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Title:
METHOD FOR KNOCK CONTROL IN COMBUSTION ENGINES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1997/024527
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention relates to a method for combustion engines capable of sorting out false indications of a knocking condition, and in a closed loop manner influencing the control measures initiated in order to cease the knocking condition. With the aid of a gap biased by a measuring voltage and arranged in the combustion chamber is an ionisation signal obtained, which signal is characteristic for the ionisation during a combustion. A knocking condition could be detected from the determined intensity of the knock characteristic frequency content (KI) filtered out from the ionisation signal. In the inventive solution is also an integrated value (CQ) of the ionisation signal used in order to influence knock control measures. Knock control measures (82-87) are initiated at a first spontaneous knocking condition only if also the integrated value (CQ) from a combustion experiencing a knocking condition is increased in relation to preceding non knocking combustion (CQREF_NORM).Further on is also the speed of retrun (KTSTEP, IgnRET_STEP) back to ideal basic control data accelerated, dependent of the degree of reduction of the integrated value ('DELTA'CQREL), following a correction of basic control data initiated in order to cease the knocking condition.

Inventors:
NYTOMT JAN (SE)
FORSBERG PETER (SE)
Application Number:
PCT/SE1996/001744
Publication Date:
July 10, 1997
Filing Date:
December 20, 1996
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
MECEL AB (SE)
NYTOMT JAN (SE)
FORSBERG PETER (SE)
International Classes:
F02D35/02; F02P5/152; F02P17/12; G01L23/22; (IPC1-7): F02P5/152; F02D43/00
Foreign References:
US4648367A1987-03-10
US5263452A1993-11-23
US5111790A1992-05-12
US5220821A1993-06-22
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Claims:
CLAIMS
1. Me iod tor knock conσol in combusuon engines where a knocking condiuon is detected with the aid of a measuπng gap arranged in the combusuon chamber, via which measunng gap the iomsauon wi un die combusuon chamber duπng a combusuon is detected and an iomsauon signal represeπtauve tor die iomsauon could be obtained, and from which iomsauon signal a charactensuc frequency content representauve for a knocking condiuon could be filtered out and where the intensity of die frequency content filtered out is dependent of the sσength of the knocking condiuon. whereby a knocking condiuon could be estabhshed when the intensity (KI) of the frequency content filtered out exceeds a predetermined threshold. and where an established knocking condiuon could be ceased by correcuon of single of or in combmauon multiple of ideal basic control data, such as igmuon uming, amount of fuel or charge pressure, where die igmuon uming is retarded, the fuel amount is increased or charge pressure reduced, m order to cease the knocking condiuon. c h a r a c t e r i s e d i n that the iomsauon signal representauve tor the iomsauon is integrated in a measuπng window starung from after the discharge of the igmuon spark in connecuon with the upper dead posiuon of the piston, and closing not earber dian 40 crankshaft degrees after upper dead posiuon, whereby an integrated value tCQ) is obtained from each combusuon, and that the correcuon of basic conσol data imuated in order to cease the knocking condiuon is conσolled dependent of a combmauon of the intensity of die frequency content filtered out and die order of change between consecuuve combusuon s of die integrated value (CQ) .
2. Method according claim 1 c h a r a c t e r i s e d i n diat when a spontaneous knocking condiuon is detected dunng operauon of die engine at ideal basic conσol data, dien corrccuon of basic conσol data is imuated only if die integrated value simultaneously exhibit an increased value in relauon to die integrated value from at least one preceding combusuon.
3. Mediod according claim 2 c h a r a c t e r i s e d i n that basic control data is corrected with the purpose to cease the knocking condiuon, if the integrated value obtained from a combusuon where the lntcnsitv ot the frequency content filtered out (KI) exceeds a predetermined level, at least exceeding a threshold by 1015%, said threshold being obtained from at least one preceding combusuon duπng which the intensity of the frequency content (KI) is below the predetermined level.
4. Method according claim 3 characterised in that when a repeated knocking condiuon is detected duπng a predetermined number ot consecuuve combusuon s. and while the intensity of the frequency content (KI) filtered out conunuouslv is above a predetermined level, but whde the integrated value conunuously is below its threshold value, and thus do not inmate a correcuon of basic control data, then a correcuon of basic conσol data is imuated in order to cease the knocking condiuon .
5. Mediod according claim lor4 characterised in that an averaged v alue of the integrated value (CQ) conunuously is formed and stored, preferably over at least some tens of preceding combusuon s, which averaged value will consutute die reference value which is used as a comparauve reference when establishing the increase ot the present integrated value obtained from the latest combusuon.
6. Mediod according any of preceding claims characterised in mat alter imuauon of a correcuon of basic conσol data in order to cease the knocking condiuon, then die change of die integrated value (CQ) between consecuuve combusuon s is used in order to control the return back to ideal conσol data.
7. Method according claim 6 characterised in diat the return back to ideal conσol data is imuated incrementally between combusuon's, where each incremental step of return is less than the conσol acuon imuated in order to cease the knocking condiuon.
8. Method according claim 7 characterised in the order of incremental step ot return is proporuonal to the order of reducuon of die integrated value (CQ) between consecuuve combusuon s, following an imuauon of correcuon of basic control data.
9. Method according claims 7 or 8 characterised in diat an incremental step of return back to ideal basic conσol data is imuated after a certain ume, which ume at least in pan is reduced proportionally to the reducuon of die integrated value (CQ) between subsequent combusuon's after stan of conecuon of basic conσol data.
Description:
METHOD FOR KNOCK CONTROL IN COMBUSTION ENGINES.

Present invention relates to a method for knock control in combustion engines according the preamble of claim 1.

STATE OF THE ART

Several knock detection methods for combustion engines are known.

Conventional methods use an accelerometer type of sensor, which sensor is mounted on the cylinder housing of the engine. By analysing the frequency signal emitted from these sensors could the typical frequencies for a knocking condition be detected. When the intensity within the frequency range typical for a knocking conditions exceeds a certain level, then a knocking condition is established.

The disadvantage with this type of systems is that other kind of vibrations, mechanical engine noise, road noise etc. , could have an impact upon the sensor output signal, and thus cause incorrect indications of a knocking condition.

In another method for knock detection is a biased measuring gap arranged within the combustion chamber. Ionisation takes place within the combustion chamber during combustion, and the current developed in the measuring gap is representative for the combustion process. Similar to accelerometer type of sensors could a knocking condition be established by filtering out the superposed frequency in the ionisation current typical for a knocking condition. This could be made using a system where the ordinary spark plug is used as the measuring gap, and where a substantially constant measuring voltage is applied in the grounded connection of the secondary winding of the ignition coil, as shown for example in EP,C,188.180 (=US,A,4.648.367).

Knock detection using frequency analysis of the ionisation current has the advantage that knock detection is not affected by mechanical engine noise, and if the ordinary spark plug is used as the measuring gap then no additional sensor on the engine is needed.

Different detailed solutions for ionisation current detected knock are further shown in;

-US,A,5263452, where the level of an extracted frequency component a certain time after ignition spark generation is used in order to establish a knocking condition, -US,A,50O5547, where ignition timing control is initiated to find optimum timing, until a knocking condition is detected via ionisation current,

-US,A,5111790, where the superposed frequency of the ionisation current is detected in the primary winding of the ignition coil.

In US.A.5220821 is shown a method where any ion current detected knock is ignored, if the ion current amplitude is too low or is fluctuating. This sorting out of incorrect indications of a knocking condition, if based upon frequency analysis of the ionisation current, is insensible for incorrect

indications ot a knocking condiuon developed duπng operaung condiuons when the lonisauon current in us normal state is stable and exceeds an acceptable signal level This method could maiπlv sort out incorrect lndicauons tor a knocking condiuon during specific operanng condiuons wnen the lonisauon current is low or tluctuaung tor example at low rpm s and low load respecuvelv at odier unstable operaung condiuons at lean or bv EGR diluted air fuel mixtures

OBJECT OF THE INVENTION

An object ot the invenuon is for combusuon engines where a knocking condiuon is detected via frequency analysis ot the lonisauon current developed within the combusuon chamber, to be able to control a combusuon in an opumal manner When a knocking condiuon is detected should ideal operaung parameters be recaptured as soon as possible, following an iruuated correcuon ot these ideal operaung parameters dependent ot a detected knocking condiuon

Another object is to be able to son out incorrect indications of a knocking condiuon in a larger part of the operaung range of the combusuon engine, where a knockins condiuon is detected by using frequency analysis ol the lonisauon current developed within the combusuon chamber

Yet another object is to be able to control the knock prevenuve control measure in a teed-back manner such that a return back to ideal basic control data, I e igniuon uming/tuel amount/charge air pressure, is obtained as soon as possible

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE IN VENTION

The mvenuve method is characterised bv the characterising clause ot claim 1

By the invenuve method which lmuate a knock prevenuve control measure dependent ot two characteπsucs of the lonisauon current both directly dependent of knock related phenomenon, could an effecuve sorung out ot incorrect lndicauons of a knocking condiuon and feed-back lniormauon of the effect ot the iniuated control measure be obtained

Other disunguishing features and advantages of the invenuon are evident from the characterising pans ot other claims and the following descπpuon of preferred embodiments The desenpuon is made b\ reterencc to the figures specified in the following list of figures

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 shows schemaucally an arrangement for controlhng a combusuon engine and detecuon of the desree oi lonisauon within the combusuon chamber

Figure 2 shows schemaucally a first embodiment ot an invenuve controller. Figure 3 shows the pressure within the combusuon chamber during normal comousuon respecuvely combusuon at knocking condiuons.

Figure 4 shows how the integrated value of the lonisauon signal increases dunng normal combusuon respecuvelv combusuon at knocking condiuons

Figure 5 shows a flow chart tor an invenuve control algoπthm, and

Figure b shows a typical lorusauon signal, as detected with an arrangement show n in figure 1

DESCRIPTION OF EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS In figure 1 is shown an arrangement for controlling a combusuon engine 1 A fullv electronic control system tor the fuel supply as well as igmuon uming for the combusuon engine is shown A microcomputer 19 control the igmuon uming as well as the amount of fuel supplied dependent ot engine speed, engine temperature and load of engine, detected by the sensors 11 ,12,13 respecuvely The sensor 1 1 is preterably a convenuonal type ot pulse-transmitter, detecung cogs at the outer periphery of the flywheel A posiuoning signal could also be obtained by the sensor 1 1, by one or some cogs having varying tooth width, alternatively tooth gap, at a stauonary crankshaft posiuon The microcomputer includes a customary type of aπthmeuc unit 15 and requested memories 14, storing control algorithms, fuel maps and igmuon uming maps At least one spark plug 5 is arranged in each cylinder, only one spark plug intended for a cylinder shown in figure 1 The igmuon voltage is generated in an igmuon coil 31, having a primary winding 33 and a secondary winding 34 One end of the pπmary winding 33 is connected to a voltage source, a baneπ. b and the other end connected to ground via an electncally controlled switch 35 A current starts to flow through the pπmary winding 33 when the control output 50 of the microcomputer switches the switch 35 to a conducuvc state When the current is cut out will a step- up transrormauon ot d e igmuon voltage be obtained in the secondary winding 34 of the igmuon co 32 in a convenuonal manner, and an igmuon spark will be generated in the spark gap 5 Stan and stop ot the current flow, so called dwell-ume control, is controlled dependent of the present parameters of the engine and according a pre-stored igmuon map the memory 14 of the microcomputer Dwell-ume control controls that the pπmary current reach the level necessary and that the igmuon spark is generated at the igmuon uming necessary for the present load case

One end ot the secondary winding is connected to the spark plug 5, and the other end connected to ground includes a detector circuit detecung the degree of lonisauon within the combusuon chamber The detector circuit includes a voltaεe accumulator, here in lorm of chargeable capacitor 40, which capacitor bias the spark gap of the igmuon plug with a substanually constant measuπng voltage The capacitor is equivalent to the embodiment shown in EP.C.188180, where the voltaεe accumulator is a step-uo transformed voltage tro the charging circuit ot a capaciuve type ot igmuon svstem In the

embodiment shown in figure 1 , is the capacitor 40 charged when the igmuon pulse is generated, to a voltage level given bv the break-down voltage ot the zener diode 41 This break-down voltage could lie in the interval between 80-400 volts When the stepped up igmuon voltage about 30-40 kVolts is generated in the secondary winding, is the zener diode opening which assures that the capacitor 40 not will be charged to a higher voltage level than the break-down voltage of the zener diode In parallel with the measuring resistance 42 is a protecung diode connected with reversed polaπty, which in a corresponding manner protects against over voltages ot reversed polaπty The current in the circuit 5-34-40/40-42-ground could be detected at the measuπng resistance 42 which current is dependent of the conductivity of the combusuon gases in the combusuon chamber The conducuvity in turn is dependent of the degree of lonisauon within the combusuon chamber

By the measuπng resistance 42 being connected close to ground is only one connecuon to the measuπng point 45 necessary for the detector circuit 44 The detector circuit 44 measure the potenual over the resistance 42 in measuπng point 45 relauve to ground By analysing the current, altemauvely the voltage, through the measuπng resistance could among others a knocking condiuon or preigniuon be detected As been menuoned in US.A, 4535740 could also dunn certain operaung cases the present air-fuel rauo be detected, by measuπng how long the tonisauon current is above a certain level

With a lambda sensor 31 arranged m the exhaust manifold of the combusuon engine, as seen in the flow ot exhaust upstream of a catalyst 30 arranged in the exhaust manifold, could the residual amount ot oxygen be detected, and hence also the present mixture rauo ot air-fuel With a convenuonal narrow-banded lambda sensor having an output signal with a disunct iransiuon just below stochiomemc mixtures, could the fuel amount given from a stored fuel map be corrected The coιτecuon is made in order to maintain the ideal mixture rauo of air-fuel for the funcuon ot the catalyst 30 By the output signal A from the lambda sensor could a feed back control of the fuel supply be obtained, which control is pertormed in such a way that the output signal from the lambda sensor oscillates between a high and a low output signal up to a couple of umes per second

The fuel supply system of the combusuon engine includes in a convenuonal manner a fuel tank 21 having a fuel pump 22 arranged in the tank The pressuπsed fuel is supplied from the pump 22 to a pressure equaliser 23. and runner on to a fuel filter 24 and other containers 25, or volumes, including the fuel rail A pressure regulator 26 is arranged at one end of the fuel rail, which at exceeding pressures opens tor a return flow in die return line 27, back to the fuel tank 21 or the fuel pump 22 An alternauve to a pressure regulator 26 opening at excessive pressures could be a pressure controlled fuel pump whereby the return line 27 could be avoided The accumulated volumes of the

fuel pump unit 22 the pressure equaliser 23 the fuel filter 24 and other caviues or volumes 25, are ot such order mat operauon lor a couple of minutes could take place before a new type ot fuel being fuelled to the tank reaches the fuel injectors 20 The fuel injectors 20 are preterablv arranged m the inlet channel of each cylinder, and preferably operated sequenuallv in synchronism with the opening ot the inlet valve ot the cylinder, respecuvely The amount ot fuel supplied is determined bv the length ot the control pulse emitted by the microcomputer to the tucl injector respectively The amount of fuel, as well as igmuon uming, is controlled dependent ot present engine parameters according prestorcd fuel- and igmuon uming maps contained in the memory 14 ot the microcomputer The fuel amount given by the map could possibly be corrected by the lambda sensor output In certain type of fuel control system could also a fuel quality sensor 28 be arranged in the fuel supply system The fuel control could with a fuel quality sensor 28 be adjusted to the present octane number or mixture rauo ot methanol and petrol The control unit 10 obtain an input signal K from the fuel quality sensor, indicaung the present fuel quality

In figure 2 is shown an invenuve signal condiuoning circuit of die detector circuit 44 The detector circuit 44 receives at line 56 a signal corresponding to the degree of lonisauon This lonisauon signal is separately handled by two condiuoning circuits connected in cascade

In one ot the condiuoning circuits is die lonisauon signal integrated in a integrator 61 The integrated value thus formed is therearter sent to the control unit 10 via signal line 54b The integrator could be reset by the control unit 10 via signal line 55 before each combusuon

In the second condiuoning circuit is simultaneously die high frequency content ot the lonisauon signal filtered out in a band-pass filter 63. which high frequencv content corresponds to the frequencies generated duπnε a knocking condiuon. preferably exceeding 5 kHz The frequencv content representauve tor a knocking condiuon is subsequendy passed over to a convener 64 which conveπ the frequency content to a analogue signal proportional to the intensity of the knocking condiuon The convener 64, known per se. could preferably contain a recufier, which recufies the alternaun voltage type ot signal from the band-pass filter 63 and subsequently integrates the recufied signal in an integrator The integrated signal thus formed will then be proportional to the superposed frequencv content ot the lonisauon signal, and the intensity of a knocking condiuon The second condiuoning circuit sends a signal characteπsuc for the intensity of the knocking condiuon to the control unit 10 via signal line 54a

In figure 3 is shown in an unbroken plot me combusuon pressure P. as detected with a pressure sensor arranged within the combusuon chamber as a funcuon of different crank angle degrees CD°. duπng a normal combusuon widiout knocking With a broken plot is shown the combusuon pressure as a funcuon ot different crank anele decrees duπne a knockinε condiuon, but with all otiier

parameters idenucal. It could be realised that the amplitude of pressure increases during knocking condiuons

In figure 4 is shown in an unbroken plot how the integrated value ot the lonisauon signal IINT increases duπng normal combusuon. i.e. unbroken plot, respecuvely duπng a comousuon with a knocking condiuon. i.e. broken plot. The integrated value of the lonisauon signal is estabhshed in a measuπng window starting at upper dead centre, where the crank angle correspond to 0 degrees. The degree of lonisauon within the combusuon chamber increases with pressure as well as temperature. This will also cause an increase of the integrated value of the iomsauon signal duπng knocking condition This phenomenon is used by the invenuve method. If the value of the integrated value of the lonisauon signal do not increase duπng a first spontaneous knocking condiuon. as detected by the frequency analysis, then the knock lndicauon is discarded.

An effect aπsing from a knocking condiuon is that the combusuon chamber or exposed pans thereof are heated locally by the knocking condiuon. resulunε in that subsequent combusuon s in the same combusuon chamber could cause an increase of the iomsauon signal and the integrated value thereof, even though the knocking condition have ceased. The temperature ot combusuon residual gases, obtained from natural EGR and or insufficient fresh air flow m two-stroke engines, could also increase following a knocking condition, which could increase the ionisation signal The degree of iomsauon increases with pressure as well as temperature within the cylinder. The normal conσol measure during a knocking condiuon is a rapid retardauon of the igmuon uming, and maintaining the retarded ignition u ing during a predetermined u e interval or a engine speed dependent ume interval, thus enabling seizure of the knocking condition and sufficient ume for the combusuon chamber to assume normal temperature Another alternauvc or complement is to increase die fuel amount, obtaining πcher air fuel mixtures, to the knocking cylinder. In a corresponding manner is this rich mixture maintained duπng a predetermined ume interval or a engine speed dependent ume interval , thus enabling seizure of the knocking condiuon and sufficient ume for the combusuon chamber to assume normal temperature. In supercharged engines could the knocking condition be counteracted by rcducuon of the charge pressure, but uiis affects all cylinders, even non knocking cylinders, if convenuonal types of superchargers are used. Also when charge pressure reduction is used to counteract a knocking condiuon. a certain predetermined ume interval or engine speed dependent ume interval is required for the control measure to be in effect

A knocking condiuon could also be counteracted by injecung water into the combusuon chamber, which method also could be used as a prevenuve measure at operaung limits of the engine, often at maximum load and high speed

According the invenuve method could a return back to ideal basic control parameters oe lmuated dependent of feed-back lnformauon irom the iomsauon signal When a corrccuon ot basic control parameters has been lmuated could die effect ot the lmuated control measure be monitored by conπnuos monitoring of the changes in die integrated value of the iomsauon signal In a first embodiment could the control unit 10 store a reference value CQ E F SO M in memory 14, said reference value corresponding to an integrated value CQ from the latest non knocking combusuon, i.e. when the intensity ot the frequency content in the iomsauon signal did not exceed a predetermined level This reference value could also correspond to an averaged v lue CQME JU J. formed from an average over some tens ot consecuuve non knockinε combusuon s At a detected first spontaneous knock event will d e integrated value of the iomsauon signal increase in relauon to this reterence value When basic control parameters have been changed dependent ot the knocking condiuon. then the knock provoking condiuon is counteracted whereby die integrated v alue starts to decrease and approach die original reference value CQ EF NORM Once the integrated value CQ from subsequent combusuon's have been reduced to the reference CQRE F NO RM or substanually corresponds to the reference, then ideal basic control parameters could be assumed immediately

In a second embodiment could the control unit 10 store a reference value CQREF K NOC K m memory 14, said reference value corresponding to an integrated value CQ from me combusuon wnere a first and spontaneous knock occurred, i.e when the intensity of the frequency content the iomsauon signal did exceed a predetermined level When basic control parameters have been changed dependent of the knocking condiuon. then the knock provoking condiuon is counteracted wherebv the integrated value CQ starts to decrease below the reterence value CQ R EF KNOO . The order of incremental return step back to basic control parameter data could then be miuated dependent of the oroer of decrease of the integrated value between subsequent combusuon s One control measure miuated in order to cease a knocking condiuon could be retardauon of the igmuon uming when a knocking condiuon is detected. The igmuon uming could be retarded a number ot crankshaft degrees dependent of die knock intensity Usually could the igmuon uming be retarded 2-3 crank shaft degrees, when a first spontaneous knockinε condiuon is detected Thereafter is this retarded igmuon uming maintained duπng a rpm-dependent ume. or duπng a predetermined number ot consecuuve combusuon's, in order to cease die knocking condiuon effecuveh Thereafter will an successive return back to the ideal igmuon uming be miuated in incremental steps being smaller than die control measure miuated when a knocking condiuon was detected. These incremental return steps could be in d e order ot one or some ten i ot a crankshaft degree, and iuated after each combusuon or after a predetermined number of consecuuve combustion s or a rpm dependent ume

In accordance with the invenuve mediod could the rpm-dependeπt ume. duπng w hich the retarded igmuon uming is maintained, be influenced bv the degree ot decrease ot the integrated value in compaπson to the reference value CQ R E F KNOCK This rpm-dependent ume could be reduced proporuonallv to die reducuon of the integrated value CQ, in relauon to CQREF K NOCK from succeeding consecuuve combusuon s In another alternative could also or instead the order ot the incremental return-step increase proportional to the reducuon ot the integrated value CQ in relauon to CQREF K NOC K from succeeding consecuuve combusuon s

Both these return rouunes wdl lead to that ideal basic control data are recaptured in a feed-back manner, using informauon on the effect ot die control measure as controller for how fast these basic control data should be recaptured

In figure 5 is shown an alternative tor a flow-chart over a knock controlling rouune stored m the control u t 10 This rouune is executed after each and every combusuon

Secuon 70 of d e flow-chart is always executed after each combusuon as long as the intensity of the knock characteπsuc frequency is below a threshold and no correcuon of basic control data is lmuated In control steps 71 and 72 are sampled after each combusuon die resent value corresponding to knocking intensity, hereafter retereed to as KI (Knock Intensity), respecuvely the integrated value of die iomsauon signal, hereafter referred to as CQ (Combusuon Quality) In control step 73 is detected if KI is above a predetermined reference level KIRE F KI EF could be estabhshed from empincal tests where an audible knocking condiuon is about to be developed, and could be a mapped reference level for different operaung cases, I e different combinauons of load and rpm s If KI is below the reference level KI E F then the rouune proceeds to step 74 where a flag indicator! l e mode indicator) K FA L S E IS set to 0 Thereafter the rouune proceeds to step 75 where a check is made if a knock control is miuated An lmuated knock control is indicated bv the flag indicator KC set in a state True If ideal operaung condiuons is prevaibng, when the flag indicator is set to a value "False' , then die rouune proceeds to step 76 In step 76 is the reference value CQREF NO R M estabhshed from the latest sampled value CQ, as sampled in step 72 The reterence value CQRE F NO RM could preferably be updated by some kind of averaging process The most simple form ot averaging could estabbsh the new reterence value only in parts from the most recent sampled value CQ For example as,

CQREF.NORM ^ = 0 1 • CQ + 0 9 * CQREF NORM 01 * l e that only 109r of the most resent CQ-value is allowed to have an impact upon the new reference value estabhshed After step 76 wdl the rouune return to the main programme, RET

If instead KI should lie above the reterence level KI REF in step 73 then the rouune will proceed to secuon 80 in the flow -chart

In a first step 81 in secuon 80 a control is made it a correct detecuon ot a knocking condiuon have been made in step 73 A condiuon is also an increase of CQ duπng a knocking combusuon As reference is used CQ EF NORM , which is conunuously updated in secuon 70 duπng normal combustion s A safety factor K 5 could preferably be used where the safety factor K s as an example could assume a value in the range 1 0-1 2 A true knocking condiuon normally causes an increase of the CQ value more uian 20% which is die reason for the safety factor assuming the higher value If an increase ot the CQ value is obtained, then die rouune proceeds in steps 82-83-84 In step 82 is the reference value CQ EF KNOCK set to the latest sampled value CQ In step 83 is CQSTEP set to the latest sampled value CQ In step 84 is die flag indicator K FALSE *>εt to 0

After steps 82-84 the rouune proceeds to step 85. where basic control parameters is corrected in order to cease d e knocking condiuon In this preferred embodiment is the igmuon uming Ign retarded The igmuon uming lgn could be retarded a number ot crankshaft degrees CD, preferably in the order of 2-4 crankshaft degrees if a fix control measure is desirable In step 85 is also shown that a control factor K EG could be used. If a fixed conσol measure is desirable, then the conσol factor K EG is set to the value 1 0

K EG could possibly be propoπional to KI or a combinauon of KI and CQ If K REG IS proportional to KI, then die conσol measure could be miuated to a larger extent duπng heavy knocking, and to a smaller extent duπng moderate knocking

After miuated conecuon of basic conσol parameters in step 85 will die rouune proceed to step 86, where a flag indicator KC is set to 'True" KC is a flag indicator indicauve that a correcuon of basic conσol Darameters is in progress, which flag indicator is set to False when corrected basic conσol parameters once have assumed values corresponding to basic conσol data given bv mapped data Correcuon ot basic conσol data is terminated in step 87 where a counter KT is set to a value Ki . , and then die rouune returns to main programme

In secuon 100 of die flow-chan, are all combusuon s handled which have indicated a knocking condiuon from the KI value, but witiiout simultaneous increase of CQ Steps 73 and 81 have been pεπormed previously, before lmuauon ot step 100 in secuon 100 of the flow chart The flag indicator K FALSE IS a parameter which duπng all odier types ot combusuon s is reset to a zero value in steps 74 respecuvely 84 In step 101 is die value of die flag indicator increased incrementally by a value ot 1 This will lead to that if diere are several consecuuve combusuon s that will inmate secuon 100, then K FA SE IS increased incrementally with the value 1 for each combusuon After step 101 the rouune proceeds to step 102 where a check is lmuated whether or not a predetermined number Ki of consecuuve combusuon s have occurred, said consecuuve combusuon s havinε a KI

indicated knocking condiuon but having a CQ indicated non-knocking condiuon Ki could be set to 2- 5 combusuon s If a number of consecuuve combusuon s with KI indicated knock but CQ indicated non-knock, have occuπed which number corresponding to , , ien this saletv rouune could sull inmate a correcuon ot basic conσol data in steps 82-87

In secuons 90 and 1 10 are return sequences back to normal basic conσol data handled Duπng imuated correcuon of basic conσol data, then the flag indicator KC is set to "True" in step 86 If an imuated correcuon wdl lead to that KI do not indicate a knockinε condiuon at next subsequent combusuon, then die rouune will perform steps 71-74, and step 74 will iruualise a return back to basic conσol data In a first step 91 is calculated the decrease of the CQ value as compared with the preceding combusuon The reference parameter CQ STEP contains d e CQ- value from a preceding knocking combusuon. see step 83, or altemauvely as descπbed below in step 93 the CQ-value obtained from a preceding combusuon duπng an imuated knock control procedure The relauve decrease ΔCQ RH . could be defined as ΔCQREL = (CQSTEP - CQ ) / CQ STEP

If the CQ value have decreased by 10%, then wdl ΔCQ REL assume the value 0 1

/After due estabhshment of the relauve decrease in step 91 , then in step 92 CQ STEP J S set to die present

CQ-value, to be used in step 91 for the next succeeding combusuon

In step 93 is d e count down factor KT STEP calculated, to be used for incremental count down of die counter KT after each combusuon The count down factor contain a constant K_ as well as a factor which increase proporuonal to the decrease ot the CQ-value between consecuuve combusuon s The proporuonal factor could be obtained bv multiphcauon ΔCQ . with a factor 10. and using the integer pan ot the sum obtained The rouune will thereafter proceed to step 94 where die order of a return step Ign E r STEP of basic conσol data is calculated The return step could in pan include a constant K< and a pan which increase proporuonal to the decrease ot the CQ-value between consecuuve combusuon s The proporuonal part could correspond to ΔCQ RH .

After having estabhshed the return step and count down tactor dependent of the reducuon of the CQ- value, then die rouune proceeds to step 111 In step I l i a count down of the value contained in die counter KT is imuated incrementally with the count down tactor KT STEP . after which the rouune proceeds to step 112 where a check is made if the counter have assumed a zero value As long as die counter do not assume a zero value wdl the latest order ot correcuon ot basic conσol data be maintained, as imuated in step 85, or altemauvely as descπbed below in step 113 For how long the lniual correcuon should stay in effect is determined bv the value K, as well as the order ot the count down factor KT STEP If K and K_ assumes the values 100 respecuvelv 1 and the

pan proporuonal to decrease of CQ could be neglected, will the miual correcuon be mainiamed duπng 100 consecuuve combusuon . before die rouune proceeds to step 113 and a return sequence back to basic conσol data is imuated. If instead die CQ-value should decrease more than 10% between a number of consecuuve combusuon s. then the miual correcuon is maintained ior a fewer number ot combusuon's.

When the counter KT reaches zero value will the routine proceed to step 113 where a return sequence back to basic conσol data, in this case igmuon uming, is imuated using the return step Ign E-r STEP The return step Ign RE r STEP is usually only a fracuon of die initial correcuon imuated in step 85 K * could form a constant corresponding 10 some ten i of a crankshaft degree. If CQ decreases by 20% and K< is set to 0.1 crankshaft degrees, then a total return step in die order of 0 3 crankshaft degrees (0 1+0.2) will be obtained

When uie return sequence have been imuated in step 113 wdl die rouune proceed to step 114, where the counter KT is set to a new value K : . K-. is preferably less than K, , which will lead to that each return step is maintained a shorter peπod of ume tiian the initial correcuon step In next step 115 a check is made if basic conσol data is assumed. Here a detecuon is made if the current igmuon uming corresponds to the igmuon uming stored in the igmuon map, 1 e an igmuon uming not corrected due to a knocking condiuon As long as basic control data is not recaptured, then the rouune returns to main programme. If instead the return sequence back to basic conσol data is completed, then the rouune will proceed to step 1 16. where the flag indicator KC is set to "False", before returning to main programme

Descπpuon ot die flow-chaπ shown in figure 5 is based upon handling ol a spontaneous type of a knocking condiuon. A spontaneous knocking condiuon is developed when die engine is controlled using ideal basic conσol data, given by maps. Repealed knocking, i.e. a number ot consecuuve combusuon s experiencing a knocking condiuon or a knocking condiuon occurπng before ideal basic conσol data is recaptured, may also aπse. Duπng a so called repeated knocking condiuon could secuon 80 be imuated once again, whereby the igmuon uming could be retarded one step further

In the flow-chart shown in figure 5 could also the igmuon uming correcuon be subsututed or complemented by fuel cnπchment or reducuon of charge pressure. The fuel amount and/or the charge pressure is increased respecuvely decreased using appropπate incremental fuel amounts respecuvely reducuon levels.

If aiso an increase of the fuel amount should be imuated in step 85, d en the current amount of fuel is increased a couple of percent. In step 94 could the return step consist of constant pan. corresponding to a σacuon of the fuel increase imuated in step 85. and a pan which increase proporuonal to die decrease ot the CQ-value.

In a corresponding manner is a fuel amount obtained in step 1 13. and a comparauve check with the fuel map is made in step 115

If a reducuon ot die charge air pressure is implemented then a subsutuuoπ or addiuon is made in a corresponding manner in steps 85, 94, 1 13 and 115 5

In figure 6 is schemaucally shown the signal L'ms obtained at line 56, using a measuπng arrangement according figure 1 The level of Urøs is plotted at the Y-axis, and in this case measured in volts, and could typically lie in the range 0 - 25 volts At die X-axis is plotted crankshaft degrees °VC, where 0° correspond to upper dead posiuon, l e when the piston is in its uppermost posiuon 0 At the posiuon SP, a posiuon before upper dead posiuon and typically 15-20 crankshaft degrees before upper dead posiuon. is the igmuon spark generated at the igmuon uming advance suitable for current operaung condiuons of the engine, basically dependent of load and speed. The generauon ot spark induce a high pulse in the measuπng circuit, caused bv the flash over in the spark plug gap duπng the so called Break down phase This high pulse is filtered out, and the measured value 5 induced is not used in the preferred embodiment Sampling ot measured values is preferably conσolled by the conσol umt 10, in such a manner that the control umt only sample the signal at lines 54a respecuvely 54b at certain determined posiuons or umings, I e duπng determined measunng windows These measuπng windows could be activated dependent of the spark uming SP, such that the measunng window opens a suffϊciendy long ume interval after proper attenuauon of the spark 0 generauon phase

After the spark generauon phase w l a flame iomsauon phase commence, in figure 7 denoted FLAME ION. duπng which phase die measuπng voltage is affected by the estabhshment of a burning kernel of the a fuel mixture within or close to the spark plug gap After the flame iomsauon phase will a post iomsauon phase commence, in figure 7 denoted POST ^ ION, duπng which phase die measuπng voltage is affected by the combusuon within the combusuon chamber, due to that the number of ionising panicles increases wi i temperature and pressure POST ION reaches typically its maximum value, denoted PP figure 7, when the combusuon pressure reaches its maximum value and the flame front have reached the walls of the combusuon chamber, which induces a pressure increase 0 The current measuπng window dunng which die iomsauon signal is integrated should be designed as wide as possible in order to obtain highest possible resoluuon The measunng window should at least cover die enure post iomsauon phase, but preferably also the flame iomsauon phase or parts thereof The acuvauon of the measuπng window could be conσolled by die igmuon uming, but should preferably be acuvated widun die interval from -5 crankshaft degrees before upper dead posiuon and ^ unul at least 40 crankshaft degrees after upper dead posiuon The measunng window could in certain type ot aDphcauons be acuvated unul 180 crankshaft degrees after upper dead posiuon I e unul the

piston reaches its lower dead posiuon. in order to momtor extended post iomsauon phases caused by mfenor fuel quahues or exσemely diluted air fuel mixtures, which causes a slow bum rate in die combusuon chamber

The invenuon could wi iin d e scope ot the claims be modified in a number of ways Detccuon of knock do not necessaπly have to be made using die igmuon plugs ot the combusuon engine, as shown in figure 1. Detccuon of a knocking condition could also be made using a separate measuπng gap.