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Title:
METHOD OF FOOD MODIFICATION
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/090008
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The method comprising of the step of foods dehydratation and the step of incorporation by a dehydrated food of at least one modifying substance by temporary immersion of the dehydrated food in a modifying liquid containing at least one modifying agent. In the step of dehydratation at least 10% by weight of the water is removed from the modified food and in the step of modifying substance incorporation food is immersed in a modifying liquid subjected to hydrostatic pressure in the range from 10 to 100,000 Bars, for a period of not less than 5 seconds and not longer than 88 hours. The viscosity of the liquid modifier under normal conditions ranges from 5 x 10"5 to 350 Pascal seconds.

Inventors:
DZWOLAK, Wojciech (ul.Kaliska 23/82, 02-316 Warszawa, 02-316, PL)
SMOLEŃ, Dariusz (Warzyce 290, 38-200 Jasło, 38-200, PL)
KLEIN, Ewelina (ul.Zwoleńska 40A/20, 04-761 Warszawa, 04-761, PL)
DZIĘCIELEWSKI, Igor (ul.Ordynacka 13/8, 00-364 Warszawa, 00-364, PL)
RZOSKA, Janusz (ul.Wolności 3/5, 41-500 Chorzów, 41-500, PL)
WIERZBICKI, Maciej (ul.W.Łukasińskiego 4/127, 93-172 Łódź, 93-172, PL)
Application Number:
IB2016/057144
Publication Date:
June 01, 2017
Filing Date:
November 26, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
INSTYTUT WYSOKICH CIŚNIEŃ POLSKIEJ AKADEMII NAUK (ul.Sokołowska 29/37, 01-142 Warszawa, 01-142, PL)
International Classes:
A23C19/09; A23B4/037; A23B7/024; A23C19/097; A23L3/44; A23L5/41; A23L13/40
Foreign References:
JPH06181719A1994-07-05
JPH04207162A1992-07-29
EP2353402A12011-08-10
EP0055946A11982-07-14
JPS6091964A1985-05-23
Other References:
DATABASE WPI Week 201438, Derwent World Patents Index; AN 2014-K30522, XP002767466
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ADAMCZYK, Piotr (Kancelaria Patentowa Piotr Adamczyk, ul.Wilcza 70/8, 00-670 Warszawa, 00-670, PL)
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Claims:
Claims

1. A method for modifying solid foods comprising the foods dehydratation step and the step of incorporation of at least one modifier to the food by temporary immersion of the dehydrated food in the liquid modifier comprising at least one modifying substance, characterized in that during the dehydration step from the modified food at least 10% by weight of water is removed, and in the step of modifier incorporation the food is immersed in the modifying liquid subjected to a hydrostatic pressure in the range of 10 to 100,000 Bars for a period of not less than 5 seconds and not more than 88 hours, wherein the viscosity of the liquid modifier under normal conditions ranges from 5 x 105 to 350 Pascal seconds.

2. The method according to Claim 1 , characterized in that during the dehydration step the food is subjected to a lyophilisation, advantageously for at least 20 hours at a temperature ranging from -40 to -50°C and under pressure in the range from 0.04 to 0.05 mBar.

3. The method according to Claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the hydrostatic pressure of modifying liquid is not greater than 10,000 Bars.

4. The method according to Claim 1 , 2 or 3, characterized in that the modifying liquid is a solution or dispersion system.

5. The method according to Claim 4, characterized in that the modifying substances are selected from the group consisting of food colourings, salts, minerals, proteins, lipids and enzymes.

6. The method according to Claim 5, characterized in that the food is immersed in the liquid modifier, wherein the solvent or dispersion medium is water.

Description:
METHOD OF FOOD MODIFICATION

Technical Field

The present invention is a method of non-biological modification of solid food. Background Art

Food is a collective term for substances suitable for consumption by both humans and animals. Food for people is called foodstuffs, and food for animals - feed. Seasoning of both prepared dishes and semi-finished products from which they are made has been known since the dawn of human history, but nowadays often a need arises to modify prepared dishes, raw materials or semi-finished food products not only in terms of taste, but also by influencing their nutritional, microbiological, allergic, chemical and physical characteristics. Progress in the genetic science allowed people for introduction of genetic modifications in the organisms, tissue of which later becomes a food component. Thanks to that, for example, crops with novel properties, including new flavour, are being obtained. Such solutions introduce changes in a living plant or animal body at the stage of the cultivation and not at the stage of food processing. The essence of these processes lays in introducing artificial genetic modification to obtain non-natural biological material of previously unknown characteristics, such as: increased resistance to pathogens, different shape, flavour, etc. The disadvantage of genetic methods is a reluctance of consumers to buy such modified products, resulting mainly from incomplete understanding of the processes of intentional genetic modifications of food and their further consequences.

There is also a number of approaches to food modification not based on genetic modification of organisms. For example, an enzymatic method for the modification of cows' milk in order to reduce the likelihood of the consumer reaction to the lactose, based on influence of enzymes on the raw milk. There are also known various methods for colouring meat of farmed shellfish (e.g., shrimps) and fish (e.g., salmon) through the use in culture of feed containing astaxanthin pigment giving meat its characteristic pink colour. In manufacturing, in the case of hard meat such as beef, meat is subjected for a long period of time to a specific temperature and humidity thanks to which it becomes soft and easy to handle. In the case of meat mass-production, meat portions are injected with saline containing flavourings, to increase the its weight and give it an additional flavour. The above-described methods are historically known and used both as a traditional and industrial methods, where the latter have been the subject of many patent applications.

Publication WO 2010/008786 discloses a method for modifying the taste of food with the enzymes from the group of hydrolases.

Publication GB2500665 discloses how to modify the taste of green coffee beans by soaking them in a liquid containing different flavours. Thus soaked beans are then subjected to a conventional heat treatment for treating coffee beans.

Publication CN103704325 discloses a method for increasing shelf live and visual qualities of fruits, by subjecting fruits grains to ultrasonic cavitation, and then immersing them in a solution of enzymes resulting in coating with bactericide, followed by high pressure sterilization. From publication JPH08298941 there is known a method for changing the taste of the boiled eggs by dipping them in a liquid containing flavouring and subjecting the liquid to ultrasound at a variable frequency. The disadvantage of the above-described methods using ultrasounds is the limitation of the modification effect only to the surface layers of the product.

There is also known a method of processing food products comprising a step of dehydration of the fresh product, and if necessary a step of soaking. One of such methods is the technology of preparing animal feed, wherein in the first step grinding and dewatering of meat, bones, and other additives is carried out, followed by final formation of food (granules, pellets, etc.) and immersion in a solution of aroma. Another known method of this type is the method used for preparing meat food for dogs, wherein in a first stage the meat is dehydrated in the drying process, and then treated with a solution containing mineral salts, flavours, etc. Dewatering process and then immersion in chosen solution is also well known and widely used for frozen fruits and vegetables, where these products are frozen using lyophilisation process (preserving most of the nutrients), and then return to the shape similar to the original by soaking, usually carried out by immersion in water.

From publication US4331691 there is known a method of vacuum pressure infiltration with the flavour of fresh food products, wherein the flavour-modified product is subjected first to incubation under reduced pressure and after the incubation the product is coated with a liquid containing flavourings, and then slowly the pressure is being increased until achieving the atmospheric pressure. Such a treatment results, indeed, in penetration of the liquid to the inside of the product, but it is of gradient character, i.e. the amount of flavouring decreases with depth.

The publication CN 102742879 discloses a method for protecting against browning edible seeds of dwarf Chinese chestnuts, comprising a step of placing the seed in the preservative under reduced pressure, a step of subjecting these seeds to high pressure, and then a step of cooking. However, this process does not lead to the desired changes in taste or nutritional value of such seeds.

Exposing food to an influence of elevated pressure has been used for years and is designed to prolong shelf life. Such application of pressure is disclosed, for instance, in publication JPH0530951 , which describes a vacuum packaging of food, and then subjecting it to high pressure. Also in this solution no suggestion for simultaneous modification of the organoleptic and/or physicochemical characte ristics of pressure-preserved food has been given.

Disclosure of Invention

The aim of the invention is to provide a simple and effective method for modifying solid food as uniformly as possible throughout their whole volume.

This aim is implemented in a method which comprises of the step of food dewatering, and the step of introducing at least one modifying agent to dehydrated food during temporary immersion of the dehydrated food in the liquid modifier comprising of at least one modifying substance, wherein during the dehydration step at least 10% by weight of water is removed from the modified food and during a step of infiltration with modifying substance food is immersed in a modifying liquid subjected to hydrostatic pressure in the range from 10 to 100,000 Bar, for a period not shorter than 5 seconds and not longer than 88 hours, wherein the viscosity of the modifying liquid under normal conditions is in the range from 5 x 10 "5 to 350 Pascal seconds.

In one of embodiments of the invention, during the dehydration step food is subjected to a lyophilisation, advantageously for at least 20 hours at a temperature ranging from -40 to -50°C and under pressure in the range from 0.04 to 0.05 mBar. In a further embodiment of the invention the hydrostatic pressure of modifying liquid is not greater than 10,000 Bars.

In another embodiment of the invention, the modifying liquid is a one component liquid, solution, or dispersion system.

In another embodiment of the invention, the modifying substances are selected from the group comprising of food colouring agents, salts, minerals, proteins, lipids and enzymes.

In yet another embodiment of the invention, the food is immersed in the liquid modifier, wherein the solvent or dispersion medium is water.

The effect of application of the invention is an optional change of food taste, its colour, texture, and durability, as well as the possibility of incorporation of new substances to the whole volume of the food. Among substances that can be incorporated are: minerals, vitamins, colourings, and taste modifiers as well as sugars, nucleic acids, proteins, enzymes, fatty acids and their derivatives, plasticizers, substances for food fixation in the form of solutions, sols, emulsions and suspensions. The invention allows one for obtaining food with new taste, nutrition characteristics, as well as functional foods through the introduction of enzymes or other biologically active substances having a beneficial effect on the functioning of the human or animal body, including medical substances.

Brief Description of Drawings

The effects of the invention are presented on the figures showing microscopic pictures of cross sections of sample products obtained in five exemplary embodiments of the invention, wherein in each figure, in order from top to bottom, the product prior to modification, modified product of the invention and the reference sample is presented. Fig.1 illustrates a modification of cheese described in the first example, Fig.2 shows a modification of garlic described in the second example, Fig.3 shows a modification of chicken meat described in the third example, while Fig.4 and Fig.5 show modifications of beef meat described in fourth and fifth examples, respectively.

Mode for Carrying out Invention

The invention will be further, more precisely, described in the following five examples:

Example 1.

From the cheese, representing a model of fat and protein matrix, three samples were cut in the cylindrical form of 5 x 10 mm. A photograph of the first sample is shown in Fig.1 (a). A second sample was cooled to the boiling point of nitrogen at atmospheric pressure (-197.8°C) and then lyophilisated for 24 hours under a pressure of 0.046 mBar at a temperature of -46°C. The lyophilized sample was placed in a plastic vessel containing 5 ml of a squeezed beetroot juice, being a model of an dye in aqueous solution, and then treated with 2 kBar for 5 minutes at room temperature. After drying the sample with filter paper a photo of the cross- section under a optical microscope at magnification of x20 was taken, shown in Fig.1 (b). A reference sample was the third cylinder of cheese, submerged in the said beetroot juice for a period of 30 minutes, whose cross section was photographed under the same conditions as the previous one, shown in Fig.1 (c). As a result of the modification in the photography of Fig.1 (b) a complete and uniform incorporation of the dye in the fat and protein matrix can be seen, as oppose to the reference sample shown in Fig.1 (c), wherein the colour layer is visible only on the outside layer.

Example 2.

From the clove of garlic, a model of plant matrix, three samples were cut in the cylindrical form of 5 x 10 mm. A microscope image of the first initial sample is shown in Fig.2(a). A second sample was cooled, lyophilisated, immersed in a beetroot juice and subjected to a pressure similar as in the first embodiment, i.e. 5 kBar, but for a period of three minutes. Afterwards the modified sample was dried with filter paper, and the microscopic image of a section taken as shown in Fig.2(b). As in the first example, the reference sample was the third section of garlic clove immersed in beetroot juice for 30 minutes at atmospheric pressure. As shown in Fig.2(b), as result of the modification process a complete and homogeneous incorporation of the dye of the test plant matrices has been obtained, while Fig.2(c) shows that the colour of the reference sample is limited only to its surface layer.

Example 3.

From the chicken fillet, being the model of meat matrix, three samples were cut in the cylindrical form of 5 x 10 mm. Microscopic image of the first (i.e., initial) sample of chicken is shown in Fig.3(a). The modification of the second meat sample was similar to the one from the first example, the sample after the lyophilisation was immersed in an aqueous solution of bovine haemoglobin in concentration of 5% by weight, being the model of macromolecular proteins in aqueous solution. After the modified sample was subjected to pressure it was dried with filter paper, and the cross section photographed under a microscope as shown in Fig.3(b). Similarly, as in the previous examples, the reference sample was a third sample of chicken meat immersed for 30 minutes in the above-mentioned solution of haemoglobin. As shown in Fig.3(b) the result of the modification process provided complete and homogeneous incorporation of the haemoglobin in the sample meat matrix, similar was the case of the reference sample presented on Fig.3(c). An advantage of the present invention lays in obtaining the soft and easy to cut meat product, in contrast to the reference sample which remained tough and difficult to cut.

Example 4.

From the beef, used as a model of hard meat matrix, three samples in the form of cubes with a side length of 10 mm were cut. Microscopic image of the first sample of beef is shown in Fig.4(a). A second sample was cooled to the boiling point of nitrogen at atmospheric pressure (-197.8°C) followed by 24-hour lyophilisation at a pressure of 0.046 mBar at a temperature of -46°C. After completion of lyophilisation second sample was placed in a 10 ml plastic vessel and immersed in pineapple juice, used as the model of enzyme aqueous solution, in this case a solution of bromelain. The content of the described vessel was treated with a pressure of 2 kBar for 5 minutes at room temperature, afterwards the second sample was dried with filter paper and a microscopic photograph of the cross section of the sample was made, shown in Fig.4(b). As in the previous examples, the reference sample was the third slice of beef immersed for 30 minutes in pineapple juice under a atmospheric pressure. As shown in Fig.4(b) a complete and homogeneous incorporation of the bromelain solution in hard meat was obtained, while said incorporation in the reference sample, as shown in Fig.4(c), was incomplete. Moreover, when compared to the reference sample the modified meat matrix according to the invention was soft and easy to cut, while the reference sample remained hard and very difficult to cut.

Example 5

Similarly as in the fourth example from beef, being a model of hard meat matrix, three cubic samples were cut out. Photomicrograph of the first sample was shown in Fig.5(a). A second sample was cooled and lyophilized in the same way as in the previous examples, and placed it in a vessel of the fourth example and covered with cow's milk, representing a model of protein and fat aqueous emulsion. The contents of said vessel were subjected to pressure of 2 kBar for 15 min at room temperature, afterwards the second sample was dried using filter paper and microscopic photo of cross-section, shown in Fig.5(b), was taken. The third slice of beef was used as a reference sample, it was immersed for 30 minutes in cow's milk at atmospheric pressure. Microscopic cross-sectional image of the sample is shown in Fig.5(c). As a result of the modification process according to the invention complete and homogeneous incorporation of cow's milk in beef matrix was achieved, while incorporation in the reference sample was incomplete. In addition, the modified sample became soft and easy to cut, while the reference sample remained hard and very difficult to cut.