiment the high melting point alloy is selected from a Fe, Ni, Co, Cu , Mg, W, Mo, In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of the powder mixture for manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component Al and Ti based alloy. In an embodiment the powder mixture further comprises an organic compound. In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from the new Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al or Ti based alloy disclosed in the present document containing at least one element with low melting point or promoting low melting point eutectics with other elements of the alloy among others. In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al or Ti based alloys to which is added at least one element with low melting point or promoting low melting point eutectics with an element contained in the alloy among others.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is a Fe based alloy containing at least one element with low melting point or promoting low melting point eutectics with an element contained in the alloy.

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a Ni based alloy containing at least one element with low melting point or promoting low melting point eutectics with an element contained in the alloy.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is a Co based alloy containing at least one element with low melting point or promoting low melting point eutectics with an element contained in the alloy.

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy containing at least one element with low melting point or promoting low melting point eutectics with an element contained in the alloy.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is a Mg based alloy containing at least one element with low melting point or promoting low melting point eutectics with an element contained in the alloy.

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a W based alloy containing at least one element with low melting point or promoting low melting point eutectics with an element contained in the alloy.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is a Mo based alloy containing at least one element with low melting point or promoting low melting point eutectics with an element contained in the alloy.

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy containing at least one element with low melting point or promoting low melting point eutectics with an element contained in the alloy.

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a Ti based alloy containing at least one element with low melting point or promoting low melting point eutectics with an element contained in the alloy.

In an embodiment an element with low melting point or promoting low melting point eutectics is selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them among others

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is be selected from any element whose binary phase diagram with a Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al or Ti based alloy, presents any kind of liquid phase at low alloying contents and at low temperatures is susceptible to enhance diffusivity and the formation of a liquid phase at lower temperatures when added to the alloy.

In an embodiment low allowing content of an element is when this element has a percentage in the alloy of less than 20% by weight, in other embodiment less than 16%, in other embodiment less than 12%, in other embodiment less than 9%, in other embodiment less than 7%, in other embodiment less than 4%, in other embodiment less than 1.8%, and even in other embodiment less than 0.3%.

In an embodiment phase diagram is a chart used to show conditions (% in weight, % in volume, % atomic) at which thermodynamically distinct phases occur and coexists at equilibrium.

In an embodiment binary phase diagram is a temperature-compositon (% in weight, % in volume and/or % atomic) map which indicates the equilibrium phases present at a given temperature and composition.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from any element whose binary phase diagram with a Fe based alloy material presents any kind of liquid phase at low alloying contents and at low temperatures is susceptible to enhance diffusivity and the formation of a liquid phase at lower temperatures when added to the alloy.

In other aspect a low melting point alloy may be selected from any element whose binary phase diagram with a Ni based alloy material presents any kind of liquid phase at low alloying contents and at low temperatures is susceptible to enhance diffusivity and the formation of a liquid phase at lower temperatures when added to the alloy.

In other aspect a low melting point alloy may be selected from any element whose binary phase diagram with a Co based alloy material presents any kind of liquid phase at low alloying contents and at low temperatures is susceptible to enhance diffusivity and the formation of a liquid phase at lower temperatures when added to the alloy. In other aspect a low melting point alloy may be selected from any element whose binary phase diagram with a Cu based alloy material presents any kind of liquid phase at low alloying contents and at low temperatures is susceptible to enhance diffusivity and the formation of a liquid phase at lower temperatures when added to the alloy

In other aspect a low melting point alloy may be selected from any element whose binary phase diagram with a Mg based alloy material presents any kind of liquid phase at low alloying contents and at low temperatures is susceptible to enhance diffusivity and the formation of a liquid phase at lower temperatures when added to the alloy.

In other aspect a low melting point alloy may be selected from any element whose binary phase diagram with a W based alloy material presents any kind of liquid phase at low alloying contents and at low temperatures is susceptible to enhance diffusivity and the formation of a liquid phase at lower temperatures when added to the alloy.

In other aspect a low melting point alloy may be selected from any element whose binary phase diagram with a Mo based alloy material presents any kind of liquid phase at low alloying contents and at low temperatures is susceptible to enhance diffusivity and the formation of a liquid phase at lower temperatures when added to the alloy.

In other aspect a low melting point alloy may be selected from any element whose binary phase diagram with a Al based alloy material presents any kind of liquid phase at low alloying contents and at low temperatures is susceptible to enhance diffusivity and the formation of a liquid phase at lower temperatures when added to the alloy.

In other aspect a low melting point alloy may be selected from any element whose binary phase diagram with a Ti based alloy material presents any kind of liquid phase at low alloying contents and at low temperatures is susceptible to enhance diffusivity and the formation of a liquid phase at lower temperatures when added to the alloy.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from: a Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al or Ti based alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, , Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them among others.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from: a Fe alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from: a Ni alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from: an Al alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from: a Co alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from: a Cu alloy containing at least one element selected from, Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from: a Mg alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from: a W alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from: a Mo alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from: a Ti alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them. In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg , W, Mo, Al or Ti based alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, , Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them among others In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al or Ti based alloy to which is added at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, , Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them among others

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Fe alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them. In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Fe alloy to which is added at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Ni alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them. In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Ni alloy to which is added at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Al alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them. In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Al alloy to which is added at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Co alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them. In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Co alloy to which is added at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Cu alloy containing at least one element selected from, Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them. In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Cu alloy to which is added at least one element selected from, Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Mg alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them. In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Mg alloy to which is added at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing W alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them. In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing W alloy to which is added at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Mo alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them. In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Mo alloy to which is added at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Ti alloy containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them. In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existing Ti alloy to which is added at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from new Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al or Ti based alloy disclosed in the present document containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd , In, Sn, K, Na, , Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them among others. In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from Fe alloy disclosed in the present document containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them. In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from Ni alloy disclosed in the present document containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from Al alloy disclosed in the present document containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from Co alloy disclosed in the present document containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd , In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from Cu alloy disclosed in the present document containing at least one element selected from, Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from existi Mg alloy disclosed in the present document containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from W alloy disclosed in the present document containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from Mo alloy disclosed in the present document containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

In an embodiment a low melting point alloy is selected from Ti alloy disclosed in the present document containing at least one element selected from Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them.

The size of the metallic particulates is quite critical for some applications of the present invention. Amongst others and in general terms a finer powder is easier to consolidate and thus to attain higher final densities, and also permits resolve finer details and thus allows for higher accuracy and tolerances, but it is more costly and thus renders some geometries as not economically viable. As has been seen sometimes it is advantageous in the present invention to have different phases in different nominal sizes, in such cases normally the desired nominal sizes are related to the nominal size of the main constituent. Nominal size of metallic powders, when not otherwise stated , refers to D50. Also other than the interstice filling distribution, that is to say tailored or random distributions can be advantageous for some applications. When metallic powders are used, for some applications requiring a fine detail or fast diffusion amongst others, rather fine powders can be used with a d50 of 78 microns or less, preferably 48 microns or less, more preferably 18 microns or less and even 8 microns or less. For some other applications rather coarser powders are acceptable with d50 of 780 microns or less, preferably 380 microns or less, more preferably 180 microns or less and even 120 microns or less. In some applications fine powders are even disadvantageous, so that powders with d50 of 12 microns or more are desired, preferably 22 microns or more, even more preferably 42 microns or more and even 72 microns or more. When several metallic phases are present in the form of particulates, and sizes of different phases are given a percentage of the majoritarian metallic powder spices, then the previous d50 values refer to the latter.

In an embodiment particle size distribution" (PSD) is an index (means of expression) indicating what sizes (particle size) of particles are present in what proportions (relative particle amount as a percentage where the total amount of particles is 100 %) in the sample particle group to be measured. Volume, area, length, and quantity are used as standards (dimensions) for particle amount. However, generally, the volume standard is apparently often used. Frequency distribution indicates in percentage the amounts of particles existing in respective particle size intervals after the range of target particle sizes is divided into separate intervals. Whereas, cumulative distribution (for particles passing the sieve) expresses the percentage of the amounts of particles of a specific particle size or below. Alternatively, cumulative distribution (for particles remaining on the sieve) expresses the percentage of the amounts of particles of a specific particle size or above.

In an embodiment particle size distribution is determined using sieve method: this method continues to be used for many measurements because of its simplicity, cheapness, and ease of interpretation. Methods may be simple shaking of the sample in sieves until the amount retained becomes more or less constant. In an embodiment particle size distribution is determined using laser light scattering: this method depend upon analysis of the "halo" of diffracted light produced when a laser beam passes through a dispersion of particles in air or in a liquid. The angle of diffraction increases as particle size decreases, so that this method is particularly good for measuring sizes between 0.1 and 3,000 pm. Advances in sophisticated data processing and automation have allowed this to become the dominant method used in industrial PSD determination This technique is relatively fast and can be performed on very small samples. A particular advantage is that the technique can generate a continuous measurement for analyzing process streams. Laser diffraction measures particle size distributions by measuring the angular variation in intensity of light scattered as a laser beam passes through a dispersed particulate sample. Large particles scatter light at small angles relative to the laser beam and small particles scatter light at large angles, as illustrated below. The angular scattering intensity data is then analyzed to calculate the size of the particles responsible for creating the scattering pattern, using the Mie theory of light scattering. The particle size is reported as a volume equivalent sphere diameter. Currently, there are two variations: dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fraunhofer diffraction (FD). The choice is dictated by the size range under investigation. DLS works for sizes from a few nanometers up to about one micron (1 ,000nm) and FD works from about one micron up to millimeters. In an embodiment the method for determine particle size distribution is dynamic light scattering (DLS). In an embodiment the method for determine particle size distribution is Fraunhofer diffraction (FD). In an embodiment d50 of the powders is 78 microns or less, in other embodiment 48 microns or less, in other embodiment 18 microns or less and even in other embodiment 8 microns or less.

In an embodiment d50 of the powders is 780 microns or less, in other embodiment 380 microns or less, in other embodiment 180 microns or less and even in other embodiment 120 microns or less.

In an embodiment the highest mode value of the powder mixture is 78 microns or less, in other embodiment 48 microns or less, in other embodiment 18 microns or less and even in other embodiment 8 microns or less.

In an embodiment the highest mode value of the powder mixture is 780 microns or less, in other embodiment 380 microns or less, in other embodiment 180 microns or less and even in other embodiment120 microns or less.

In an embodiment the main metallic powder has a uni-modal size distribution wherein the d50 value is 780 microns or less, in another embodiment preferably 380 microns or less, in another embodiment preferably 180 microns or less, in another embodiment preferably 120 microns or less, 78 microns or less, in another embodiment preferably 48 microns or less, preferably 18 microns or less and even 8 micros or less.

In an embodiment the main metallic powder has a bi-modal size distribution wherein the higher mode value is 780 microns or less, in another embodiment preferably 380 microns or less, in another embodiment preferably 180 microns or less, in another embodiment preferably 120 microns or less, 78 microns or less, in another embodiment preferably 48 microns or less, preferably 18 microns or less and even 8 micros or less.

In an embodiment the main metallic powder has a tri-modal size distribution wherein the higher mode value is 780 microns or less, in another embodiment preferably 380 microns or less, in another embodiment preferably 180 microns or less, in another embodiment preferably 120 microns or less, 78 microns or less, in another embodiment preferably 48 microns or less, preferably 18 microns or less and even 8 micros or less.

In the present invention, the inventor has seen that is beneficial for many applications the usage of a material which contains a polymer and at least two different metallic materials. The inventor has seen that the size of the metallic materials and also their morphology plays a very important role in the final properties that can be obtained in pieces manufactured according to the present invention. The shape of the powder is also important in terms of active surface and maximum volume fraction attainable, influenced by the spherical shape and particle size distribution.

Each metal powder can be characterized by a statistical distribution of different sizes. In an embodiment, this distribution can be characterized by statistical parameters such as the mean, median, and mode of the distribution population. In an embodiment in this regard, the mean is the average size of the population, the median is the size where 50% of the population is below and above the size value, and the mode is the size with highest frequency. Thus, the types of particle size distribution curves that can be presented are normal, skewed and multimodal. In an embodiment the normal or Gaussian distribution will be considered as the symmetric and bell-shaped curve that is characterized by the mean of the population and its standard deviation. Sweked distributions are asymmetric curves where one tail is longer than the other, resulting in left-skewed (long left tail) and right-skewed (long right tail) distributions. In an embodiment, when a curve is not symmetric the median is often the best parameter for characterization. An embodiment of the invention comprises a bimodal distribution of particle sizes, where two modes are differentiated as distinct peaks in the probability distribution curve. Another embodiments considers the presence of three, four or more modes, giving place to trimodal (3), quatrimodal (4), and so on.

If very high volume fractions of metal are desired then the powder should be quite spherical and the particle size distribution quite narrow. The sphericity of the powder, is a dimensionless parameter defined as the ratio between the surface area of a sphere having the same volume as the particle and the surface area of the particle and for some applications it may be preferably greater than 0.53, more preferably greater than 0.76, even more preferably greater than 0.86, and even more preferably greater than 0.92. When in the present invention high metallic particulate compactation is desired often a high sphericity of the metallic powder is desireable preferably greater than 0.92, more preferably greater than 0.94, even more preferably greater than 0.98 and even 1. When speaking of sphericity, for some applications the sphericity can be evaluated for just the majority of the powder in terms of the average sphericity of the most spherical paticulates. The 60% of the volume of powder employed or more, preferably 78% or more, more preferably 83% or more and even more preferably 96% or more should be considered to calculate the average. Some applications where active surface is determinant on the quality of the diffusion during the sintering, tend to benefit from powders with greater active surface, and thus high sphericity in then not necessarily desirable, in such cases sometimes sphericities below 0.94, preferably below 0.88%, more preferably below 0.68% and even below 0.48 can be advantageous. In an embodiment at least part of the metallic powders is coated and/or embedded, or in any other possible configuration as explained in Figure 4, in this case in an embodiment the sphericity is referred to the AM particulates. The inventor has seen that for many instances of the present invention the mean particle size of the metallic powders used , along with particle distribution and sphericity can play a capital role not only on the final properties but even on the geometries that can be attained. In an embodiment different size fractions of at least two metallic powders and one polymer are mixed together. In many cases the organic material may be added to the mixture in powder form, with their own particle size distribution. In other embodiments a metallic powder or the mixture of more than two powders with different melting points may be coated and/or embedded, or in any other possible configuration as explained in FIGURE 4, in this case in an embodiment the system is assimilate to as de case of one metallic powder distribution wherein the sizes are referred to the AM particulates (as defined through this document). If high densities are required, which is often the case when high mechanical properties of the final component are desired , a high density of metallic powder mix is desirable, even as near as possible to close packing in the case of spherical powders. In an embodiment a high apparent density allows avoiding subsequent defects during compaction and several models have been developed for predicting it. In an embodiment it is beneficial for enhancing the packing density to consider a non-uniform size distribution.

As it is clear from the description in this document for some implementations of the present invention one of the critical parameters to determine attainable accuracy is the AM Particulate size, while for other implementations is rather the metallic powder size.

As is clear from the description in this document for some implementations of the present invention one of the critical parameters to determine attainable accuracy is the AM Particulate size, while for other implementations is rather the metallic powder size. It has also been seen that for many instances of the present invention, not a great accuracy is required in such instances and when speed of manufacturing is priorized, when accuracy is determined by the AM Particulate size, often AM particulates with an equivalent mean diameter of 22 microns or bigger, preferably 55 microns or bigger, more preferably 102 microns or bigger, and even 220 microns or bigger can be used. In the same scenario but for technologies where metallic powder size determines accuracy, equivalent mean diameters of 16 microns or more are often desirable, preferably 32 microns or more, more preferably 52 microns or more and even 106 microns or more. On the other hand, for cases where higher accuracy is advisable, the inventor has seen that when accuracy is determined by the AM particulate size, often AM particulates with an equivalent mean diameter of 88 microns or smaller, preferably 38 microns or smaller, more preferably 18 microns or smaller, and even 8 microns or smaller can be used. In the same scenario but for technologies where metallic powder size determines accuracy, equivalent mean diameters of 48 microns or smaller are often desirable, preferably 28 microns or less.

In an embodiment AM particulates used have an equivalent mean diameter of 16 microns or more, in other embodiment 22 microns or more, in other embodiment 32 microns or more, in other embodiment 52 microns or more, in other embodiment 55 microns or more, in other embodiment 102 microns or more, in other embodiment 106 microns or more, and even in other embodiment 220 microns or more. In other embodiment AM particulates used have an equivalent mean diameter of 88 microns or smaller, in other embodiment 38 microns or smaller, in other embodiment 18 microns or smaller, and even in other embodiment 8 microns or smaller.

In an embodiment it would be interesting to have a bimodal distribution for a more dense packing and even in other embodiment in order to have even a more dense packing to have a trimodal particle size distribution, this not exclude than for certain applications more complex size distribution are required.

In this aspect, it is often particularly advantageous for the proper mixing and further metallic powder volume fraction in the particulates to choose different particle size, so that for example the main powder size is chosen so that it will tend to occupy the main positions of the close packed structure, in an embodiment it is interesting to choose a secondary powder with a size distribution lower than the main particle size. In a particular application the secondary powder size is chosen so that it tends to occupy the octahedral interstices, in a particular application thus the relation between the main and the secondary particle size should be roughly 1 :0.414. In some applications it is interesting to choose a third powder size coinciding with another size distribution lower than the main and secondary particle size. In a particular application a third powder is chosen to have a size so that it tends to fill the tetrahedral sites, thus the relation of sizes between the main and third powder should be roughly 1 :0.225).

Depending on the AM technology or other shaping technique chosen and the associated powder binding technology the polymer or mix of polymers (and eventually other functional constituents like wax, pigments, any kind of charge ... ) is chosen accordingly. If high densities are required, which is often the case when high mechanical properties of the final component are desired, a high density of metallic powder mix is desirable, even as near as possible to close packing in the case of spherical powders. It is often particularly advantageous for the proper mixing and further metallic powder volume fraction in the particulates to choose different particle sizes for the different metallic powders, so that for example the main powder size is chosen so that it will tend to occupy the main positions of the close packed structure, while the secondary powder size is chosen so that it tends to occupy the octahedral interstices, thus the relation of sizes should be roughly 1 :0.414. Eventually a third powder is chosen to have a size so that it tends to fill the tetrahedral sites, thus the relation of sizes should be roughly 1 :0.225.

In an embodiment the powder mixture has a main powder, a secondary powder with a relation between the main and the secondary particle size 1 :0.414. In another embodiment the powder mixture further comprises a third powder with a relation between the main and the third powder particle size 1 :0.225. In an embodiment this relation is made respect to the d50 of the main powder in other embodiment to the highest mode value of the main powder.

In an embodiment the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are wholly occupied by a secondary powder. In other embodiment 3/4 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by a secondary powder. In other embodiment 1/2 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by a secondary powder. In other embodiment 1/3 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by a secondary powder. In other embodiment 1/4 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by a secondary powder.

In an embodiment the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are wholly occupied by a secondary and a third powder. In other embodiment 3/4 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by a secondary and a third powder. In other embodiment 1/2 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by a secondary and a third powder. In other embodiment 1/3 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by a secondary and a third powder. In other embodiment 1/4 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by a secondary and a third powder.

In an embodiment it is often particularly advantageous for the proper mixing and further metallic powder volume fraction in the particulates to choose different particle size, so that for example the main powder size is chosen so that it will tend to occupy the main positions of the close packed structure, in an embodiment it is interesting to choose a secondary powder with a size distribution lower than the main particle size. In a particular application the secondary powder size is chosen so that it tends to occupy the interstices of main powder, in a particular application thus the relation between the main and the secondary particle size should be roughly 1 :0.125. In some applications it is interesting to choose a third powder size to occupy the interstices of main powder together with the secondary powder, for example if the cost of the secondary powder is high or if the composition of the secondary powder has elements which are not desired in high contain in the powder mixture, thus the relation of sizes between the main and third powder should be roughly 1 :0.125). In an embodiment the powder mixture has a main powder, a secondary powder with a relation between the main and the secondary particle size 1 :0.125. In another embodiment the powder mixture further comprises a third powder with a relation between the main and the third powder particle size 1 :0 125. In an embodiment this relation is made respect to the d50 of the main powder in other embodiment to the highest mode value of the main powder. In another embodiment more than two powders having a relation of sizes with the main powder 1 :0.125 may be added to the powder mixture.

In an embodiment it is often particularly advantageous for the proper mixing and further metallic powder volume fraction in the particulates to choose different particle size, so that for example the main powder size is chosen so that it will tend to occupy the main positions of the close packed structure, but also part of the insterticies between the particles of highest size of the main powder, in an embodiment for example having a main powder having a bimodal distribution of particles size, in an embodiment it is interesting to choose this second size of the main powder particle distribution with a relation between the highest particles of the main powder (the particles of the highest mode value of the main powder) and the smaller particles be roughly 1 :0.125.

In an embodiment the powder mixture further comprise particles with a size relation between the main and this particles of 1 :0.154. In an embodiment these particles are from the main powder. In other embodiment these particles are from the secondary powder. In other embodiment these particles are from the third powder.

In an embodiment the inventor has been able to observe the surprisingly beneficial effect of homogeinity of properties and in a particular case a lack of micro-segregation when the tetrahedral or octahedral holes of main particles are wholly occupied or round fraction of 1 / 2 , 1/3 or ¼. By close to a round fraction is understood a difference of +/- 10% or less, preferably +/- 8% or less, more preferably +/- 4% or less and even +/- 2 % or less related to the round fraction.

In an embodiment main power refers to the metallic powder having the highest % in volume of all the metallic powders.

In an embodiment main power refers to the metallic powder having the highest % in weight of all the metallic powders.

In an embodiment and depending of the application the main powder may be a low melting point alloy and in other applications a high melting point alloy.

In an embodiment main power refers to a high melting point alloy.

In an embodiment main power refers to a the high melting point alloy having the highest weigth percentage of the high melting point alloys of the powder mixture.

In an embodiment main power refers to a the high melting point alloy having the highest volume percentage of the high melting point alloys of the powder mixture

In an embodiment main power refers to a low melting point alloy.

In an embodiment main power refers to a the low melting point alloy having the highest weight percentage of the low melting point alloys of the powder mixture.

In an embodiment main power refers to a the low melting point alloy having the highest volume percentage of the low melting point alloys of the powder mixture.

In an embodiment it is interesting have even smaller particles (referred in this document as Small Particles). In an embodiment the relation between the main and this small particles is 0.18 or less the main particle size, in other embodiment 0.165 or less, in other embodiment 0.145 or less, in other embodiment 0.12 or less, and even in other embodiment 0.095 or less. In an embodiment this relation is made respect to the d50 of the main powder in other embodiment to the highest mode value of the main powder. In an embodiment these Small Particles are 5.3% in volume or more, in another embodiment 6.4% or more, in another embodiment 7.0% or more, in another embodiment 7.3% or more, in another embodiment to be 9.3%, in another embodiment to be 1 1.2% in volume or more, in another embodiment 14.7% or more, in another embodiment 18.7% or more, in another embodiment 21.4% or more, in another embodiment 24.3% or more, in another embodiment 28.2% in volume or more, in other embodiment to be 29.2% or more, and even in other embodiment to be 32.6% or more. of the powder mixture.

In an embodiment the voids of the main powder are wholly occupied by Small Particles from a secondary powder. In other embodiment 3/4 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by Small Particles from a a secondary powder. In other embodiment 1/2 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by Small Particles from a a secondary powder. In other embodiment 1 /3 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by Small Particles from a a secondary powder. In other embodiment 1/4 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by a Small Particles from a secondary powder.

In an embodiment the voids of the main powder are wholly occupied by Small Particles from a secondary and a third powder. In other embodiment 3/4 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by Small Particles from a a secondary and a third powder. In other embodiment 1/2 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by Small Particles from a secondary and a third powder. In other embodiment 1/3 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by Small Particles from a a secondary and a third powder. In other embodiment 1/4 or less of the octahedral and/or tetrahedral holes of the main powder are occupied by a Small Particles from a secondary and a third powder.

In an embodiment the Small Particles are 5.3% in volume or more of the powder mixture, in other embodiment to be 6.4% or more, in other embodiment 7.0% or more, in another embodiment 7.3% or more in other embodiment 9.3% or more, in other embodiment to be 1 1 .2% or more, in other embodiment to be 14.7% or more, in other embodiment 18.7% or more, in other embodiment 21.4% or more, in other embodiment to be 24.3% or more, in other embodiment to be 27.1 % or more, in another embodiment 28.2% in volume or more in other embodiment to be 29.2% or more, and even in other embodiment to be 32.6% or more.

In an embodiment the Small Particles are 5.3% in volume or more of the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture), in other embodiment to be 6.4% or more, in other embodiment 7.0% or more, in another embodiment 7.3% or more in other embodiment 9.3% or more, in other embodiment to be 1 1 .2% or more, in other embodiment to be 14.7% or more, in other embodiment 18.7% or more, in other embodiment 21.4% or more, in other embodiment to be 24.3% or more, in other embodiment to be 27.1 % or more, in another embodiment 28.2% in volume or more in other embodiment to be 29.2% or more, and even in other embodiment to be 32.6% or more.

In an embodiment the Small Particles are 33.1 % in volume or less of the powder mixture, in other embodiment to be 29.3% or less, in other embodiment to be 26.4% or less, in other embodiment 22.9% or less, in other embodiment 18.6% or less, in other embodiment to be 15.6% or less, in other embodiment to be 12.7% or less, in other embodiment 9.3% or less, in other embodiment 8.1 % or less, in other embodiment to be 6.1 % or less, in other embodiment to be 4.2% or less, in other embodiment to be 3.2% or less, and even in other embodiment to be 1.9% or less.

In an embodiment the Small Particles are 33.1 % in volume or less of the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture), in other embodiment to be 29.3% or less, in other embodiment to be 26.4% or less, in other embodiment 22.9% or less, in other embodiment 18.6% or less, in other embodiment to be 15.6% or less, in other embodiment to be 12.7% or less, in other embodiment 9.3% or less, in other embodiment 8.1 % or less, in other embodiment to be 6.1 % or less, in other embodiment to be 4.2% or less, in other embodiment to be 3.2% or less, and even in other embodiment to be 1.9% or less.

In an embodiment these small particles are filling the voids of the particles from main powder.

In an embodiment these small particles are from a low melting point alloy and are filling the voids of the particles from a main powder. In an embodiment this main powder is a high melting point alloy.

In an embodiment the powder mixture comprises small particles from at least one low melting point alloy in powder form.

In an embodiment the powder mixture comprises a main powder and a secondary powder wherein the particle size relation between the main and this particles from the secondary powder is 0.18 or less the main particle size, in other embodiment 0.165 or less, in other embodiment 0.145 or less, in other embodiment 0.12 or less, and even in other embodiment 0.095 or less.

In an embodiment to obtain a high tap density of the powder mixture, bi-modal and/or tri-modal size distributions are used, having the powder mixture a narrow size distribution of the particle size around each mode value of the distribution and particles with a high sphericity. In an embodiment the bi-modal distributions, have a main particle size, corresponding with the higher mode value of the particle size distribution being also the higher volume percentage of the powder mixture, and other mode value corresponding with particles of small size (with a diameter around 0.414 times the diameter of main size particles) used to fill totally or at least partially the octaedrical voids between the particles of the main size. In an embodiment tri-modal particle size distributions are used, wherein even smaller particles(with a diameter around 0.215 times the diameter of main size particles) are used to totally or at least partially fill the tetraedrical voids between the particles of the main size

In an embodiment mixtures of two or three powder sizes are preferred. In an embodiment a bimodal distribution of the powder mixture is selected, having a main fraction of particles, which are more than 70% in volume of the powder mixture, and other fraction of smaller particles having a diameter 0.125 times the diameter of the particles of the main fraction

In an embodiment the powder mixture comprises small particles from at least one low melting point alloy in powder form.

In an embodiment the powder mixture comprises small particles from at least one high melting point alloy in powder form.

In an embodiment the powder mixture comprises small particles from at least one low melting point alloy in powder form and a high melting point alloy in powder form.

In an embodiment the powder mixture comprises further a third metallic powder having also a particle size relation between the main and this particles from the third powder is 0.18 or less the main particle size, in other embodiment 0.165 or less, in other embodiment 0.145 or less , in other embodiment 0.12 or less, and even in other embodiment 0.095 or less.

In another embodiment the main powder has also a size distribution wherein further contains small particles.

In an embodiment at least 26% of the small particles are from the main powder. In other embodiment 33%or more. In other embodiment 46%or more. In other embodiment 61 %or more. In other embodiment 72% or more and even in other embodiment 84% or more.

In an embodiment at least 26% of the small particles are from a high melting point alloy. In other embodiment 33% or more. In other embodiment 46%or more In other embodiment 61 %or more. In other embodiment 72% or more and even in other embodiment 84% or more.

In an embodiment the powder mixture has a packing density higher than 41.3%, in another embodiment higher than 52.7%, in another embodiment higher than 64.3%, in another embodiment higher than 71 .6%, in another embodiment higher than 77.3%, in another embodiment higher than 86.8% and in another embodiment higher than 91.2%, in another embodiment higher than 93.8% and even in another embodiment higher than 96.6%.

In an embodiment the powder mixture is vibrated.

Depending on the importance of the metallic volume fraction in the AM particulates and the importance of the homogeneous mixing of the different metallic and in some cases polymer powders, narrow size distributions of the powders have to be used. In this sense the inventor has seen that it is desirable for a good close compacting to have a size distribution with a geometric standard deviation below 1 .8, preferably below 1 .4 , more preferably below 0.8 and even more preferably below 0.4. In an embodiment where there are more than one mode values in the distribution this geometric standard deviation refers to the size distribution around any of the different mode values (to clarify this for example where two powder mixtures are considered having two or more mode values there will be two or more geometric standard deviations one around each mode value and the geometric standard deviation for the two or more mode values may has a narrow size distribution). In the case of having some of the particles filling a particular type of interstice it is desirable to have a mean particle size (d50) which is within a 38% deviation from the theoretical interstice size, preferably within a 22% more preferably within a 12% and even within a 4%. Such deviation is calculated as follows: for example in the case of the octahedral interstices

d50(large particle) x 0.414 x (1 + X%) > d50(small particle) > d50(large particle) x 0.414 x ( 1 - X%) where X% is the percentual deviation.

In an embodiment the size distribution of the particles in the powder mixture have a geometric standard deviation below 1.8, preferably below 1.4, more preferably below 0.8 and even more preferably below 0.4.

In an embodiment the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders comprised in the powder mixture) is 24% by weight or more of the total composition of the powder mixture, in another embodiment 36% or more, in another embodiment 56% or more, and even in another embodiment 72% or more.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least one metallic powder or more than one metallic powder with similar melting point. In an embodiment this at least one metallic powder is any of the Fe based alloys disclosed in the present document in powder form. In an embodiment the powder mixture further comprises an organic compound. The at least one metallic powder; in an embodiment the metallic powder particles have an sphericity of 0.53 or more, in another embodiment greater than 0.76, and even in another embodiment greater than 0.86, in another embodiment greater than 0.92. In another embodiment greater than 0.94, and even in another embodiment greater than 0.98. in another embodiment the metallic powder has a size distribution such as to obtain a packing density of the powder mixture higher than 41.3%, in another embodiment higher than 52.7%, in another embodiment higher than 64.3%, in another embodiment higher than 71.6%, in another embodiment higher than 77.3%, in another embodiment higher than 86.8% and in another embodiment higher than 91 .2%, in another embodiment higher than 93.8% and even in another embodiment higher than 96.6%. In an embodiment this powder mixture by means of a fasting shaping method, and often post-processing treatments allows the manufacture of a metallic or at least partially metallic component. In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of this powder mixture to the manufacture of a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least one metallic powder.

In an embodiment when only one metallic powder from an alloy is contained in the powder mixture, metallic phase is referred to this metallic powder. In another embodiment, when more than one metallic powders from different alloys are contained in the powder mixture, metallic phase refers to all the metallic powders.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least two metallic powders.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least one low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy in powder form.

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a gallium alloy. In an embodiment the low melting point is a gallium alloy containing more than 51 % by weight Ga, in another embodiment more than 62%, in another embodiment more than 71 %, in another embodiment more than 83%, in another embodiment more than 91 %, and even in another embodiment more than 96%. For some applications gallium content of the gallium alloy may be replaced by Sn, Bi, Sc, Mn, B, K, Na, Mg and/or Si , in an embodiment at least 5% by weight of gallium is replaced with an element selected from Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd , In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg in another embodiment at least 10%, in another embodiment at least 15%, in another embodiment at least 25% and even in another embodiment at least 30%.

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is an AIGa alloy. In an embodiment the low melting point is an Al based alloy containing more than 0.1 % by weight Ga, in another embodiment more than 1 .2%, in another embodiment more than 3.4%, in another embodiment more than 5.7%, in another embodiment more than 7.1 %, in another embodiment more than 9.6%, in another embodiment more than 14.3%, in another embodiment more than 19.1 %, and even in another embodiment more than 24%. For some applications gallium content of the gallium alloy may be replaced by Sn, Bi, Sc, Mn, B, K, Na, Mg and/or Si , in an embodiment at least 5% by weight of gallium is replaced with an element selected from Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg in another embodiment at least 10%, in another embodiment at least 15%, in another embodiment at least 25% and even in another embodiment at least 30%.

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a SnGa alloy. In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a Sn based alloy, containing more than 0.1 % Ga, in another embodiment more than 1 .2%, in another embodiment more than 3.4%, in another embodiment more than 5.7%, in another embodiment more than 7.1 %, in another embodiment more than 9.6%, in another embodiment more than 14.3%, in another embodiment more than 19.1%, and even in another embodiment more than 24%. In an embodiment the low melting point is a existing Sn based alloy containing more than 0.1 % Ga, in another embodiment more than 1.2%, in another embodiment more than 3.4%, in another embodiment more than 5.7%, in another embodiment more than 7.1 %, and even in another embodiment more than 9.6%. For some applications gallium content of the gallium alloy may be replaced by Sn, Bi, Sc, Mn, B, K, Na, Mg and/or Si , in an embodiment at least 5% by weight of gallium is replaced with an element selected from Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd. In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg in another embodiment at least 10%, in another embodiment at least 15%, in another embodiment at least 25% and even in another embodiment at least 30%.

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a MgGa alloy. In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a Mg based alloy, containing more than 0.1 % Ga, in another embodiment more than 1.2%, in another embodiment more than 3.4%, in another embodiment more than 5.7%, in another embodiment more than 7.1 %, in another embodiment more than 9.6%, in another embodiment more than 14.3%, in another embodiment more than 19.1 %, and even in another embodiment more than 24%. For some applications gallium content of the gallium alloy may be replaced by Sn, Bi, Sc, Mn, B, K, Na, Mg and/or Si , in an embodiment at least 5% by weight of gallium in the gallium alloy is replaced with an element selected from Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg in another embodiment at least 10% , in another embodiment at least 15% , in another embodiment at least 25% and even in another embodiment at least 30%

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a CuGa alloy. In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy, containing more than 0.1 % Ga, in another embodiment more than 1 .2%, in another embodiment more than 3.4%, in another embodiment more than 5.7%, in another embodiment more than 7.1 %, in another embodiment more than 9.6%, in another embodiment more than 14.3%, in another embodiment more than 19.1 %, and even in another embodiment more than 24%. In an embodiment the low melting point is a existing Cu based alloy containing more than 0. 1 % Ga , in another embodiment more than 1 .2%, in another embodiment more than 3.4%, in another embodiment more than 5.7%, in another embodiment more than 7.1 %, and even in another embodiment more than 9.6%. For some applications gallium content of the gallium alloy may be replaced by Sn, Bi, Sc, Mn, B, K, Na, Mg and/or Si , in an embodiment at least 5% by weight of gallium is replaced with an element selected from Bi , Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd , In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg in another embodiment at least 10%, in another embodiment at least 15%, in another embodiment at least 25% and even in another embodiment at least 30%.

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a MnGa alloy. In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a Mn based alloy, containing more than 0.1 % by weight Ga, in another embodiment more than 1 .2%, in another embodiment more than 3.4%, in another embodiment more than 5.7%, in another embodiment more than 7.1 %, in another embodiment more than 9.6%, in another embodiment more than 14.3%, in another embodiment more than 19.1 %, and even in another embodiment more than 24% . For some applications gallium content of the gallium alloy may be replaced by Sn, Bi, Sc, Mn, B, K, Na, Mg and/or Si , in an embodiment at least 5% by weight of gallium is replaced with an element selected from Bi , Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd , In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg in another embodiment at least 10%, in another embodiment at least 15%, in another embodiment at least 25% and even in another embodiment at least 30%-

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a NiGa alloy. In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a Ni based alloy, containing more than 0.1 % by weight Ga, in another embodiment more than 1 .2% , in another embodiment more than 3.4%, in another embodiment more than 5.7%, in another embodiment more than 7.1 %, in another embodiment more than 9.6%, in another embodiment more than 14.3%, in another embodiment more than 19.1 %, and even in another embodiment more than 24%. For some applications gallium content of the gallium alloy may be replaced by Sn, Bi, Sc, Mn, B, K, Na, Mg and/or Si , in an embodiment at least 5% by weight of gallium is replaced with an element selected from Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg in another embodiment at least 10%, in another embodiment at least 15% , in another embodiment at least 25% and even in another embodiment at least 30%.

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a high manganese containing alloy. In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is a high manganese Fe based alloy containing carbon. In an embodiment the low melting point is a Fe based alloy containing carbon (and alloy comprising iron, manganese and gallium) and more than 0.1 % by weight Ga, in another embodiment more than 1 .2%, in another embodiment more than 3.4%, in another embodiment more than 5.7%, in another embodiment more than 7. 1 %, in another embodiment more than 9.6%, in another embodiment more than 14.3%, in another embodiment more than 19.1 %, and even in another embodiment more than 24% .

In another embodiment the low melting point alloy is a MgAI alloy. In an embodiment the low melting point is a Mg based alloy (and alloy comprising manganese and gallium ) containing more than 0. 1 % by weight Ga, in another embodiment more than 1 .2%, in another embodiment more than 3.4%, in another embodiment more than 5 7%, in another embodiment more than 7.1 %, in another embodiment more than 9.6%, in another embodiment more than 14.3%, in another embodiment more than 19. 1 %, and even in another embodiment more than 24%. For some applications gallium content of the gallium alloy may be replaced by Sn, Bi, Sc, Mn, B, K, Na, Mg and/or Si , in an embodiment at least 5% by weight of gallium is replaced with an element selected from Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn , Cd , In, Sn, K, Na, Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg in another embodiment at least 10%, in another embodiment at least 15% , in another embodiment at least 25% and even in another embodiment at least 30%.

In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is selected from: a Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al or Ti based alloy.

In an embodiment the Fe based alloy particles have a d50 value of 780 microns or less, in another embodiment 380 microns or less, in another embodiment 180 microns or less, in another embodiment 120 microns or less, 78 microns or less, in another embodiment 48 microns or less, in another embodiment 18 microns or less and even in another embodiment 8 micros or less.

In an embodiment the Ni based alloy particles have a d50 value of 780 microns or less, in another embodiment 380 microns or less, in another embodiment 180 microns or less, in another embodiment 120 microns or less, 78 microns or less, in another embodiment 48 microns or less, in another embodiment 18 microns or less and even in another embodiment 8 micros or less.

In an embodiment the Co based alloy particles have a d50 value of 780 microns or less, in another embodiment 380 microns or less, in another embodiment 180 microns or less, in another embodiment 120 microns or less, 78 microns or less, in another embodiment 48 microns or less, in another embodiment 18 microns or less and even in another embodiment 8 micros or less.

In an embodiment the Cu based alloy particles have a d50 value of 780 microns or less, in another embodiment 380 microns or less, in another embodiment 180 microns or less, in another embodiment 120 microns or less, 78 microns or less, in another embodiment 48 microns or less, in another embodiment 18 microns or less and even in another embodiment 8 micros or less.

In an embodiment the Mg based alloy particles have a d50 value of 780 microns or less, in another embodiment 380 microns or less, in another embodiment 180 microns or less, in another embodiment 120 microns or less, 78 microns or less, in another embodiment 48 microns or less, in another embodiment 18 microns or less and even in another embodiment 8 micros or less

In an embodiment the W based alloy particles have a d50 value of 780 microns or less, in another embodiment 380 microns or less, in another embodiment 180 microns or less, in another embodiment 120 microns or less, 78 microns or less, in another embodiment 48 microns or less, in another embodiment 18 microns or less and even in another embodiment 8 micros or less

In an embodiment the Mo based alloy particles have a d50 value of 780 microns or less, in another embodiment 380 microns or less, in another embodiment 180 microns or less, in another embodiment 120 microns or less, 78 microns or less, in another embodiment 48 microns or less, in another embodiment 18 microns or less and even in another embodiment 8 micros or less.

In an embodiment the Al based alloy particles have a d50 value of 780 microns or less, in another embodiment 380 microns or less, in another embodiment 180 microns or less, in another embodiment 120 microns or less, 78 microns or less, in another embodiment 48 microns or less, in another embodiment 18 microns or less and even in another embodiment 8 micros or less

In an embodiment the Ti based alloy particles have a d50 value of 780 microns or less, in another embodiment 380 microns or less, in another embodiment 180 microns or less, in another embodiment 120 microns or less, 78 microns or less, in another embodiment 48 microns or less, in another embodiment 18 microns or less and even in another embodiment 8 micros or less

In an embodiment the high melting point alloy is any existing Fe alloy. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is any of the Fe based alloy disclosed in the present document. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is any Fe based alloy discovered in the future suitable for the powder mixture of the present invention.

In an embodiment the high melting point alloy is any existing Ni alloy. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is the Ni based alloy disclosed in the present document. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is any Ni based alloy discovered in the future suitable for the powder mixture of the present invention.

In an embodiment the high melting point alloy is any existing Co alloy. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is the Co based alloy disclosed in the present document. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is any Co based alloy discovered in the future suitable for the powder mixture of the present invention.

In an embodiment the high melting point alloy is any existing Cu alloy. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is the Cu based alloy disclosed in the present document. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is any Cu based alloy discovered in the future suitable for the powder mixture of the present invention.

In an embodiment the high melting point alloy is any existing Mg alloy. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is the Mg based alloy disclosed in the present document. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is any Mg based alloy discovered in the future suitable for the powder mixture of the present invention. In an embodiment the high melting point alloy is any existing W alloy. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is the W based alloy disclosed in the present document. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is any W based alloy discovered in the future suitable for the powder mixture of the present invention.

In an embodiment the high melting point alloy is any existing Mo alloy. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is the Mo based alloy disclosed in the present document. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is any Mo based alloy discovered in the future suitable for the powder mixture of the present invention.

In an embodiment the high melting point alloy is any existing Al alloy. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is the Al based alloy disclosed in the present document. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is any Al based alloy discovered in the future suitable for the powder mixture of the present invention.

In an embodiment the high melting point alloy is any existing Ti alloy. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is the Ti based alloy disclosed in the present document. In an embodiment a high melting point alloy is any Ti based alloy discovered in the future suitable for the powder mixture of the present invention.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is an Al based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound. In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Al based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Al based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound. In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Al based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Al based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound. In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Al based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Al based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Al based alloy and optionally an organic compound. In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the packing density of the powder mixture is higher than 41.3%, in another embodiment higher than 52.7%, in another embodiment higher than 64.3%, in another embodiment higher than 71.6%, in another embodiment higher than 77.3%, in another embodiment higher than 86.8% and in another embodiment higher than 91.2%, in another embodiment higher than 93.8% and even in another embodiment higher than 96.6%.

In an embodiment the high melting point alloy is the main powder of the powder mixture.

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is selected to fill the octaedrical and/or tetraedrical holes of the particles of the high melting point alloy

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy is selected to fill the voids of the particles from main powder.

In an embodiment the low melting point has a particle size relation is 0.18 or less of the high melting point particle size, in other embodiment 0.165 or less, in other embodiment 0.145 or less, in other embodiment 0.12 or less, and even in other embodiment 0.095 or less.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least one metallic powder and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least two metallic powders with different melting point and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

n an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component. In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is an Al based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Al based alloy having more than 90% by weight Al and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Al based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an AIGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component. In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an A! based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an CuGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Al based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an NiGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component. In an embodimenl the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Al based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an SnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Al based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MgGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component. In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Al based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an MnGa alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Fe based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ni based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Co based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is a Cu based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Al based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Ti based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component. In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is an W based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component

In an embodiment the invention refers to the use of a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point metallic alloy in powder form wherein the low melting point alloy is an Gallium alloy and the high melting point alloy is an Mo based alloy and optionally an organic compound to manufacture a metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to method for the manufacturing of at least partly metallic objects such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

a. providing a component which contains at least one organic phase and at least one metallic phase;

b. shaping the component with a manufacturing process where the shape retention is mostly provided by the organic phase;

c. subjecting the component to a temperature above 0.35Tm, wherein Tm is the melting temperature of the metallic phase having the lowest melting point, and allowing sufficient time for the formation of a liquid phase and/or adequate diffusion between the metallic phases, thereby ensuring that the shape retention process in the metallic phases is completed before the at least one organic phase is degraded.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method according to claim 1 where the component contains at least two metallic phases and the difference in the melting temperature between the metallic phases is 1 10 °C or more.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method according to claims 1 or 2 where the component contains at least one metallic phase with a melting temperature of 490 °C or less.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method according to any one of claims 1 to 3 where the component contains at least one metallic phase whose domain of coexistence of a liquid and a solid phase extends over 1 10 °C or more.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method according to any one of claims 1 to 4 where the component contains at least one metallic phase whose melting temperature increases at least 1 10 °C at the within the implementation of step c) as a result of incorporation through diffusion or dissolution of at least one chemical element of a another metallic phase.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method according to any one of claims 1 to 5 where the component contains at least one metallic phase with 0.1 wt% or more Gallium.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method according to any one of claims 1 to 6 where the shape-retention manufacturing process in step b) is an Additive Manufacturing method.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method according to any one of claims 1 to 7 where the shape-retention manufacturing process in step b) of the method is an Additive Manufacturing method based on the selective curing of a photo-sensible resin.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method according to any one of claims 1 to 8 where the shape-retention manufacturing process in step b) of the method is an Additive Manufacturing method based on the selective curing of a resin through a chemical reaction.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method according to any one of claims 1 to 9 where the shape-retention manufacturing process in step b) of the method is an Additive Manufacturing method based on the selective melting or plastification of a polymer. In an embodiment the invention refers to a method according to any one of claims 1 to 10 where the shape-retention manufacturing process in step b) of the method is an Additive Manufacturing method based on localized melting or softening of a polymer where the temperature gradient for the selective melting or softening is achieved through an additive or agent that either intensifies or prevents the energy flow from a broader source into the polymer and said agent can be applied in controlled patterns.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method according to any one of claims 1 to 1 1 where the shape-retention manufacturing process in step b) of the method is a polymer shaping method selected from the group consisting of injection molding, blow-molding, thermoforming, casting, compression, pressing, RIM, extrusion, rotomolding, dip molding and foam shaping.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method according to any one of claims 1 to 12 where the shape-retention manufacturing process in step b) of the method is an Additive Manufacturing method based on the curing of a photo-sensible resin where a continuous curing method is employed.

In aA method according to any one of claims 1 to 13 wherein, in step c), the component is subjected to a temperature above 0.35 * Tm, wherein Tm is the melting temperature of the metallic phase having the lowest melting point, and below the highest degradation temperature of the at least one organic phases, and then permitting sufficient time to allow an increase of concentration at 10 micrometres under the surface of the particulates of the majoritarian metallic phases of at least one element of the low melting point metallic phases, adds up to a relative weighted average of a 3% or more (only the 30% with the highest values has been considered to calculate the mean). Wherein the distance under the surface is measured orthogonal to the contact plain between the two different nature particulates on the normal crossing the first point of contact

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method according to any one of claims 1 to 14 where at some point during steps b) or c) of the method at least a 1 vol% metallic liquid phase is formed.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a feedstock containing at least one organic phase and at least one metallic phase with a melting temperature lower than twice the highest degradation temperature of the organic phases, where the melting temperature of the at least one metallic phase and the degradation temperature of the at least one organic phase are expressed in Kelvin degrees, and where the metallic phases represent a volume fraction of 36% or more. In the present invention a method is developed for the construction of cost effective pieces trough AM, or eventually another fast shaping process. The method is often valid for pieces with any kind of air to material ratio, and any kind of size or geometry. In an embodiment the method allows the manufacture of big components that can not be obtainedwith traditional manufacturing methods. In an embodiment the present invention relates to the manufacture of metallic or at least partially metallic components, using a powder mixture comprising at least one metallic powder by shaping the component and in some embodiments subjecting the component obtained after shaping to a post-processing treatment. In an embodiment an organic material is further comprised in the powder mixture. In another embodiment a polymer is comprised in the powder mixture. In an embodiment at least one powder is partially and/or totally coated by an organic material. In an embodiment when there are more than one metallic powder in the powder mixture, any of the powders may be at least partially coated with a polymer and there may be more than one polymer totally or at least partially coating each metallic powder and/or different polymers may be used for coating totally or at least partially each metallic powder. The method has several realizations depending on the particular piece to be manufactured .

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique resulting in a shaped component

subjecting the shaped component to at least one post-procesing treatment

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method which allows the manufacture of components in a fast way and with lower prices when compared to traditional manufacturing processes. In another embodiment the invention allows the manufacture of complex geometries which cannot be obtained using traditional manufacturing processes such as forging, casting, stamping, sandblasting, die cutting, case hardening and/or soldering among other manufacturing processes for metallic or at least partially metallic components.

In an embodiment shaped component refers to the component obtained after submit the powder mixture to a shaping technique.

In an embodiment metallic powder refers to an alloy in powder form. In an embodiment metallic powder refers to a Fe, Ni, Mo, Ti, Al, W, Cu, Co and/or Mg based alloy in powder form.

In an embodiment a powder mixture comprising at least one metallic powder refers to a mixture of one or more alloys in powder form.

In an embodiment alloy refers to a mixture of metals optionally comprising other non-metallic components.

In an embodiment any of previously described alloys in powder form are suitable for use as metallic powder in the method of the invention. In an embodiment any of previously described powder mixtures comprising at least one high melting point and low melting point are suitable for use as metallic powder in the method of the invention.

For pieces with a low air/material ratio, a system based on the configuration by removal can be employed. For pieces with a high air/material ratio, a shaping system based on aggregation or conformation is often preferred. Different shaping systems can be employed for the manufacturing of the piece either simultaneously or sequentially. The method of the present invention can work directly on direct metal aggregation, but for many applications it is though very advantageous to have a mixed polymer metal material.

In an embodiment components are referred to structures, tools, pieces, moulds and/or dies among others. In an embodiment components with complex geometries may be obtained using the method of the present invention.

In an embodiment components are referred to structures. In an embodiment components are referred to tools. In an embodiment components are referred to structures. In an embodiment components are referred to moulds. In an embodiment components are referred to dies. In an embodiment components are referred to pieces.

In several embodiments complex geometries refers to geometries which cannot be obtained using injection molding, in other embodiment to geometries which cannot be made in an economic way using injection molding in respect of best practices guidelines of plastic injection mou!dingof American mould builders association, in other embodiment to geometries which cannot be obtained using stamping dies, in other embodiment to geometries which cannot be made in an economic way using stamping dies, in other embodiment structures which cannot be obtained using commercially available profiles, in an embodiment components which US plastic injection associationwould estimate a cost over 1000 US$ for the mould to manufacturing this component (costs in date January, 2010), in other embodiment geometries which cannot be obtained by lox wax casting and/or sand casting.in other embodimentdies which cannot be obtained using traditional manufacturing methods for die manufacturing such as milling, boring and/or electro-erosion among others

In an embodiment, when referring to metal injection moulding (MIM), big components refers to components of 25 g or more, in other embodiment 55g or more, in other embodiment 155 g or more, in other embodiment 210 g or more, in other embodiment 320 g or more, and even in other embodiment 1 Kg or more.

In an embodiment partially metallic components refers to components havingmetals and other constituents differentfrom metals in their composition In an embodiment constituents different from metals refers to constituents such as, but not limited to, ceramics, polymers, grapheme and/or cellulose among others In an embodiment partially metallic components refers to components having more than 0 1% in volume of other constituents different from metals in their composition, in other embodiment more than 1 1 % in volume, in other embodiment more than 23%, in other embodiment more than 48%, in other embodiment more than 67%, in other embodiment more than 83% and even in other embodiment more than 91 %.

In an embodiment the previously disclosed powder mixtures comprising any of the new Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al or Ti based alloys in powder form is especially suitable to be used with the method of the invention In an embodiment previously disclosed powder mixtures having a high packing density are suitable for use in the method of the invention.

In the case that the effect of the low melting point metallic constituent in the final component can only be held as non-detrimental for small concentrations of the elements of this low melting point alloy, the inventor has seen that there are several ways to proceed In order to have small concentration of such alloy yet enough contribution to the shape retention upon degradation of the polymer that provides shape retention during the manufacturing step. It has been observed that in general terms close compact structures with high volume fractions of metal in the feedstock help, and amongst others so does a homogeneous distribution of the low melting point metallic constituent. For example, if an 90%+ aluminum alloy is used as low melting point metallic constituent on a steel base metallic constituent, it is known that for many steels low %AI can have rather beneficial effects, like increasing strength through precipitation, limiting austenite grain growth, deoxidizing, providing quite hard nitriding layers... but those effects are achieved for rather small %AI contents in the order of magnitude between weight 0, 1 % and 1 % (and rather closer to the lower end). So one way to deal with this situation is providing a high density close compact structure of the intended steel particulates (quite spherical shape and narrow size distribution help this purpose). Then a roughly 7.0 % in volume is provided of metallic particulates with a diameter d50 being around 0.41 times the d50 diameter of the main particulates, to fill the octahedral holes. This particulates can have the same nature as the main metallic constituent or another particularly chosen to provide the desired functionality once the diffusion and all other treatments are concluded (again here spherical shape and a narrow size distribution help). Then a fine powder of the 90%+ aluminum alloy is provided with a d50 diameter being around 0.225 times the d50 diameter of the main particulates, roughly a 0,6 % in volume should be provided with the intend of filling the tetrahedral holes (again here spherical shape and a narrow size distribution help). Given densities of aluminum and steel this volume fraction roughly represents 0, 15 % in weight of the 90%+ aluminum alloy in the final product which is within the range of generalized positive contribution of Al into steel.

In an embodiment an Al based alloy containing more than 90% by weight aluminium, is used as low melting point alloy and a steel based alloy is used as high melting point alloy in a powder mixture used for manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component, in an embodiment this Al based alloy containing more than 90% by weight aluminium is less than 10% in volume of all metallic constituents. In an embodiment a 7% in volume of all metallic constituents areAI based alloy containing more than 90% by weight aluminium particles with a d50 diameter being around 0.41 times the d50 diameter of the main particulates of the steel based alloy and a 0.6% in volume of all metallic constituents are Al based alloy containing more than 90% by weight aluminium particles with a d50 diameter being around 0.225 times the d50 diameter of the main particulates of the steel based alloy.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component from a powder mixture by a shaping techique.

In an embodiment the shaping techique is an AM technique.

In an embodiment the shaping techique is an AM technique such as, but not limited to: 3D Printing, Ink- jetting, S-Print, M-Print technologies, technologies where focused energy generates a melt pool into which feedstock (powder or wire material) is deposited using a laser (Laser Deposition and Laser Consolidation), arc or e-beam heat source (Direct Metal Deposition and Electron Beam Direct Melting), fused deposition modelling (FDM), Material jetting, direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM), selection laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography and digital light processing (DLP) among others.

In an embodiment the shaping techique is a Polymer shaping techique In an embodiment the shaping techique is metal injection molding. In an embodiment the shaping techique is sintering. In an embodiment the shaping techique is sinter forging. In an embodiment the shaping techique is Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). In an embodiment the shaping techique is Cold Isostatic Pressing (ClP). ln an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic component from a powder mixture by a shaping techique , wherein the final metallic or at least partially metallic component is obtained after the shaping.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic component from a powder mixture by a shaping techique , wherein the metallic or at least partially metallic component obtained after the shaping (the green component) is submitted to at least one post- processing treatment.

In an embodiment all post-treatment may be combined between them in any suitable form.

In an embodiment the post-processing treatment is a debinding. In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique

subjecting the shaped component to a debinding

subjecting the component obtained in step c to a heat treatment and optionally to a sintering and/or HIP In an embodiment the post-processing treatment is a Heat Treatment.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique

subjecting the shaped component to a Heat treatment

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique

subjecting the shaped component to a Heat treatment

subjecting the component obtained in step c to a sintering

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique

subjecting the shaped component to a Heat treatment

subjecting the component obtained in step c to a HIP

In an embodiment the post-processing treatment is a sintering.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique

subjecting the shaped component to a sintering

In an embodiment sintering is made at a temperature above 0.7*Tm of high melting point alloy (temperature 0.7 times the melting temperature of high melting point alloy). In an embodiment sintering is made at a temperature above 0.75*Tm of high melting point alloy (temperature 0.75 times the melting temperature of high melting point alloy. In an embodiment sintering is made at a temperature above 0.8 * Tm of high melting point alloy (temperature 0.8 times the melting temperature of high melting point alloy. In an embodiment sintering is made at a temperature above 0.85*Tm of high melting point alloy (temperature 0.85 times the melting temperature of high melting point alloy. In an embodiment sintering is made at a temperature above 0.9*Tm of high melting point alloy (temperature 0.9 times the melting temperature of high melting point alloy. In an embodiment sintering is made at a temperature above 0.95*Tm of high melting point alloy (temperature 0.7 times the melting temperature of high melting point alloy .

In an embodiment the component is submitted to a sintering treatment before debinding. In an embodiment the component is submitted to a sintering treatment before Heat Treatment. In an embodiment the component is submitted to a sinter forging treatment before Heat Treatment.

In an embodiment the component is submitted to a HIP treatment before debinding. n an embodiment the component is submitted to a HIP treatment before debinding. In an embodiment the component is submitted to a HIP treatment before Heat Treatment.

In an embodiment the post-processing treatment is a sinter forging.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps: providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique

subjecting the shaped component to a sinter forging

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique

subjecting the shaped component to a Heat treatment

subjecting the component obtained in step c to a sinter forging

In an embodiment the post-processing treatment is a HIP.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique

subjecting the shaped component to a HIP

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique

subjecting the shaped component to a Heat treatment

subjecting the component obtained in step c to a HIP

In an embodiment the post-processing treatment is a CIP.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique

subjecting the shaped component to a CIP

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique

subjecting the shaped component to a Heat treatment

subjecting the component obtained in step c to a CIP

In an embodiment the system used to transfer heat during any treatment involving heat treatment is made using microwave, induction, convection, radiation and/or conduction.

In an embodiment the system used to transfer heat during any treatment involving heat treatment is made using microwave.

In an embodiment the system used to transfer heat during any treatment involving heat treatment is made using induction.

In an embodiment the system used to transfer heat during any treatment involving heat treatment is made using convection.

In an embodiment the system used to transfer heat during any treatment involving heat treatment is made using radiation.

In an embodiment the system used to transfer heat during any treatment involving heat treatment is made using conduction.

In an embodiment systems used to transfer heat during any treatment involving heat treatment include but is not limited to, heat treatment disclosed in this document, sintering, debinding or HIP among others. In an embodiment post-processing treatments can be made under vacuum, low pressure, high pressure, inert atmosphere, reductive atmosphere, oxidative atmosphere among others.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component by shaping a powder mixture comprising at least one metallic powder using an AM technique, such as MIM, a HIP process, a CIP process, Sinter forging, Sintering and/or any technique suitable for powder conformation and/or any combination thereof among others;ln an embodiment the powder mixture further comprises an organic compound. In another embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component by shaping a powder mixture comprising one metallic powder using an AM technique, a Polymer shaping technique, such as MIM, a HIP process, a CIP process, Sinter forging, Sintering and/or any technique suitable for powder conformation and/or any combination thereof among others;!n an embodiment the powder mixture further comprises an organic compound. In another embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component by shaping a powder mixture comprising more than one metallic powders with similar melting points using an AM technique, a Polymer shaping technique, such as MIM, a HIP process, a CIP process, Sinter forging, Sintering and/or any technique suitable for powder conformation and/or any combination thereof among others. In an embodiment the powder mixture further comprises an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component by shaping a powder mixture comprising at least two metallic powders using an AM technique, a Polymer shaping technique, such as MIM, a HIP process, a CIP process, Sinter forging, Sintering and/or any technique suitable for powder conformation and/or any combination thereof among others. In an embodiment the powder mixture further comprises an organic compound. In another embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component by shaping a powder mixture comprising at least two metallic powders with different melting point using an AM technique, a Polymer shaping technique, such as MIM, a HIP process, a CIP process, Sinter forging, Sintering and/or any technique suitable for powder conformation and/or any combination thereof among others. In an embodiment the powder mixture further comprises an organic compound. In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component by shaping a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point metallic powder and a high melting point metallic powder usingan AM technique, a Polymer shaping technique , such as MIM, a HIP process, a CIP process, Sinter forging, Sintering and/or any technique suitable for powder conformation and/or any combination thereof among others. In an embodiment the powder mixture further comprises an organic compound. In another embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component by shaping a powder mixture comprising more than one metallic powders with similar melting points using an AM technique, a Polymer shaping technique , such as MIM, a HIP process, a CIP process, Sinter forging, Sintering and/or any technique suitable for powder conformation and/or any combination thereof among others, wherein the low melting point metallic powder is selected from a Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al and Ti based alloy containing at least an element whose binary diagram with the selected alloy presents any kind of liquid phase at low allowing contents and low temperatures when added to the alloy and a high melting point alloy selected from Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al or Ti based alloy . In an embodiment the powder mixture further comprises an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component by shaping a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point metallic powder and a high melting point metallic powder using an AM technique, a Polymer shaping techique , such as MIM, a HIP process, a CIP process, Sinter forging, Sintering and/or any technique suitable for powder conformation and/or any combination thereof among others, wherein the low melting point metallic powder is selected from a Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al and Ti based alloy containing at least an element selected from: Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, , Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination thereof among others and a high melting point alloy selected from Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al or Ti based alloy. In an embodiment the powder mixture further comprises an organic compound. In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic powders by shaping a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point metallic powder and a high melting point metallic powder using an AM technique, a Polymer shaping technique , such as MIM, a HIP process, a CIP process, Sinter forging, Sintering and/or any technique suitable for powder conformation and/or any combination thereof among otherswherein the low melting point metallic powder is selected from: gallium alloy, AIGa alloy, CuGa alloy, SnGa alloy, MgGa alloy, MnGa alloy, NiGa alloy, high manganese containing alloy, high manganese containing Fe based alloy further comprising carbon (steel), Al based alloy containing Mg, Al based alloy containing Sc, Al based alloy containing Sn, Al based alloy containing more than 90% by weight Al and a high melting point alloy selected from Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al or Ti based alloy. In an embodiment the powder mixture further comprises an organic compound.

In an embodiment melting temperature is the temperature where the first liquid forms under equilibrium conditions.

In an embodiment in a powder mixture having two metallic powders, low melting point is referred to the metallic powder having the lowest melting point and high melting point alloy refers to the metallic powder having the high melting point, providing that there is a difference of at least 62°C or more, between their melting points, in other embodiment 1 10°C or more, in other embodiment 230°C or more, in other embodiment 1 10°C or more, in other embodiment 230°C or more, in other embodiment 420°C or more, in other embodiment 640°C or more and even in other embodiment 820°C or more.

In an embodiment melting point of a metallic powder refers to the temperature where the first liquid forms under equilibrium conditions.

In an embodiment Tm of the low melting point alloy refers to the melting temperature of this alloy.

In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the melting temperature of this alloy.

In an embodiment when there are more than one low melting point alloys in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the low melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the low melting point alloy having a higher weight /volume percentage in the powder mixture/metallic phase.

In an embodiment Tm of the low melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the alloy having the lowest melting point.

In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the alloy (excluding the alloy with lower melting point) having the higher weight percentage in the metallic phase. In an embodiment if there more than one alloy (excluding the alloy with lower melting point) having the same weight percentage being the highest values in the powder mixture/metallic phase, Tm refers to the alloy having the lowest Tm between them.

In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the alloy (excluding the alloy with lower melting point) having the higher weight percentage in the powder mixture. In an embodiment if there more than one alloy (excluding the alloy with lower melting point) having the same weight percentage being the highest values in the powder mixture/metallic phase, Tm refers to the alloy having the lowest Tm between them.

In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the alloy (excluding the alloy with lower melting point) having the higher volume percentage in the powder mixture. In an embodiment if there more than one alloy (excluding the alloy with lower melting point) having the same volume percentage being the highest values in the powder mixture/metallic phase, Tm refers to the alloy having the lowest Tm between them.

In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the alloy (excluding the alloy with lower melting point) having the higher volume percentage in the metallic phase. In an embodiment if there more than one alloy (excluding the alloy with lower melting point) having the same volume percentage being the highest values in the powder mixture/metallic phase, Tm refers to the alloy having the lowest Tm between them.

In an embodiment when there are more than one low melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 1 % by weight of the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 2.4% by weight of the powder mixture In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 3.8% by weight of the powder mixture (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 4.8% by weight of the powder mixture. In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 7% by weight of the powder mixture/metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture).

In an embodiment when there are more than one low melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 1 % by weight of the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 2.4% by weight of the powder mixture In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 3.8% by weight of the powder mixture (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 4.8% by weight of the powder mixture. In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 7% by weight of the powder mixture/metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture).

In an embodiment when there are more than one low melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 1 % by volumeof the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 2.4% by volume of the powder metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture). In another embodiment m of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 3.8% by volume of the powder metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 4.8% by volume of the powder metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 7% by volume of the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture).

In an embodiment when there are more than one low melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 1 % by weight of the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 2.4% by weight of the powder mixture In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to thehighest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 3.8% by weight of the powder mixture (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 4.8% by weight of the powder mixture. In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 7% by weight of the powder mixture/metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture).

In an embodiment when there are more than one low melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 1 % by weight of the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 2.4% by weight of the powder mixture In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 3.8% by weight of the powder mixture. In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 4.8% by weight of the powder mixture. In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 7% by weight of the powder mixture

In an embodiment when there are more than one low melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 1 % by volume of the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 2.4% by volume of the powder metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 3.8% by volume of the powder metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture). In another embodiment m of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 4.8% by volume of the powder metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 7% by volume of the powder metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture).

In an embodiment when there are more than one low melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to thehighest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 1 % by volume of the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 2.4% by volume of the powder mixture In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 3.8% by volume of the powder mixture. In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 4.8% by volume of the powder mixture. In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 7% by volume of the powder mixture

In an embodiment when there are more than one low melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 1 % by weight of the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 2.4% by weight of the powder metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 3.8% by weight of the powder metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture). In another embodiment m of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 4.8% by weight of the powder metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the highest Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding low melting point alloys being less than 7% by weight of the powder metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture).

In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the melting temperature of this alloy.

In an embodiment when there are more than one melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the low melting point alloy having a higher weight percentage in the powder mixture.

In an embodiment when there are more than one melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the low melting point alloy having a higher volume percentage in the powder mixture.

In an embodiment when there are more than one melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the low melting point alloy having a lower weight percentage in the powder mixture.

In an embodiment when there are more than one melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the low melting point alloy having a lower volume percentage in the powder mixture.

In an embodiment when there are more than one melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the low melting point alloy having a higher weight percentage in the metallic phase(the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture).

In an embodiment when there are more than one melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the low melting point alloy having a higher volume percentage in the powder metallic phase(the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture).

In an embodiment when there are more than one melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the low melting point alloy having a lower weight percentage in the powder metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture).

In an embodiment when there are more than one melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the low melting point alloy having a lower volume percentage in the powder metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture).

In an embodiment when in the mixture there are more than one high melting point alloy, having similar weight percentages (similar volume percentage refers to a difference of less than 10%), and being the high melting point alloys with higher weight percentages of the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the lower Tm value of these alloys having similar volume percentage.

In an embodiment when in the mixture there are more than one high melting point alloy, having similar volume percentages (similar weight percentage refers to a difference of less than 10%), and being the high melting point alloys with higher volume percentages of the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the lower Tm value of these alloys having similar weight percentage. In an embodiment when in the mixture there are more than one high melting point alloy, having similar weight percentages (similar volume percentage refers to a difference of less than 10%), and being the high melting point alloys with higher weight percentages of the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the highest Tm value of these alloys having similar volume percentage.

In an embodiment when in the mixture there are more than one high melting point alloy, having similar volume percentages (similar weight percentage refers to a difference of less than 10%), and being the high melting point alloys with higher volume percentages of the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the highest Tm value of these alloys having similar weight percentage.

In an embodiment when there are more than one high melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point refers to the lower Tm of all high melting point alloys (excluding high melting point alloys being less than 1 % by weight of the powder mixture. In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 3.4% by weight of the powder mixture. In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding high melting point alloys being less than 6.2% by weight of the powder mixture.

In an embodiment when there are more than one high melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point refers to the lower Tm of all high melting point alloys (excluding high melting point alloys being less than 1 % by weight of the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture). In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 3.4% by weight of the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture. In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding high melting point alloys being less than 6.2% by weight of the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture.

In an embodiment when there are more than one high melting point alloy in a powder mixture. In an embodiment Tm of the high melting point refers to the lower Tm of all high melting point alloys (excluding high melting point alloys being less than 1 % by weight of the powder mixture. In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding melting point alloys being less than 3.4% by weight/volume of the powder mixture/metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture. In another embodiment Tm of the low melting point refers to the lower Tm of all low melting point alloys (excluding high melting point alloys being less than 6.2% by weight of the powder mixture

In an embodiment the final component is obtained after the shaping. In an embodiment when the powder conformation technique selected to shape the powder mixture is sintering, sinter forging, CIP, and/or HIPamong other the component obtained after shaping is the final component.

In an embodiment the component obtained after the shaping shall be subjected to a post-processing treatment. In an embodiment when the powder conformation technique selected to shape the powder mixture is sintering, sinter forging, and/or HIPthe component obtained after shaping is the final component.

In an embodiment the component obtained after the shaping is a green component wherein a postprocessing until obtain the metallic or at least partially metallic component. In an embodiment the postprocessing includes a debinding, a Heat Treatment to promote PMSRT or MSRT, a sintering, a sinter forging a CIP and/or a HIP.

In an embodiment debinding, or at least partial debinding takes place during the Heat treatment disclosed in this document. In other embodiments, a debinding takes place before the Heat treatment.

In an embodiment green component refers to a component obtained after shaping the powder mixture, usingan AM, or a Polymer shaping technique which may be subjected to a post- processing treatment until obtain the final metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment post-processing refers tothe treatments that receives a green component until obtain the final component, In an embodiment this post-processing treatments includes but is not limited to a heat treatment to promote PMSRT or MSRT, debinding HIP, CIP sinter forging and/or sintering and/or any combination of them among other treatments suitable for densification and/or conformation of a green component until the final desired component.

In an embodiment, when at least two metal powders with different melting point are comprised in the powder mixture and a polymer, and correct selection of the powder size distribution and particle sizes is madeto have a high tap density of the green component, the treatment required to degrade (at least partially) the polymer and enable the metallic phase being the responsible for shape retention, may be made at low temperatures (compared to traditional method used during post-procesing of green materials until reach the final component) so that the component suffer lower thermal stresses and/or residual stresses, during conformation.

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a set of technologies that have broadly increased the accuracy with which many structures can be replicated

Actually, AM technologies are classified in several categories, according to ASTM International, document F2792 - 12a are grouped in: i) binder jetting, ii) directed energy deposition, iii) material extrusion, iv) material jetting , v) powder bed fusion, vi) sheet lamination, and vii) vat photopolymerization. This classification summarizes a big variety of technologies, including , but not limited to: 3D Printing , Ink- jetting, S-Print, M-Print technologies, technologies where focused energy generates a melt pool into which feedstock (powder or wire material) is deposited using a laser (Laser Deposition and Laser Consolidation), arc or e-beam heat source (Direct Metal Deposition and Electron Beam Direct Melting), fused deposition modelling (FDM), Material jetting, direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM), selection laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography and digital light processing (DLP) among others.

In an embodiment the method of the present invention comprises and step of shaping a powder mixture to manufacture a metallic or partially metallic component using any AM technique. In an embodiment for several of these AM technologies the use of a powder mixture containing at least one metallic powder along with an organic compound may be suitable.

In an embodiment the shaping step is made using binder jetting technologies, including 3D Printing , Ink- jetting, S-Print, and M-Print technologies. In an embodiment the invention refers to a methodof manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component, using a powder mixture of at least one metallic powder and optionally an organic compound by shaping the powder mixture using 3D Printing, Ink-jetting , S-Print, and/or M-Print technique .

In an embodiment the shaping step is made using Direct energy deposition technologies, including all technologies where focused energy generates a melt pool into which feedstock (powder or wire material) is deposited using a laser (Laser Deposition and Laser Consolidation), arc or e-beam heat source (Direct Metal Deposition and Electron Beam Direct Melting). In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component, using a powder mixture of at least one metallic powder and optionally an organic compound by shaping the powder mixture using Direct energy deposition technologies, including all technologies where focused energy generates a melt pool into which feedstock (powder or wire material) is deposited using a laser (Laser Deposition and Laser Consolidation), arc or e-beam heat source (Direct Metal Deposition and Electron Beam Direct Melting)

In an embodiment the shaping step is made using a method through material extrusion wherein the objects are created by dispensing material through a nozzle where it is heated and then deposited layer by layer. The nozzle and the platform can be moved horizontally and vertically respectively after each new layer is deposited, as in fused deposition modelling (FDM), the most common material extrusion technique. In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component, using a powder mixture of at least one metallic powder and optionally an organic compound by shaping the powder mixture using a method through material extrusion wherein the objects are created by dispensing material through a nozzle where it is heated and then deposited layer by layer. The nozzle and the platform can be moved horizontally and vertically respectively after each new layer is deposited, as in fused deposition modelling (FDM), the most common material extrusion technique.

In an embodiment the shaping step is made using material jetting, a similar technique to that of a two dimensional ink jet printer, where material (polymers and waxes) is jetted onto a build surface platform where it solidifies until the model is built layer by layer and the material layers are then cured or hardened using ultraviolet (UV) light. In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component, using a powder mixture of at least one metallic powder and optionally an organic compound by shaping the powder mixture using material jetting , a similar technique to that of a two dimensional ink jet printer, where material (polymers and waxes) is jetted onto a build surface platform where it solidifies until the model is built layer by layer and the material layers are then cured or hardened using ultraviolet (UV) light.

In an embodiment the shaping step is made using Powder bed fusion which encompasses all technologies where focused energy (electron beam or laser beam) is used to selectively melt or sinter a layer of a powder bed (metal, polymer or ceramic). Thus, several technologies exist nowadays: direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM), selectivelaser sintering (SLS). In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component, using a powder mixture of at least one metallic powder and optionally an organic compound by shaping the powder mixture using Powder bed fusion which encompasses all technologies where focused energy (electron beam or laser beam) is used to selectively melt or sinter a layer of a powder bed (metal, polymer or ceramic). Thus, several technologies exist nowadays: direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), selective laser melting (SLM), electron beam melting (EBM), selective laser sintering (SLS).

In an embodiment the shaping step is made using Sheet lamination which uses stacking of precision cut metal sheets into 2D part slices to form a 3D object. It includes ultrasonic consolidation and laminated object manufacturing. The former uses ultrasonic welding for bonding sheets using a sonotrode while the latter uses paper as material and adhesive instead of welding. In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component, using a powder mixture of at least one metallic powder and optionally an organic compound by shaping the powder mixture using Sheet lamination which uses stacking of precision cut metal sheets into 2D part slices to form a 3D object. It includes ultrasonic consolidation and laminated object manufacturing. The former uses ultrasonic welding for bonding sheets using a sonotrode while the latter uses paper as material and adhesive instead of welding.

In an embodiment the shaping step is made using VAT polymerization which uses a vat of liquid photopolymer resin, out of which the 3D model is constructed layer by layer using electromagnetic radiation as curing agent wherein the cross-sectional layers are successively and selectively cured to build the model with the aid of moving platform which in many cases uses a photopolymer resin. The main technologies are the stereolithography and digital light processing (DLP), where a projector light is used rather than a laser to cure the photo-sensitive resin. In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component, using a powder mixture of at least one metallic powder and an organic compound by shaping the powder mixture using VAT polymerization which uses a vat of liquid photopolymer resin, out of which the 3D model is constructed layer by layer using electromagnetic radiation as curing agent wherein the cross-sectional layers are successively and selectively cured to build the model with the aid of moving platform which in many cases uses a photopolymer resin. The main technologies are the stereolithography and digital light processing (DLP), where a projector light is used rather than a laser to cure the photo-sensitive resin.

The additive manufacturing methods for the manufacturing of metallic objects, can be divided in two groups for the purpose of clarifying this point: methods based on direct melting and/or sintering of the metal and thus not necessarily requiring a sintering step after the AM, and methods based on the binding trough an adhesive and thus requiring a sintering step after the AM. In an embodiment the AM method is only intended to provide shape and retain it for a while. In an embodiment among sintering other post- processing treatments may be necessary before obtaining the final product.

The inventor has seen that one interesting implementation of the present invention, arises when a very fast AM process is chosen for the shaping step. That is so given that the present invention in most cases involves a post-processing step, which is normally not necessary in the AM processes.

In an embodiment the method for shaping the powder mixture is using a technique involving laser in the shaping process, chosen for example but not limited to these processes wherein a mixture of at least one metallic powder, and optionally an organic compound are deposited using a laser (usually direct energy deposition), and those processes when focused energy (usually using a laser beam) is used to selectively melt or sinter a powder bed containing the powder mixture of at least one metallic powder, and optionally an organic compound.

The powder mixtures disclosed in this document are especially suitable for use with this technique involving laser in the shaping process.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method for manufacturing objects using technique involving laser in the shaping process, chosen for example but not limited to these processes wherein a mixture of at least one metallic powder, and optionally an organic compound are deposited using a laser (usually direct energy deposition), and those processes when focused energy (usually using a laser beam) is used to selectively melt or sinter a powder bed containing the powder mixture of at least one metallic powder, and optionally an organic compound.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method for manufacturing a component using technique involving laser in the shaping process, chosen for example but not limited to these processes wherein a mixture of at least one metallic powder, and optionally an organic compound are deposited using a laser (usually direct energy deposition), and those processes when focused energy (usually using a laser beam) is used to selectively melt or sinter a powder bed containing the powder mixture of at least one metallic powder, and optionally an organic compound. In an embodiment the inventor has seen that a very advantageous application of the method of the present invention arises when a technique involving laser in the shaping process is chosen for example but not limited to these processes wherein a powder mixture of at least one metallic powder, and optionally an organic compound are deposited using a laser (usually direct energy deposition), and those processes when focused energy (usually using a laser beam) is used to selectively melt or sinter a powder bed containing the mixture of at least one metallic powder, and optionally anorganic compound, due to the high packing density obtained when using appropriate size distribution of the powder mixture, as disclosed in the present document.

In an embodiment when a technique involving laser in the shaping process is chosen for example but not limited to those processes when focus energy (usually a laser beam) is used to selectively melt or sinter a powder bed containing a powder mixture of at least one metallic powder, and optionally other non metallic components when using the method and the different powder mixtures of the invention disclosed and detailed in this document mainly when the mixture contains at least two metallic powders with different melting points, the process can be made at lower temperatures compared to known methods in the prior art which implies lower energy inputs during the shaping process.and thus lower cost in the manufacturing process of the component in addition to lower thermal stresses and/or residual stresses (sometimes both of them) in the component. In anembodiment this shaped component needs postprocessing until the desired final component is attained . In contrast in other embodiment the final component is obtained directly after this shaping process.

In an embodiment when a technique involving laser in the shaping process is chosen for example but not limited to those processes when focus energy (usually a laser beam) is used to selectively melt or sinter a powder bed containing the powder mixture of metallic powder, and optionally other non metallic components when using the method and powder mixtures of the invention disclosed and detailed in this document when the mixture contains at least one metallic powders or more than one metallic powders with similar melting points and the process also involves lower temperature inputs during the shaping process compared to known methods in the prior art which implies lower energy, due to the higher packing density of the powder mixture and also lower thermal stresses and/or residual stresses (sometimes both of them) in the shaped component. In many cases this shaped component needs postprocessing until the desired final component is attained. In contrast in other cases the final component is obtained directly after this shaping process.

In an embodiment depending on the particle size distribution of the powder mixture (sometimes AM particulates) chosen for each application, high powder bed packing density may be reachedfor example but not limited to when using one or more than one metallic powders with multi-modal size distributions designed to reduce voids as described further in this document (in many cases using at least two metallic powders with different melting points as described in detail in this document, wherein in anembodiment at least one low melting point alloy is used to whole or at least partially occupy the octahedral and/or tetrahedral voids of the main metallic powder having high melting point which results on high packing density densities). In an embodiment when a technique involving laser in the shaping process is chosen for example but not limited to those processes when focus energy (usually a laser beam) are used to selectively melt or sinter a powder bed containing the powder mixture, and optionally an organic compounds the powder packing density in the bed (before the shaping process) is above 75%, in other embodiments above 79.3%, in other embodiment above 83.5%, and even in other embodiment above 87%. In an embodiment especially in those previously described when correctly selecting a high powder bed packing density very high tap densities of the shaped component using the previously described processes are reached. In an embodiment vibration is used to obtain, together with a correct particle size distribution, high density packing of the powder bed. In other embodiments any other method for enhance correct particle distribution to improve package of the powder bed is suitable for being combined with theinvention.

In an embodiment when a technique involving laser for the shaping process is chosen for example but not limited to those processes when focus energy (usually a laser beam) is used to selectively melt or sinter a powder bed containing the mixture of metallic powder, and optionally other non metallic components, tap densities of the shaped component obtained are above 89.3%, in another embodiment above 92.7%, in another embodiment above 95.5%, and another embodiment above 97.6%, in another embodiment above 98.9% and even in another embodiment full density of the component is obtained directly with this shaping process. In an embodiment these tap densities are reached when the metallic powder mixture contained in the powder bed has at least one metallic powder with a particle size distribution that allows a powder packing density in the bed above 75%, in other embodiments above 79.3%, in other embodiment above 83.5%, and even in other embodiment above 87%. In an embodiment the metallic particles are coated, embedded and/or in any other configuration in relation with the polymer as shown in Figure 4. In an embodiment particle size distribution. In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component by shaping a powder mixture comprising at least one metallic powders using an a technique involving laser in the shaping process is chosen for example but not limited to those processes when focus energy (usually a laser beam) are used to selectively melt or sinter a powder bed containing the powder mixture, and optionally an organic compound wherein the powder packing density in the bed is above 75%, in other embodiment above 79.3%, in other embodiment above 83.5%, and even in other embodiment above 87% characterized in that tap densities of the shaped component obtained are above 89.3%, in another embodiment above 92.7%, in another embodiment above 95.5%, and another embodiment above 97.6%, in another embodiment above 98.9% and even in another embodiment full density.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component by shaping a powder mixture comprising at least two metallic powders with different melting point using an a technique involving laser in the shaping process is chosen for example but not limited to those processes when focus energy (usually a laser beam) are used to selectively melt or sinter a powder bed containing the powder mixture, and optionally an organic compound wherein the powder packing density in the bed is above 75%, in other embodiment above 79.3%, in other embodiment above 83.5%, and even in other embodiment above 87% characterized in that tap densities of the shaped component obtained are above 89.3%, in another embodiment above 92.7%, in another embodiment above 95.5%, and another embodiment above 97.6%, in another embodiment above 98.9% and even in another embodiment full density.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component by shaping a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point metallic powder and a high melting point metallic powder, using an a technique involving laser in the shaping process is chosen for example but not limited to those processes when focus energy (usually a laser beam) are used to selectively melt or sinter a powder bed containing the powder mixture, and optionally an organic compound wherein the powder packing density in the bed is above 75%, in other embodiment above 79.3%, in other embodiment above 83.5%, and even in other embodiment above 87% characterized in that tap densities of the shaped component obtained are above 89.3%, in another embodiment above 92.7%, in another embodiment above 95.5%, and another embodiment above 97.6%, in another embodiment above 98.9% and even in another embodiment full density.

In terms of high densities and compactation of the metallic powder mixture and optionally an organic compound, in the document are detailed different powder size distributions and several embodiments suitable for the method of the invention, which may be directly applied to the recent described technique involving a laser in the shaping process for example but not limited to these processes wherein a mixture of at least one metallic powder, and optionally other non metallic components, are deposited using a laser (usually direct energy deposition), and those processes when focused energy (usually using a laser beam) is used to selectively melt or sinter a powder bed containing the mixture. In some embodiments when the metallic particles are coated, embedded and/or in any other configuration in relation with the polymer as shown in Figure 4, particles is referred to AM particulates. In an embodiment, when high mechanical properties of the final component are desired, a high density of metallic powder mixture is desirable, even as near possible to close packing, so in an embodiment bi-modal narrow particle size distributions of particles in the powder mixture are chosen. In another embodiment tri-modal narrow particle size distributions of particle are chosen. In an embodiment when more than one powder is comprised in the mixture different particle size distributions may be chosen, for example one of the powders may be selected to have the highest particle size, and the other powders to tend to fill the voids of the metallic powder with the highest particle size, and also this powder with the highest particle size, having a multi-modal particle size distribution (usually bi-modal and/or tri-modal) to fill also the voids between the particle size distribution, and even in other embodiment, having all the metallic powders of the mixture a multi-modal particle size distribution, with a high particle size and other size distributions selected to tend to fill the voids between the particles of higher size. In an embodiment the particle size distributions, are selected to have a narrow size distribution. In other embodiment when bi-modal distributions are used , this means the powder size distribution having two mode values and a narrow size distribution around these two mode values. In another embodiment when tri-modal distributions are used, this means the powder size distribution having three mode values and a narrow size distribution around these three mode values. Furthermore in several embodiments different mixtures of metallic powders, have been disclosed in this document, and are especially suitable for used with this shaping method to obtain these high tap densities of the shaped component.

In an embodiment when a technique involving laser in the shaping process is chosen for example but not limited to those processes wherein a mixture of at least one metallic powders, and optionally other organic compounds, such as a polymer are deposited using a laser (usually direct energy deposition) tap densities of the shaped component obtained are above 89.3%, in another embodiment above 92.7%, in another embodiment above 95.5%, and another embodiment above 97.6%, in another embodiment above 98.9% and even in another embodiment full density are attained directly with this shaping process. In an embodiment in terms of high densities and compactation of the powder mixture and optionally an organic compound in the feedstock that allows reach these high tap densities, later in the document are detailed different powder size distributions and several embodiments suitable for the method of the invention, which may be directly applied to the above disclosed technique involving a laser in the shaping process for example but not limited to these processes wherein a powder mixture of at least one metallic powder, and optionally other organic components, are deposited using a laser (usually direct energy deposition). In some embodiments when the metallic particles are coated, embedded and/or in any other configuration in relation with the polymer as shown in Figure 4, particles is referred to AM particulates. Furthermore in several embodiments different mixtures of metallic powders, many of them comprising at least two metallic powders have been disclosed in this document, and are especially well suitable for used with this shaping method to obtain these high tap densities of the shaped component.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component by shaping a powder mixture comprising at least one metallic powder using a technique involving laser in the shaping process chosen for example but not limited to those processes wherein a powder mixture is deposited using a laser (usually direct energy deposition) wherein tap densities of the shaped component obtained are above 89.3%, in another embodiment above 92 7%, in another embodiment above 95.5%, and another embodiment above 97.6%, in another embodiment above 98.9% and even in another embodiment full density.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component by shaping a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point metallic powder and a high melting point metallic powder, using a technique involving laser in the shaping process chosen for example but not limited to those processes wherein a powder mixture is deposited using a laser (usually direct energy deposition) wherein tap densities of the shaped component obtained are above 89.3%, in another embodiment above 92.7%, in another embodiment above 95.5%, and another embodiment above 97.6%, in another embodiment above 98.9% and even in another embodiment full density.

In an embodiment the component obtained using a technique involving laser in the shaping process chosen for example but not limited to those processes wherein a powder mixture is deposited using a laser (usually direct energy deposition) is the metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the component obtained using a technique involving laser in the shaping process chosen for example but not limited to those processes wherein a powder mixture is deposited using a laser (usually direct energy deposition) is a green component, and this green component is submitted to a post processing step to obtain the metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the component obtained using a technique involving a laser in the shaping process wherein focused energy (usually using a laser beam) are used to selectively melt or sinter a powder bed containing the powder mixture is the metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the component obtained using a technique involving a laser in the shaping process wherein focused energy (usually using a laser beam) are used to selectively melt or sinter a powder bed containing the powder mixture) is a green component and this green component is submitted to a post processing step to obtain the metallic or at least partially metallic component.

Any of the above-described embodiments can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible

As previously disclosed, one implementation of the present invention considers the usage of net-shape or near-net-shape technologies which are not strictly AM, but which benefit from the particulates used in most instances of the present invention, namely particulates containing metallic materials and organic materials, where shape retention is not compromised during the degradation of the organic material. That comprises any technique capitalizing the formability advantages of the organic material, and taking advantage of the shape retention capabilities of the particulates of the present invention.

Other manufacturing processes can be applied as a shaping step, besides AM with some of the materials of the present invention. They need to be fast manufacturing processes. Most polymer shaping methodologies are an option (injection molding, blow-molding, thermoforming, casting, compression, pressing RIM, extrusion, rotomolding, dip molding, foam shaping .. . ). As an example the case of injection molding can be taken, where a process exist called Metal Injection Molding (MIM), which allows the obtaining of metallic components, but which is limited to a few hundred grams. With the method and materials of the present invention, much larger components can be manufactured, with enhanced functionality and in a considerably more economical way. For illustration purposes and because it is a technique where such combination is especially advantageous and thus illustrative, a more detailed view in the case of Metal Injection Molding (MIM) is provided. This technique allows for the production of complex geometry pieces (although the geometrical constraints are often higher than those for most AM technologies) but has a very clear limiting factor which is the size of component that can be reasonably produced. This has to do with the maximum amount of material which can be injected in one single shot which is commonly less than 200 gr. This is related amongst others to the rheology of the feedstock, and the pressure required to inject it, which in turn is related to the large volume fraction of metallic powder in the mix. The powder fraction and injection pressure need to be so high to assure shape retention upon debinding. The inventor has seen that MIM is a valid technique for the manufacturing of quite large pieces when using some of the feedstock of the present invention (especially those with at least two types of metallic powders one of them with a noticeably lower melting point that starts melting in a sufficient amount before the polymer loses its shape retention capacity )(but also single powder or mixture of phases but at least one with a low melting point or diffusion activated at low temperatures). Considerably lower metallic volume fractions and/or injection pressures can be used, thus allowing for a much higher ability to flow, thus making the filling of big and complex shapes possible. The material injected in this way (with such lower volume fraction metallic content and/or pressure) would disintegrate upon debinding were it not thanks to the liquid phase and/or strong diffusion bridges formed before the full decomposition of the polymer which assures the shape retention until diffusion provides with the final shape and properties. For one application or another almost all feedstock described in the present invention can be used advantageously.

In an embodiment the invention is directed to a method of manufacturing metallic or partially metallic components from a powder mixture comprisingat least one metallic powder, and an organic compound, that further may contain other components added to the mixture for a particular desired property of the metallic or at least partially metallic component manufactured, wherein the shape is obtained using polymer shaping methodologies, including but not limited to injection molding, metal injection molding, blow-molding, thermoforming, casting, compression, pressing RIM, extrusion, rotomolding, dip molding, and/or foam shaping among others. In an embodiment the component obtained through polymer shaping methodologies, is a "green component" that further may be submitted to a post-processing to allow densification and consolidation of the metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention is directed to a method of manufacturing metallic or partially metallic components from a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point metallic powder and a high melting point metallic powder, wherein the low melting point metallic powder is selected from a Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al and Ti based alloy containing at least an element selected from: Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, , Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them among others and a high melting point alloy selected from Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al or Ti based alloy, and an organic compound, that further may contain other components added to the mixture for a particular desired property of the metallic or at least partially metallic component manufactured, wherein the shape is obtained using polymer shaping methodologies, including but not limited to injection molding, metal injection molding, blow-molding, thermoforming, casting , compression, pressing RIM, extrusion, rotomolding, dip molding, and/or foam shaping among others. In an embodiment the component obtained through polymer shaping methodologies, is a "green component" that further may be submitted to a postprocessing to allow densification and consolidation of the metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention is directed to a method of manufacturing metallic or partially metallic components from a mixture comprising at least one metallic powder, and an organic compound, that further may contain other components added to the mixture for a particular desired property of the metallic or at least partially metallic component manufactured, wherein the shape is obtained through MIM. In an embodiment the component obtained through MIM, is a "green component" that further may be submitted to a post-processing to allow densification and consolidation of the metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the invention is directed to a method of manufacturing metallic or partially metallic components from a mixture comprising at least a low melting point metallic powder and a high melting point metallic powder, wherein the shaping of the powder mixture is made through MIM. In an embodiment the component obtained through MIM, is the metallic or at least partially metallic component. In an embodiment the component obtained through MIM, is a "green component" that further may be submitted to a post-processing to allow densification and consolidation of the metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment there are other shaping technologies which are useful to implement the method of the invention, such as Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP), Cold Isostatic Pressing (CIP), sinter forging and sintering. In an embodiment these processesare applied to the powder mixture to obtain the final desired metallic or at least partially metallic component;in other embodiment HIP, sinter forging, CIP and/or sintering are applied during post-procesing treatment after another previous shaping techique such as AM technologies and/or polymer injection technologiesto allow densification and consolidation of the metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP) is a manufacturing method in which powder materials are encapsulated in a sealed container called die before uniaxial pressure is applied at elevated temperature in order to sintering it into a dense compact solid. Argon is usually used as fluid medium for the application of packing density pressure in the 100-3300 MPa range and the temperature is normally set in the 1000-1200 C range. Among the three sintering mechanisms - diffusion, power-law creep, and yield- diffusion serves as the main sintering mechanism. The temperature at which diffusion bonding occurs during hot isostatic process is normally around 50-70% of the melting point of low melting point material. Diffusion bonding involves no melting of either material, hence there is no segregation, no shrinkage crack formation at the interfacial mixed zone. Sometimes diffusion layer is used to prevent diffusion of undesirable elements from top layer to substrate. The rate of the diffusion mechanisms will depend heavily on the particle size. The main goal in sintering with an applied gas pressure is to achieve a full theoretical density. As the die is filled, the arrangement of the particles and the consequent distribution of voids between the particles have a major influence on the subsequent behavior of the powder mass.

In an embodiment the invention is directed to a method of manufacturing metallic or partially metallic components from a powder mixture containing at least one metallic phase, that further may contain an organic compound wherein the component is obtained through HIP.

In an embodiment Cold Isostatic pressing is a powder-forming process where packing density takes place under isostatic or near-isostatic pressure conditions. Two main process variants exist, wet-bag and dry- bag. The former is mainly used for prototypes or low-production while the latter is a mass production process. Both variants render low geometric precision. The metal powder is placed in a flexible mould around a solid core rod. The mould is usually made of rubber or urethane or PVC.The assembly is then pressurized hydrostatically in a chamber to pressures of 400 to l OOOMPa.

In an embodiment the invention is directed to a method of manufacturing metallic or partially metallic components from a powder mixture comprising at least one metallic powder, that further may contain an organic compound added to the mixture for a particular desired property of the metallic or at least partially metallic component manufactured, wherein the component is obtained through Cold Isostatic Pressing. In an embodiment Sintering is the heating of compacted metal powders to a temperature above their recrystallization temperature but below their melting point. Sintering mechanisms are highly complex in nature and depends on the composition of the metal powder and the processing parameters.

In an embodiment sintering is made at a temperature which allows high densification without massive deterioration of properties.

In an embodiment the component of the invention is subjected to a post processing step consisting in a sintering.

In an embodiment, before the heat treatment, the component is subjected to a sintering.

In an embodiment sinteringis made at a temperature above 0.7*Tm of high melting point alloy (temperature 0.7 times the melting temperature of high melting point alloy). In other embodiment sintering is made at a temperature above 0.75*Tm of high melting point alloy (temperature 0.75 times the melting temperature of high melting point alloy). In an embodiment sintering is made at a temperature above 0.8*Tm(temperature 0.8 times the melting temperature of high melting point alloy) of high melting point alloy. In an embodiment sintering is made at a temperature above 0.85 * Tm (temperature 0.85 times the melting temperature of high melting point alloy)of high melting point alloy. In an embodiment sintering is made at a temperature above 0.9*Tm(temperature 0.9 times the melting temperature of high melting point alloy) of high melting point alloy. In an embodiment sintering is made at a temperature above 0.95*Tm (temperature 0.95 times the melting temperature of high melting point alloy)of high melting point alloy.

In an embodiment sintering is made for 5 h or less. In an embodiment sintering is made for 3 h or less. In an embodiment sintering is made for 2 h or less.

In an embodiment tap density after sintering is 90% or more, in other embodiment 0.94% or more and even 96% or more.

Any of the above-described embodiments can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible.

In an embodiment the invention is directed to a method of manufacturing metallic or partially metallic components from a powder mixture containing at least one metallic powder, that further may contain an organic compound added to the mixture for a particular desired property of the metallic or at least partially metallic component manufactured , wherein the component is obtained through sintering.

Other manufacturing methods of pieces and components widely used in 2012, like powder metallurgy (sintering of pressed metallic powders), machining, etc are often particularly well suit for the method of the present invention.

In other aspect, the present invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component by shaping a powder mixture containing at least one metallic powder.

A particular application of the present method is when at least two different metallic powders with different melting temperatures are mixed together.

Any of the above-described embodiments can be combined with any other embodiment herein described in any combination, to the extent that the respective features are not incompatible

In an embodiment the present invention refers to a method for manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component from a powder mixture of at least two powders with different melting points. In an embodiment powder mixtures disclosed in this document containing at least two metallic powders with different melting point are especially suitable for the method hereinafter disclosed. As previously disclosed in an embodiment a low melting point alloy suitable for use in the method of the invention is selected from: Ga and/or gallium alloy, AIGa alloy, SnGa alloy, CuGa alloy, MgGa alloy, MnGa alloy, NiGa alloy, AIMg alloy, high Mn containing alloy, high Mn containing Fe based alloy further containing carbon (steel), AISc alloy, AlSn alloy, Al alloy and/or aluminium alloy containing more than 90% by weight aluminium. In an embodiment the high melting point alloy suitable for use in the method of the invention is selected from Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg , W, Mo, Al and Ti alloys.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic component, from a mixture containing at least two metallic powders. In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic component, from a mixture containing at least two metallic powders. This mixture may be shaped by any of the preceding disclosed additive manufacturing (AM) process, as well as other non-additive manufacturing methodologies such as those for polymer shaping and/or any technique suitable for powder conformation and also any shaping techique developed in the future suitable for use with the mixture of at least one metallic powder disclosed in this document and in some cases submitted to at least one post-processing treatment, to achieve the final component.

When referring to high melting point and low melting point alloys, metallic constituents, phases, particulates, ... in this document it can sometimes be read in absolute terms and even more often in relative terms. So most of the times what makes low and high melting point alloy is the difference between their melting points and not the absolute values where both can be high melting or low melting depending on the application. In this sense often a difference on the melting point of the two of 62 °C or more can be found, preferably 1 10 °C or more, preferably 230 °C or more, more preferably 420 °C or more, more preferably 640 °C or more, or even 820 °C or more. This temperature difference often relates to the difference in the melting temperature as defined in this document between the metallic phase with the highest value and the metallic phase with the lowest value when more than two metallic constituents are present.

When referring to high melting point and low melting point alloys, metallic constituents, phases, particulates, .. . in this document it can sometimes be read in absolute terms and even more often in relative terms. So most of the times what makes low and high melting point alloy is the difference between their melting points and not the absolute values where both can be high melting or low melting depending on the application. In this sense often a difference on the melting point of the two of 62 °C or more can be found, preferably 1 10 °C or more, preferably 230 °C or more, more preferably 420 °C or more, more preferably 640 °C or more, or even 820 °C or more. This temperature difference often relates to the difference in the melting temperature as defined in this document between the metallic phase with the highest value and the metallic phase with the lowest value when more than two metallic constituents are present.

In an embodiment, when there are three or more alloys in powder form in the powder mixture, to define if an alloy is a low or high melting point, reference is made to the metal powder having the lowest melting point. In an embodiment a metal powder having more than 62°C in melting temperature than the metal powder having the lowest melting point is considered a high melting point alloy. In an embodiment a metal powder having more than 1 10°C in melting temperature than the metal powder having the lowest melting point is considered a high melting point alloy. In an embodiment a metal powder having more than 230°C in melting temperature than the metal powder having the lowest melting point is considered a high melting point alloy. In an embodiment a metal powder having more than 420°C in melting temperature than the metal powder having a low melting point is considered a high melting point alloy. In an embodiment a metal powder having more than 640°C in melting temperature than the metal powder having a low melting point is considered a high melting point alloy. In an embodiment a metal powder having more than 820°C in melting temperature than the metal powder having a low melting point is considered a high melting point alloy.

In an embodiment to consider an alloy as the lowest melting point alloy, it may be least 1 % in weight of the powder mixture.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture and two or more of them are low melting point alloys, to calculate which is the Tm of the low melting point alloy, low melting point alloys being less than 1 % by weight of the powder mixture are not considered.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture and two or more of them are low melting point alloys, to calculate which is the Tm of the low melting point alloy, low melting point alloys being less than3.8% by weight of the powder mixture are not considered.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture and two or more of them are low melting point alloys, to calculate which is the Tm of the low melting point alloy, low melting point alloys being less than 4.2% by weight of the powder mixture are not considered.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture and two or more of them are low melting point alloys, to calculate which is the Tm of the low melting point alloy, low melting point alloys being less than 1 % by weight of metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture are not considered.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture and two or more of them are low melting point alloys, to calculate which is the Tm of the low melting point alloy, low melting point alloys being less than3.8% by weight of the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture are not considered.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture and two or more of them are low melting point alloys, to calculate which is the Tm of the low melting point alloy, low melting point alloys being less than 4.2% by weight of the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture are not considered.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture , to define if an alloy is a low or high melting point, reference is made to the metal powder having a higher melting point. In an embodiment a metal powder having less than 62°C than the metal powder having the highest melting point is considered a low melting point alloy. In an embodiment a metal powder having less than 1 10°C than the metal powder having the highest melting point is considered a low melting point alloy. In an embodiment a metal powder having less than 230°C than the metal powder having the highest melting point is considered a low melting point alloy. In an embodiment a metal powder having less than 420°C than the metal powder having the highest melting point is considered a low melting point alloy. In an embodiment a metal powder having less than 640°C than the metal powder having the highest melting point is considered a low melting point alloy. In an embodiment a metal powder having less than 820°C than the metal powder having the highest melting point is considered a low melting point alloy.

In an embodiment to consider an alloy as a highest melting point alloy, it may be least 1 % in weight of the powder mixture.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture and two or more of them are high melting point alloys , to calculate which is the Tm of the high melting point alloy, high melting point alloys being less than 1 % by weight of the powder mixture are not considered.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture and two or more of them are high melting point alloys, to calculate which is the Tm of the high melting point alloy, high melting point alloys being less than3.8% by weigth of the powder mixture are not considered.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture and two or more of them are high melting point alloys, to calculate which is the Tm of the high melting point alloy, high melting point alloys being less than 4.2% by weight of the powder mixture are not considered.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture and two or more of them are high melting point alloys , to calculate which is the Tm of the high melting point alloy, high melting point alloys being less than 1 % by weight of the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture) are not considered. In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture and two or more of them are high melting point alloys, to calculate which is the Tm of the high melting point alloy, high melting point alloys being less than3.8% by weigth of the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture) are not considered.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture and two or more of them are high melting point alloys, to calculate which is the Tm of the high melting point alloy, high melting point alloys being less than 4.2% by weight of the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture) are not considered.

In an embodiment when there are two or more high melting point alloys in a powder mixture. Tm of the high melting point alloy, refers to the Tm of the high melting point alloy having the highest weight percentage of all the high melting point alloys.

In an embodiment when there are two or more high melting point alloys in a powder mixture. Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the high melting point alloy having the highest volume percentage of all the high melting point alloys.

In an embodiment when there are two or more low melting point alloys in a powder mixture. Tm of the low melting point alloy, refers to the Tm of the low melting point alloy having the highest volume percentaje of all the low melting point alloys.

In an embodiment when there are two or more low melting point alloys in a powder mixture. Tm of the low melting point alloy, refers to the Tm of the low melting point alloy having the highest weight percentage of all the low melting point alloys.

In an embodiment when there are two or more high melting point alloys in a powder mixture. Tm of the high melting point alloy, refers to the Tm of the high melting point alloy having the lowest weight percentage of all the high melting point alloys.

In an embodiment when there are two or more high melting point alloys in a powder mixture. Tm of the high melting point alloy refers to the Tm of the high melting point alloy having the lowest volume percentage of all the high melting point alloys.

In an embodiment when there are two or more low melting point alloys in a powder mixture. Tm of the low melting point alloy, refers to the Tm of the low melting point alloy having the lowest volume percentage of all the low melting point alloys.

In an embodiment when there are two or more low melting point alloys in a powder mixture. Tm of the low melting point alloy, refers to the Tm of the low melting point alloy having the lowest weight percentage of all the low melting point alloys.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 62<?C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture, having the highest weight percentage of all high melting point alloys. In an embodiment if there are more than one high melting point alloy with the same weight percentage, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 62°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture, having the highest weight percentage of all high melting point alloys. In an embodiment if there are more than one high melting point alloy with the same weight percentage, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 1 10°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture, having the highest weight percentage of all high melting point alloys. In an embodiment if there are more than one high melting point alloy with the same weight percentage, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 1 10°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture, having the highest weight percentage of all high melting point alloys. In an embodiment if there are more than one high melting point alloy with the same weight percentage, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them. In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1 % in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1 % in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1 % in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture )having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1 % in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1 % in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm , between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1 % in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1 % in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1 % in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1 % in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1 % in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm , between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1 % in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 1 % in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm , between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 62°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3,8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 62°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 62°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 62°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 62°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 62°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm , between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 62°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 62°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm , between them.

n an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 1 10°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 1 10°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 1 10°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 1 10°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 1 10°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 1 10°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 1 10°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 1 10°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at Ieast3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm . between them.

n an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture )having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 230°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at Ieast3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 420°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 420°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 420°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 420°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 420°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 420°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm , between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 420°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 420°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at Ieast3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm , between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 640°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at Ieast3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 820°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 820°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 820°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 820°C or more melting temperature than the metallic powder having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 820°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture )having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 820°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in weight of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same weight percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm , between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 820°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture )having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at least 3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having high Tm, between them.

In an embodiment when there are three or more metallic powders in the powder mixture, Tm of the high melting point refers to Tm of the component having 820°C or more melting temperature than the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders in the powder mixture)having lowest melting point of the powder mixture (being at Ieast3.8% in volume of the powder mixture with the highest weight percentage. In an embodiment if there are more than one metal powders having the same volume percentage, being the highest values, Tm refers to the melting temperature of the metallic powder having less Tm , between them.

The metallic powder is then often either coated or mixed within a polymer The inventor has seen that for some applications the way the feedstock is configured can have a strong influence in the properties attained and the geometries that are possible. In FIGURE - 4, different types of configurations relating to the polymer and metallic phases relative location. Two main configurations arise: coated particles and organic pellets with metallic particulate filling. As has been seen the organic compounds can even be in a non-solid state with the metallic particulates mixed in as a suspension. But even in some of those applications it is beneficial to prepare the mixing of organic compounds and metallic phases in an earlier stage and it is not uncommon to then have an intermediate state where the organic compounds are solid and the metallic phases are mixed in to then proceed to another step where this feedstock is fluidized again. When the organic compounds are in a solid state depending on the application a different configuration will be more desirable. Also different ways arise when incorporating a second or more metallic phase as some examples can be seen in FIGURE-4. For some applications it is very advantageous to have a multitude of metallic particulates within every feedstock particle bound mainly by the organic compound, which allows amongst others to better control the packing of the metallic phase or phases. On the other hand for some applications, where the amount of organic compound is to be minimized and/or where the binding during the shaping step occurs mainly through the surface of the feedstock particulates an mainly the organic compound is responsible for shape retention at that stage, then the coated metallic particles configuration will often be preferred. One example is the case of photo binding of the particulates, or localized plastification or melting of a polymer, in which both feedstock configurations can be used, but somewhat more often the coated particles configuration. One very interesting configuration based on the organic pellets with metallic particulate filling arises when two or more metallic phases are to be employed with a special nominal size relation to favor the filling of certain particulate voids in a close compact structure. Then the desired configuration can already be provided within the feedstock, with considerable advantage for several shaping processes, especially some of the AM related ones. In the case of coated particles, the metal phases with smaller particle size can be provided coated, uncoated or even embedded in the coating, each solution being better for different applications.

In an embodiment the powder mixture further comprises an organic material.

In an embodiment the organic material is a polymer. In other embodiment the organic material is a resin. In other embodiment the resin is a photocurable resin. In an embodiment the organic material is in powder form. In an embodiment the polymer material is in powder form. In an embodiment at least one powder is partially and/or totally coated by an organic material. In an embodiment at least one powder is partially and/or totally coated by a polymer. In an embodiment at least one powder is coated by an organic material. In an embodiment at least one powder is coated by a polymer.

In an embodiment at least part of one of the metallic powders, and for several embodiments at least totallyone of the metallic powders is coated and/or embedded by an organic material, in other embodiments at least one of the metallic powders (for several embodiments at least partially and for other embodiments totally) in thepowder mixture is in other of possible configuration explained in FIGURE 4. In other embodiments at least two metallic powders and in other embodiments all the metallic powders of the mixture are coated and/or embedded and/or in other of possible configuration explained in FIGURE 4. In other embodiments in contrast the organic compound is also in powder form.

In an embodiments in this application when referring to metallic powders coated and/or embedded and/or in another possible configuration as explained in FIGURE 4 , reference is made to AM particulates instead powder particulates. In several embodiments AMparticulate size refers to the size of the coated and/or embedded and/or filled in an organic pellet metallic powder particulates and/or any other possible configuration as shown in FIGURE 4. In an embodiment there are many possible configurations for the powder mixture of at least one metallic powder with respect to the configuration of the metallic particles and the organic compound, one or another will be more interesting depending of concrete shaping technique chosen In an embodiment when the powder mixture comprises more than two metallic powders, for some applications it is interesting having only one of the metallic powders at least partially and in another embodiments entirely, coated by an organic compound. In other embodiment the other metal powders of the mixture are also at least partially and in some embodiments entirely, coated by an organic material, in some embodiments the same organic material coatsall themetallic powders but in other embodiments each metallic powder is coated by a different organic compound, and even in other embodiment different organic compoundsare used for coating one metallic powder.

In an embodiment when the powder mixture comprises more than two metallic powders, for some applications it is interesting having only one of the metallic powders at least partially and in another embodiments entirely, embedded in an organic compound. In other embodiment the other metal powders of the mixture are also at least partially and in some embodiments entirely, embedded in an organic material, in some embodiments all the metallic powders are embedded in the same organic material but in other embodiments each metallic powder is embedded in a different organic compound, and even in other embodiment one metallic powder is embedded in different organic compound.

In an embodiment this particular application is especially interesting when the mixture of at least two metallic powders with different melting temperatures is coated or mixed or in other possible configuration as shown in FIGURE 4, within a polymer. The polymer is responsible for the shape configuration and retention during the AM process or any other shaping process appliedto the metallic powder mixture (for example MIM)and the handling of this piece in this "green state" for those cases wherein post- processingis required to at least partially eliminate the polymer and carry on the densification and consolidation of the metallic or at least partially metalliccomponent until the final component with required properties is obtained.

In an embodiment at least one low melting point alloy in the powder mixture is partially and/or totally coated by an organic material. In an embodiment at least one low melting point alloy in the powder mixture is coated by an organic material. In an embodiment at least one low melting point alloy in the powder mixture is partially and/or totally coated by a polymer. In an embodiment at least one low melting point alloy in the powder mixture is coated by a polymer

In an embodiment at least one high melting point alloy in the powder mixture is partially and/or totally coated by an organic material. In an embodiment at least one high melting point alloy in the powder mixture is coated by an organic material. In an embodiment at least one high melting point alloy in the powder mixture is partially and/or totally coated by a polymer. In an embodiment at least one high melting point alloy in the powder mixture is coated by a polymer.

As metallic phases is understood anything that behaves in the proper way for the implementation of the method of the present invention, so at least some intermetallic alloys, metal base composites, metalloids.... are candidates to fit the definition of metallic phase as employed in the present invention. in an embodiment organic compound refers to natural and synthetic comounds (polymers) which may be filed with an inorganic compound including but not limited to oxides, carbides, nitrides, borides, ceramic components, graphite, talc, mica, waxes, greases, and/or any susceptible natural organic compound (like sugars, proteins, lipids, natural oils and fats, peptides, carbohydrates. . ), yeasts, teflon, halons, cyanides,... In an embodiment the organic compound further contains metals which in an embodiment are eliminated during the post-processing, in other embodiment are alloyed with the main metallic constituents and in other embodiment remain as an infiltration in the component.

Although the metallic phases are indispensable for the present invention, the organic compound might have any kind of filling and also components of another nature can be brought in for any purpose. In this aspect any inorganic compound that can be used as a filling of a polymer or any other organic compound suited for the method of the present invention, as well as any purposeful phase of non-metallic origin: to increase wear performance (like oxides, carbides, nitrides, borides or any other ceramic), to affect sliding performance (graphite, talc, mica, . .. ), to affect any physical or mechanical property, etc . In summary besides the organic compound and the metallic phase or phases any other phase might be present to provide additional functionality.

Polymer can have any kind of organic and/or inorganic charging or mixing for whatever reason it might be (as one example in thousands the mixing of wax for better flowing, pigments for color... ). And/or any susceptible natural organic compound (like sugars, proteins, lipids, natural oils and fats, peptides, carbohydrates... ), yeasts, teflon, halons, cyanides In fact the word polymer as the material bringing shape retention functionality in the conformation or shaping process (trough AM, injection . . . ) can be replaced by any component that offers shape retention in the manufacturing process and can afterwards be eliminated without degrading the metallic constituents. Among others examples can be waxes, greases, talc, metals . .. The case of metals is a singular one, since they can be chosen to be eliminated or to be alloyed with the main metallic constituents or remain as an infiltration.

The inventor has seen that in particular it is required for some applications The inventor has seen that in particular it is required for some applications a mixture containing at least one non metallic components, for many embodiments an organic compound and at least one metallic component in the mixture having a melting temperature, as described in this document, lower than 3.2 times the highest degradation temperature of the organic material, where the melting temperatures are expressed in Kelvin degrees, preferably lower than 2.6 times, more preferably lower than 2 times and even lower than 1.6 times. This mixture can also be interesting for some alternative application.

In an embodiment the present invention relates to a method of manufacturinga metallic or at least partially metallic component, using a powder mixture comprising at least one metallic powder and an organic compound characterized in that at least one of the metallic powders of the mixture has a melting temperature (expressed in Kelvin degrees) lower than 3.2 times the highest degradation temperature of the organic material, in other embodiment lower than 2.6 times, in other embodiment lower than 2 times and even in other embodiment lower than 1 .6 times, wherein the component is shaped using any shaped technique suitable including but not limited to any additive manufacturing (AM) technique, as well as other non-additive manufacturing technique such as those for polymer shaping and also any shaping techique developed in the futuresuitable for use with the mixture of at least one metallic powders and an organic compound disclosed in this document. The manufacturing method in some embodiments requires a post treatment of the shaped component until obtain the desired component.

In an embodiment the present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component, using a powder mixture comprising comprising at least a low melting point metallic powder and a high melting point metallic powder, wherein the low melting point metallic powder is selected from a Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Mg, W, Mo, Al and Ti based alloy containing at least an element selected from: Ga, Bi, Pb, Rb, Zn, Cd, In, Sn, K, Na, , Mn, B, Sc, Si, and/or Mg and/or any combination of them among others and a high melting point alloy selected from Fe, Ni, Co, Cu , Mg, W, Mo, Al or Ti based alloy and an organic compound characterized in that at least one of the metallic powders of the mixture has a melting temperature (expressed in Kelvin degrees) lower than 3.2 times the highest degradation temperature of the organic material, in other embodiment lower than 2.6 times, in other embodiment lower than 2 times and even in other embodiment lower than 1.6 times, wherein the component is shaped using any shaped technique suitable including but not limited to any additive manufacturing (AM) technique, as well as other non-additive manufacturing technique such as those for polymer shaping and also any shaping techique developed in the future suitable for use with the mixture of at least one metallic powders and an organic compound disclosed in this document The manufacturing method in some embodiments requires a post treatment of the shaped component until obtain the desired component.

In an embodiment when the organic compound is a mixture of more than one component, the highest degradation temperature of an organic compound refers to the melting temperature of the component with higher melting pointin the mixture, in other embodiments is referred to the melting temperature of the majority component of the mixture. In other embodiments where the organic material is a polymeric material and there are not more components this higher degradation temperature corresponds with the degradation temperature of the polymeric material.

In an embodiment organic compounds such as polymer degradation refers to a change in the properties— tensile strength, color, shape, etc.— of a polymer or polymer-based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors such as heat, light or chemicals. The changes in properties are often termed "aging". Deteriorative reactions occur during processing, when polymers are subjected to heat, oxygen and mechanical stress, and during the useful life of the materials when oxygen and sunlight are the most important degradative agencies. In more specialized applications, degradation may be induced by high-energy radiation, ozone, atmospheric pollutants, mechanical stress, biological action, hydrolysis and many other influences.

In an embodiment thermal degradation of organic compounds such as polymers refers to a molecular deterioration because of overheating. At high temperatures, the components of the long chain backbone of the polymer can begin to separate (molecular scission) and react with one another to change the properties of the polymer. The chemical reactions involved in thermal degradation lead to physical and optical property changes relative to the initially specified properties. Thermal degradation generally involves changes to the molecular weight (and molecular weight distribution) of the polymer and typical property, changes include reduced ductility and embrittlement, chalking, color changes, cracking, general reduction in most other desirable physical properties.

In an embodiment the temperature at which changes starts is the degradation temperature of a the organic compound.

In an embodiment the temperature at which changes starts in the polymer is the degradation temperature of a polymer.

In an embodiment the temperature at which changes starts is the degradation temperature of a polymer.

In an embodiment thermal degradation of the organic compound is measured by means of DSC analysis In an embodiment thermal degradation of the organic compound is measured by means of DTA analysis.

In an embodiment thermal degradation of the polymer is measured by means of DSC analysis.

In an embodiment thermal degradation of the polymer is measured by means of DTA analysis.

In an embodiment the basic principle underlying DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry) is that when the sample undergoes a physical transformation, more or less heat will need to flow to it than the reference to maintain both at the same temperature. Whether less or more heat must flow to the sample depends on whether the process is exothermic or endothermic. By observing the difference in heat flow between the sample and reference, differential scanning calorimeters are able to measure the amount of heat absorbed or released during such transitions.

In an embodiment In DTA, the heat flow to the sample and reference remains the same rather than the temperature. When the sample and reference are heated identically, phase changes and other thermal processes cause a difference in temperature between the sample and reference.

In an embidoment DSC is used for examining polymeric materials to determine their thermal transitions. Melting points and glass transition temperatures for most polymers are available from standard compilations, and the method can show polymer degradation by the lowering of the expected melting point, T m , for example. T m depends on the molecular weight of the polymer and thermal history, so lower grades may have lower melting points than expected. The percent crystalline content of a polymer can be estimated from the crystallization/melting peaks of the DSC graph as reference heats of fusion can be found in the literature.

In an embodiment thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) is used for decomposition behavior determination of organic compounds. Impurities in polymers can be determined by examining thermograms for anomalous peaks, and plasticizers can be detected at their characteristic boiling points.

In an embodiment TGA is used for measurement of organic compounds degradation.

In an embodiment TGA is used for measurement of polymer degradation.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component, using a powder mixture comprising at least two metallic powder with different melting point, and a organic compound, characterized in that at least one of the metallic powders of the mixture has a melting temperature (expressed in Kelvin degrees)lower than 3.2 times the highest degradation temperature of the organic material, in other embodiment lower than 2.6 times, in other embodiment lower than 2 times and even in other embodiment lower than 1.6 times, wherein the component is shaped using any shaped technique suitableincluding but not limited to any additive manufacturing (AM) technique, as well as other non-additive manufacturing technologies such as those for polymer shaping and also any shaping techique developed at the time of filing this application but suitable for use with the mixture of at least two metallic powders and an organic compound disclosed in this document. The manufacturing method in some embodiments requires a post treatmentof the shaped component until obtain the desired component.

The inventor has seen that most mechanical properties benefit from a high volume fraction of metallic constituents in the feedstock, but on the other hand in some applications where the feedstock is made to flow the viscosity might negatively be affected by an excessive volume fraction of metallic constituents in the feedstock. In the same way some AM technologies and some other shaping processes employed are easier to implement with somewhat less charged feedstock, since a minimum quantity of the functional for the shaping process organic compound is required. So when mechanical properties or density amongst others are the priority, it is desirable to have at least 42% volume fraction of non-organic constituents, preferably 56% or more, more preferably 68% or more and even 76% or more. If inorganic charges and ceramic reinforcements are not looked upon, then in this case it is often desirable to have at least 36% volume fraction of metallic constituents in the feedstock, preferably 52% or more, more preferably 62% or more or even 75% or more. Also the amount of high melting point metallic constituents within the metallic constituents is quite significant for some applications, too high poses difficulties for the consolidation while too low might induce excessive deformation amongst others. In this sense often a volume fraction of high melting point metallic constituents higher than 32% of all metallic constituents, preferably higher than 52%, more preferably higher than 72%, and even higher than 92%can be desirable for applications where long diffusion treatments are acceptable. On the other side volume fraction of high melting point metallic constituents lower than 94% of all metallic constituents, preferably lower than 88%, more preferably lower than 77%, and even lower than 68% can be desirable for economic reasons, especially in view of a faster consolidation.

The inventor has seen that it is also quite interesting for some applications the metallic phase (the sum of all metallic powders contained in the powder mixture) representing a volume fraction of 24% or more, preferably 36% or more, more preferably 56% or more, and even 72% or more.

In an embodiment the volume fraction of metallic powder, in the powder mixture comprising an organic compound and at least one metallic powders or more than one metallic powders with similar melting point, used in the method of the invention is above 24%, in another embodiment above 36%, in another embodiment above 56%, and even in another embodiment above 72%, the rest consisting on organic compounds. In other embodiment higher volume fractions of metallic powders are used sometimes 78% or more, in other embodiment 84% or more, in other embodiment 91 % or more and even in some embodiments having no other components different from the metallic powder mixture. In an embodiment the volume fraction of high melting point metallic constituents of all metallic constituents is higher than 32%, preferably higher than 52%, in other embodiment higher than 72%, and even in another embodiment higher than 92%. On the other side in other embodiment a volume fraction of high melting point metallic constituents of all metallic constituents is lower than 94%, in other embodiment lower than 88%, in other embodiment lower than 77%, and even in other embodiment lower than 68%.

In an embodiment the volume fraction of metallic powders, in the powder mixture comprising an organic compound and at least two metallic powders, with different melting point, used in the method of the invention is above 24%, in another embodiment above 36%, in another embodiment above 56%, and even in another embodiment above 72%, the rest consisting on organic compounds. In other embodiment higher volume fractions of metallic powders are used sometimes 78% or more, in other embodiment 84% or more, in other embodiment 91 % or more and even in some embodiments having no other components different from the metallic powder mixture of at least two metal powders with different melting point temperature. In an embodiment the volume fraction of high melting point metallic constituents of all metallic constituents is higher than 32%, preferably higher than 52%, in other embodiment higher than 72%, and even in another embodiment higher than 92%. On the other side in other embodiment a volume fraction of high melting point metallic constituents of all metallic constituents is lower than 94%, in other embodiment lower than 88%, in other embodiment lower than 77%, and even in other embodiment lower than 68%.

In an embodiment the volume fraction of high melting point metallic constituents is higher than 32% by weightof all metallic constituents in other embodiment higher than 52%, in other embodiment higher than 72%, and even in another embodiment higher than 92%. On the other side in other embodiment a volume fraction of high melting point metallic constituents of all metallic constituents is lower than 94%, in other embodiment lower than 88%, in other embodiment lower than 77%, and even in other embodiment lower than 68%.

The size of the metallic particulates is quite critical for some applications of the present invention. Amongst others and in general terms a finer powder is easier to consolidate and thus to attain higher final densities, and also permits resolve finer details and thus allows for higher accuracy and tolerances, but it is more costly and thus renders some geometries as not economically viable. As has been seen sometimes it is advantageous in the present invention to have different phases in different nominal sizes, in such cases normally the desired nominal sizes are related to the nominal size of the main constituent. Nominal size of metallic powders, when not otherwise stated, refers to D50. Also other than the interstice filling distribution, that is to say tailored or random distributions can be advantageous for some applications. When metallic powders are used, for some applications requiring a fine detail or fast diffusion amongst others, rather fine powders can be used with a d50 of 78 microns or less, preferably 48 microns or less, more preferably 18 microns or less and even 8 microns or less. For some other applications rather coarser powders are acceptable with d50 of 780 microns or less, preferably 380 microns or less, more preferably 180 microns or less and even 120 microns or less. In some applications fine powders are even disadvantageous, so that powders with d50 of 12 microns or more are desired, preferably 22 microns or more, even more preferably 42 microns or more and even 72 microns or more. When several metallic phases are present in the form of particulates, and sizes of different phases are given a percentage of the majoritarian metallic powder spices, then the previous d50 values refer to the latter.

In the present invention, the inventor has seen that is beneficial for many applications the usage of a material which contains a polymer and at least two different metallic materials. The inventor has seen that the size of the metallic materials and also their morphology plays a very important role in the final properties that can be obtained in pieces manufactured according to the present invention. The shape of the powder is also important in terms of active surface and maximum volume fraction attainable, influenced by the spherical shape and particle size distribution.

In the case that the effect of the low melting point metallic constituent in the final component can only be held as non-detrimental for small concentrations of the elements of this low melting point alloy, the inventor has seen that there are several ways to proceed In order to have small concentration of such alloy yet enough contribution to the shape retention upon degradation of the polymer that provides shape retention during the manufacturing step. It has been observed that in general terms close compact structures with high volume fractions of metal in the feedstock help, and amongst others so does a homogeneous distribution of the low melting point metallic constituent. For example, if an 90%+ aluminum alloy is used as low melting point metallic constituent on a steel base metallic constituent, it is known that for many steels low %AI can have rather beneficial effects, like increasing strength through precipitation, limiting austenite grain growth, deoxidizing , providing quite hard nitriding layers... but those effects are achieved for rather small %AI contents in the order of magnitude between weight 0, 1 % and 1 % (and rather closer to the lower end). So one way to deal with this situation is providing a high density close compact structure of the intended steel particulates (quite spherical shape and narrow size distribution help this purpose). Then a roughly 7.0 % in volume is provided of metallic particulates with a diameter d50 being around 0.41 times the d50 diameter of the main particulates, to fill the octahedral holes. This particulates can have the same nature as the main metallic constituent or another particularly chosen to provide the desired functionality once the diffusion and all other treatments are concluded (again here spherical shape and a narrow size distribution help). Then a fine powder of the 90%+ aluminum alloy is provided with a d50 diameter being around 0.225 times the d50 diameter of the main particulates, roughly a 0,6 % in volume should be provided with the intend of filling the tetrahedral holes (again here spherical shape and a narrow size distribution help). Given densities of aluminum and steel this volume fraction roughly represents 0, 15 % in weight of the 90%+ aluminum alloy in the final product which is within the range of generalized positive contribution of Al into steel.

In an embodiment an Al based alloy containing more than 90% by weight aluminium, is used as low melting point alloy and a steel based alloy is used as high melting point alloy in a powder mixture used for manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component, in an embodiment this Al based alloy containing more than 90% by weight aluminium is less than 10% in volume of all metallic constituents. In an embodiment a 7% in volume of all metallic constituents areAI based alloy containing more than 90% by weight aluminium particles with a d50 diameter being around 0.41 times the d50 diameter of the main particulates of the steel based alloy and a 0.6% in volume of all metallic constituents are Al based alloy containing more than 90% by weight aluminium particles with a d50 diameter being around 0.225 times the d50 diameter of the main particulates of the steel based alloy.

The inventor has seen that one interesting implementation of the present invention, arises when a very fast AMor other shapingprocess is chosen for the shaping step. That is so given that the present invention in most cases involves a post-processing step, which is normally not necessary in the AM processes. In principle a post-processing step is perceived as a drawback, and only occasionally post processing steps to attain a superior accuracy are considered. But the inventor has seen that the disadvantage of having a post-processing step can be overcome by the flexibility and the increase in speed that the present method can offer, since it is easier to achieve faster speeds in polymer based AM processes than in metal based ones. This is more so when the post-processing can be applied to many components at simultaneously either through batches of several components in an oven or through a continuous process where several pieces are processed at the same time though every piece is at a somewhat different stage of the process. Then the effective processing time of the post-processing cycle can be strongly reduced since what really matters in the amount of pieces processed in one hour rather than the length of the cycle to which each piece is exposed. So the inventor has seen that what could be considered a rather laborious post-processing is effectively not so if the batches processed simultaneously are large enough. For example a 2h (3600 sec) post-processing debinding and diffusion treatment applied to a batch of 2000 pieces at once, renders an effective processing time per piece of less than 2 seconds.

In an embodiment the post processing of more than 500 pieces is made simultaneously, in other embodiment more than 800 pieces, in other embodiment more than 1200 pieces, in other embodiment more than 1600 pieces and even in other embodiment 2000 pieces or more. In an embodiment the post processing time per piece is 10 seconds or less, in other embodiment 7 seconds or less, in other embodiment 4 second or less and even in other embodiment 2 seconds or less.

In an embodiment there are several post-processing treatments that may be applied to the shapedcomponent, many of them including exposure of the component to certain temperatures.

In an embodiment when reference is made to "green compact", "green material", "green body" and/or "green component" it may be understood an intermediate component obtained by any shape method, as disclosed in the document, further containing a non metallic material (in many cases an organic material , such as for example but not limited to a polymeric material), which may be submitted to at least one post treatment with heat before obtaining the final component. In many applications this green component is subjected to a debinding process, to at least partially eliminate the organic compounds (binders).

When resistance of a green material is measured through the transverse rupture strength (TSR) method, using a three-point bending test, values close to 4 to 25 MPa are found for the materials and methods used and known in the state of the art. But when the green component is submitted to a debinding process and the binder is fully degraded values higher than 1 MPa are difficult to attain with the materials and methods used in the state of the art for the manufacture of metallic or at least partially metallic components, especially when big components are manufactured, which in some cases implies the use of molds or other elements to help with shape retention until sintering and/or HIP treatments are applied to consolidate the piece.

In an embodiment transverse rupture strength is a material property, defined as the stress in a material just before it yields in a flexure test.

In an embodiment transverse rupture strength is determined in a transverse bending test in which a specimen having either a circular or rectangular cross-section is bent until fracture or yielding using a three point flexural test technique. The flexural strength represents the highest stress experienced within the material at its moment of failure.

In some cases of the state of the art during the debinding process the organic material is not fully degraded and the transverse rupture strength (TSR) measurements of the component (sometimes named brown component in the state of the art, but not a brown component in the meaning of the present document) may be close to those of the green material, due to the presence of the organic compound usually to help handling the piece before sintering , HIP and/or application of any other post-treatment to consolidate the piece. In these cases when a heat treatment is carried out, and the organic compound is fully degraded before reach sintering and/or HIP temperature, often the remaining organic compound is fully degraded at the time of heating to reach the sintering and/or HIP temperatures. In the moment that the organic material is degraded, the minimum value of transverse strength (TRS) for these pieces is reach and this values hardily are over 2 MPa (the same values that would be obtained if a total debinding of the piece is made in the debinding process).

The inventor has seen that when employing the method of the invention and a mixture comprising at least two metallic powders and other non metallic components, which in many cases comprises an organic material,such as for example, but not limited to a polymeric material, the adequate choice of particle size distribution, along with the selection of the high melting and low melting metallic powder alloys in the mixture as previously explained allows a high compactation in the green material shaped, which translates into a high tap density and high resistance values of the green component along with higher resistance of the green component.

In an embodiment, when a partial debinding has been made, and/or when the green component is directly submitted to a Heat Treatment to transfer the shape retention from polymer to the metallic phase, the transverse rupture strength value of the component after the Heat treatment in the most critical point of the process (the critical point of the process refers to the moment wherein transverse rupture strength value reaches the minimum value during the elimination of the organic compound and the transference of the shape retention to the metallic component, and before sintering, HIP and/or another treatment at high temperature that depending of the alloy system in many cases it may occur when a temperature of at least 500°C has reached, but far below the sintering temperature, in an embodiment 100°C or more below the sintering and/or HIP temperature, in another embodiment 200°C or more, in another embodiment 400°C or more, and even in another embodiment 600°C or more, and/or in other cases this may occur when the shape retention is made through the metallic components instead the organic compounds).

In an embodiment, when a fully debinding has been made the brown component obtained, wherein the component has been submitted to a Heat Treatment belowthe sintering temperature, have a transverse rupture strength value at room temperature of 0.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 0.55MPa, in other embodiment 0.6MPa, in other embodiment 0.8MPa, in other embodiment 1 .1 MPa, in other embodiment 1.6MPa, in other embodiment 2.3MPa, in other embodiment 2.6 MPa, in other embodiment 3.1 MPa, in other embodiment 4.1 MPa, in other embodiment 5.2MPa, in other embodiment 7.2 MPa, in other embodiment 9.3 MPa, in other embodiment 13.6 MPa, in other embodiment 15.9MPa, in other embodiment 25.3 MPa, in other embodiment 41 2 MPa, in other embodiment 51 MPa, and even in other embodiment 56MPa or more.

In an embodiment transverse rupture strength is measured using ISO 3325: 1996.

In an embodiment the green component is submitted to a Heat Treatment wherein at least partially PMSRT takes place.

In an embodiment the green component is submitted to a Heat Treatment wherein at least partially MSRT takes place.

In an embodiment during Heat Treatment at least partial debinding takes place.

In an embodiment the green component is submitted to a Heat Treatment wherein PMSRT takes place.

In an embodiment the green component is submitted to a Heat Treatment wherein MSRT takes place.

In an embodiment during Heat Treatment debinding takes place.

In an embodiment the post-processing treatment comprises at least a Heat Treatment wherein MSRT takes place.

In an embodiment the green component is subjected to a Heat Treatment.

In an embodiment the Heat Treatment is made between 0.35*Tm of the low melting point alloy and the temperature at which 20% of polymer is degraded. In an embodiment the Heat Treatment is made between 0.35 * Tm of the low melting point alloy and the temperature at which 29% of polymer is degraded. In an embodiment the Heat Treatment is made between 0.35*Tm of the low melting point alloy and the temperature at which 36% of polymer is degraded. In an embodiment the Heat Treatment is made between 0.35*Tm of the low melting point alloy and the temperature at which 48% of polymer is degraded. In an embodiment the Heat Treatment is made between 0.35*Tm of the low melting point alloy and the temperature at which 69% of polymer is degraded. In an embodiment the Heat Treatment is made between 0.35*Tm of the low melting point alloy and the temperature at which 81 % of polymer is degraded. In an embodiment the Heat Treatment is made between 0.35*Tm of the low melting point alloy and the temperature at which 92% of polymer is degraded. In an embodiment the Heat Treatment is made between 0.35*Tm of the low melting point alloy and the temperature at which polymer is fully degraded.

In an embodiment a polymer is 20% degraded when the polymer has the 20% of the mechanical strength measured according to ISO 6892 compared with the mechanical strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 20% degraded when the organic polymer has the 20% of the tensile strength measured according to ISO 6892 compared with the tensile strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer compound is 20% degraded when the polymer has the 20% of the transverse strength according to ISO 3325: 1996 compared with the transverse strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 29% degraded when the polymer has the 29% of the mechanical strength measured according to ISO 6892 compared with the mechanical strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer compound is 29% degraded when the organic polymer has the 29% of the tensile strength measured according to ISO 6892 compared with the tensile strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 29% degraded when the polymer has the 29% of the transverse strength according to ISO 3325: 1996 compared with the transverse strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 36% degraded when the polymer has the 36% of the mechanical strength measured according to ISO 6892 compared with the mechanical strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions. In an embodiment a polymer is 36% degraded when the organic polymer has the36% of the tensile strength measured according to ISO 6892 compared with the tensile strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 36% degraded when the polymer has the 36% of the transverse strength according to ISO 3325: 1996 compared with the transverse strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 48% degraded when the polymer has the 48% of the mechanical strength measured according to ISO 6892 compared with the mechanical strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 48% degraded when the organic polymer has the 48% of the tensile strength measured according to ISO 6892 compared with the tensile strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 48% degraded when the polymer has the 69% of the transverse strength according to ISO 3325: 1996 compared with the transverse strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 69% degraded when the polymer has the 69% of the mechanical strength measured according to ISO 6892 compared with the mechanical strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 69% degraded when the organic polymer has the 69% of the tensile strength measured according to ISO 6892 compared with the tensile strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 69% degraded when the polymer has the 69% of the transverse strength according to ISO 3325: 1996 compared with the transverse strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 81 % degraded when the polymer has the 81 % of the mechanical strength measured according to ISO 6892 compared with the mechanical strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 81 % degraded when the organic polymer has the 81 % of the tensile strength measured according to ISO 6892 compared with the tensile strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 81 % degraded when the polymer has the 81 % of the transverse strength according to ISO 3325: 1996 compared with the transverse strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 92% degraded when the polymer has the 92% of the mechanical strength measured according to ISO 6892 compared with the mechanical strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 92% degraded when the polymer has the 92% of the tensile strength measured according to ISO 6892 compared with the tensile strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment a polymer is 92% degraded when the polymer has the 92% of the transverse strength according to ISO 3325: 1996 compared with the transverse strength of the polymer in the green state under the same conditions.

In an embodiment the Heat Treatment is made between 0.35 * Tm of the low melting point alloy and 0.39*Tm of high melting point alloy in other embodiment between 0.35*Tm of the low melting point alloy and 0.49 * Tm of high melting point alloy, in other embodiment between 0.35 * Tm of the low melting point alloy and 0.55 Tm of high melting point alloy. In other embodiment between 0.35*Tm of the low melting point alloy and 0.64 Tm of high melting point alloy.

In an embodiment the Heat Treatment is made for a time enough to obtain a mechanical strength of the metallic or at least metallic component at room temperature of 0.7 MPa or more, in other embodiment 0.9MPa or more, in other embodiment 1.2MPa or more, in other embodiment 1.5MPaor more, in other embodiment 2.3MPa or more, in other embodiment 3.4MPaor more, in other embodiment 4.6MPaor more, in other embodiment 5.2 MPa or more, in other embodiment 6.3MPaor more, in other embodiment 8.1 MPa or more, in other embodiment 10.5MPa or more , in other embodiment 14.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 19.6 MPa or more, in other embodiment 27.2MPa or more, in other embodiment 32.6MPa or more, in other embodiment 51.2 MPa or more, in other embodiment 84.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 102 MPa or more, and even in other embodiment 1 10MPa or more.

In an embodiment mechanical strength refers to Compressive strength or compression strength, which is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength, which withstands loads tending to elongate.

In an embodiment a compression test is the method used for determining the behavior of materials under a compressive load. Compression tests are conducted by loading the test specimen between two plates, and then applying a force to the specimen by moving the crossheads together. During the test, the specimen is compressed, and deformation versus the applied load is recorded. The compression test is used to determine elastic limit, proportional limit, yield point, yield strength, and (for some materials) compressive strength.

In an embodiment the standard test used to determining mechanical strength is the ASTM E9: standard test methods of compression testing of metallic materials at room temperature.

In an embodiment the standard test used to determining mechanical strength is the ASTM 209: standard test methods of compression testing of metallic materials at high temperatures temperature (above room temperature

In an embodiment mechanical strength refers to Compressive strength or compression strength, which is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to reduce size, as opposed to tensile strength, which withstands loads tending to elongate.

In an embodiment a compression test is the method used for determining the behavior of materials under a compressive load. Compression tests are conducted by loading the test specimen between two plates, and then applying a force to the specimen by moving the crossheads together. During the test, the specimen is compressed , and deformation versus the applied load is recorded. The compression test is used to determine elastic limit, proportional limit, yield point, yield strength, and (for some materials) compressive strength.

In an embodiment the standard test used to determining mechanical strength is the ASTM E9: standard test methods of compression testing of metallic materials at room temperature.

In an embodiment the standard test used to determining mechanical strength is the ASTM 209: standard test methods of compression testing of metallic materials at high temperatures temperature (above room temperature).

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

a. providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

b. shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique resulting in a shaped component c. subjecting the shaped component to at least one heat treatment at a temperature between 0.35 times the melting temperature of the low melting point alloy and 0.39 times the melting temperature of the high melting point alloy, until the component reaches a mechanical strength of at least 1.2 MPa, wherein, when there are more than two metallic alloys, the Tm of the low melting point alloy is defined as the melting temperaTure of the alloy having the lowest melting point among the alloys present in an amount of at least 1 % volume of the powder mixture, and the melting temperature of high melting point alloy is defined as the Tm of the alloy having the highest % volume among the high melting point alloys present in an amount of at least 3.8% volume of the powder mixture, and wherein any alloy having a melting temperature which is at least 1 10°C higher than the low melting point alloy is considered a high melting point alloy

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

a. providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

b. shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique resulting in a shaped component

c. subjecting the shaped component to at least one heat treatment at a temperature between 0.35 times the melting temperature of the low melting point alloy and 0.49 times the melting temperature of the high melting point alloy, until the component reaches a mechanical strength of at least 1 .2 MPa, wherein, when there are more than two metallic alloys, the Tm of the low melting point alloy is defined as the melting temperaTure of the alloy having the lowest melting point among the alloys present in an amount of at least 1 % volume of the powder mixture, and the melting temperature of high melting point alloy is defined as the Tm of the alloy having the highest % volume among the high melting point alloys present in an amount of at least 3.8% volume of the powder mixture, and wherein any alloy having a melting temperature which is at least 1 10°C higher than the low melting point alloy is considered a high melting point alloy

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique resulting in a shaped component

subjecting the shaped component to a Heat treatment

In an embodiment in materials science, the strength of a material is its ability to withstand an applied load without failure or plastic deformation. The applied loads may be axial (tensile or compressive), or [shear strength shear]. Material strength refers to the point on the engineering stress-strain curve (yield stress) beyond which the material experiences deformations that will not be completely reversed upon removal of the loading and as a result the member will have a permanent deflection. The ultimate strength refers to the point on the engineering stress-strain curve corresponding to the stress that produces fracture.

In an embodiment the Heat Treatment is made for a time enough to obtain a mechanical strength of the metallic or at least metallic component at the temperature of the component in the moment of stopping the Heat Treatment for made the measurement of 0.7 MPa or more, in other embodiment 0.9MPa or more, in other embodiment 1 .2MPa or more, in other embodiment 1.5MPa or more, in other embodiment 2.3MPa or more, in other embodiment 3.4MPa or more, in other embodiment 4.6MPa or more, in other embodiment 5.2 MPa or more, in other embodiment 6.3MPa or more, in other embodiment 8.1 MPa or more, in other embodiment 10.5MP or more a, in other embodiment 14.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 19.6 MPa or more, in other embodiment 27.2MPa or more, in other embodiment 32.6MPa or more, in other embodiment 51 .2 MPa or more, in other embodiment 84.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 102 MPa or more, and even in other embodiment 1 10MPa or more.

In an embodiment the metallic or at least metallic component obtained before the Heat treatment has a mechanical strength at room temperature of 0.7 MPa or more, in other embodiment 0.9MPa or more, in other embodiment 1.2MPa or more, in other embodiment 1.5MPa or more, in other embodiment 2.3MPa or more, in other embodiment 3.4MPa or more, in other embodiment 4.6MPa or more, in other embodiment 5.2 MPa or more, in other embodiment 6.3MPa or more, in other embodiment 8.1 MPa or more, in other embodiment 10.5MP or more a, in other embodiment 14 3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 19.6 MPa or more, in other embodiment 27.2MPa or more, in other embodiment 32.6MPa or more, in other embodiment 51 .2 MPa or more, in other embodiment 84.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 102 MPa or more, and even in other embodiment 1 10MPa or more.

In an embodiment the metallic or at least metallic component obtained before the Heat treatment has a mechanical strength at the temperature of the component in the moment of stopping the Heat Treatment of 0.7 MPa or more, in other embodiment 0.9MPa or more, in other embodiment 1 2MPa or more, in other embodiment 1 ,5MPa or more, in other embodiment 2.3MPa or more, in other embodiment 3.4MPa or more, in other embodiment 4.6MPa or more, in other embodiment 5.2 MPa or more, in other embodiment 6.3MPa or more, in other embodiment 8.1 MPa or more, in other embodiment 10.5MP or more a, in other embodiment 14.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 19.6 MPa or more, in other embodiment 27.2MPa or more, in other embodiment 32.6MPa or more, in other embodiment 51.2 MPa or more, in other embodiment 84.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 102 MPa or more, and even in other embodiment 1 10MPa or more.

In an embodiment when the component obtained before the heat treatment further comprises organic compound is submitted to a non-thermal debinding, such as chemical debinding until full degradation of the organic compound before measuring the mechanical strength.

In an embodiment the shaped component is submitted to a Heat Treatment between 0.35*Tm of the low melting point alloy and 0.39*Tm of high melting point alloy for a time enough to obtain a mechanical strength of the metallic or at least partially component higher than 1 .2 MPa at room temperature.

In an embodiment the shaped component is submitted to a heat treatment between 0.35*Tm of the low melting point alloy and 0.39*Tm of high melting point alloy for a time enough to obtain a mechanical strength of the metallic or at least partially component higher than 0.7 MPa at the temperature of the component in the moment of stopping the Heat Treatment for made the measurement

In an embodiment, when there is only one metallic powder in the powder mixture, the shaped component is submitted to a heat treatment between 0.35*Tm and 0.39*Tm of the metallic powder melting point. In an embodiment, when there is only one metallic powder in the powder mixture, the shaped component is submitted to a heat treatment between 0.35*Tm and 0.49*Tm of the metallic powder melting point. In an embodiment, when there are only one metallic powder in the powder mixture, the post-processing treatment consisting on a heat treatment made between 0.35*Tm and 0.55 Tm of the metallic powder melting point. In an embodiment, when there are only one metallic powder in the powder mixture, the post-processing treatment consisting on a heat treatment made between 0.35*Tm and 0.64 Tm of the metallic powder melting point.

In an embodiment when there is only one metallic powder in the powder mixture the Heat Treatment is made for a time enough to obtain a mechanical strength of the metallic or at least metallic component at room temperature of 0.7 MPa or more, in other embodiment 0.9MPa, in other embodiment 1 .2MPa, in other embodiment 1.5MPa, in other embodiment 2.3MPa, in other embodiment 3.4MPa, in other embodiment 4.6MPa, in other embodiment 5.2 MPa, in other embodiment 6.3MPa, in other embodiment 8.1 MPa, in other embodiment 10.5MPa, in other embodiment 14.3 MPa, in other embodiment 19.6 MPa, in other embodiment 27.2 MPa, in other embodiment 32.6MPa, in other embodiment 51 .2 MPa, in other embodiment 84.3 MPa, in other embodiment 102 MPa, and even in other embodiment 1 10MPa or more.

In an embodiment when there is only one metallic powder in the powder mixture the Heat Treatment is made for a time enough to obtain a mechanical strength of the metallic or at least metallic component at the temperature of the component in the moment of stopping the Heat Treatment for made the measurement of 0.7 MPa or more, in other embodiment 0.9MPa, in other embodiment 1.2MPa, in other embodiment 1.5MPa, in other embodiment 2.3MPa, in other embodiment 3.4MPa, in other embodiment 4.6MPa, in other embodiment 5.2 MPa, in other embodiment 6.3MPa, in other embodiment 8.1 MPa, in other embodiment 10.5MPa, in other embodiment 14.3 MPa, in other embodiment 19.6 MPa, in other embodiment 27.2 MPa, in other embodiment 32.6MPa. in other embodiment 51.2 MPa, in other embodiment 84.3 MPa, in other embodiment 102 MPa, and even in other embodiment 1 10MPa or more.

In an embodiment thanks to bleaching and direct contact between grains, there is an improvement between the thermal conductivity of the green component and brown component.

In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 12% in thermal conductivity between brown and green component. In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 22% in thermal conductivity between brown and green component. In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 52% in thermal conductivity between brown and green component. In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 1 10% in thermal conductivity between brown and green component.

In an embodiment thanks to bleaching and direct contact between grains, there is an improvement between the electrical conductivity of the green component and brown component.

In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 12% in electrical conductivity between brown and green component. In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 22% in electrical conductivity between brown and green component. In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 52% in electrical conductivity between brown and green component. In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 1 10% in electrical conductivity between brown and green component.

In an embodiment thanks to bleaching and direct contact between grains, there is an improvement between the thermal conductivity of the equivalent green component and brown component.

In an embodiment thanks to bleaching and direct contact between grains, there is an improvement between the thermal conductivity of the equivalent green component and brown component.

In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 12% in thermal conductivity between brown and equivalent green component. In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 22% in thermal conductivity between brown and equivalent green component. In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 52% in thermal conductivity between brown and equivalent green component. In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 1 10% in thermal conductivity between brown and equivalent green component.

In an embodiment thanks to bleaching and direct contact between grains, there is an improvement between the electrical conductivity of the equivalent green component and brown component. In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 12% in electrical conductivity between brown and equivalent green component. In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 22% in electrical conductivity between brown and equivalent green component. In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 52% in electrical conductivity between brown and gequivalent reen component. In an embodiment there is an improvement of more than 1 10% in electrical conductivity between brown and equivalent green component.

In an embodiment thanks to bleaching and direct contact between grains, there is an improvement between the thermal conductivity of the equivalent green component and brown component.

In an embodiment equivalent green component refers to an equivalent component to green component without polymer.

In an embodiment green component is submitted to a non-thermal debinding, such as chemical debinding until full degradation of the organic compound to obtain the equivalent green component before measuring the thermal or electrical conductivity.

In an embodiment sintering temperature is 0.7*Tm or more of high melting point alloy. In an embodiment sintering temperature is 0.75*Tm or more of high melting point alloy. In an embodiment sintering temperature is 0.8*Tm or more of high melting point alloy. In an embodiment sintering temperature is 0.85 * Tm or more of high melting point alloy. In an embodiment sintering temperature is 0.9*Tm or more of high melting point alloy. In an embodiment sintering temperature is 0.95*Tm or more of high melting point alloy.

In an embodiment the invention refers to a method of manufacturing metallic or at least partially metallic components such as pieces, parts, components or tools, comprising the following steps:

providing a powder mixture comprising at least a low melting point alloy and a high melting point alloy and optionally and organic compound

shaping the powder mixture with a shaping technique resulting in a shaped component

subjecting the shaped component to a Heat treatment

subjecting the component obtained in step c to a sintering

In an embodiment the minimum transverse rupture strength values obtained after submit the green component to a post treatment involving a heat treatment before reaching0.7*Tm of high melting point alloyat room temperatureis 0.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 0.55MPa, in other embodiment 0.6MPa, in other embodiment 0.8MPa, in other embodiment 1 .1 MPa, in other embodiment 1.6MPa, in other embodiment 2.3MPa, in other embodiment 2.6 MPa, in other embodiment 3.1 MPa, in other embodiment 4.1 MPa, in other embodiment 5.2MPa, in other embodiment 7.2 MPa, in other embodiment 9.3 MPa, in other embodiment 13.6 MPa, in other embodiment 15.9MPa, in other embodiment 25.3 MPa, in other embodiment 41 .2 MPa, in other embodiment 51 MPa, and even in other embodiment 56MPa or more.

In an embodiment the minimum transverse rupture strength values obtained after submit the green component to a post treatment involving a heat treatment before reaching0.75 * Tm of high melting point alloy at room temperature is 0.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 0.55MPa, in other embodiment 0.6MPa, in other embodiment 0.8MPa, in other embodiment 1 .1 MPa, in other embodiment 1 ,6MPa, in other embodiment 2.3MPa, in other embodiment 2.6 MPa, in other embodiment 3.1 MPa, in other embodiment 4.1 MPa, in other embodiment 5.2MPa, in other embodiment 7.2 MPa, in other embodiment 9.3 MPa, in other embodiment 13.6 MPa, in other embodiment 15.9MPa, in other embodiment 25.3 MPa, in other embodiment 41 .2 MPa, in other embodiment 51 MPa, and even in other embodiment 56MPa or more.

In an embodiment the minimum transverse rupture strength values obtained after submit the green component to a post treatment involving a heat treatment before reaching 0.8*Tm of high melting point alloy at room temperature is 0.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 0.55MPa. in other embodiment 0.6MPa, in other embodiment 0.8MPa, in other embodiment 1 .1 MPa, in other embodiment 1 6MPa, in other embodiment 2.3MPa, in other embodiment 2.6 MPa, in other embodiment 3.1 MPa, in other embodiment 4.1 MPa, in other embodiment 5.2MPa, in other embodiment 7.2 MPa, in other embodiment 9.3 MPa, in other embodiment 13.6 MPa, in other embodiment 15.9MPa, in other embodiment 25.3 MPa, in other embodiment 41 .2 MPa, in other embodiment 51 MPa, and even in other embodiment 56MPa or more.

In an embodiment the minimum transverse rupture strength values obtained after submit the green component to a post treatment involving a heat treatment before reaching 0.85*Tm of high melting point alloy at room temperature is 0.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 0.55MPa, in other embodiment 0.6MPa, in other embodiment 0.8MPa, in other embodiment 1 .1 MPa, in other embodiment 1 6MPa, in other embodiment 2.3MPa, in other embodiment 2.6 MPa, in other embodiment 3.1 MPa, in other embodiment 4.1 MPa, in other embodiment 5.2MPa, in other embodiment 7.2 MPa, in other embodiment 9.3 MPa, in other embodiment 13.6 MPa, in other embodiment 15.9MPa, in other embodiment 25.3 MPa, in other embodiment 41 .2 MPa, in other embodiment 51 MPa, and even in other embodiment 56MPa or more.

In an embodiment the minimum transverse rupture strength values obtained after submit the green component to a post treatment involving a heat treatment before reaching 0.9*Tm of high melting point alloy at room temperature is 0.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 0.55MPa, in other embodiment 0.6MPa, in other embodiment 0.8MPa, in other embodiment 1.1 MPa, in other embodiment 1 6MPa, in other embodiment 2.3MPa, in other embodiment 2.6 MPa, in other embodiment 3.1 MPa, in other embodiment 4.1 MPa, in other embodiment 5.2MPa, in other embodiment 7.2 MPa, in other embodiment 9.3 MPa, in other embodiment 13.6 MPa, in other embodiment 15.9MPa, in other embodiment 25.3 MPa, in other embodiment 41 .2 MPa, in other embodiment 51 MPa, and even in other embodiment 56MPa or more.

In an embodiment the minimum transverse rupture strength values obtained after submit the green component to a post treatment involving a heat treatment but before 0.95*Tm of high melting point alloy at room temperatureis 0.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 0.55MPa, in other embodiment 0.6MPa, in other embodiment 0.8MPa, in other embodiment 1.1 MPa, in other embodiment 1.6MPa, in other embodiment 2.3MPa, in other embodiment 2.6 MPa, in other embodiment 3.1 MPa, in other embodiment 4.1 MPa, in other embodiment 5.2MPa, in other embodiment 7.2 MPa, in other embodiment 9.3 MPa, in other embodiment 13.6 MPa, in other embodiment 15.9MPa, in other embodiment 25.3 MPa, in other embodiment 41 .2 MPa, in other embodiment 51 MPa, and even in other embodiment 56MPa or more.

In an embodiment when reference is made to "brown compact", "brown material" , "brown body" and/or "brown component' it may be understood an intermediate component obtained after submitting the green component to at least a post-processing treatment, wherein the full degradation of the organic compound takes place.

In an embodiment "brown compact", "brown material" , "brown body" and/or "brown component" refers to greem component after total degradation of the organic compound, and before reach sintering temperature.

In an embodiment the transverse rupture strength of the brown component at room temperature is 0.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 0.55MPa, in other embodiment 0.6MPa, in other embodiment 0.8MPa, in other embodiment 1.1 MPa, in other embodiment 1 ,6MPa, in other embodiment 2.3MPa, in other embodiment 2.6 MPa, in other embodiment 3.1 MPa, in other embodiment 4 1 MPa, in other embodiment 5.2MPa, in other embodiment 7.2 MPa, in other embodiment 9.3 MPa, in other embodiment 13.6 MPa, in other embodiment 15.9MPa, in other embodiment 25.3 MPa, in other embodiment 41.2 MPa, in other embodiment 51 MPa, and even in other embodiment 56MPa or more.

In an embodiment the transverse rupture strength of the brown component at room temperature is

In other embodiment transverse rupture strength determination is made at the temperature of the component in the moment of stopping the post-processing treatment for made the measurement.

In an embodiment, component is maintained at this temperature for made the measurement.

In other embodiment transverse rupture strength determination is made at a temperature of the component lower than 0.7 * Tm of high melting point alloy

In an embodiment if there is only one metallic powder in the powder mixture, transverse rupture strength determination is made at a temperature of the component lower than 0.7TM of the metallic powder melting point.

In an embodiment the transverse rupture strength values obtained after submit the green component to a post-processing treatment such as debinding and/or PMSRT at room temperature is 0.3 MPa or more, in other embodiment 0.55MPa, in other embodiment 0.6MPa, in other embodiment 0.8MPa, in other embodiment 1.1 MPa, in other embodiment 1.6MPa, in other embodiment 2.3MPa, in other embodiment 2.6 MPa, in other embodiment 3.1 MPa, in other embodiment 4.1 MPa, in other embodiment 5.2MPa, in other embodiment 7.2 MPa, in other embodiment 9.3 MPa, in other embodiment 13.6 MPa, in other embodiment 15.9MPa, in other embodiment 25.3 MPa, in other embodiment 41.2 MPa, in other embodiment 51 MPa, and even in other embodiment 56MPa or more. in the moment where full degradation of the organic compound takes place.

In an embodiment, for some applications, especially when high mechanical properties in the component are desired a debinding process to at least partially eliminate the organic compound is required.lt is advantageous for some applications to choose at least one of the metallic powders to help with the shape retention during the debinding process. In such instances at least one of the metallic powders is chosen to melt in some amount or strongly diffuse into the metallic powder with the highest volume fraction, before the polymer is degraded to an extent that it cannot retain the shape. It is particularly interesting for many applications to have for this purpose a metallic alloy with an extended range of solidification, so that the amount of liquid phase can be purposefully controlled. A higher volume fraction of liquid helps densification but an excessive amount can cause slumping. In some instances where amongst others high densification is desired without excessive post-processing (HIP,. .. ) and slumping, cavity formation and all other disadvantages associated with excessive liquid phase are of not excessive concern then volume fractions of liquid above 6%, preferably above 12%, more preferably above 22% and even above 33% can be used. On the contrary when densification is not such a concern, or it is desirable to attain it by other means or slumping or other undesirable effects of excessive liquid phase are not desirable then liquid phases below 18%, preferably below 12%, more preferably below 8% and even below 3% can be used. In some instances of the present invention the liquid phase is only desired to promote diffusion in such cases more than a 1 % in volume, preferably more than a 4%, more preferably more than an 8% or even more than a 16% can be desirable.

In an embodiment the liquid volume fraction refers to the total volume of the metallic phase which produces the liquid phase.

In an embodiment the liquid volume fraction refers to the total volume of the metallic phase (the sum of al metallic phases.

In an embodiment the liquid volume fraction refers to the total volume of the component.

The control of the atmosphere during all treatments is very important for some applications, since oxidation of internal voids and also of the surface is often not desirable, but sometimes even advantageous. So often controlled atmospheres are advantageous, inert atmospheres and even for some cases reducing atmospheres are very advantageous to reduce or eliminate the oxidation layers. Sometimes the atmosphere is used to activate the surfaces, and this can be done not only by reduction but sometimes by some kind of etching or even oxidation. In an embodiment debinding is made in an inert atmosphere. In other embodiment in reducing atmospheres

In an embodiment debinding is made in a controlled atmosphere. In an embodiment debinding is made in inert atmosphere. In other embodiment debinding is made in reducing atmosphere. In other embodiment debinding is made in a oxidative atmosphere. in an embodiment mechanical strength is applied to the metallic or at least partially metallic component during the debinding. In other embodiment is applied pressure to the component during the debinding, in an embodiment pressure applied is isostatic in other embodiment pressure applied is directed to different parts of the component,, .In other embodiment debinding is made under vacuum, in other embodiment debinding is made under low pressure conditions.

In an embodiment debinding is a thermal debinding.

In other embodiment debinding is a non-thermal debinding.

In an embodiment the green component shaped from a powder mixture using an AM technique, a Polymer shaping techique , such as MIM, a HIP process, a CIP process, Sinter forging, Sintering and/or any technique suitable for powder conformation and/or any combination thereof among others, is subjected to a post processing treatment comprising a debinding. In an embodiment debinding is a thermal debinding wherein the organic compound is at least partially degraded. In other embodiment debinding is a thermal debinding wherein the organic compound is fully degraded and the PMSRT takes place before full degradation of the organic compound.

In an embodiment at least partial debinding occurs during Heat Treatment.

In an embodiment partial debinding refers to a treatment directed to organic compound degradation wherein the organic compound is not fully degraded.

In An embodiment the partial debinding is a thermal debinding.

In other embodiment the partial debinding is a non-thermal debinding.

In an embodiment a partial thermal debinding is made before Heat Treatment.

In an embodiment a partial non- thermal debinding is made before Heat Treatment.

In an embodiment a partial non- thermal debinding is made before Heat Treatment, and PMSRT occurs during this non-thermal debinding. In an embodiment when at least partially PMSRT occurs during thermal debinding, the component may be submitted directly to sintering and/or CIP an d/or HIP.

In an embodiment when at least partially PMSRT occurs during non-thermal debinding, the component may be submitted directly to sintering and/or CIP an d/or HIP.

In an embodiment a total degradation of the organic compound is made during thermal debinding is made and PMSRT occurs during thermal debinding

In an embodiment a total degradation of the organic compound is made during non-thermal debinding is made and PMSRT occurs during thermal debinding

In an embodiment a partial non- thermal debinding is made before Heat Treatment.

In an embodiment during debinding a liquid phase is formed.

In an embodiment during debinding a liquid phase from the low melting point alloy is formed.

In an embodiment at least 1% in volume of liquid phase is formed during debinding treatment. In an embodiment at least 2.1% in volume of liquid phase is formed during debinding treatment. In an embodiment at least 3.8% in volume of liquid phase is formed during debinding treatment. In an embodiment at least 5.3% in volume of liquid phase is formed during debinding. In an embodiment at least 8.6% in volume of liquid phase is formed during debinding treatment. In an embodiment at least 8.6% in volume of liquid phase is formed during debinding treatment. In an embodiment at least 12.9% in volume of liquid phase is formed during debinding.

In an embodiment at least 1% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Heat Treatment. In an embodiment at least 2.1% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Heat treatment. In an embodiment at least 3.8% in volume of liquid phase is formed during any Heat Treatment. In an embodiment at least 5.3% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Heat Treatment. In an embodiment at least 8.6% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Heat Treatment. In an embodiment at least 12.9% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Heat Treatment. In an embodiment at least 18.4% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Heat Treatment.

In an embodiment the maximum amount of liquid phase during Heat treatment is below 34%, in other embodiment below 27% in other embodiment below 14% or even in other embodiment below 6%.

In an embodiment at least 1% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Sintering. In an embodiment at least 2.1% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Sintering. In an embodiment at least 3.8% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Sintering. In an embodiment at least 5.3% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Sintering. In an embodiment at least 8.6% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Sintering. In an embodiment at least 12.9% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Sintering. In an embodiment at least 18.4% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Sintering.

In an embodiment the maximum amount of liquid phase during sintering is below 34%, in other embodiment below 27% in other embodiment below 14% or even in other embodiment below 6%.

In an embodiment at least 1% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Sinter forging. In an embodiment at least 2.1% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Sinter forging. In an embodiment at least 3.8% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Sinter forging. In an embodiment at least 5 3% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Sinter forging. In an embodiment at least 8.6% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Sinter forging. In an embodiment at least 12.9% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Sinter forging. In an embodiment at least 18.4% in volume of liquid phase is formed during Sinter forging.

In an embodiment the maximum amount of liquid phase during Sinter forging, is below 34%, in other embodiment below 27% in other embodiment below 14% or even in other embodiment below 6%.

In an embodiment at least 1% in volume of liquid phase is formed during HIP. In an embodiment at least 2.1% in volume of liquid phase is formed during HIP. In an embodiment at least 3.8% in volume of liquid phase is formed during HIP. In an embodiment at least 5.3% in volume of liquid phase is formed during HIP. In an embodiment at least 8.6% in volume of liquid phase is formed during HIP. In an embodiment at least 8.6% in volume of liquid phase is formed during HIP. In an embodiment at least 12.9% in volume of liquid phase is formed during HIP. In an embodiment at least 18.4% in volume of liquid phase is formed during HIP.

In an embodiment the control of the liquid phase during post-processing treatment allows the control the diffusion of at least one element between metallic phases.

In an embodiment during post-processing treatments at least one element from a high melting point alloy difundes into at least one low melting point alloy. In an embodiment during post-processing treatments at least one element from a low melting point alloy difundes into at least one high melting point alloy.

In an embodiment the control of liquid phase during post-processing treatment allows control in homogeneity of the metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the control of liquid phase during post-processing treatments allows obtain a metallic or at least partially metallic component with low segregation.

In an embodiment the control of liquid phase during post-processing treatment allows obtain a metallic or at least partially metallic component with segregation in different areas of the component.

In an embodiment the control of the liquid phase during post-processing treatment allows control the densification of the metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the control of the liquid phase allows during post-processing treatment control the densification of the metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the control of the liquid phase allows during post-processing treatment allows prevent slumping of the metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the control of the liquid phase allows during post-processing treatment allows control the cavity formations in the metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment the control of the liquid phase allows during post-processing treatment avoids excessive post treatment of the metallic or at least partially metallic component.

In an embodiment for a powder mixture, the liquid phase formed may be determined by means of diffusion models so that the temperature and time of the treatment may be determined depending of the liquid phase desired during the treatment.

In an embodiment computer aided design is used to model and simulate the process. In an embodiment computer aid design (cad) is used to select the temperature, time and liquid phase desired during the post- processing treatments.

In an embodiment during debinding a low melting point alloy melts in some amount or strongly diffuse into the metallic powder with the highest volume fraction. In an embodiment during debinding a liquid phase is formed from at least one low melting point alloy in the powder mixture before the polymer is fully degraded.

Moreover the inventor has seen that the way the liquid surrounds the solid particulates considerably affects some properties. Thus for applications where liquid penetration is desirable care has to be taken to assure a dihedral angle below 110 °, preferably below 40°, more preferably below 20° or even below 5°. Furthermore it is interesting for some applications to have the diffusion of the low melting point metallic powder with at least one of the high melting point metallic alloys with an associated raise in the melting temperature, so that the liquid phase does not become excessive and thus compromise the shape retention before enough overall diffusion has taken place. In these cases it is desirable to have a melting temperature increase of 60 °C or more, preferably 1 10 °C or more, more preferably 260 °C or more or even 380 °C or more. In an embodiment the increase of temperature refers toan increase of the melting point of at least one low melting point alloy. Also in this manner the maximum amount of liquid phase at any given stage of the process can be controlled, so that for some instances it can remain below 34%, preferably below 27% more preferably below 14% or even below 6%. In some applications it is desirable to have a mushy behavior of the liquid phase, in such cases it is important to choose an alloy properly in order to have a large melting range (in this document melting range is the difference between the temperature at which the last droplet of the alloy solidifies under equilibrium conditions and the temperature where the first liquid forms under the same conditions). So when mushy state is desirable a melting range of 65°C or more, preferably 1 10 °C or more, more preferably 260 °C or more or even 420 °C or more can be desirable. For some applications under very high demands it is also important that the resulting part has very high compromise of mechanical (evnt. electrical and thermal) properties. In this sense the choosing of the different metallic powders has to be made in a compatible way so that the resulting alloy does have the required properties. As an example of such cases it is interesting for some high end applications that the metallic powders diffuse into one another to a high degree, especially when homogeneity is appreciated, and the resulting alloy after the diffusion alloying has the appropriate mechanical properties. In this sense, for the cited applications it is desirable to have less than an 18% variation in a particular element when 2 different control areas are analyzed, preferably less than a 14%, more preferably less than an 8% and even less than a 4%. In this sense, the smaller the control area, the smaller the micro-segregation, so for applications sensible to micro-segregation it is desirable to have a control area of 8000square micrometers or less, more preferably 800 square micrometers or less, more preferably 80 square micrometers or less or even 8 square micrometers or less, Often Toughness, fracture toughness, ductility and such kind of "toughness in the broad sense" properties are quite susceptible to the presence in considerable amounts of certain alloying elements, and precisely the elements with low melting point or promoting low melting point eutectics with other elements are often contaminants to some of the most relevant higher melting temperature alloys (Ti, Fe, Ni, Co, Mo. ' W,.. . based alloys) and even to the lower melting point alloys (Cu, Al, Mg, Li, Sn, Zn ... based). So choosing the proper low melting point powders is not trivial.

In an embodiment a dihedral angle between the liquid phase and the particles of metallic powder with the highest volume fraction is below 1 10 °, in other embodiment below 40°, in other embodiment below 20° or even in other embodiment below 5°.

In an embodiment a dihedral angle between the liquid phase and the particles of the high melting point alloy is below 1 10 °, in other embodiment below 40°, in other embodiment below 20° or even in other embodiment below 5°.

In an embodiment during debinding an increase in the melting point of at least one low melting point alloy is 60 °C or more, in other embodiment 1 10 °C or more, in other embodiment 260 °C or more or even in other embodiment 380 °C or more.

In an embodiment the maximum amount of liquid phase during debinding is below 34%, in other embodiment below 27% in other embodiment below 14% or even in other embodiment below 6%.

In an embodiment the low melting point alloy has a melting range of 65°C or more, in other embodiment 1 10 °C or more, in other embodiment 260 °C or more or even in other embodiment 420 °C or more.

In an embodiment during debinding diffusion between at least one element from the metallic powders takes place. In an embodiment during debinding diffusion of at least one element from the low melting point alloy to the high melting point alloy takes place. In an embodiment during debinding diffusion of at least one element from the high melting point alloy to thelow melting point alloy takes place.

In an embodimentwhen diffusion between the metallic powders takes place a low segregation in the component is produced.

In an embodiment low segregation refers to when there is less than an 18% variation in a particular element when 2 different control areas are analyzed, in other embodiment less than a 14%, in other embodiment less than an 8% and even in other embodiment less than a 4%.

In contrast, in an embodiment it is preferable to have a component with segregation, and in another embodiment having segregation in different areas of the component, in such a way that it may be certain areas of the component where there are no segregation, and other areas of the component with segregation. In an embodiment a component with segregation is obtained. In an embodiment a component with segregation in different areas is obtained.

In an embodiment segregation refers to when there is more than an 18% variation in a particular element when 2 different control areas are analyzed, in other embodiment more than a 24%, in other embodiment more than an 30% and even in other embodiment more than a 34%.

In an embodiment the control area analyzed is of 8000square micrometers or less, in other embodiment 800 square micrometers or less, in other embodiment 80 square micrometers or less or even in other embodiment 8 square micrometers or less.

In an embodiment segregation refers to a variation of more than 18% in a control area of 8000square micrometers or less.

Although thermal debinding is often the preferred alternative for the present invention, other debinding systems can be applied like catalytic, wicking, drying, supercritical extraction, organic solvent extraction, water-based solvent extraction, freeze drying, etc. And also combined systems. Sometimes when using liquid phase and a debinding system that does not incorporate thermal decomposition, it is quite interesting to use a metallic phase with a particularly low melting point which can be easily achieved prior to the debindingor while debinding (since many debinding processes can be done at a higher than room temperature). In such cases a metallic phase with a melting point below 190 °C, preferably below 130 °C, more preferably below 90 °C and even below 45 °C is appreciated.

In an embodiment the debinding is a non- thermal debinding. In an embodiment the non -thermal debinding is selected from catalytic, wicking, drying, supercritical extraction, organic solvent extraction, water-based solvent extraction, and/or freeze drying debinding system among others.

In an embodiment when the fully or at least partially elimination of organic compound is made trough a non thermal debinding the powder mixture used to manufacturing a metallic or at least partially metallic component comprises a low melting point alloy having a melting point below 190 °C, in other embodiment below 130 °C, in other embodiment below 90 °C and even in other embodiment below 45 °C.

In an embodiment a heat treatment to promote diffusion may be done before, after and/or during non thermal debinding to allow the retention of shape thought the metallic phase (PMSRT), in an embodiment this heat treatment is done using a temperature lower than the required temperature for at least partially eliminate the organic compound, in an embodiment this heat treatment to promote diffusion before after and/or during the non thermal debinding , is done at a temperature above 0.3 Tm, in other embodiment above 0.5Tm, and even in other embodiment above 0.7 * Tm, wherein Tm refers to the melting temperature of the low melting point alloy comprised in the powder mixture having a mel