Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
METHOD FOR IMPROVING FLAVOR OF FOOD AND BEVERAGE, AND FOOD AND BEVERAGE HAVING FLAVOR IMPROVED THEREBY
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/007388
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The object of the present invention is to provide a method for improving flavor of food and beverage, wherein causative materials of undesirable aroma and bitterness produced in heating and processing a food and beverage is specified and selectively removed, whereby the flavor of food and beverage are improved, and the food and beverage having the flavor improved thereby. The present invention provides a process for improving flavor of food and beverage which comprises bringing food and beverage containing pyridine into contact with a weakly acidic cation exchange resin to make the pyridine adsorb on the weakly acidic cation exchange resin, making components other than pyridine desorb with alkali solution therefrom and collecting, and making pyridine desorb therefrom and collecting.

Inventors:
FUJITSUKA, Masaaki (487/1 Si Ayutthaya Road, Khwaeng Thanon Phaya Thai Khet Ratchathew, Bangkok ., 10400, TH)
KAWAGUCHI, Hirokazu (487/1 Si Ayutthaya Road, Khwaeng Thanon Phaya Thai Khet Ratchathew, Bangkok ., 10400, TH)
CHARASAI, Bonggodmas (487/1 Si Ayutthaya Road, Khwaeng Thanon Phaya Thai Khet Ratchathew, Bangkok ., 10400, TH)
FUKAYA, Fuyuki (SODA AROMATIC CO. LTD., 1573-4, Funakata, Noda-sh, Chiba 33, 27002, JP)
ITO, Yoshihiro (SODA AROMATIC CO. LTD., 1573-4, Funakata, Noda-sh, Chiba 33, 27002, JP)
NAGAI, Satoshi (15-9, Nihonbashihoncho 4-chome, Chuo-k, Tokyo 23, 10300, JP)
HATTORI, Shoji (15-9, Nihonbashihoncho 4-chome, Chuo-k, Tokyo 23, 10300, JP)
Application Number:
JP2013/068571
Publication Date:
January 09, 2014
Filing Date:
July 02, 2013
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
AJINOMOTO CO., (THAILAND) LTD. (487/1 Si Ayutthaya Road, Khwaeng Thanon Phaya Thai Khet Ratchathew, Bangkok ., 10400, TH)
SODA AROMATIC CO., LTD. (15-9, Nihonbashihoncho 4-chome Chuo-k, Tokyo 23, 10300, JP)
International Classes:
A23F5/18; A23F3/20; A23L5/20
Foreign References:
JP2000166474A2000-06-20
JPH0436148A1992-02-06
JPH11103778A1999-04-20
JP2002045125A2002-02-12
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KISARAGI ASSOCIATES (Aioi Nissay Dowa Sonpo Nibancho Bldg. 8F, 5-6 Nibanch, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 84, 10200, JP)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A process for improving flavor of food and beverage which comprises:

a pyridine adsorbing step for bringing food and beverage containing pyridine into contact with a weakly acidic cation exchange resin to make the pyridine adsorb on the weakly acidic cation exchange resin.

2. The process for improving flavor of food and beverage according to claim 1, further comprising an desorbed liquid adding step for, after the pyridine adsorbing step, making components adsorbed on the weakly acidic cation exchange resin desorb therefrom with water or alkali aqueous solution of pH 7.0-8.0, and adding the obtained desorbed liquid to unadsorbed components .

3. The process for improving flavor of food and beverage according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the weakly acidic cation exchange resin is a porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin.

4. The process for improving flavor of food and beverage according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the food and beverage are derived from coffee or tea.

5. The food and beverage which have flavor improved by the process for improving flavor of food and beverage

according to any one of claims 1 to 4.

Description:
DESCRIPTION

Title of the Invention

METHOD FOR IMPROVING FLAVOR OF FOOD AND BEVERAGE, AND FOOD AND BEVERAGE HAVING FLAVOR IMPROVED THEREBY

Technical Field

[0001] The present invention relates to a method for improving flavor of food and beverage, which is characterized by performing an ion exchange process, and food and beverage having flavor improved thereby.

Background Art

[0002] Many foods and beverages generate a peculiar flavor in a heat processing, and considerable foods and beverages present undesirable aroma and bitterness. Causes of those undesirable aroma and bitterness include oxidative

deterioration of components or browning reaction (Maillard reaction) of sugar and the amino acid, etc.

[0003] For instance, Patent document 1 discloses a method of adding (a) an antioxidative component of at least one kind of element selected from chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and green coffee beans extract, and (b) an antioxidant composition comprising at least one kind of element selected from amino acid, Maillard reaction product, and peptide, to food and beverage etc. However, only sulfur compounds and fatty acids are described as target

deterioration smell to be suppressed about, and there is no description concerning nitrogen compounds.

[0004] Patent document 2 discloses a method of suppressing heat-deterioration smell by adding a sugar composition having a degree of glucose polymerization (DP) of ten or more, which does not form a gel when the solution of 30 percent by weight is preserved during a day at 4 °C, to food and beverage or medicine such that the solid content of the sugar composition becomes 0.5 percent by weight or more. However, this method aims at suppression of the deterioration smell caused by mainly sulfide and ketone, not nitrogen compounds.

[0005] Thus, many of prior arts have concentrated to suppress degradation procedure assumed to be undesirable by adding the third substance. For that reason, there is not disclosed the method in which the causative materials of undesirable aroma and bitterness produced in processing a food and beverage is specified and removed.

[0006] It is known generally that pyridine, which is a kind of alkaloid with pyridine ring, is produced through niacin obtained by heating trigonelline contained in a lot of plants as a precursor. Since pyridine is produced by heating food, a small amount of pyridine causes no sense of incompatibility. However, a large amount of pyridine reduces preference due to a peculiar irritating smell. Therefore, it is demanded to selectively removing or decreasing pyridine excessively generated in heating process when food is manufactured.

However, an effective means has not been provided yet.

[0007] Non-patent document 1 discloses a method of

decomposing pyridine, which is environmental pollutant, by irradiating ultraviolet rays. However, this method causes not only a secondary decomposition product of pyridine but also decomposition of the other components etc., thereby destroying the balance of the aroma and taste or generating an improper material in food, and it is undesirable.

[0008] Non-patent document 2 discloses a method of removing pyridine in water by using bagasse charcoal obtained by carbonizing the squeezed dregs of sugarcane. However, since the selectivity of charcoal is low, there arises the problem that necessary elements are adsorbed on the charcoal and removed. Though effective means to make the adsorbed

component desorb from the charcoal is to expose to high temperature mainly, this means brings about another problem that the adsorbed component inevitably deteriorates.

[0009] In non-patent document 3, there is a description regarding the adsorption behavior of pyridine analogues

(pyridine, picoline, and lutidine) on a strongly acidic ion- exchange resin, weakly acidic ion exchange resin, and porous resin in a model solution, but there is no description about the materials other than pyridine analogues and the desorption behavior thereof neither.

Prior Art Document

Patent Document

[0010] [Patent Document 1] JP A H9-221667

[Patent Document 2] JP A 2008-295335

Non-Patent Document [0011] [Non-patent document 1] Fresenius Environmental Bulletin (2011), 20(5a), 1320-1327

[Non-patent document 2] Industrial and Engineering

Chemistry Research (2006), 45(11), 3934-3943

[Non-patent document 3] Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan (1993), 26(3), 237-41

Summary of the Invention

Technical Problem

[0012] The object of the present invention is to provide a method for improving flavor of food and beverage without destroying the balance of favorite aroma and taste by

specifying materials having undesirable aroma and bitter taste generated in the heating process of food and beverage, and selectively removing them, and food and beverage having flavor improved thereby.

Solution Problem

[0013] The present inventors have researched earnestly in order to solve the above-mentioned problem, and have found that pyridine included in food and beverage is one of the main sources of an undesirable aroma and strong bitterness.

[0014] Then, the present inventors have variously examined a method of selectively removing pyridine in food and

beverage, and have found that it is possible to achieve the . purpose by bringing food and beverage into contact with a cation exchanger to complete the present invention.

[0015] That is, the present invention provides a method for improving flavor of food and beverage, which is characterized by comprising a pyridine adsorbing step of bringing food and beverage containing pyridine into contact with a weakly acidi cation exchange resin to make pyridine adsorb thereon.

[0016] Further, the present invention provides food and beverage having flavor improved by the method for improving flavor of food and beverage described above.

Advantageous Effect of Invention

[0017] According to the present invention, since it is possible to selectively remove pyridine in food and beverage and to return the collected pyridine to the food and beverage when necessary, there are provided a method for improving flavor of food and beverage without destroying the balance of favorite aroma and taste, and food and beverage having flavor improved thereby.

Brief Description of Drawings

[0018] [FIG. 1] A diagram of gas chromatography showing result of analyzing coffee distillate (A) and treated liquid (B) in EXAMPLE 1, and pyridine fraction (C) in EXAMPLE 2.

Description of Embodiments

[0019] The method for improving flavor of food and beverag according to the present invention is characterized by

comprising a pyridine-adsorbing step of bringing food and beverage containing pyridine into contact with a weakly acidic cation exchange resin to make pyridine adsorb thereon. [0020] The food and beverage, which are objects of the method for improving flavor of food and beverage according to the present invention, may be any food and beverage containing pyridine and having enough fluidity to be in contact with and separated from the ion exchanger. It is preferred that they are food and beverage having high fluidity, such as liquid, emulsion, dispersion containing the components of food and beverage. Specific examples of the food and beverage include extracts, steam distillates, or ground dispersion of sea foods such as clam, freshwater clam, scallops, ayu-fish (sweetfish) , cod, dried squid, and shrimp; extracts, steam distillates, or ground dispersion of plant foods such as red beans, taro, corn, beets, asparagus, zucchini, spinach, artichoke, avocado, and plum; and extracts, steam distillates, or ground

dispersion of processed foods such as boiled pumpkin, boiled cabbage, heated egg, roasted coconut, roasted peanut, boiled buckwheat, boiled bamboo shoots, miso, coffee, and green tea. Extracts, steam distillates, or ground dispersion of coffee and green tea is particularly preferred.

[0021] As the ion exchanger used in the present invention, an ion exchange resin is desirable, a weakly acidic cation exchange resin is especially desirable, and a porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin is suitably used.

[0022] The porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin includes methacrylic type and acrylic type, etc. For

instance, DIAION WK-10, DIAION WK-11, and DIAION WK-20

(Mitsubishi Chemical Industries Co. Ltd., registered

trademark) ; Amberlite IRC-50 and Amberlite IRC-76 (The Dow Chemical Co. Ltd registered trademark), etc. can be

enumerated.

[0023] Though any modes of batch process and continuous process using column, etc. can be adopted in contact treatment of the food and beverage with the porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin, the continuous process using column filled with a porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin is generally adopted.

[0024] Contact treatment condition of the food and beverage with the porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin in the pyridine adsorbing step can be properly selected depending on viscosity and amount etc. of the food and beverage. For instance, the condition of processing using column can be illustrated as follows; column temperature is about 0-50 °C, preferably 0-30 °C; the food and beverage of about 1-50 volume are passed through the porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin of one volume at space velocity (referred to as "SV" herein) of about 1-20 at a temperature of about 0-50 °C, preferably 0-30 °C.

[0025] In the present invention, next, flavor components other than pyridine, which are adsorbed on the porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin, are desorbed therefrom using the alkaline solution having a specific pH range. This desorbed liquid is returned to the food and beverage which were subjected to contact treatment with the porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin (that is, unadsorbed component) , thus further providing absorbed adding step thereby obtaining the food and beverage having improved flavor .

[0026] Though the alkaline solution used in the present invention is not limited, it includes for example, sodium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and potassium phosphate, etc., which are food additives, in consideration of applying to the food and beverage. More preferably, sodium bicarbonate can be used.

[0027] In the present invention, the alkaline is added to water to adjust to pH 7.,0-8.0, more preferably pH 7.1-7.5, and then about 1-10 volumes, more preferably 1-5 volumes of thus obtained alkali solution is passed through 1 volume of a porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin to make the flavor components other than pyridine desorb therefrom and collect them.

[0028] In the present invention, in consideration of a flavor balance of the food and beverage, after addition of the desorbed liquid, pyridine adsorbed on the cation-exchange resin is collected in an acid solution, and a part of the collected pyridine may be properly returned to the food and beverage which were subjected to contact treatment with the porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin (that is, unadsorbed component) .

[0029] Preferably, acid solution is passed through the porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin from which the flavor components other than pyridine are desorbed and

collected, to make pyridine desorb therefrom and collect it.

[0030] Though the acid used in collection of pyridine is not limited, it includes for example, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, etc., which are food additives, in consideration of applying to the food and beverage. More preferably, hydrochloric acid can be used. The acid is added to water to adjust to pH 1.0-6.0, more preferably pH 1.0-2.0, and then about 1-10 volumes, more preferably 1-5 volumes of thus obtained acid solution is passed through 1 volume of a porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin to make pyridine desorb therefrom and collect it.

[0031] In the food and beverage, in which undesirable aroma and strong bitterness originates in pyridine are improved by the present invention, the level of aroma and bitterness thereof can be properly adjust. Therefore, it is possible to perform a product design in consideration of the difference of preference based on age, sex, etc.

[0032] The food and beverage having the flavor improved by the method of the present invention can be subjected to production of the food and beverage having roasting flavor, more specifically, preference beverage such as coffee, green tea, and cocoa; seasoning such as sauce, and baste; and cooked meal such as soup.

Examples

[0033] There will be described preferred embodiments of the present invention using the following examples. These

examples are offered for illustrative purposes only, and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention in any way. (EXAMPLE 1 )

[0034] 400g of ground roast coffee beans and 2500g of water were charged in an extractor of 5L in capacity, and was heated to a temperature of 100 °C while stirring. The steam

generated at this time was led to a cooling tube, and

condensed to obtain 400g of coffee distillate (A) . 400g of this coffee distillate was passed through a column containing 20g of porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin filled therein, at SV=8. Subsequently, water was passed through the column to clean it, and meanwhile 400g of treated liquid (B) which was subjected to contact with the porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin, was collected. Then, 60g of alkaline solution which was adjusted to pH 7.25 with sodium bicarbonate, was passed through the column at SV=8, to make 60g of a flavor component fraction other than pyridine desorb therefrom and collect it. This flavor component fraction was added to the previously treated liquid to obtain 460g of coffee distillate according to EXAMPLE 1 of the present invention .

(EXAMPLE 2)

[0035] Following the operation of EXAMPLE 1, water was passed through the column to wash it, and subsequently, 20g of hydrochloric acid adjusted to a concentration of 5% (pH is 1 or higher) was passed through the column at SV=8. As a result, 20g of a pyridine fraction was desorbed and collected. Appropriate quantity of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution adjusted to a concentration of 10% (pH is 14 or lower) was added to this pyridine fraction to adjust pH to 6-7, to obtain 20g of pyridine fraction (C) . 5g of this pyridine fraction was added to 200g of the coffee distillate obtained in EXAMPLE

1 to obtain 205g of the coffee distillate according to EXAMPLE

2 of the present invention.

(COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 1 )

[0036] 400g of ground roast coffee beans and 2500g of water were charged in an extractor of 5L in capacity, and was heated to a temperature 100 °C while stirring. The steam generated at this time was led to a cooling tube, and

condensed to obtain 400g of a coffee distillate.

[0037] Each 0.5g of coffee distillates obtained in EXAMPLE 1-2 and COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 1 is added to lOOg of commercially available canned coffee (black, sugar-free, and flavor-free) . And then, an organoleptic evaluation was performed by five trained panelists. Bitter taste, foul smell, sense of body, and desirable . degree as coffee of each coffee distillate were evaluated by a 5 point method as compared with the

commercially available canned coffee (black, sugar-free, and flavor-free) . Table 1 shows the mean value of the points evaluated by the five panelists and the total organoleptic evaluation. Incidentally, though the lower the points of bitter taste and foul smell are, the more it is preferable, the higher the points of the other properties are, the more it is preferable. Further, Fig. 1 shows the results of gas chromatography analysis of coffee distillate (A) and treated liquid (B) in EXAMPLE 1, and pyridine fraction (C) in EXAMPLE 2.

[0038] [Table 1] Bitter Foul Sense of Desirable degree taste smell body as coffee

EXAMPLE 1 2.2 0.8 3.2 3.8

EXAMPLE 2 2.8 0.6 4.4 4.6

COMPARATIVE 4.8 3.2 3.6 2.0

EXAMPLE 1

[0039] As described in Table 1, although the addition of the untreated coffee distillate of COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 1 had an improved effect on sense of body, it had low desirability because of strong bitter taste and foul smell. On the other hand, the coffee containing the treated distillate of EXAMPLE 1 from which pyridine was removed using the weakly acidic cation exchange resin according to the present invention, had suppressed bitter taste and foul smell, and moreover increased desirability as coffee, thus obtaining high evaluation. In addition, the coffee containing the treated distillate of EXAMPLE 2 in which pyridine fraction was reduced according to the present invention, had increased sense of body and

desirability as coffee, thus obtaining higher evaluation.

(EXAMPLE 3)

[0040] 550g of green tea leaves was charged in a steam distillation still of 1.5L in capacity, and steam of 120 °C was introduced into this still from the bottom thereof, to steam-distill for 20 minutes according to a conventional method, thus obtaining 550g of green tea distillate. 400g of this green tea distillate was passed through the column containing 20g of porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin filled therein at SV=8. Continuously, water was passed through the column to wash it, and meanwhile 400g of treated liquid was collected which was brought into contact with the porous type weakly acidic cation exchange resin. Next, 60g of alkaline water which was adjusted to pH 7.25 with sodium bicarbonate was passed through the column at SV=8, to make 60g of a flavor component fraction other than pyridine desorb therefrom and collect it. This flavor component fraction was added to the previously treated liquid to obtain 460g of green tea distillate according to EXAMPLE 3 of the present

invention.

(COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 2)

[0041] 550g of green tea leaves was charged in a steam distillation still of 1.5L in capacity, and steam of 120 °C was introduced into this still from the bottom thereof, to steam-distill for 20 minutes according to a conventional method, thus obtaining 400g of green tea distillate according to COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 2 of the present invention.

[0042] Each 0.5g of green tea distillates obtained in

EXAMPLE 3 and COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 2 is added to lOOg of commercially available green tea beverage filled in PET bottle

(flavor-free). And then, an organoleptic evaluation was performed by five trained panelists. Bitter taste, foul smell, enhancing effect on umami, and desirable degree as green tea of each green tea distillates were evaluated by a 5 point method as compared with the commercially available green tea beverage filled in PET bottle (flavor-free) . Table 2 shows the mean value of the points evaluated by the five panelists and the total organoleptic evaluation.

Incidentally, though the lower the points of bitter taste and foul smell are, the more it is preferable, the higher the points of the other properties are, the more it is preferable.

[0043] [Table 2]

[0044] As describe in Table 2, the addition of the

untreated green tea distillate of COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 2 showed totally low evaluation because of relatively strong foul smell

(so-called distillation smell) , and together with bitter taste which is different from astringency. On the other hand, the green tea containing the treated distillate of EXAMPLE 3 from which pyridine was removed using the weakly acidic cation exchange resin. according to the present invention, had

suppressed bitter taste and foul smell, and moreover increased desirability as green tea, thus obtaining high evaluation.