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Patent Searching and Data


Title:
METHOD AND PLANT FOR PRODUCTION OF A FAT PRODUCT BASED ON MILK FAT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1989/010700
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
When producing a fat product based on milk fat the cream is concentrated to a fat content of 60-85 % fat, preferably 70-85 % fat at a temperature of 50-70°C. The concentrated cream is cooled to a temperature of 15-30°C, preferably 18-24°C, and is stored during such a long time that the milk fat starts to crystallize. The cooled concentrated cream is mixed with vegetable oils in an amount calculated to at least 25 % of the amount of fat in the end product. After storage the mixture is stirred gently under cooling in order to achieve a phase reversal, after which the fat product is packeted. A plant for production of a fat product based on milk fat starting with highly concentrated cream comprises a cooler to cool the cream to a temperature of 15-30°C. The plant also comprises a tank for storing the highly concentrated cream, a device for mixing of the highly concentrated cream with vegetable oils, salt and aroma substances. There is a phase reversal unit consisting of means for cooling and mixing the mixture as well and a packaging plant.

Inventors:
Andersson, Kenneth
Application Number:
PCT/SE1989/000256
Publication Date:
November 16, 1989
Filing Date:
May 05, 1989
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ALFA-LAVAL FOOD ENGINEERING AB ANDERSSON, Kenneth.
International Classes:
A23C15/06; A23D7/005; (IPC1-7): A23C15/06; A01J15/10
Foreign References:
FR2493100A1
US4209546A
US1977927A
DE1767049B2
US2461117A
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Claims:
Claims
1. Method for production of a fat product based on milk fat, c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n that cream is concentrated to a fat content of 6085 % fat, with advantage 7085 % fat, at a temperature of 5070°C, that the concentrated cream is cooled to a temperature of 1530°C, with advantage 1824°C, that the cooled concentrated cream is stored during such a long time that the milk fat starts to crystallize, that the cooled :' concentrated cream is mixed with vegetable oils in an amount calculated to at least 25 % of the amount of fat in the end product, and the obtained mixture of cream and vegetable oil is stirred gently under cooling In order to achieve a phase reversal, after which the fat product is packeted.
2. Method according to claim 1, c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n that the maximal amount of vegetable oil is 40 % of the amount of fat in the end product.
3. Method according to claim 12, c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n that the addition of vegetable oil takes place in two steps.
4. Method according to claim 13, c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n that 7090 % of the vegetable oil is added in the frist step and 1030 % in the second step.
5. Method according to any of the preceding claims, c h a ¬ r a c t e r i z e d i n that the phase reversal is carried through at a temperature of 815°C by treatment of the mixture of cream and vegetable oil in scraper coolers and mixers.
6. Plant for production of a fat product based on milk fat starting with highly concentrated cream, c h a r a c t e r i z e d I n that it comprises a cooler to cool the cream to a temperature of 1530°C, a tank for storing the highly concentrated cream, a device for mixing of the highly concen¬ trated cream with vegetable oils, salt and aroma substances, a phase reversal unit consisting of means for cooling and mixing the mixture and a packaging plant.
7. Plant according to claim 5,. c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n that the phase reversal unit comprises two cooling stepsj which each comprises one or several cooling cylinders and one or several pin rotors which units are connected in series.
8. Plant according to claim 6, c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n that means for addition of vegetable oil are arranged in the flow direction seen prior to the inlet to the second cooling step.
Description:
Method and plant for production of a fat product based on milk fat

The present invention relates to a method and a plant for production of a fat product based on milk fat.

Butter is produced from cream which is pasteurized, after which the cream is subjected to a controlled temperature treatment

(ripening) during 12-15 hours. If the produced product is to be a soured cream butter, starting culture is added prior to the temperature treatment. From the ripening tank the cream is pumped to a butter churn or to a continuous buttering machine. During the churning process the fat drops collect to butter grains. The cream has been divided into two fractions, butter grains and butter milk. The butter milk has usually a fat content of 0.6 %.

Within AB Separator a method was developed in the fourties for producing butter from highly concentrated cream without any churning step. According to this method which is to be seen among others in the Swedish patent publication 132 061 the highly concentrated cream is subjected to phase reversal by cooling during the mixing. A number of plants were sold, but the method was abandoned after some time since there were problems with the consistency of the butter. At that time it was not possible to produce bacterially soured butter according to this method. The structure of the butter was hard, sliced and there was no mouth feel of butter. When studying the butter in a microscope large differences between churned butter and butter produced according to the method mentioned above were also found.

On the market there is today different fat products which consist of mixtures of milk fat and vegetable fat. Such a product is "Bregott" which is produced according to traditional butter technique. Sour or sweet cream and vegetable oil are mixed in certain proportions prior to the churning, which takes place in a churn or in a butter machine. The fat losses are somewhat higher than when producing butter, around 1.2 % of the

total amount of fat in the mixture of cream and vegetable oil. The amount of vegetable oil, which is used in "Bregott" depends on the iodine value of the cream. The iodine value is a measure of the amount of unsaturated fatty acids in the milk and. varies between the seasons of the year and with the geographic location. The iodine value in "Bregott" is usually 55-56 if unhardened soy bean oil is used as a vegetable oil. The amount of soy bean oil is then 20-30 % of the total amount of fat. The amount of vegetable fat may not be higher without risks for damage of the product quality.

The amount of fat that is left in the butter milk when producing "Bregott" may seem unimportant but represents in a plant of middle size hundreds of thousands Swedish crowns.

On the market there is also another kind of fat product containing milk fat and vegetable oils, but this product is produced by mixing butter oil with vegetable oil and emulgators. In butter oil the fat is present as a homogenous liquid phase in difference to butter where the fat is present in the form of fat drops surrounded by membranes and also in the form of free fat.

According to the invention there is now proposed a method and a plant for producing a fat product based on the mentioned method from the fourties but with new advantages and without the drawbacks of this method.

The method according to the invention is characterized mainly in that the cream is concentrated to a fat content of 60-85 % fat, with advantage 70-85 % fat, at a temperature of 50-70°C. The concentrated cream is cooled to a temperature of 15-30°C, advantageously 18-24°C, and is stored during such a long time that the milk fat starts to crystallize. After the storing the cooled concentrated cream is mixed with vegetable oils in an

amount calculated to at least 25 % of the amount of fat in the end product. The mixture of cream and vegetable oil is submitted to a gentle stirring and cooled in order to achieve a phase reversal, after which the fat product is packed. 5

The maximal amount of vegetable oil when carrying through the method according to the invention is suitably 40 % of the amount of fat in the end product.

1.0 In this way a fat product is obtained which contains butter and has the advantages of butter as regards taste and aroma but in difference to conventional butter is more healthy and also spreadable at refrigerator temperatures. A fat product produced according to the method of the invention comprises fats with a

15 high amount of unsaturated fatty acids, which is preferable from a nutrition point of view.

The iodine value of the obtained fat product should preferably be between 58-70, with advantage 62-66. If the used oil is soy 0 bean oil this means that between 25 and 40 % of the fat in the fat product consists of oil. Within the desired limits for the iodine value of the fat product the amount of vegetable oil will be 5-10 % higher than the amounts in the traditionlly produced "Bregott". 5

If other oils with other iodine values are used, for example rape seed oil, turnip oil, palm oil or sunflower oil, the iodine value in the obtained fat product will vary with the chosen oil. The different oils have different melting points and the 0 selected amount of oil will depend on the influence of the oil on the consistency and spreadability of the fat product. The iodine value of the vegetable oil influences the amount of unsaturated fatty acids in the fat product such that the higher the content of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil the higher 5 the content in the fat product will be and a better product with

a higher nutritional value will be obtaned.

The method according to the invention is with advantage carried through in such a way that the addition of vegetable oil takes 5 place in two steps. At that 70-90 % of the vegetable oil is added in a first step and 10-30 % in a second step.

The fact that a product of high quality may be obtained in the manner described above is due to the fact that the production IL takes place under carefully controlled forms regarding the storing prior to the phase reversal and the conditions during the same.

The phase reversal is carried through at a temperature of 15 8-15°C in scraper coolers and pin rotors.

The phase reversal preferably takes place by cooling and gently working in at least two steps. In the first step the mixture is cooled from 18-24°C to 12°c, at which temperature the

20 mixture is worked carefully. The phase reversal is started and at the same time still more fat crystallizes. During the crystallization heat is given off and the working also adds some heat. The temperature of the mixture rises Λ - 2°. In the second step of the cooling the mixture is cooled to 8-10°. Some

25 further crystals are formed and heat is given off. The end temperature will be * *"1°C higher than the temperature after the cooling step.

A plant for production of a fat product based on milk fat 30 starting from highly concentrated cream comprises a cooler to cool cream to a temperature of 15-30°C, a tank for storing the highly concentrated cream, a device for mixing the highly concentrated cream with vegetable oils, salt and aroma substances, a phase reversal unit comprising means for cooling 35 and mixing of the mixture and a packaging plant.

The plant is with advantage designed such that the cooler consists of a plate heat exchanger, in which the cream is cooled with water and the tank which is used for storing of the concentrated cream is usually provided with water cooling. The phase reversal unit usually comprises two cooling steps, which each consists of one or more cooling drums and one or more pin rotors, which units are connected in series.

The invention is described further with reference to the attached drawings, which in fig. 1 shows a flow chart of production of a fat product chosen as an examplej which fat product contains milk fat and vegetable oil, and in fig. 2 a schematical drawing of the process conditions during the phase reversal in this example.

Cream with a fat content between 30-50 % which is high pasteurized (80-115°C) is concentrated to a fat content of 60-85 % fat. The concentration usually takes place in a centrifugal separator, but may also take place by membrane separation. After the concentration the fat content of the cream is controlled and the cream is standardized to a desired value (by addition of skim milk). If the concentration takes place by way of centrifugal separation the cream has suitably a temperature of 50-70°. The concentrated cream is cooled to a temperature of 15-30°C by flowing concurrently in tube or plate heat exchangers with water as a cooling medium. After the cooling the cream is stored during such a long time that the milk fat starts to crystallize. When the storing time exceeds 4 hours the storage tank is with advantage water cooled in order to secure that the temperature is kept sufficiently low. Usually the cream is stored up to 20 hours. During the storing a partial crystallization of the milk fat takes place. The temperature during the storing depends on the fat content of the milk. At higher temperatures the risk for a spontaneous phase reversal increases with the fat content of the cream. The temperature

must consequently be adjusted such that the risk for spontaneous phase reversal is as little as possible. After the storing the cream is pumped further to be subjected to mechanical working during the cooling in order to achieve a phase reversal.

Prior to this treatment the cream is mixed with unhardened, vegetable oil of a desired kind. The mixing may take place by injection of the oil by way of dosing pumps of a suitable kind in the pipes leading to the phase reversal unit or by mixing the oil and the cream in a mixing tank. Usually soy bean oil is used, but other oils may also be used as for example rape seed oil, turnip seed oil, and sunflower oil as well as mixtures of these oils. To the cream there is also added a culture destillate which gives the end product a character of bacteriologically soured butter. The addition of vegetable oil with advantage takes place in two steps.

The phase reversal is carried through by making the mixture of cream and vegetable oil mixture pass a unit comprising scrape coolers and mixers of the type which are used when producing margarine. This unit is described further in fig. 2. During the phase reversal the mixture is kept at a temperature of 11- 15°c; with advantage 12-14°C.

During the phase reversal the fat in the cream-vegetable oil mixture slowly crystallizes. The cooling is adjusted to the crystallization in such a way that the temperature of the mixture is kept uninfluenced of the heat released during the crystallization.

When the product has passed the unit for phase reversal it is with advatage brought to pass a resting tube, in which a possible after crystallization takes place. After this the product Is packeted.

In fig. 2 there is shown in more detail an embodiment of a unit in which the phase reversal may take place. This unit consists of two cooling drums and two pin rotors. After the cool storage the concentrated cream is mixed with the largest part (70-90 %) of the vegetable oil. Salt and aroma substances are also added. The mixture is brought to pass a cooling drum, in which the temperature is lowered to 12°C, and a first and a second pin rotor. The speed of the cooling drum and the pin rotor is kept low such that the product should not be overworked. When the product has passed the second pin rotor it is mixed with the remaining amount of cooled oil (10-30 %) and is brought to pass the cooling second drum.

By adding the oil in two steps the product becomes softer and the oil is used in a maximal way. If the whole amount of oil is added at once, oil drops may remain in the water phase.

According to the method of the invention products may be obtained with a varying mixture of fat, see the table below.

Amount of vegetable oil Fat content in Relation of the total amount of fat the cream vegetable in the product oil/cream % % %

25 75 20/80

30 73.5 24/76

35 72 28/72

40 70.5 32/68

45 68.5 36/64

50 66.5 40/60

The concentration of the cream depends on the desired amount of the vegetable fat in the end product. If one desires a low content of vegetable oil the cream is concentrated to a higher degree than if more vegetable oil is to be used.

The costs for production of a fat product with 80 % fat consisting of 25 % vegetable oil and 75 % milk fat produced in a conventional manner is compared to the costs for production of a corresponding product in the manner according to the invention.

When using traditional technique 1.2 % of the fat is lost with the butter milk. According to the method of the invention only 0.15 % fat Is lost in the skim milk. If 4 millions kg/year are-,produced the difference in fat losses is 34.5 tons of butter * :- fat, which with a butter fat price of 27 SEK/kg gives a saving of 930.000 SEK, when using the method according to the Invention.

In a product produced according to the method of the invention the amount of vegetable oil may be increased from 25 to 30 %, which also gives a saving in the million class, since vegetable oil is cheaper than milk fat.