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Title:
METHOD FOR OBTAINING NATURAL INGREDIENTS FOR FOODSTUFFS THAT BIND AND BIND WATER
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2015/130163
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
This invention concerns methods for the processing and modifying of natural waste, the so called 'side streams', from the foodstuffs industry so that the nutrients still present in the waste can be reused, so that this can make a contribution to pure, natural, clean-label foodstuffs that contribute to sustainability and to an improvement of the public health in various ways with the objective of binding water in foodstuffs. The binding of water has the effect of making foodstuffs more tender and/or contain fewer ingredients and/or have an oil-reducing effect (after all, where there is water, there cannot be oil). In addition, the current invention concerns the food ingredients and foodstuffs obtained by this method.

Inventors:
VERVOORT, Marinus Jacobus (Nieuwe Niesenoortsburgwal 5, VP Monnickendam, NL-1141, NL)
Application Number:
NL2015/000007
Publication Date:
September 03, 2015
Filing Date:
February 17, 2015
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
VERVOORT, Marinus Jacobus (Nieuwe Niesenoortsburgwal 5, VP Monnickendam, NL-1141, NL)
International Classes:
A23L1/10; A21D2/18; A23L1/00; A23L1/0522; A23L1/0524; A23L1/212; A23L1/216; A23L1/314; A23L1/325; C08B30/00; C08B37/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO1999011672A11999-03-11
WO1997049734A11997-12-31
WO2013141722A22013-09-26
Foreign References:
US20030024641A12003-02-06
US20100099648A12010-04-22
US20120088016A12012-04-12
Other References:
DONGOWSKI G: "UNTERSUCHUNGEN AN KARTOFFELPUELPE ALS BALLASTSTOFFQUELLE. ZUM EINFLUSS VON PEKTOLYTISCHEN UND CELLULOLYTISCHEN ENZYMEN", STAERKE - STARCH, WILEY-VCH VERLAG, WEINHEIM, DE, vol. 45, no. 5, 1 May 1993 (1993-05-01), pages 166 - 171, XP000367610, ISSN: 0038-9056
SERENA ET AL: "Chemical and physicochemical characterisation of co-products from the vegetable food and agro industries", ANIMAL FEED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ELSEVIER, AMSTERDAM, NL, vol. 139, no. 1-2, 16 November 2007 (2007-11-16), pages 109 - 124, XP022348306, ISSN: 0377-8401, DOI: 10.1016/J.ANIFEEDSCI.2006.12.003
None
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Claims:
Claims

1. A work method for the preparation, processing or application of ingredients for foodstuffs, where these ingredients have the purpose of binding water and/or water-soluble substances in foodstuffs and foodstuffs internally, characterized in that the ingredients include 0.5% to 7% pectins and 60% to 88% starch, this all in 100% dry matter, and that the ingredients will be obtained from raw materials and/or ingredients and/or side streams that are subjected to one or more of the processes defined as Process A through S, including mixing, heating, extrusion, drying, size reduction with the help of milling, or sieving and whereby the raw materials and/or ingredients belong to one or more of the following groups:

I. (sugar) beets or parts of (sugar) beets, (red) beets or parts of (red) beets, carrots or parts of carrots, vegetables or parts of vegetables, fruit or parts of fruit, grapes and currants or parts of grapes or currants, onions or parts of onions, seaweed, algae or parts thereof;

II. grains, such as wheat, barley, oats, rye, rice, maize and/or parts thereof;

III. sweet potatoes, industrial potatoes, consumption potatoes or parts of potatoes, cassava (manioc) root and/or parts of the cassava root;

IV. peas and/or parts of peas, 'pea starch', beans, green beans and/or parts thereof, soybeans and/or parts thereof, lintels and/or parts thereof;

V. wheat flour, maize meal, rice flour, potato starch, tapioca, oat meal, rye meal, barley meal, malt;

VI. potato side streams (aardappelvezels in Dutch), potato peels, potato

scrapings, potato pieces, apple remnants, pear remnants, carrot side streams, carrot peels, sugar beet pulp, beet pulp, red beet side streams, red beet peels, cut vegetable waste, fruit waste, citrus pulp, grape waste;

VII. flour remnants, maize flour, brewer's grains, bran, pea starch.

2. Work method according to conclusion 1, characterized in that the ingredients will be applied in a coating for potato parts whereby the ingredients come from raw materials out of one or more of groups I, II, III, IV and V and whereby the coating contains preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins and 73% - 77% starch, this all in 100% dry matter.

3. Work method according to conclusion 1, characterized in that the ingredients will be applied in a binder for meat mince and fish mince whereby the ingredients come from raw materials out of one or more of groups I, II, III, IV and V and whereby the binder contains preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins and 73% - 77% starch, this all in 100% dry matter.

4. Work method according to conclusion 1, characterized in that the ingredients will be applied in a batter applied to the surface of foodstuffs and/or for the bonding of crumbs whereby the ingredients come from raw materials out of one or more of groups I, II, III, IV and V and whereby the batter contains preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins and 73% - 77% starch, this all in 100% dry matter.

5. Work method according to conclusion 1, characterized in that the ingredients will be applied in a medium fulfilling the function of 'breading" crumbs whereby the ingredients come from raw materials out of one or more of groups I, II, III, IV and V and whereby this medium contains preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins and 73% - 77% starch, this all in 100% dry matter.

6. Work method according to conclusion 1, characterized in that the ingredients will be applied in a pre-dust (as a bonder) whereby the ingredients come from raw materials out of one or more of groups I, II, III, IV and V and whereby the pre-dust contains preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins and 73% - 77% starch, this all in 100% dry matter.

7. Work method according to conclusion 1, characterized in that the ingredients will be applied as a medium for making dried fruit richer, remain richer longer and/or take up and bind more water. If desired, the dried fruit can be damaged with spring-loaded needles in their lengthwise direction with the goal of accelerating and increasing water uptake whereby the ingredients to be added to the fruit, if needed dissolved in water, for example, in the form of dietary fibre matrices which come from raw materials out of one or more of groups I, II, III, IV and V and whereby this dietary fibre matrices collectively preferably contain an average of

I.5% - 2% pectins and 73% - 77% starch, this all in 100% dry matter.

8. Work method according to conclusion 1, characterized in that the ingredients will be added to baked products to lower the glycaemic index of the baked products whereby the ingredients come from raw materials out of one or more of groups I,

II, III, IV and V and whereby the ingredients collectively contain preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins and 73% - 77% starch, this all in 100% dry matter.

9. Work method according to conclusion 1, characterized in that the ingredients will be applied in a coating for baked products, where the coating contributes to keeping the baked products fresh and/or for lowering the concentration of acrylamide in the baked products whereby the ingredients come from raw materials out of one or more of groups I, II, III, IV and V and whereby the coating contains preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins and 73% - 77% starch, this all in 100% dry matter.

10. Work method according to conclusion 1, characterized in that the ingredients will be added to foodstuffs to prevent the formation of ice crystals during the freezing of these foodstuffs whereby the ingredients come from raw materials out of one or more of groups I, II, III, IV and V and whereby this medium contains preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins and 73% - 77% starch, this all in 100% dry matter.

11. Work method according to conclusion 1, characterized in that the ingredients will be applied in a medium in order to bind moisture in foodstuffs that contain a combination of at least one meat type and/or one type of vegetable whereby the ingredients of this medium come from raw materials out of one or more of groups I, II, III, IV and V and whereby the medium contains preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins and 73% - 77% starch, this all in 100% dry matter.

12. Work method according to conclusion 11, characterized in that the foodstuffs in which the moisture must be bound contain ragout.

13. Work method according to one or more of the conclusions 2-12, characterized in that the ingredients do not come from raw materials from one or more of the groups that appear on lists I through V, but come from waste substances from one or more of the groups that appear on lists VI and VII.

14. Work method according to one or more of the foregoing conclusions,

characterized in that the ingredients are gluten-poor or gluten-free.

15. Work method according to one or more of the foregoing conclusions,

characterized in that the raw materials and/or ingredients contain organically harvested products.

16. Foodstuffs that are obtained through application of the work method according to one or more of the foregoing conclusions.

17. Foodstuffs according to conclusion 16, characterized in that the foodstuffs contain one or more mediums from the group containing:

potato parts with a coating, including chips, potato parts, potato crisps or Parisian potatoes;

binder for mince, including fish nuggets, fish sticks, fish products, chicken nuggets, ground beef or sausage;

batter as a coating for foodstuffs including fish and loempia;

batter as a binder for crumbs for application in one or more foodstuffs from the group including schnitzels, croquettes, bami slices, nasi slices, fish sticks, chicken legs, chicken filets or chicken wings and to obtain a more tender product that also remains more tender during heating;

- breading or crumbs to obtain a better product experience and/or a lowering of the oil uptake;

- pre-dust as a binder for batter;

- ingredient to keep dried fruit including raisins or dried currants for use in baked products richer longer;

- ingredient for baked products including bread, cake or pie for the lowering of the glycaemic index;

- ingredient for baked products including bread, cake or pie that ensures a crust so that the baked products remain fresh longer; - ingredient to lower the formation of ice crystals in deep-frozen products, including ice cream, baked products and meat;

ingredient for ragout as a water binder and/or as a binder in snacks including croquettes and croquettes balls (in Dutch: bitterballen).

18. Work method characterized in that as the extruded products are more finely

milled, the adsorption capacity decreases, or the other way around: as they are milled more coarsely, the adsorption capacity decreases less.

19. Work method characterized in that as the size reduction of the extrudate takes less energy, for example due to finer cutting upon leaving the extruder or by then milling through 2 rolls instead of milling through a sieve, the adsorption capacity decreases less.

20. Work method characterized in that the extrudate is produced from balls of natural raw materials that have a diameter of a maximum of 3 mm.

Description:
Method for obtaining natural ingredients for foodstuffs that bind and bind water

This invention concerns methods for the processing and modifying of natural waste, the so called " side streams " , from the foodstuffs industry so that the nutrients still present in the waste can be reused, so that this can make a contribution to pure, natural, clean-label foodstuffs that contribute to sustainability and to an improvement of the public health in various ways with the objective of binding water in foodstuffs. The binding of water has the effect of making foodstuffs more tender and/or contain fewer ingredients and/or have an oil-reducing effect (after all, where there is water, there cannot be oil). In addition, the current invention concerns the food ingredients and foodstuffs obtained by this method.

The production of foodstuffs has increasingly abandoned sustainability principles in the last decades, with the consequence that an increasing number of ingredients with one or more E-numbers are added to ever-more foodstuffs. This appears to have progressed a long way, and the market demands correction. A growing number of consumers are prepared to pay a higher price for foodstuffs when those are pure, natural, clean-label, produced in a more sustainable way and contribute to health. This not only contributes to less waste of food raw materials, but also produces more health benefits. The industry demands ingredients for which on the one hand the consumer has a need and/or that on the other hand lower the TCO (Total Cost of Ownership), for example, because the ingredients contribute to higher water or moisture intake. The hospitality industry asks in an increasing degree for foodstuffs that are produced in a sustainable way and/or that remain tender longer and/or taste better.

Certain types of food can be directly utilized by people, and this is an effective system of food utilization, such as the use of vegetables, ground grains and the like. However, over the last century, raw materials for the production of foodstuffs have been ever-more intensively processed, refined, for the obtaining of increasingly pure -ingredients such as crystal sugar, flour, oil and the like. As raw materials produce increasingly more 'pure' ingredients, a growing amount of waste is created as a result. This can include, for example, potato fibre, potato peels, sugar beet pulp, carrot fibre, apple remnants, citrus pulp, brewers' grains, coffee grounds, flour remnants, maize flour, bran, pea starch and misshapen, oddly shaped, discoloured, damaged or overripe vegetables or fruit and the like. These are all waste with an economically limited added value. The term " waste " also means here waste streams, side streams, byproducts, waste products and the like. During the production of 'pure' ingredients, this currently amounts on average to about 25% of the amount of food resource being available as waste. A part of that waste stream will be converted to animal feed and then return as consumable food in the form of meat, milk and the like. Only about 20% of that becomes available as food for humans in the form of meat, milk etc. The other portion is carried away as slaughter waste, manure, methane etc. This indirect utilization is less efficient than direct conversion. The other part of the waste, which is not converted into animal feed, disappears from the consumption column and will be diverted in the 'bio-based economy' for the production of biodegradable usage items or for the production of bio-energy via bio-refining, or will just be diverted as organic material for fertilization (e.g. including products that, for example, are over traded at the Dutch auctions). Finally, about 20% of all food raw materials are no longer available for humans, which means an enormous waste of food. This 20% that will not be consumed contains, from the total amount of food raw materials, an estimated 16% of the macronutrients and 50% of the micronutrients. These micronutrients include nutrients like high-quality proteins, complex carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, nutritional fibre and other bio-active substances. This means that in particular the micronutrients are wasted, which impacts public health. As an example of this, it will be reported here that the Gezondheidsraad ('Dutch Health Advisory Board') advises consumption of about 35 grams of dietary fibre per day, while it appears from nutritional polls that barely half of that is consumed. This shortfall of intake of dietary fibre leads to less optimal intestinal function with all the results thereof such as, for example, constipation.

At this moment, foodstuffs experienced by the average consumer as tasty have a higher market value than healthier foodstuffs that are produced in a sustainable way. Production and sales take place according to the familiar economic principles.

Therefore, more attention is paid to foodstuffs with a higher market value, measured in total turnover, than to foodstuffs with a lower market value. Due to the enormous increase in chronic conditions on the one hand and the increase in food scarcity on the other, subjects such as health and sustainable production increase in market value. In addition, there is a growing yearning for pure and natural products. Ever-more consumers have more money left over for foodstuffs that are pure, natural and clean- label, produced in a sustainable way and that contribute to health.

The 'purified' ingredients like crystal sugar, flour, oil and the like are, as macro nutrients, effective energy suppliers, but are poor in essential micronutrients like complex carbohydrates, high-value amino acids, vitamins, minerals, nutritional fibre and other bio-active substances. What is in crystal sugar, simple starch or oil except for the energy suppliers such as the macronutrients of carbohydrates and fats? Practically nothing! In Western food culture, food is relatively rich in macronutrients and relatively poor in micronutrients. An excessively high intake of macronutrients leads to obesity. A shortage of micronutrients and complex carbohydrates is in part at the root of many chronic conditions.

Ever-more foodstuffs are prepared in oil, by, for example, frying, baking, roasting, heating in the oven and the like, further referred to here for simplicity, both individually and collectively, as frying. During the preparation of those foodstuffs, they not only absorb oil, but trans-fats and acrylamide are created during the heating process. Trans-fats and acrylamide are carcinogens and mutagenic toxic substances for the human body. Objective

Currently, waste products are richer in micronutrients, including complex

carbohydrates, high-value amino acids, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and other bio- active substances than, in general, the actual foodstuffs available on the market.

This invention predicts that one or more waste substances, whether or not in combination with energy-rich and/or protein-rich resources and/or ingredients, can be mixed in a certain ratio and/or be pre-processed and/or be thermally treated, for example through extrusion technologies, or post-processed in a special way and/or be mixed before or during that processing with other waste substances so that an ingredient is created that can be added to foodstuffs and thereby provide extra functional value and/or extra taste and/or nutritional value and/or economic value to these foodstuffs by, among other things, binding extra water and/or as a result thereof reducing the absorption of oil during frying. The pre-processing can consist of the reducing of the asparagine level and/or the reduction of the level of freely reducing sugars such as glucose. The main processing can consist of a thermal treatment in which use is made of extrusion technology. In the post-processing, the obtained ingredient can be made smaller/ground in a specific way whereby the type of milling and the particle size to be obtained are important.

These various things have the objective of obtaining ingredients that bind and retail water and/or water-soluble substances such as proteins and, if needed, bond themselves and, if desired, reducing the level of oil and/or trans-fats and/or acrylamide, and, if possible, increasing the level of micronutrients. This can be realized with one or more resources and/or ingredients. In addition, the objective can be realized by using resources and/or waste substances that are derived from organically harvested resources or that are gluten-poor or gluten-free.

By processing waste substances and using these in foodstuffs, these foodstuffs again become richer in complex carbohydrates, high-value amino acids, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and other bio-active substances. This makes the food healthier, and less waste of food takes place. The ingredients that are produced in this way are pure, natural, clean-label, contribute to sustainability and to public health. Extra value can be obtained by making use of organically harvested resources and/or gluten- poor/-free resources.

Next to the use of waste substances, resources can also be used whole, such as a whole potato, a whole grain and the like, whether or not in combination with other ingredients. Acrylamide presents a point of attention. Acrylamide is a carcinogen and mutagenic toxic substance for which the permissible concentration in foodstuffs is increasingly lowered. For example for the production of organic chips and organic potato chips, a level of acrylamide up to 3 times the permissible norm is created. With higher temperatures during the preparation of food, acrylamide can be created.

Acrylamide is quickly created via a chemical cascade reaction from the basic substances of asparagine and reducing sugars such as free glucose. This reaction proceeds more quickly as the temperature increases. As soon as the temperature during preparation reaches 170°C or higher, this chemical reaction is running more exponential. Organically harvested products such as potatoes contain a higher level of asparagine and glucose than the non-organically harvested varieties. With the help of the processes described hereafter, the level of acrylamide can actually be lowered by using a (bio-)coating so that an organic foodstuff comes under the permissible norm through the application of this coating.

Water-binding and oil-reducing capacity through the presence of pectins in combination with bonding capacity through the presence of (partially) gelatinized starch

Resources and/or ingredients that are relatively rich in pectins, such as the potato side stream, have water-binding capacity in their dry form. Resources that are relatively rich in starch and are treated thermally, such as gelatinized flour, have a bonding capacity as soon as they come into contact with water. The combination leads to water binding and to bonding.

Water-binding capacity and oil-reducing capacity through pectins

Certain raw materials or ingredients that are rich in pectins can bind water and water- soluble substances such as ethanol, amino acids, proteins and the like. Pectins primarily occur in vegetables and fruit and in various bulb and tuber crops such as potatoes, in particular in products that are rich in water and feel hard, such as for example potatoes, carrots, (red) beets, (sugar) beets, apples, citrus fruits and the like. Some plants that grow in water are also rich in pectins, such as seaweed, which is rich in glucomannan.

In the cell wall of products that are relatively rich in pectins, there are dietary fibre matrices and, among other things, dietary fibre contains, for example, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. Because pectins bind water, they pull water into a still-living cell wall, whereby the cell wall swells and becomes, as it were, 'pumped up'. In order to limit the maximum size of the cell due to 'pumping up' of the cell wall, those cell walls contain cellulose and lignin in the dietary fibre matrices, threads that serve as 'armour' so that the cell becomes 'hard', and, as a result, the raw material, such as a potato, carrot, apple and the like feels hard. As soon as the dried pectins, isolated from those cell walls, comes into contact with water, they immediately bind the free water and hold on to it. Depending on the kind of pectin, the water binding can range up to about 100 times the weight of the pectin. Substances that are soluble in water are bound along with the water.

In the refining process to obtain 'pure' ingredients such as crystal sugar, flour or oil, the cell walls will be cracked, and the energy-rich substances such as sugar, starch or oil will be removed from the cell, and the rest is left over as remnants. These remnants that come from the bulb and tuber crops or from hard-feeling and water-rich fruits or vegetables are usually relatively rich in pectin and other dietary fibre. Often, those remnants contain, in the dry stuffs level, collectively 50% or more dietary fibre. By drying and diverting these remnants as an ingredient, an ingredient is created that gains a water-binding capacity as soon as this remnant material is dried. The dried ingredient can be used as a water binder in foodstuffs, whereby, for example, ragout, mince of fish or of meat can be bound.

Pectins also ensure that the oil uptake is reduced. On the one hand, pectins prefer water and water-soluble substances, such as ethanol, amino acids and the like, and on the other hand, where there is water or water-soluble substances, food oil or food-oil- soluble substances cannot occur. Pectins kick out food oil and food-oil-soluble substances, and pectins thereby have an oil-reducing effect if they simultaneously come into contact with water and/or water-soluble substances and with food oil. During the production of foodstuffs, for example for the production of 'nuggets', or during preparation, for example by frying, the pectins have limited time to be able to bind water. The process of water binding can be accelerated by increasing the surface size of products or ingredients that are relatively rich in pectins. That can be done by using extrusion technology. In addition, the particles can be made smaller, so that the surface becomes relatively enlarged.

Bonding capacity by thermally treating starch-rich products

By thermally treating starch, it is gelatinized. As starch becomes more gelatinized, that starch has an increasing tendency to stick/cleave/bond. A good example is wallpaper adhesive. Gelatinized starch in a dry form takes up water as soon as the gelatinized starch comes into contact with water, and then a viscous mass forms. By using raw materials and/or ingredients that are rich in starch and by then mixing these with other raw materials and/or ingredients, an ingredient is created that bonds to a water- rich surface. One of the possibilities for thermally treating such a product is the application of extrusion technology, by adding high pressure, increasing the temperature and adding water during the extrusion production process, the extrusion. The degree of gelatinization of the starch is determined by the pressure, the temperature, the amount of water and the length of time spent in the extruder.

When products that are relatively rich in starch are extruded, these are gelatinized proportionally to the intensity of the thermal treatment. An indirect measure of the degree of gelatinization of the starch present is the viscosity. In Figure 1, the viscosities of different test samples at different temperatures of the water in which the test samples are dissolved are shown. These test samples are shown in the figure as ORFI samples. (ORFI stands for Oil Reducing Food Ingredient.) These ORFI samples are ingredients that in this case are composed of a mixture of about 10% potato side streams and about 90% flour remnants (all on the basis of about 90% dry stuffs). Then these mixtures are extruded, dried and milled into powder.

From Figure 1, it appears that as the temperature increases, the viscosity decreases, but as soon as the mixtures (ORFI samples made with water) are again cooled, the viscosity increases. This is a unique functionality: at higher temperatures, a mixture can be processed better, while after cooling there is a thickening, which is sustained and can be applied in ragout, for example, in croquettes.

Raw materials that are relatively rich in pectin in combination with raw materials that are relatively rich in starch, which are mixed and extruded, lead to an ingredient that takes up more water and less oil when it is exposed to food oil for example during frying.

The ORFI samples obtained are exposed to water or to food oil in a uniform way. The tests were carried out with the Andersen method, whereby 2.5 g of dry test material was used. The results are as follows:

Figure 2 illustrates that the water uptake significantly improves, and Figure 4 demonstrates that the oil uptake is significantly reduced in comparison with traditional crumbs that is made from bread crumbs or cracker crumbs. The ORFI samples are a combination of the waste substances that are rich in pectins and of waste substances that are rich in starch. In this case, use is made of 10% potato side streams and 90% flour remnants, all based on about 90% dry matter. After mixing these substances, they were extruded, dried and milled.

It appears from Figure 2 that the water uptake increases by more than 200% to nearly 400% in comparison with the water uptake of cracker meal or traditional bread crumbs. This effect is also shown in Figure 3, where the ORFI-hydro is compared with wheat remnant, thermic treated wheat flour and with potato side stream powder. The difference is dependent on the type of milling and the sieve size when milling. It is also clear from the figure that the larger the particles are, the greater the water uptake is. It also appears that powder that is obtained through a mixture or by milling an extrudate through a grinding mill (P) takes up more water than a powder that is ground by a cutting mill (R), if these are milled to the same fineness.

An explanation for the fact that ORFI adsorbs more moisture in comparison to bread and cracker crumbs has, among other things, to do with the fact that the pectin percentage in ORFI is higher than in bread and cracker crumbs.

An explanation for the fact that the more coarsely milled ORFI (for which the numbers in in 1, indicating 1 mm, in Figure 2) adsorb more water than more finely milled ORFI (for which the numbers end in 0.25, indicating 0.25 mm, in Figure 2) has to do with the fact that the extruded product is less 'damaged' when it is more coarsely milled. The porous structure of the extruded ORFI remains better intact for the coarser mill, so that more pore volume remains available. Due to capillary action, the moisture has the ability to nestle in the pores, which increases the water uptake.

It appears from Figure 4 that the oil adsorption of the ORFI products decreases in comparison with cracker or traditional bread crumbs by about 40%. It also appears from Figure 3 that as the particles are more finely ground (the numbers after the different samples are respectively the different sieve sizes that were applied to the milling), the oil adsorption decreases. Further, it can be noted that the method of milling is also of influence on the oil uptake (P stands for a crushing or hammer mill and R and RS stand for cutting mills): a crushing mill leads to a powder to takes up less oil.

Influencing adsorption

At the end of the extrusion process, the extrudate leaves the extruder via an opening in a matrix. The extrudate is then cut by a cutter into pieces or slices or cut into 'blocks'. These 'extrudate blocks' are then dried and/or roasted to a dry matter level of at least 88%. Finally, the extrudate blocks are milled or broken/crushed with a specific mill with a specific sieve size. With different applications, different adsorption amounts can be obtained. These can be influenced as follows by:

1. The composition of the mixture or input of the extruder;

2. A higher pressure in the extruder promotes the expansion;

3. Size of the opening of the matrix, so that the extrudate leaves the extruder. As that opening becomes smaller, the pressure at the opening is advanced and more expansion of the extrudate is obtained. Through greater expansion, more pore volume is created and a greater surface, so that the adsorption increases. This is important for the water adsorption. If the oil uptake must be further limited, it is important to apply a matrix with a larger opening and to lower the pressure.

4. Size of the extrudate blocks. As the extrudate is cut into larger 'blocks' by a cutter, which is located after the opening of the extruder, for example into blocks with a length of 1 cm, these become more difficult to mill after drying, and the pore volume is further damaged and reduced by the milling. A decrease of the pore volume means a limitation of the (oil) adsorption. If the extrudate is cut into smaller 'blocks' or into discs, for example up to 4 mm, then these are easier to mill into powder after drying, and the pore volume is less damaged, and this increases the (water) adsorption.

5. Method of milling. A crushing mill increases the water uptake and reduces the oil uptake.

6. Sieve size in milling. For the milling, the product to be milled is reduced in size until it can pass through a sieve of a certain size. The smaller the sieve size, for example smaller than 0.5 mm, the finer the powder. The more finely the extrudate is milled, the more the pore volume decreases, and the more the (oil) adsorption is limited. The more coarsely the extrudate is milled, for example with a sieve size of more than 0.5 mm, the less the pore volume decreases and the better the (water) adsorption is;

7. Vacuoles can arise in the extrudate. As soon as these vacuoles are broken open, the adsorption increases. By limiting the creation of vacuoles or by not breaking open the vacuoles, the adsorption will be limited;

8. Also roasting of the extrudate will decrease the adsorption.

In order to get to an ingredient that contributes to better water binding, it is important that during the process, the following method and set-up be applied - here called method A as an example:

1. An extruder matrix with a smaller opening so that more expansion is obtained;

2. The cutting of the extrudate into smaller blocks, for example with a diameter of a maximum of 4 mm;

3. The milling of the extrudate blocks with a crushing mill;

4. Applying a sieve size to the milling that lets through particles with a diameter of about 2 mm. For obtaining a finer material, the material can be re-sieved afterwards with a smaller sieve. In order to obtain an ingredient that contributes to a limitation of the oil uptake, it is important that during the process, the following method and set-up be applied, here called method B as an example:

1. Set up the extruder in such a way that that a matrix opening is chosen and the cutter is set so that discs of extrudate are created with a disc diameter of a maximum of about 1 cm and a thickness of a maximum of 2 mm, whereby as few vacuoles as possible are created;

2. Or set up the extruder in such a way that a matrix opening is chosen and the

cutter is set so that balls of extrudate are created with the possibility of different diameters;

3. Followed by a drying technique whereby the extrudate is dried with hot air so that an effect is obtained that resembles roasting.

It is also recommended in this case to work with a raw material and/or ingredient that is rich in pectins and one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that are rich in starch, in this case in the ratio of 0.5% to 7% pectins, preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins, and 60% to 88% starch, preferably 73%-77% starch, this all in 100% dry matter. Good results were obtained through a mixture that consists of 10% potato side streams and 90% flour remnants or maize flour, based on about 88% dry matter.

Giving texture and structure to foodstuff s

Foodstuffs that consist of pieces or of ground meat of fish, such as mince, ground, sausage and the like need structure next to water-binding and bonding capacity.

Products that are relatively rich in hemicellulose, cellulose and/or lignin can give texture and structure, for example ingredients that come from the grain processing industry, such as wheat fibres, oat fibres and the like can give texture and structure. A product like flour remnants, which is less high-value wheat flour, is relatively richer in the dietary fibres discussed here than high-value flour and can partly give texture and structure.

Reduction of the formation of acrylamide By providing the foodstuff in question with a coating that is relatively poor in asparagine and/or relatively poor in reduced sugars such as glucose, barely any acrylamide is created in that coating during heating of that foodstuff during frying. For asparagine, which is found in a raw material or raw materials and/or in an ingredient or ingredients from which a coating for foodstuffs is in part made, the chance of the formation of acrylamide can decrease if the asparagine comes into contact with the enzyme asparaginase. A second option is to dissolve, rinse out and/or centrifuge off the reduced sugars. The two processes can also be combined. By applying this process path and thereby producing a coating, foodstuffs are created with less acrylamide during heating such as frying.

Frying and formation of acrylamide

As soon as the outside of a foodstuff comes into contact with hot food oil, then the energy/heat from the food oil is transported via the outside of the foodstuff in question to the inside of the foodstuff in questions. For water-rich products such as meat, fish, potato pieces such as chips and crisps, the temperature in the interior of the foodstuff in question does not exceed 100°C, because the water will be first evaporated. When practically all the water has evaporated out of the foodstuff, the temperature on the inside can quickly rise, and the foodstuff in question must be removed as quickly as possible from the food oil in order to allow less opportunity for the formation of acrylamide in the foodstuff. If the temperature of the foodstuff in question thus does not exceed 100°C, then barely any acrylamide is created in the interior. Acrylamide can initially be primarily created on the outside of the fried foodstuff. The effect of a too-rapid rise in temperature on the inside of chips is that first the thinner parts, such as the tips, become brown and crispy, and that is caused precisely by the formation of acrylamide. Preparation whereby foodstuffs are fried in hot food oil and whereby the inside of the foodstuff in question is cooked but no more than that will be hereafter referred to as process Z. In the industry, foodstuffs are also often pre-fried; that will be designated here as process Zl. After the pre-frying, the pre-fried foodstuff is then often frozen; that will be referred to here as process 12. Raw materials, side stream and ingredients for the benefit of the production of foodstuffs that can contribute to better water-binding capacity and/or better bonding capacity.

Functional value of dietary fibre in the production of foodstuffs

Dietary fibre contributes not only to the nutritional value of foodstuffs, but often also delivers functional value. The functional value can be the binding capacity of ingredients, whereby water is also considered as an ingredient, and the structure- and texture-giving capacity. Pectins, which are certain dietary fibres, bind moisture and hold onto moisture. Pectins naturally hold water and water-soluble substances such as proteins. As soon as ingredients that contain pectins are dried, these ingredients again bind moisture as soon as they come into contact with water or with water in which substances such as proteins are dissolved.

Hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin bind moisture to a lesser degree than pectins and primarily give texture and structure to a foodstuff.

Functional value of starch in the production of foodstuffs

Thermally treated starch not only contributes to the nutritional value of foodstuffs, but also delivers functional value. Dry starch does not do much, but as soon as thermally treated starch comes into contact with water or with substances that are dissolved in water, the bonding goes to the viscosity. The functionality of this bonding capacity can be increased as starch becomes increasingly accessibly for water, thus actually gelatinized. Most raw materials, such as grains including maize and rice, tapioca root, potatoes and the like out of which starch is produced, such as wheat flour, rice flour, maize meal, tapioca, potato starch and the like are products rich in starch. In addition, there are the pea- and bean-type products, which are rich in both starch and protein. Use of whole or parts of raw materials and ingredients for the production of foodstuffs Whole or parts of raw materials for the production of raw materials for foodstuffs are classified here into four groups and included in the lists below: I, II, III, IV. In list V, starch-rich ingredients are included. In lists VI and VII, waste substances are included. In list I, there are in particular raw materials and/or parts thereof that are relatively rich in pectins. List I: Examples of raw materials and/or parts thereof that are relatively rich in pectins:

- (Sugar) beets or parts of (sugar) beets;

- (Red) beets or parts of (red) beets;

- Carrots or parts of carrots;

- Vegetables or parts of vegetables;

- Fruit or parts of fruit;

- Grapes and raisins or parts of grapes or raisins;

- Onions or parts of onions;

- Seaweed, algae and the like or parts thereof such as guar gum.

The raw materials reported here in this list and/or parts thereof can be made smaller and/or dried and/or milled or otherwise processed. Examples are carrot pieces, beet slices or rejected parts that are still 'food grade'.

It concerns in particular originally water-rich products that feel sturdy and hard, such as potatoes, beets, carrots and the like, as reported in list I.

In list II, there are in particular examples of raw materials and/or parts thereof that are relatively rich in starch.

List II: Examples of raw materials and/or parts thereof that are relatively rich in starch:

- Grains, such as wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize and/or parts thereof;

- Tapioca/cassava, potato starch and/or parts thereof.

Raw materials and/or parts thereof as reported in this list can be milled or otherwise processed, as with a thermal treatment.

In list III, there are in particular raw materials and/or parts thereof reported that are relatively rich in starch and in pectins.

List III: Examples of raw materials and/or parts thereof that are relatively rich in pectins and starch:

- (Sweet, industrial, consumption, organically harvested) potatoes and/or parts of (sweet, industrial, consumption, organically harvested) potatoes and the like; - Cassava (manioc) root and/or parts of the cassava (manioc) root stripped of prussic acid.

The raw materials reported in this list can be made smaller and/or dried and/or milled. Examples are, among others, potato parts, rejected chip parts or cutting remnants or mush.

In list IV, there are raw materials and/or parts thereof that are relatively rich in protein and starch.

Proteins have a certain gelling action, and that can be of added value for some applications.

List IV: Examples of raw materials and/or parts thereof that are relatively rich in protein and starch:

- Pease and/or parts of peas;

- (Green) beans and/or parts of (green) beans;

- Soybeans and/or parts of soybeans;

- Lentils and/or parts of lentils.

Raw materials reported in this list and/or parts thereof can be milled or otherwise processed.

Use of starch-rich ingredients for the production of foodstuffs

Ingredients are products that are isolated more or less as 'pure' out of the original food raw materials and/or parts thereof. Some examples of this are potato starch that is isolated from the industrial potato or flour that is isolated from wheat.

In list V, there are ingredients that are rich in starch and have the purpose, through a thermal treatment, of bonding during the production of foodstuffs.

List V: Examples of ingredients that are rich in starch and that contribute to the bonding capacity in the production of foodstuffs when they have undergone a thermal treatment:

- Flour, such as wheat flour, maize meal, rice flour, potato starch, tapioca.

Ingredients can be utilized in both wet and dry forms.

Use of side streams for the production of foodstuffs These ingredients become available during refining or production of raw materials and/or foodstuffs. These are reported in lists VI and VII.

List VI: Examples of side streams that are rich in dietary fibre such as pectins and that primarily have a binding effect through the binding of water and through the binding of water-soluble substances such as proteins:

- Potato side streams actually the waste substance that becomes available during the production of potato starch and/or potato protein and/or derivatives thereof;

- Potato peels, actually the waste substance that becomes available during the

production of potato parts, such as chips, potato crisps, potato parts and the like; - Potato scrapings and potato pieces that become available as remnants during the production of potato parts, such as chips, potato crisps, potato parts and the like;

- Apple remnants or apple pulp, actually the remnants that become available during the production of apple juice;

- Pear remnants, actually the remnants that become available during the production of pear juice;

- Carrot side streams, actually become available during the production of carrot juice;

- Carrot peels, actually the peels that become available during the peeling of the carrot;

- (Sugar) beet pulp, actually the remnants that become available during the

production of, among other things, crystal sugar, glucose syrup, maltose syrup and the like;

- (Red) beet side streams, actually the remnants that become available during the production of, among other things, (red) beet juice;

- (Red) beet peels, actually the remnants that become available during the peeling of the (red)beet;

- Cut vegetable waste, actually the remnants that become available during the

production of cut vegetables; - Fruit waste, actually the remnants that become available during the production of fruit and that has been cleaned of the hard parts such as pits, stems, seeds and the like. Examples of fruit waste are peels, cores and the like;

- Citrus pulp, actually the remnants that become available during the production of citrus products such as orange juice, lemon juice and the like;

- Grape waste, actually the remnants that become available during the pressing of grapes, whereby the fluid of the grapes is, for example, diverted for the production of wine;

- Remnants from seaweed and algae and the like.

For the ingredients in this list, both the wet and the dry/dried form applies. For the preparation of potatoes, for example for the producing of chips, potato crisps and the like, potatoes are often peeled. The potato peel forms about 10% of the weight of the potato. The peeling of the potato can be done by scraping, peeling or removing the potato peel with the help of steam techniques. In the latter case, steam is taken up by the potato peel, so that they dry stuffs level of the potato peel falls from about 25% to about 12.5% or even lower.

In the Netherlands, about 1 million tons of these remnants becomes available per year, converted to 100% dry stuffs.

In list VII, there in particular remnants reported that are rich in dietary f ibre such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin and are relatively poor in pectin, or remnants that are poor in pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin and the like.

The remnants that are rich in hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin primarily give texture and structure to foodstuffs in the production thereof.

List VII: Examples of remnants that are primarily rich in hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin and are poor in pectin are, among others:

- Brewers grains, actually the remnants that become available during the

production of beer;

- Bran, actually the remnants during the production of flour from grain. Examples are wheat bran, oat bran, rye bran, barley bran, rice bran, maize bran and the like. Flour remnants, actually the remnants that become available during the production of wheat flour;

- Maize meal and maize flour, actually the remnants that become available during the production of maize grits;

- Pea starch as the less protein-rich fraction that becomes available from the

production of a high-protein ingredient from peas for the production of, for example, fish food.

- And the like.

For the ingredients in this list, both the wet and the dry/dried form apply.

If the raw materials and/or ingredients come from organic cultivation, then these are organic foodstuffs.

Processing

Various raw materials and ingredients from lists I through VII can be pre-processed and then individually or in mixed form be added to foodstuffs or be extruded (extruded, dried and milled) before the addition. The milled extrudate can be individually added to foodstuffs or mixed with raw materials or ingredients from lists I through VII and then added to foodstuffs. In both cases, the objective is to improve the (water) binding of ingredients in foodstuffs and/or to improve the bonding to foodstuffs and/or to reduce the oil uptake during frying and/or to reduce the acrylamide level and/or to entirely or partially gelatinize the starch and/or to entirely or partially simplify the starch. Depending on the requirements of the results to be achieved, the process can consist of various steps, of which, if needed, one or more steps can be skipped.

Use of peels and cutting remnants

By first cleaning potatoes or other raw materials, such as carrots, beets and the like that will be peeled or vegetables that will be cut, extra-well of contaminations such as sand, clay, stems, leaf parts, waste plastic, metal, rotted parts and the like, the peels or cutting remnants contain fewer contaminants. This will hereafter be designated as process A. With the cleaning of potatoes or other raw materials of their peel, peels are created, whether or not enriched with water. With the cutting of potatoes, vegetables and fruit, whether or not enriched with water, cutting remnants are created. This will hereafter be designated as process B. By pulping the peels and/or the cutting remnants so that the cell walls are affected, the cell contents can become freely available. This process will hereafter be designated as process C. Asparaginase can be added to the resulting mousse, so that the asparagine is broken down, or at least is no longer available for the formation of acrylamide. This fermentation process will be hereafter called process D. In addition, free reduced sugars can largely be removed from a raw material or raw materials and/or from an ingredient or ingredients, such as from peels or cutting remnants by finely pulping these and then centrifuging off the watery effluent in which the reduced sugars are dissolved. The precipitate then contains barely any free reduced sugars, so that the chance of the creation of acrylamide is also reduced. This process will be hereafter referred to as process El. A second option is to ferment one or more raw materials with enzymes so that the starch is entirely or partially simplified, so that a sweeter end product is obtained. This process will be designated as process E2.

If fermentation is done, then processes D and E2 will be skipped. The centrifuging can be done in multiple steps with an increasing size of the sieve in each step. Thus, a centrifuge can be done with (centri-)sieves with a sieve size of 40μιη, process Ex-40 (fraction equal to or smaller than 40μιη), then with 70μηι, process Ex-70 (fraction equal to or smaller than 70μηη and with the application of Ex-40 larger than 40μηι) and then with ΙΟΟμηι, process E-100 (fraction equal to or smaller than ΙΟΟμιτι and with application of process Ex-70 larger than 70μιη); the remaining fraction is then larger than ΙΟΟμηι. In that, x stands for the numbers of (whether or not) fermentation and method of fermentation: x is 0 means not fermented; x is 1 means fermented according to process El; x is 2 means fermented according to process E2; and if x is 3 then there is a combination of the processes El and E2. Different fractions can be obtained in this way. In process Ex-40, the finer sand and clay parts can be removed with the watery fluid. The fraction that becomes available is larger than 40μπι and still contains the starch grains. The fraction that is larger than ΙΟΟμιη is relatively rich in dietary fibre. Instead of peels or cutting remnants, of course, other raw materials and/or ingredients or a combination thereof can be used, such as potato side streams, apple remnants, carrot side streams, whole potatoes, vegetables, fruit and the like. Processes D and E can be combined and then process F is created. The 'juices ' and products can be captured and dried. If the juice is dried with a particle size of 40μη or less, then this process is further designated here as process G. Juice that contains a particle size of 41μηι or larger, yet smaller or equal to 70μιτι, is reported here as process H. The particulate dried with a particle size of 71μηη or larger, yet smaller or equal to ΙΟΟμητι is reported here as process I. The particulate dried with a particle size equal to or larger than ΙΟΙμηι will be further designated as being process J.

Extrusion technology

By processing products rich in starch, such as flour remnants, by using extrusion technology, a thermal treatment and an expanded extrudate/ingredient with an enlarged surface is created. Through the enlargement of the surface, a product more quickly takes up moisture or an extruded coating that is relatively rich in starch bonds more quickly and better to a foodstuff so that sticks to free water on or in the surface. (The process is comparable with a snack that is known as a Wokkel, which is an extruded product that can adhere to the tongue.) By mixing one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear in one of the lists I - VII, and then extruding this mixture, an extrudate results that is no longer comparable with the original mixture. The individual ingredients are entirely bound with each other and can no longer be separated. The mixing of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through VII is named here as process K. It can also be desirable that the mixture be pre-conditioned with the help of steam. One or more wet raw materials and/or ingredients can also be mixed in advance with one or more dry raw materials and/or ingredients. This process of pre-conditioning will be further designated as process L. L0 means not pre-processed. LI means the mixing of a dry and wet product; L2, for the pre-cooking of the mixture with steam; and L3 is the combination of LI and L2. Then the mixture will preferably be extruded with an extruder. This process will further be designated as process M. If a single-screw extruder is used, the process is referred to as process Ml, and if use is made of a double-screw extruder, then the process will be referred to here as process M2. An extruder consists in its length of a number of segments. During the extrusion, the temperature of the extruder on the inside can be set per segment. The temperature is of influence on, among other things, the gelatinization of starch. The higher the temperature that is set and the longer the product is exposed in the extruder to that increase, the further the starch will be gelatinized. Further factors are: the amount of water, the rotation speed, the pressure, the composition of the mixture and the degree to which the mixture is pre-cooked. The temperature to which the extruder is set is reported after the process code, followed by the segments at input or in the beginning indicated with a 1 or the last segment at the end of the extruder indicated with a 2. In between there are usually a number of transition segments. If the code reads 'process M, 130,1,60,2', then this means that the extruder is set in the beginning to 130°C and at the end, usually realised with the help of cooling, is set to 60°C. If the code reads 'process

M, 110, 1,80, 2', then this means that the extruder is set so that in the beginning, the temperature is set to 110°C and at the end to 80°C.

Finally, the extrudate leaves the extruder via the output of a matrix. This will be indicated here as process N. If the matrix has an opening with a diameter of about 4 mm or more, then this process is designated as process N l. If the opening of the matrix has a diameter smaller than 4 mm, yet is equal to or larger than 2 mm, then that process will be called N2. If the diameter of the opening of the matrix is smaller than 2 mm, then that process will be indicated here as process N3. Afterwards, the extrudate will be cut with a cutter into ' blocks ' , ' discs ' or ' balls ' . This process will be indicated here as process O. If the length of the blocks, disks or balls amounts to 4 mm or more, then this process will be called process 01. If the extrudate is cut into a length that is smaller than 4 mm but equal or greater than 2 mm, and preferably to 1.5 mm, then the process will be indicated as process 02. If the extrudate is cut into lengths smaller than 2 mm or preferably smaller than 1.5 mm, then the process is designated as process 03.

Expansion, cutting, drying and milling of the extrudate After the extrudate has been cut into blocks or discs, it will be dried. This drying will be further indicated as process P. If drying is done with warm air of a bit higher than 100°C, then this will be indicated as process PI. If the drying is done with warm air of 150°C or higher or is roasted, then that will be indicated as process P2. If it is first dried according to process PI and then according to process 92, then that will be designated as process P3. The dried blocks, discs or balls can then be made smaller. This process will be further designated as process Q. The method of shrinking is of influence on the adsorption capacity. If the blocks, discs or balls are milled with a crushing mill, such as a hammer mill, then the pores will be more damaged than with a rolling mill. The less the pores are damaged, the greater the adsorption capacity. If the extrudate no longer needs to be milled, in the case of obtaining balls, then that is sub-process Q.O. Milling with a crushing mill will be indicated as process Q.1, with a cutting mill as process Q.2, with a rolling mill as Q3 and by breaking or flattening as Q4. The breaking or flattening has the objective of leaving the thick exterior intact, so that the adsorption capacity is limited.

With milling, the product to be reduced in size is pressed through a sieve. The larger the holes in a sieve/screen, the more coarse the powder. These holes in the sieve/screen will be called the sieve size here. The finer the powder desired, the smaller the sieve size and the longer the product remains in the mill, and thus the more pores that are created during the extrusion will be damaged, so that the pore volume and the adsorption capacity decreases due to the more limited capillary action of both water and oil. To indicate the size of the sieve in the processing of samples, the milling process Q will have the sieve size added in the form of a small letter z followed by the sieve size in mm. Suppose that a process is called 'Ql,z2', then that indicates the use of a crushing mill for which a sieve size of 2 mm is used, whereby the particle size of the obtained powder is a maximum of 2 mm.

The process can be set up according to preferences, whether or not to realise more or less adsorption capacity. In the case of water binding Method A, as an example, will be chosen, which contributes to water binding. In the case of oil reduction, Method B, as an example, will be chosen, which contributes to the reduction of the adsorption capacity. In table 1, these processes are presented side-by-side as Method A (objective of water binding) and Method B (objective of oil reduction).

Table 1: Processes that are of influence on the adsorption capacity (2 examples).

By utilizing one or more raw materials and/or ingredients, the process partly influences the adsorption capacity. When there is a need for an increase of the adsorption capacity in the case of water binding, then the process varieties L0 or LI, M110,l,80,2, N2, 03, PI, Ql will be used as part of the whole process and milling with a sieve size of about 2.0 mm. Of course, depending on the application, there can be deviation, for example if a finer powder is desired, and that can then be filtered off with a smaller sieve. If there is a need for a reduction of the adsorption capacity, in case of reduction of the uptake of food oil during process Z, such as in the case of crumbs, then a choice can be made between method Bl, to obtain crumb plates, or method B2, to obtain crumb balls. To obtain crumb plates, the production varies, using the interim processes L3, M130,l,60,2, Nl, 03, P3,Q4 and a sieve size of preferably at least 2 mm in order to be able to use the coarser pieces as crumb. If the crumbs consist of balls, then the interim processes are carried out according to method B2, with the interim production processes L3, M130,l,60,2, N3, 03, P3, QO and a sieve size of about 2 mm. In that case, the coarser particles are utilized as crumb.

It is important that the vacuoles not be milled open, since by creating access to the vacuoles, extra oil adsorption results. As known, a particle size is created during milling that has a maximum size equal to the sieve size. However, there are also many smaller particles created. The median of the distribution of the particle size lies somewhere in the neighbourhood of 67% of the maximum particle size of the milled powder. Suppose that the sieve size amounts to 2 mm, then the median lies in the neighbourhood of 1.3 mm. If there is a need for a smaller particle size, for example, of 1 mm, then the powder created as a result of method A will be re-sieved with a sieve size of 1 mm. The remnant that remains on the sieve in this case is larger than 1 mm and smaller than 2 mm and can be utilized when larger particles are required, for example for application as a binder in mince.

This re-sieving and optionally the finer milling of the sieved product is reported here as process R.

Both powders can then be mixed. In order to prevent separation, the finer powder must be bound to the coarser crumbs. This cleaving can be achieved by spraying water preferably 1% (w/w) over the mixture while the two powders are mixed. A condition is that the end product contain at least 88% dry matter. This process of mixing of a coarser powder and a finer powder and their bonding to each other is reported here as process S.

Applications

Application 1 : Coating for potato parts

More often, potato parts such as chips, potato crisps, potato parts, potato croquettes and the like will be provided with a coating in order to give then a better taste experience due to better crunchiness. There is also an effort to reduce the oil uptake during process Z. In addition, there is an effort to reduce the level of trans-fats and acrylamide. Furthermore, it is important for the production of potato parts such as chips, potato crisps, potato parts, potato croquettes and the like to deliver more product with fewer potatoes if the potato parts for example will be pre-fried and then frozen. The weight savings is illustrated in Table 2. Table 2: Effect of ORFI coating on the weight with pre-f tying of French fries.

For the composition of a coating on potato parts, converted to about 90% dry matter, a mixture ratio will be utilized of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on list I and/or III for obtaining 0.5% to 7% pectins, preferably of 1.5% - 2% pectins, and of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on list II, IV and/or V for obtaining 60% to 88% starch and preferably 73%-77% starch. Then the mixture may or may not be extruded and then milled to a desired particle size. If the objective is less oil uptake, then a process according to method B will be applied, and the powder will be milled, preferably to a maximum sieve size of 0.25 mm with a crushing mill.

1.1 Coating that is applied wet to potato parts

In this case, the coating will be made by mixing one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I, II, III, IV and/or V with water in a certain ratio, depending, among other things, on the desired viscosity. This mixture will be called a 'batter' and will be applied as a coating after the blanching and before the (pre-)frying of the potato parts. If desired, a raw material or ingredient that delivers a great deal of starch can be thermally treated. With use of a wet coating, the water added during (pre-)frying must be evaporated, which costs energy.

1.2 Coating that will be applied dry to potato parts

To prevent the evaporation of extra water, in this case a dry coating will be applied to the potato parts after the blanching and before the (pre-)frying. This coating is composed of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V. The mixture contains 0.5% to 7% pectins, preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins, and 60% to 88% starch, preferably 73%-77% starch. Then the mixture will be processed according to method A, whereby it will be milled into a powder with a maximum sieve size of 0.5 mm and preferably with a sieve size of a maximum of 0.25 mm.

1.3 Coating for lowering of the acrylamide level

By making use of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients from lists I through V and processing several of these substances according to processes A through F

(including El), a coating can be produced whereby the acrylamide level can decrease during process Z. After processing according to processes A through F, the process can be further followed as summarized here in 1.1 or 1.2.

1.4 Gluten-poor or gluten-free varieties

As in 1.1 or 1.2 or 1.3, but then by using raw materials and/or ingredients that are respectively poor in gluten or free of gluten.

1.5 Variant that contributes to sustainability

As in 1.1 or 1.2 or 1.3 or 1.4, however, not with raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V, but that appear exclusively on lists VI and VII.

1.6 Organic variant

As in 1.1 or 1.2 or 1.3 or 1.4 or 1.5, but then making use of exclusively raw materials and/or ingredients that are harvested in an organic way.

Application 2: Binder for meat and fish mince for a process that results in products such as nuggets

When meat of fish leaves its original form due to processing, for example, due to milling or by removal from the carcass, then smaller pieces of meat or fish are created, called mince. This mince can be milled and then pressed together in another shape, such as in the form of meatballs, sausage, hamburgers, nuggets, fish sticks and the like. Meat or fish that will be milled or is damaged leaks moisture. This makes it difficult for the pieces of meat or fish to remain bound in another form, such as in nuggets. Binders are therefore used. In addition, texture and structure is required of the meat or the fish. Therefore, use will be made of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V. A great binder is created by adding 1% to 10%, preferably 6%, (w/w) to the mince, mixing it and then giving the chance for the moisture to bind before the mince is pressed into the desired form. The binder can consist of a mixture of about 80% (processed) wheat fibres and about 20% citrus pulp.

2.1 Alternative for existing binders for mince

This binder is composed of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V. The mixture contains 0.5% to 7% pectins, preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins, and 60% to 88% starch, preferably 73%-77% starch this all in 100% dry matter. The mixture will then be processed according to method A, however, preferably milled to a particle size of a maximum of 2 mm. The foodstuffs that are treated in this way taste more tender, for example after they are prepared in an oven or after they have been exposed to heat for a longer period (for example by keeping the product warm in a vitrine).

2.2 Gluten-poor or gluten-free varieties

As in 2.1, but then by using raw materials and/or ingredients that are respectively poor in gluten or free of gluten.

2.3 Variant that contributes to sustainability

As in 2.1 or 2.2, not with raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V, but that exclusively appear on lists VI and/or VII.

2.4 Organic variant

As in 2.1 or 2.2 or 2.3, but then making use of exclusively organically harvested raw materials and/or ingredients.

Application 3: Batter for foodstuffs

Before foodstuffs are prepared according to process Z, some foodstuffs, such as schnitzels, chicken legs, croquettes, fish sticks, bami slices and the like, will be breaded by treating them with a batter so that the crumbs remain stuck to the foodstuff in question. There are also foodstuffs that are not treated with a breading, such as chicken nuggets, fish nuggets, cod filets, loempia and the like and that still get a batter before they undergo process Z. This batter can be made of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V, whereby the starch component can be thermally treated.

3.1 Alternative batter This batter is composed of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V. The mixture contains 0.5% to 7% pectins, preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins, and 60% to 88% starch, preferably 73%-77% starch. Then these raw materials and/or ingredients are mixed, then extruded according to method B.

3.2 Batter as a clear coating that contributes to lowering of the acrylamide level As in 3.1, but then the raw materials and/or ingredients will be pre-processed according to processes A through F.

3.3 Gluten-poor or gluten-free variant

As in 3.1 or 3.2, but then with raw materials that are respectively gluten-poor or gluten-free.

3.4 Variant that contributes to sustainability

As in 3.1 or 3.2 or 3.3, however, not with raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V, but that exclusively appear on lists VI and VII.

3.5 Organic variant

As in 3.1 or 3.2 or 3.3 or 3.4, but then with raw materials and/or ingredients that are exclusively organically harvested.

Application 4: Alternative for breading/crumbs

Traditional breading or cracker crumbs are made by crumbling and drying (old) bread or crackers. There are also ever-more extruded alternatives for traditional breading on the market. These alternatives contain no or very few pectins, or at least there are no raw materials and/or ingredients utilized that are relatively rich in pectins.

4.1 Alternative for breading/crumbs that contributes to the reduction of oil uptake. This breading/crumb is composed of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V. The mixture contains 0.5% to 7% pectins, preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins, and 60% to 88% starch, preferably 73%-77% starch this all in 100% dry matter. Then this mixture can optionally be processed according to method B. However, depending on the desired crumb, method Bl or B2 will be chosen. If crumb discs of about 3 mm are desired, then these will be reduced in size and sieved off with a sieve size of 3 mm. The particles that are smaller than 3 mm will then be milled to a particle size with a sieve size smaller than 0.5 mm, preferably with a sieve size of 0.5 mm. These smaller particles will then be bonded to the larger particles according to process S, to prevent separation. These crumbs take up relatively less food oil during process Z.

4.2 Lowering acrylamide level

As in 4.1, but then by making use of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients from lists I through V that will be treated according to processes A through F with the goal of producing a coating whereby the acrylamide level can be reduced during process Z.

4.3 Gluten-poor or gluten-free variant

As in 4.1 or 4.2, but then exclusively with gluten-poor or gluten-free raw materials and/or ingredients.

4.4 Variant that contributes to sustainability

As in 4.1 or 4.2 or 4.3, but consisting of raw materials and/or ingredients that do not appear on lists I through V, but that exclusively appear on lists VI and VII.

4.5 Organic variant

As in 4.1 or 4.2 or 4.3 or 4.4, but then making use of raw materials and/or ingredients that are exclusively harvested in an organic way.

Application 5: Pre-dust

A pre-dust is the powder or the 'flour', often thermally treated, with which a foodstuff/substrate is powdered so that the batter attaches better. By making the correct selection of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V, a pre-dust can be produced that binds moisture and thus allows the batter to attach better. The starch component can also be thermally treated.

5.1 Alternative for existing pre-dusts

This pre-dust is composed of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V. The mixture contains 0.5% to 7% pectins, preferably 1,5% - 2% pectins, and 60% to 88% starch, preferably 73%-77% starch, this all in 100% dry matter. Then this mixture will optionally be processed according to method A, but preferably milled with a sieve size of about 2 mm and then sieved off with a sieve size of a maximum of 1 mm, to obtain a pre-dust with a maximum particle size of 1 mm. The effect is that this pre-dust in the processing of nuggets, lets chicken nuggets taste more tender due to the better water uptake and that the nuggets take up less oil during process Z. This is demonstrated in Table 3.

Table 3: Effect of the ORFI pre-dust on the water uptake and the oil uptake.

5.2 Gluten-poor or gluten-free variant

As in 5.1, but then using raw materials and/or ingredients that are gluten-poor or gluten-free.

5.3 Variant that contributes to sustainability

As in 5.1 or 5.2, but with raw materials and/or ingredients that do not appear on lists I through V, but that exclusively appear on lists VI and VII.

5.4 Organic variant

As in 5.1 or 5.2 or 5.3, but then with raw materials and/or ingredients that are originally harvested in an organic way.

Application 6: Richer dried fruit that remains richer longer for use in foodstuffs

For the processing of dried fruit, such as raisins, currants and prunes, to keep them richer longer in foodstuffs, for example in cake, the dried fruit can be exposed to glycerol or glycerine and the glycerol will be absorbed in the dried fruit. This process can be accelerated by pressure differences. An alternative to that, water binders are dissolved in water that is taken in through the pores in the skin via the osmotic process. In this case, the water binders are rich in pectins. A good uptake of water and retention of water binding also has the advantage that the weight increases and thus the cost price can decrease through the higher level of water. This is illustrated in Table 4. In Table 4, it can be seen that the water uptake increases at a higher ORFI- hydro dosage. The composition of the ORFI-hydro is of influence on the water uptake (the different composition corresponds with the digit after the 5-code. Table 4: Influence of the ORFI-hydro on the increase of the water uptake with the soaking of raisins.

Another option is to cause a small amount of damage to the dried fruit. The dietary fibre matrices will thereby more quickly soak in water through the osmotic process in the dried and slightly damaged fruit. Once the pectins are in the presence of water in the dried fruit, the dried fruit remains rich longer. After the dried and damaged fruit has been in contact with the water in which powder ORFI-hydro is dissolved, the fruit will be washed/rinsed in order to fully remove powder ORFI-hydro, and the processed fruit will be dried on the outside of the skin. It is important that the conditions under which the process takes place be as sterile as possible and that the processed product be pasteurized after packaging, or sterilized, if the sugar level falls under 60%. This product also needs to be used as quickly as possible, for example in the baking process, so that micro-organisms get less of an opportunity.

The damage to the dried fruit can be done with needles that can be spring-loaded on a band or roller that presses the needles into the fruit. The needles in question are each mounted on a spring so that they will not be damaged by hard objects such as pits. In order to remove the fruit from the needles, a sliding mechanism which is located between the roller or the band pushes the needles out of the dried fruit so that the dried fruit can leave the process and not remain hanging. If a needle diameter of 0.25 mm is used, then the maximum particle size of the powder amounts to ORFI-hydro 0.25 mm.

6.1 Alternative to using glycerol with dried fruit

Product x is composed of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V. The mixture contains 0.5% to 7% pectins, preferably 1,5% - 2% pectins, and 60% to 88% starch, preferably 73%-77% starch this all in 100% dry matter. Optionally, this mixture can then be processed according to method A, but with a temperature in the extruder that lies between 60°C and 100°C, preferably at a temperature of 70°C and whereby a powder is obtained with a maximum particle size of 0.25 mm.

6.2 Gluten-poor or gluten-free variant

As in 6.1, but then using raw materials and/or ingredients that are poor in gluten or free of gluten.

6.3 Variant that contributes to sustainability

As in 6.1 or 6.2, but with raw materials and/or ingredients that do not appear on lists I through V, but that exclusively appear on lists VI and VII.

6.4 Organic variant

As in 6.1 or 6.2 or 6.3, but then making use of raw materials and/or ingredients that originate from organic harvesting.

Application 7: Addition of raw materials and/or ingredients that are rich in pectins to baking products (bread, cookies, cake, pie, bars, Dutch doughnuts, doughnuts and the like)

For the baking of baked products, such as bread, cookies, cake, pie, Dutch doughnuts, doughnuts, bars and the like, the starch present will be gelatinized by the baking so that the baked product is more tender. The more pure flour the baked product contains, the higher the glycaemic index of the carbohydrates present, up to about 80. Through the creation of a recipe for obtaining a baked product that contains more dietary fibre, the glycaemic index drops disproportionately. A lower glycaemic index contributes to the stabilization of the blood sugar level. This does not only have a positive effect on diabetes patients, but can also delay the possible development of diabetes type 2.

Products with a lower glycaemic index contribute to the raising of the glycogen supply in the human body, so that stamina athletes can burn glucose from glycogen longer, and this cannot help but lead to better athletic performance.

Next to the addition of dietary fibre that comes from grains, dietary fibre that is relatively rich in pectins, such as potato side streams, (red) beet side streams, carrot side streams and the like can be added to a recipe for a baked product. Baked products are thus created that lower the glycaemic index even further. It is important that these raw materials and/or ingredients be added to the recipe as a dried powder. A side effect is that the baked product can take up more water and can retain it better, and the baked product rises better, so that less flour is needed for Dutch doughnuts with the same size. This is shown in Table 5.

Table 5: The effect of the addition of the ORFI-hydro to batter of Dutch doughnuts.

It is apparent from the table that by adding 4% ORFI-hydro to the Dutch doughnut batter, about 40% of the flour and 35% of the remaining ingredients can be, in this case, saved to obtain the same volume of Dutch doughnuts. This effect is also applicable to doughnuts and to Berliner balls.

A effect will also be measured for the addition to bread dough. This is shown in Table 6.

Table 6: The effect of adding to bread dough to the weight development of bread during preparation.

Bread Referrentl ORFI-hydro Reduction

Development of weight grj % gr % gr

Weight dough 923 100 908 100 15 from water 330 36 337 37 -7 from ingredients 593 64 571 63 22 from flour 523 57 468 52 55 from ORFI-hydro 0 0 35 4 -35 from remaining ingredients 70 7 68 7 2

Weight after preparing the dough 908 98 895 99 13

Weight after rising 899 97 891 98 8

Weight after baking 800 87 800 88 0

Day after baking 793 86 791 87 2 A side effect is that the bread remains moist and feels fresh longer.

7.1 Addition of raw materials and/or ingredients that are relatively rich in pectins to baking products

Ingredient y is composed of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V. The mixture contains 0.5% to 7% pectins, preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins, and 60% to 88% starch, preferably 73%-77% starch this all in 100% dry matter. Optionally, this pre-mixture can then be processed according to method A.

7.2 Gluten-poor or gluten-free variant

As in 7.1, but then making use of raw materials and/or ingredients that are poor in gluten or free of gluten.

7.3 Variant that contributes to sustainability

As in 7.1 or 7.2, but then with raw materials and/or ingredients that do not appear on lists I through V, but exclusively appear on lists VI and VII.

7.4 Organic variant

As in 7.1 or 7.2 or 7.3, but then with raw materials and/or ingredients that are originally harvested in an organic way.

Application 8: Coating for baked products so that the baked products remain fresh longer and/or contain less acrylamide.

Baked products remain fresh for a short period. During baking, a crust is formed that is relatively rich in acrylamide. By applying a specific coating to baked products before these are baked, bread, for example, remains fresh longer and the acrylamide level drops. This coating consists in part of one or more raw materials that are rich in pectins. Of course this coating can be mixed with other additives such as flakes, steamed grains and the like.

8.1 Coating for baked products

Baked products such as bread can be given a coating during baking that ensures that the baked product remains fresh longer. The coating must be applied at such a time that the risen bread will not 'collapse'. This coating is composed of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V. The mixture contains 0.5% to 7% pectins, preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins, and 60% to 88% starch, preferably 73% - 77% starch this all in 100% dry matter. Optionally, this pre-mixture can then be processed according to method A. Products that are produced in such a way, so partly through extrusion, retain moisture longer, remain tender longer and remain tender better if they are later heated in an oven and/or then lie in a vitrine where they are kept warm by, for example, heat lamps. Of course, the coating can be mixed with additives such as flakes, bran, steamed grains and the like.

8.2 Coating for lowering of the acrylamide level

Such a coating can be obtained by making use of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients from lists I through V and by processing several of these substances according to processes A through F (with the exception of E2) with the goal of producing a coating with which the acrylamide level can be lowered during the baking of baked products. To obtain the ingredient, the raw material and/or ingredient used must contain asparagine and/or reducing sugars will be pre-processed according to processes A through F (with the exception of E2). Thereafter, the ingredient will be further processed as reported in 8.1.

8.3 Gluten-poor or gluten-free variant

As in 8.1 or 8.2, but then exclusively making use of raw materials and/or ingredients that are poor in gluten or free of gluten.

8.4 Variant that contributes to sustainability

As in 8.1 or 8.2 or 8.3, but with raw materials and/or ingredients that do not appear on lists I through V, but that exclusively appear on lists VI and VII.

8.5 Organic variant

As in 8.1 or 8.2 or 8.3 or 8.4, but then with raw materials and/or ingredients that are originally harvested in an organic way.

Application 9: Prevention of ice crystals during the freezing of foodstuffs by the addition of raw materials and/or ingredients that are rich in pectins

During the freezing of foodstuffs such as ice, baked products, meat products and the like, ice crystals can arise. After thawing, free water is often created, so that the thawed products often taste less fresh and more watery. In order to limit that effect, water binders like E-numbers will often be added. By adding specific, thermally treated ingredients that are relatively rich in pectins and relatively rich in starch in a dried state to ice cream, baked products, meat products before these are frozen, these

ingredients lower the formation of ice crystals and the creation of water in the product such as leakage moisture during thawing.

9.1 Moisture binder before freezing

The moisture binder is composed of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V. The mixture contains 0.5% to 7% pectins, preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins, and 60% to 88% starch, preferably 73% - 77% starch this all in 100% dry matter. Optionally: processing this pre-mixture according to method A, but further processing it so that a maximum particle size of 1 mm is obtained.

9.2 Gluten-poor or gluten-free variant

As in 9.1, but then making use of the raw materials and/or ingredients that are poor in gluten or gluten-free.

9.3 Variant that contributes to sustainability

As in 9.1 or 9.2, but with raw materials and/or ingredients that do not appear on lists I through V, but that exclusively appear on lists VI and VII.

9.4 Organic variant

As in 9.1 or 9.2 or 9.3, but then making use of raw materials and/or ingredients that are harvested in a biological way.

Application 10: In ragout as a binder

Ragout is made from a mixture of butter, flour and bouillon. Ragout will be utilized, among other things, in Dutch croquettes, Dutch croquettes balls (bitterballen) and the like. Next to meat, vegetables are increasingly added to ragout. Through the addition of this, the ragout bonds less well during the manufacture of foodstuffs such as croquettes and the like.

10.1 Moisture binder in ragout

As soon as the ragout is heated, water will tend to evaporate, so that the crust of a Dutch croquette can burst during frying. With the addition of vegetables to ragout, the ragout remains insufficiently bound, and it is difficult to keep the foodstuff such as a Dutch croquette and the like. By then adding a moisture binder, the ragout remains better bonded and the chance of 'leaking' during frying is limited. This moisture binder is composed of one or more raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V. The mixture contains 0.5% to 7% pectins, preferably 1.5% - 2% pectins, and 60% to 88% starch, preferably 73% - 77% starch, this all in 100% dry matter. Optionally, this mixture can be processed according to method A.

10.2 Gluten-poor or gluten-free variant

As in 10.1, but then making use of the raw materials and/or ingredients that are poor i n gl uten or free of gl uten .

10.3 Variant that contributes to sustainability

As in 10.1 or 10.2, but not with the raw materials and/or ingredients that appear on lists I through V, but exclusively appearing on lists VI and VII.

10.4 Organic variant

As in 10.1 or 10.2 or 10.3, but then making use of raw materials and/or ingredients that are harvested in an organic way.

Combinations

Combination 1: Pre-dust (flour) and batter as 1 ingredient

During the fabrication of foodstuffs, the process of applying a pre-dust and of applying a batter consist of 2 separate work processes. By applying an ingredient that takes over the function of a pre-dust and of a batter, one work process can suffice. This ingredient can be applied both as a dry powder and mixed with water. Optionally, the mixture can be further processed according to method A.

Combination 2: Batter and crumbs as 1 ingredient

During the fabrication of foodstuffs, the process of applying a batter and of applying crumbs consist of 2 separate work processes. By applying an ingredient that takes over the function of a batter and of crumbs, one work process can suffice. This ingredient will be produced according to method B; however, the finishing, the milling, takes place in 2 steps: The first step forms a sub-part of method B, whereby the dried extrudate is initially milled with a sieve size of a maximum of 5 mm. In step 2, the milled powder is sieved off with a maximum sieve of 2.5 mm and will then be milled again with a maximum sieve size of 2.5 mm. Then the two powders will be mixed and 'glued' with a spray, according to process S so that no separation can take place. The created powder can be applied as 1 ingredient as a combination of batter and crumbs. Combination 3: Pre-dust (flour), batter and crumbs as 1 ingredient

During the fabrication of foodstuffs, the process of applying a pre-dust, of applying batter and of applying crumbs consist of 3 separate work processes, for example for coating schnitzels. By applying an ingredient that takes over the function of a pre-dust, batter and crumbs, one work process can suffice. This ingredient will be produced according to method B; however, the finishing, the milling, takes place in 3 steps: The first step forms a sub-part of method B, whereby the dried extrudate is initially milled with a sieve size of a maximum of 5 mm. In step 2, the milled powder is sieved off with a maximum sieve of 2.5 mm and will then be milled again with a maximum sieve size of 2.5 mm. Then the two powders will be mixed and 'glued' with a spray, according to process S so that no separation can take place.

The execution forms of the work method discussed in this description according to the research are only a few of the many possible execution forms within the framework of the research and must be considered as non-exhaustive.