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Title:
METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING A MINERAL SEALING STRUCTURE AND A MINERAL SEALING STRUCTURE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/178708
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
In the method, there is manufactured a poorly water permeable mineral sealing structure by forming a material layer (104) of a sealing material containing reactive binding agent and by allowing the layer to strengthen into a so-called synthetic hardpan layer. The strengthening material layer is formed of a sealing material, at least a part of which is waste fraction generated in the concentration process of the mining industry, such as so-called tailings or deposit, which is processed thermally to enhance the reactive characteristics of the waste fraction. The sealing structure can be a sealing structure of a tailings pond of the mining industry, waste rock heap, solid waste heap forming in the ore extraction process, or a sealing structure for a foundation or surface structure of a deposit basin or a sealing structure for an edge dam of a tailings pond or deposit basin.

Inventors:
KUJALA, Kauko (Koivulehdontie 4, Muhos, 91500, FI)
GEHÖR, Seppo (Kemistintie 2, Oulu, 90570, FI)
Application Number:
FI2017/050275
Publication Date:
October 19, 2017
Filing Date:
April 12, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SOLID LINER OY (Koivulehdontie 4, Muhos, 91500, FI)
International Classes:
A62D3/00; B09B1/00; B09B3/00; B09C1/00; C04B18/12; C04B28/00; E02D3/12; E02D31/00; C04B111/27
Foreign References:
EP0291672A21988-11-23
CN103466981A2013-12-25
US4981394A1991-01-01
US20090311048A12009-12-17
KR20110058472A2011-06-01
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BERGGREN OY (Isokatu 32, Oulu, 90100, FI)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Patent claims

1 . Method for the manufacture of a poorly water permeable mineral sealing structure, in which method a material layer (104) is formed of a sealing material containing reactive binding agent and the material layer is allowed to strengthen into a so-called synthetic hardpan layer, characterized in that the material layer (104) is formed of a sealing material, at least a part of which is waste fraction generated in the concentration process of the mining industry, such as so-called tailings or deposit, which is processed thermally to enhance the reactive characteristics of the waste fraction. 2. Method according to claim 1 , characterized in that magnesium compounds, preferably magnesium oxide MgO, magnesite MgC03, magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 and/or magnesium sulphate (MgS04) is arranged into the sealing material.

3. Method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that calcium compounds, preferably calcium oxide CaO, calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2, calcium carbonate

CaC03 and/or calcium sulphate (CaS04) is arranged into the sealing material.

4. Method according to claim 1 , characterized in that in the method the waste fraction is processed thermally to produce pozzolanic characteristics into the sealing material. 5. Method according to claim 4, characterized in that the waste fraction is heated to a temperature of at least 300°C, preferably to at least 750°C, most preferably to at least 800°C.

6. Method according to any of the claims 1-5, characterized in that the waste fraction is processed chemically to adjust the speed of the strengthening reaction and the characteristics of the forming strengthening material layer (104).

7. Method according to claim 6, characterized in that phosphorus (P), slag of the steel industry, ash and/or reactive compound, preferably amorphic silicon (Si) is added into the waste fraction.

8. Method according to claim 6 or 7, characterized in that the waste fraction is alkalized with sodium and/or potassium compounds, especially sodium silicate.

9. Method according to any of the claims 1-8, characterized in that a lower layer (106) is formed of the sealing material, a water permeable reinforcement lay- er, such as a filter cloth (1 10) is installed onto the lower layer, and an upper layer (108) is formed of the sealing material onto the reinforcement layer.

10. Method according to any of the claims 1-9, characterized in that a lower neutralizing protective layer (102) of alkaline stone materials, such as calcite, do- lomite or magnesite sand, ash and/or slag is formed below the strengthening material layer (104).

1 1 . Method according to any of the claims 1-9, characterized in that the strengthening material layer (104) is formed onto the tailings layer (100) and that the tailings layer (100) is mixed from its surface section into the material of the strengthening material layer (104).

12. Method according to any of the claims 1-1 1 , characterized in that an upper neutralizing protective layer (102) is formed of alkaline stone materials, such as calcite, dolomite or magnesite sand, ash and/or slag above the strengthening material layer (104). 13. Method according to any of the claims 1-12, characterized in that the method is used to manufacture a sealing structure for the tailings pond of the mining industry, waste rock heap, solid waste heap forming in the ore extraction process or a foundation structure or surface structure of a deposit basin or an edge dam for a tailings pond or deposit basin. 14. Poorly water permeable mineral sealing structure, which comprises at least one strengthened or strengthening material layer (104), a so-called synthetic hardpan layer, which is formed of a sealing material containing reactive binding agent, characterized in that at least part of the sealing material used in the formation of the material layer (104) is waste fraction generated in the concentration process of the mining industry, such as tailings or deposit, which has been processed thermally.

15. Sealing structure according to claim 14, characterized in that the sealing material contains magnesium compounds, preferably magnesium oxide MgO, magnesite MgC03, magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 and/or magnesium sulphate (MgS04).

16. Sealing structure according to claim 14 or 15, characterized in that the sealing material contains calcium compounds, preferably calcium oxide CaO, calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2, calcium carbonate CaC03 and/or calcium sulphate (CaS04).

17. Sealing structure according to any of the claims 14-16, characterized in that the strengthened material layer (104) comprises a lower layer (106), an upper layer (108) and a water permeable reinforcement layer, such as a filter cloth (1 10) between the upper and lower layer. 18. Sealing structure according to any of the claims 14-17, characterized in that below the said material layer (104) there is a lower neutralizing protective layer (102) and/or above the said material layer (104) there is an upper neutralizing protective layer (1 12), the protective layer (102, 1 12) being formed of alkaline stone materials, such as calcite, dolomite or magnesite sand, ash and/or slag. 19. Sealing structure according to any of the claims 14-18, characterized in that the sealing structure is a sealing structure for a tailings pond of the mining industry, waste rock heap, solid waste heap forming in the ore extraction process or a sealing structure for the foundation structure or surface structure of a deposit basin or a sealing structure for an edge dam of a tailings pond or deposit basin.

Description:
Method for manufacturing a mineral sealing structure and a mineral sealing structure

The invention relates to a method for manufacturing a poorly water-permeable mineral sealing structure, in which method a material layer is formed of a sealing material containing reactive binding agent, and the material layer is let to strengthen to a so-called synthetic hardpan layer. In addition, the invention relates to a mineral sealing structure manufactured using the method.

In the ore concentration processes, there are generated large amounts of aqueous waste, so-called tailings, and waste rock which is classified as waste in quarrying. In mining areas, tailings are stored in tailings ponds, the surface of which can partly be covered by water separating from the tailings. From the tailings ponds, water is led into clarification basins, from which the clarified water is returned to the concentration process or led into waterways through a purification plant. Aqueous waste is generated in abundance especially in the quarrying and concentration of building stones and limestones as well as chemical and fertilizer minerals.

During mining, the task of the foundation and dam structures of tailings ponds is to prevent the substances detrimental to the environment and ground water dissolving from the tailings to travel outside the ponds. After mining, the tailings ponds are closed with covering structures. The task of the covering structures is to pre- vent the filtration water and oxygen from accessing the tailings in order to prevent the formation of acidic filtration waters. One sealing solution commonly used in the foundation structures of ponds is a mineral sealing layer, which is built of clay, silt or fine fraction moraine. The building of mineral sealing layers is economically profitable only if suitable soil is available within a reasonable transport distance. The sealing layer can also be built of artificial material, such as HDPE film, bitumen membrane or bentonite mat. Film or mat type seals are expensive and they require a well levelled and compacted foundation layer below and a protective layer protecting from mechanical wear above to keep the films intact.

A so-called hardpan layer is naturally formed to the surface layer of sulphidic tail- ings ponds, caused by the impact of oxidation and precipitation, the layer having the ability to prevent oxygen and water from penetrating the structure. A natural hardpan layer is formed slowly, and the layer easily becomes non-uniform and discontinuous. The formation of the hardpan layer can be accelerated and the characteristics of the layer can be affected by adding to the structure different in- dustrial by-products as such or post-processed. Problematic with the formation of the hardpan layer is how to bring the material promoting the formation of the hard- pan layer to the pond site in a sufficiently cost-effective way. The hardpan layer formed can also break locally, for example, due to ground settlement so that its sealing ability deteriorates significantly. In document US 2009/031 1048 A1 there is known a method for the formation of a so-called synthetic hardpan layer to stabilize mineral waste rich in oxygen and sulphate. In the method, a hardpan layer is formed onto the mineral waste by spreading a layer of material containing calcium and iron compounds on the waste.

The aim of the invention is to introduce a method for the manufacture of a poorly water permeable mineral sealing structure and a mineral sealing structure with which problems relating to the known technology can be reduced.

The objects of the invention are achieved by a method and sealing structure characterized in what is presented in the independent patent claims. Some advantageous embodiments of the invention are presented in the dependent patent claims.

The object of the invention is a method for the manufacture of a poorly water permeable mineral sealing structure. The term "poorly water permeable" refers here to a structure, the hydraulic conductivity of which is at most 1 * 10 "8 m/s, preferably at most 1 * 10 "9 m/s. In practice, such a sealing structure is practically waterproof. In the method, a material layer is formed of a sealing material containing a reactive binding agent, and the material layer is let to strengthen into a so-called synthetic hardpan layer. As well known, the hardpan layer has low hydraulic conductivity, an ability to bind detrimental substances and low oxygen permeability so that it functions well as a sealing structure. In the method of the invention, the consolidating material layer is formed of a sealing material, at least a part of which is waste fraction generated in the concentration process of the mining industry, such as so called tailings or deposit, which is processed thermally to improve the reactive characteristics of the waste fraction. Preferably, as large a part of the sealing material as possible is waste fraction. Waste fraction, such as tailings, contains different minerals and compounds, the quantity and quality of which depend on the composition of the ore to be concentrated and on the substances and chemicals used in the concentration process. In many mines, the generated waste fraction contains at least poorly reactive compounds in addition to detrimental substances, and/or compounds that can be rela- tively easily made to be reactive. In the invention, the ability of the reactive substances in the waste fraction or substances to be formed into it to form geo- polymeric bonds is used, thus accelerating the formation of the hardpan layer. The mass of reactive compounds in the sealing material or to be formed into the seal- ing material can be 20-80%, preferably 30-60%, most preferably approximately 40% of the entire mass of the sealing material.

In an advantageous embodiment of the method of the invention, magnesium compounds, preferably magnesium oxide MgO or magnesium carbonate MgCO 3 are arranged into the sealing material. Alternatively or additionally, calcium com- pounds, preferably calcium oxide CaO, calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 or calcium carbonate CaCO 3 can be arranged into the sealing material. Magnesium oxide is a highly reactive substance, and by means of it, magnesium-based geo-polymeric bonds can easily be formed. Waste fractions can naturally contain the required amount of magnesium and/or calcium compounds in the sealing material. If this is not the case, a necessary compound can be added into the sealing material.

In a second advantageous embodiment of the invention the waste fraction, such as tailings, are processed thermally to provide the sealing material with pozzolanic characteristics. Thermal processing refers to the heating of the waste fraction into an elevated temperature and holding it in this temperature for so long that sub- stantially all reactions to be achieved by heating have time to occur. After this, the waste fraction is allowed to cool down. The temperature of the thermal processing can be chosen on the basis of the compounds in the waste fraction and the reactions to be achieved by heating. For example, the waste fraction can be heated to the temperature of 300°C so that free water and OH compounds are discharged from the waste fraction. Discharging the OH groups changes the composition of the waste fraction so that the waste fraction is provided with pozzolanic characteristics. When the waste fraction is heated to a temperature of over 750°C, the mag- nesite in it disintegrates into highly reactive magnesium oxide and carbon dioxide. The increase in the amount of magnesium oxide accelerates significantly the pro- gress of reactions and improves the strength of the generated bonds. When the waste fraction is heated to a temperature of over 800°C, part of the sulphate ions in the compounds becomes reduced, which further accelerates the occurrence of reactions. Naturally, the thermal processing of the waste fraction is conducted before the formation of the sealing material layer. In a third advantageous embodiment of the invention the waste fraction is processed chemically to adjust the speed of the strengthening reaction and the char- acteristics of the forming strengthening material layer. In chemical processing, phosphorus, slag of the steel industry, ash and/or reactive silicon compound, preferably amorphic silicon can be added into the waste fraction. Alternatively or additionally, the waste fraction can be alkalized with sodium and/or potassium com- pounds, preferably sodium silicate. The chemical processing of the waste fraction is conducted before the formation of the sealing material layer.

In yet another advantageous embodiment of the invention a lower layer is formed of the sealing material, a water permeable reinforcement layer is installed on top of the lower material layer, and an upper layer of the sealing material is formed on top of the reinforcement layer. The reinforcement layer can be, for example, a filter cloth commonly used in earthworks, geotextile or web. The reinforcement layer attaches from both sides to the strengthening sealing material, thus improving the tensile strength of the material layer. The improved tensile strength reduces the formation of cracks in the material layer, for example, in connection with ground settlement.

In yet another advantageous embodiment of the invention a lower neutralizing protective layer is formed below the strengthening material layer. Alternatively or additionally, an upper neutralizing protective layer can be formed above the strengthening material layer. The protective layers are formed of alkaline stone materials, such as calcite, dolomite or magnesite sand, ash or slag. The task of the protective layers is to neutralize the leachate of the hardpan layer and reduce the vertical hydraulic conductivity. The upper neutralizing protective layer also prevents dusting and can function as substrate.

In yet another advantageous embodiment of the invention the strengthening mate- rial layer is formed on top of the tailings layer, and the tailings layer is mixed of its surface section with the material of the strengthening material layer. Thus, a gradually changing transition zone is formed to the boundary surface of the layers instead of a sharp boundary surface.

In yet another advantageous embodiment of the invention there is fabricated a sealing structure for a tailings pond of mining industry, waste rock heap, heap of solid waste formed in the ore extraction process or for the foundation structure or surface structure of a sediment basin or a sealing structure for an edge dam of a tailings pond or sediment basin. Using waste fractions, especially tailings, in the structures of the tailings ponds of mines is economically sensible, because this way it is possible to minimize the transport costs of materials. The poorly water permeable mineral sealing structure of the invention comprises at least one strengthened or strengthening material layer, a so-called synthetic hardpan layer, which is formed of a sealing material containing a reactive binding agent. The strengthening layer refers to a material layer, whose strengthening re- action is still in progress. As the strengthening reaction continues for a sufficiently long time, the material layer reaches the desired strength, and it becomes the strengthened material layer. In the sealing structure, at least part of the sealing material used in the formation of the material layer is waste fraction generated in the concentration process of the mining industry, such as so-called tailings or de- posit, which has been processed thermally.

In an advantageous embodiment of the sealing structure of the invention the sealing material contains magnesium compounds, preferably magnesium oxide MgO, magnesite MgC0 3 , magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2 and/or magnesium sulphate (MgS0 4 ). Alternatively or additionally, the sealing material can contain calcium compounds, preferably calcium oxide CaO, calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 , calcium carbonate CaC0 3 and/or calcium sulphate (CaS0 4 ). Further, the sealing material can contain siderite (FeCOs), iron oxide (Fe 2 03, FeO), iron hydroxides (Fe(OH) 2 , Fe(OH) 3 or iron sulphate Fe(S0 4 ).

In a second advantageous embodiment of the sealing structure of the invention the strengthened or strengthening material layer comprises a lower layer, an upper layer and a water permeable reinforcement layer between the upper and lower layer. The reinforcement layer can be filter cloth commonly used in earthworks.

In a third advantageous embodiment of the sealing structure of the invention, below the said material layer there is a lower neutralizing protective layer and/or above the said material layer there is an upper neutralizing protective layer, which is formed of alkaline stone materials, such as calcite, dolomite or magnesite sand, ash or slag.

The sealing structure of the invention can be the sealing structure for a tailings bond of mining industry, waste rock heap, heap of solid waste formed in the ore extraction process or the sealing structure of a foundation or surface structure of a deposit basin or the sealing structure of an edge dam of a tailings pond or deposit basin.

It is an advantage of the invention that the hydraulic conductivity of the sealing structure is very low. The invention makes possible the fabrication of a sealing structure of mineral raw materials applicable to the isolation of highly detrimental substances. Thus, the invention offers an alternative for HDPE films or bitumen membranes commonly used in the foundation structures of basins and landfill areas, but it is also applicable to be used together with the above-mentioned sub- stances.

It is further an advantage of the invention that the material of the sealing structure is practically free raw material, classified as waste. Thus, the material costs of the sealing structure are very low.

It is further an advantage of the invention that the manufacture of the sealing struc- ture reduces the quantity of tailings to be stored in the tailings ponds, thus lengthening the operating life of the ponds.

The invention is next explained in detail, referring to the enclosed drawings, in which

Figure 1 presents in an exemplary manner the cross-section of a covering struc- ture of a tailings pond manufactured using the method of the invention;

Figure 2 presents in an exemplary manner a diagrammatic view of a method of the invention; and

Figure 3 presents in an exemplary manner a diagrammatic view of the thermal and/or chemical processing of tailings, which is part of the method of the invention. In Figure 1 there is illustrated in an exemplary manner a covering structure of a tailings pond manufactured using the method of the invention as a cross-sectional view. The covering structure is formed on top of the tailings layer 100 heaped onto the bottom of the pond. The covering structure has as the lowermost layer the lower neutralizing protective layer 102, the thickness of which can be 10-20 cm. The material of the protective layer is carbonate stone material, ash or slag. Suitable carbonate stone materials are e.g. calcite, dolomite and magnesite sand. Ash can be coal ash, peat ash or ash generated in the burning of bio fuels. Above the protective layer there is a strengthening material layer 104, a so-called synthetic hardpan layer. The hardpan layer has a lower layer 106, an upper layer 108 and between them a filter cloth 1 10. The upper and lower layers are formed of mineral sealing material, at least a part of which is waste fraction generated in the concentration process of mining industry, such as so-called tailings or deposit. The waste fraction is processed thermally and/or chemically to enhance the reactive charac- teristics of the waste fraction. The sealing material can be an entirely reactive substance, strengthening as binding agent, or it can include inert material. Preferably, the sealing material contains reactive substance, strengthening as binding agent in the amount of 20-80%, more preferably 30-60%, most preferably approximately 40% of the total mass of the sealing material. The rest of the sealing material can be unprocessed waste fraction, natural stone material or crushed stone.

The filter cloth functions as a water permeable reinforcement layer connecting the upper and lower layer. The lower and upper layers are formed to be of substantially uniform thickness so that the total thickness of the hardpan layer is 20-40 cm, preferably approximately 30 cm. On the upper surface of the synthetic hardpan layer there is an upper neutralizing protective layer 1 12, the thickness of which can be 10-20 cm. The task of the alkaline upper protective layer is to neutralize the waters running into the hardpan layer, reduce the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sealing structure and prevent dusting. Above the upper neutralizing layer there is a second filter cloth 10 functioning as a reinforcement layer, on top of which there is a deposition layer 1 14 formed of unprocessed tailings. The deposition layer contains slowly reacting iron compounds, because of which there occurs in the deposition layer in time the natural formation of the hardpan layer. Above the deposition layer there is, for example, a morainic surface layer 1 16 and uppermost a growth layer 1 18 functioning as substrate.

In Figure 2 there is illustrated in an exemplary manner a method for the manufacture of a mineral sealing structure as a diagrammatic view. In the method illustrated in Figure 1 there is manufactured a surface structure of a closable tailings pond. In the method, a lower neutralizing protective layer is formed onto the upper surface of the tailings layer by spreading a layer of carbonate stone material, ash or slag on top of the tailings. On top of the lower neutralizing protective layer there is formed a strengthening material layer functioning as the principal structural sealing layer, a so-called synthetic hardpan layer of the sealing material, at least a part of which is waste fraction generated in the concentration process of the mining industry, such as tailings or deposit. In the method, waste fraction is processed thermally and/or chemically so that the reactive characteristics of the waste fraction are improved. Of the sealing material containing processed waste fraction there is first formed a lower layer of substantially uniform thickness onto the lower neutralizing protective layer, onto which a filter cloth is installed as the reinforce- ment layer. An upper layer is formed onto the filter cloth of the same sealing material. As a consequence of the thermal and/or chemical processing, the waste frac- tion contains compounds reacting with water, due to which a synthetic, poorly water and oxygen permeable hardpan layer containing geo-polymeric bonds is formed of the sealing material. The filter cloth between the upper and lower layer attaches to the strengthening layers on its different sides, thus forming a rein- forcement withstanding tensile stress in the middle of the hardpan layer. An upper neutralizing protective layer of carbonate stone material, ash or slag is formed onto the hardpan layer in the same way as the lower protective layer.

A filter cloth is installed onto the upper protective layer as reinforcement layer, on top which a deposition layer is formed. The deposition layer is formed by spread- ing a layer of unprocessed tailings onto the filter cloth. A surface layer of moraine is further formed onto the deposition layer, and a growth layer is installed onto the surface layer. After this the covering structure is finished. The formation of the material layers is carried out with conventional earthmoving machinery and methods, which are not explained in more detail here. In the method illustrated in Figure 2, a lower neutralizing protective layer of alkaline material was formed between the tailings to be covered with the covering structure and the lower hardpan layer. In an advantageous embodiment of the method this lower protective layer is excluded and the synthetic hardpan layer is formed directly onto the tailings layer. In this embodiment, the surface section of the tailings layer to be covered and the lower layer below the filter cloth, containing thermally and/or chemically processed waste fraction are partly mixed with each other. Thus, a gradually changing transition zone is formed to the boundary surface of the layers instead of a sharp boundary surface.

In the method illustrated in Figure 2, there was fabricated a covering structure for a closable tailings pond. Using a respective method, it is also possible to form poorly water permeable structural layers of landfill areas for detrimental substances, such as waste rock heaps of the mining industry, heaps of solid waste generated in the ore extraction process, polluted soil heaps and foundation structures of refuse dumps. Figure 3 illustrates in an exemplary manner the thermal and/or chemical processing of waste fraction generated in the concentration process of the mining industry, such as tailings belonging to the method of the invention as a diagrammatical view. The thermal and/or chemical processing of waste fractions is used to enhance the reactive characteristics of the waste fraction and its ability to form geo-polymeric bonds. The optimal processing method depends largely on the characteristics of the waste fraction, i.e. the quality and quantity of compounds naturally contained in it and the availability and price of compounds which are to be possibly added into the waste fraction. In Figure 3 there is illustrated in an exemplary manner the thermal and chemical processing of a waste fraction contain- ing magnesium oxide MgO, magnesite MgC03, calcium oxide CaO, calcium carbonate CaC03 and sulphates. In addition to these, the waste fraction can further contain slight amounts of other mineral compounds. In the processing, the enhancement of the reactive characteristics of the waste fraction is mainly based on the magnesium oxide contained in and formed into the waste fraction during the processing. If the waste fraction under processing does not naturally contain sufficient amounts of magnesium compounds, they can be added into the waste fraction before or during the processing.

In the method, a dose of waste fraction is brought into processing and the dose is transferred into an oven. In the oven, the waste fraction is heated to an elevated temperature and it is held in this temperature for so long that substantially all reactions to be achieved by heating have time to occur. In its simplest form, the thermal processing can be heating, by which free and poorly bound water is extracted from the waste fraction. By heating the waste fraction to a temperature of approximately 300°C, the free water and OH compounds in the waste fraction are dis- charged. Discharging the OH groups changes the composition of the waste fraction so that the waste fraction is given pozzolanic characteristics.

Thermal processing can be continued by heating the waste fraction to a temperature of over 750°C so that the magnesite in it disintegrates into magnesium oxide and carbon dioxide. Magnesium oxide is a very highly reacting compound, the in- creasing quantity of which accelerates the progress of the reinforcement reaction and improve the strength of the generating bonds. The waste fraction can be heated further to a temperature of over 800°C so that part of the sulphate ions contained in the sulphates in the waste fraction are reduced, which further accelerates the occurrence of the reactions. It can also be thought that the waste frac- tion is heated to 860-960°C so that the dolomite in it disintegrates into reactive substances. Nevertheless, heating to such a high temperature requires a lot of energy. Considering the strength and reaction speed, the optimal result is achieved if the temperature of the waste fraction is increased into at least 800°C. However, thermal processing can also be performed in lower temperatures, if suf- ficiently big improvement in reactive characteristics can be achieved in this way. The occurrence of thermal reactions can be promoted and accelerated by adding into the waste fraction phosphorus, slag of the steel industry, calcium carbonate, calcium oxide, silicon, sodium silicate and/or ash and/or slag as the blend component. Ash can be ash generated in the burning of coal, peat or bio fuel. Adding the blend component can be made at any stage of the thermal processing.

Unprocessed waste fraction or inert body substance, such as crushed stone or natural stone material can be mixed with the thermally and chemically processed waste fraction so that the share of reactive substance of the total amount of the sealing material is 20-80%, preferably 30-60%, most preferably approximately 40%. Mixing the body substance with the processed waste fraction can be done immediately after the thermal processing or only in connection with the formation of the material layers of the sealing structure.

An advantageous embodiment of the method and sealing structure of the invention have been explained above. The invention is not limited to the solutions explained, but the inventional idea can be applied in different ways within the limits of the patent claims.