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Title:
A METHOD FOR STARTING UP A GAS TURBINE ENGINE OF A COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/164475
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A method for starting up a gas turbine engine of a combined cycle power plant The invention relates to a method for starting up a gas turbine engine (4) of a combined cycle power plant (2). In order to enable starting up a gas turbine engine of the combined cycle plant (2) in which the stress on a heat recovery steam generator [20] components is limited while maintaining compliance with the local environmental regulations, the method comprises the steps of: step 1 (S1) : applying load to the gas turbine engine (4) and increasing the load until a predetermined combustor firing temperature (TF) is reached, while keeping the adjustable inlet guide vanes in a start position adapted to reduce the mass flow of air (8) into the compressor (10), whereby the predetermined combustor firing temperature (TF) is chosen to be an emission-compliant temperature, - step 2 (S2) : further increasing the load of the gas turbine engine (4) while opening the adjustable inlet guide vanes and keeping the predetermined combustor firing temperature (TF) constant until the inlet guide vanes reach an end position adapted to increase the mass flow of air (8) into the compressor (10), step 3 (S3) : further increasing the load of the gas turbine engine (4) while keeping the adjustable inlet guide vanes in the end position until a predetermined load of the gas turbine engine (4) is reached.

Inventors:
THAM, Kok-Mun (2592 Ekana Drive, Oviedo, Florida, 32765, US)
KEUNE, Christian (Heidestraße 30, Heiligenhaus, Heiligenhaus, DE)
WAPPLER, Nicolas Benjamin (Venloer Str. 11a, Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, DE)
Application Number:
US2018/018776
Publication Date:
August 29, 2019
Filing Date:
February 20, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
SIEMENS AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT (Werner-von-Siemens-Straße 1, München, München, DE)
International Classes:
F01D19/00; F01K13/02; F02C9/54
Foreign References:
US20180010526A12018-01-11
US20170191426A12017-07-06
US20040045300A12004-03-11
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
LYNCH, Carly W. (Siemens Corporation- Intellectual Property Dept, 3501 Quadrangle Blvd Ste 230Orlando, Florida, 32817, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Patent Claims

1. A method for starting up a gas turbine engine (4) of a combined cycle power plant (2),

the gas turbine engine (4) including a compressor (10), a combustor (12) and a turbine (14), the compres sor (10) providing compressed air (8) to the combustor (12) for combustion with a fuel (16) to produce a work ing fluid and the turbine (14) receiving the working fluid to produce power;

the compressor (10) comprising adjustable inlet guide vanes, the adjustable inlet guide vanes being ad justable between a fully closed position for minimizing the mass flow of air (8) into the compressor (10) and a fully open position for providing the maximum mass flow of air (8) into the compressor (10);

wherein the method comprises the steps of:

- step 1 (Si) : applying load to the gas turbine en gine (4) and increasing the load until a predeter mined combustor firing temperature (TF) is reached, while keeping the adjustable inlet guide vanes in a start position adapted to reduce the mass flow of air (8) into the compressor (10), whereby the pre determined combustor firing temperature (TF) is cho sen to be an emission-compliant temperature,

- step 2 (S2) : further increasing the load of the gas turbine engine (4) while opening the adjustable in let guide vanes and keeping the predetermined com bustor firing temperature (TF) constant until the inlet guide vanes reach an end position adapted to increase the mass flow of air (8) into the compres sor (10),

- step 3 (S3) : further increasing the load of the gas turbine engine (4) while keeping the adjustable in- let guide vanes in the end position until a prede termined load of the gas turbine engine (4) is reached .

2. A method according claim 1,

wherein the predetermined combustor firing temperature (TF) is between 1000 °C and 1850°C.

3. A method according to any of the preceding claims,

wherein in step 3 (S3) the predetermined load is a base load of the gas turbine engine (4) .

4. A method according to any of the preceding claims,

wherein in step 1 (Si) the start position of the adjust able inlet guide vanes is the fully closed position.

5. A method according to any of the preceding claims,

wherein in step 3 (S3) the end position of adjustable inlet guide vanes is the fully open position.

6. Gas turbine engine of a combined cycle power plant, com prising :

a compressor (10), a combustor (12) and a turbine (14), the compressor (10) providing compressed air (8) to the combustor (12) for combustion with a fuel (16) to produce a working fluid and the turbine (14) receiving the working fluid to produce power;

the compressor (10) comprising adjustable inlet guide vanes, the adjustable inlet guide vanes being ad justable between a fully closed position for minimizing the mass flow of air (8) into the compressor (10) and a fully open position for providing the maximum mass flow of air (8) into the compressor (10); a control unit (34) for modulating the adjustable inlet guide vanes between a fully closed position for minimizing the mass flow of air (8) into the compressor (10) and a fully open position for providing the maximum mass flow of air (8) into the compressor (10), the modu lation of the adjustable inlet guide vanes depending on a combustor firing temperature (TF), whereby the prede termined combustor firing temperature (TF) is an emis sion-compliant temperature.

7. Combined cycle power plant (2) comprising:

a gas turbine engine (4) according to claim 6 pro ducing an exhaust fluid (18);

a heat recovery steam generator (20) receiving the exhaust fluid (18) and producing steam (22);

a steam turbine engine (6) receiving the steam (22) of the heat recovery steam generator (20) .

Description:
A method for starting up a gas turbine engine of a combined cycle power plant

Description

The present invention relates to a method for starting up a gas turbine engine of a combined cycle power plant, the gas turbine engine including a compressor, a combustor and a tur bine, the compressor providing compressed air to the combus tor for combustion with a fuel to produce a working fluid and the turbine receiving the working fluid to produce power; the compressor comprising adjustable inlet guide vanes, the ad justable inlet guide vanes being adjustable between a fully closed position for minimizing the mass flow of air into the compressor and a fully open position for providing the maxi mum mass flow of air into the compressor.

Furthermore, the invention relates to a gas turbine engine and a combined cycle power plant with such gas turbine en gine .

During startup of a combined cycle power plant, the gas tur bine portion of the plant is started before the steam turbine portion. During startup, there is a relatively rapid increase in the flow rate of the exhaust from the gas turbine as it accelerates to operating speed. Thereafter, the exhaust gas flow rate remains relatively constant except for the effect of modulating the adjustable inlet guide vane of the compres sor. After the gas turbine reaches operating speed, the tem perature of the exhaust gas gradually increases as the firing temperature of the gas turbine is increased up to the level required to produce the desired power output. However, the rate of increase in load and temperature of the gas turbine exhaust is constrained by thermal transient stress limits in the components of the steam turbine and the balance of plant, including the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that is exposed to the hot exhaust gas stream.

US 2004/045300 A1 teaches a method of starting a combined cy cle power plant having a gas turbine portion comprising a compressor for producing compressed air and a turbine for producing exhaust gas, a heat recovery steam generator for producing steam by transferring heat from the exhaust gas to a flow of feed water, and a steam turbine for expanding the steam. The gas turbine portion is started to produce a flow of exhaust gas, a flow of injection air is produced and the flow of injection air is combined with the flow of ex haust gas to produce an augmented exhaust stream directed through the heat recovery steam generator to produce a flow of steam for starting the steam turbine. The air injection apparatus is utilized during startup of the plant to permit the gas turbine portion to be operated at a power level suf ficiently high to ensure compliance with emissions regula tions while at the same time not exceeding an upper exhaust temperature limit for warming the steam generator. The aug mented exhaust stream allows the steam generator to more quickly generate enough steam to roll the steam turbine, thereby shortening the overall startup sequence.

From a combined cycle perspective, it is desirable to have higher gas turbine exhaust mass flow rate at lower exhaust temperature than low exhaust flow rate at higher temperature. A less severe exhaust temperature profile can help to reduce the stresses in the HRSG.

With regard to environmental compliance, exhaust emissions of combined cycle power plants must comply with legal require ments which are specific to the governmental authority over the geographic locality in which the plant operates. General- ly, this necessitates that a minimum flame temperature be sustained during gas turbine operation.

One of the main challenges of combined cycle power plants is balancing the needs of minimal startup emissions on the one hand and a long life of the HRSG on the other hand. Lower ex haust temperature means opening the adjustable gas turbine inlet guide vanes to increase the compressor inlet flow, thus reducing the combustion temperature. This has the effect of increasing carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Otherwise, the in let guide vanes remain in the closed position for as long as possible during the ramp up, until an exhaust temperature limit is reached. This minimizes CO emissions but signifi cantly reduces life of the critical HRSG components.

It is an objective of the present invention to enable start ing up a gas turbine engine of a combined cycle plant in which the stress on the heat recovery steam generator compo nents is limited while maintaining compliance with the local environmental regulations.

The objective of the invention is achieved by the independent claims. The dependent claims describe advantageous develop ments and modifications of the invention.

In accordance with the invention there is provided a method for starting up a gas turbine engine of a combined cycle pow er plant,

the gas turbine engine including a compressor, a combustor and a turbine, the compressor providing com pressed air to the combustor for combustion with a fuel to produce a working fluid and the turbine receiving the working fluid to produce power; the compressor comprising adjustable inlet guide vanes, the adjustable inlet guide vanes being adjustable between a fully closed position for minimizing the mass flow of air into the compressor and a fully open posi tion for providing the maximum mass flow of air into the compressor;

wherein the method comprises the steps of:

- step 1 : applying load to the gas turbine engine and increasing the gas turbine engine load until a pre determined combustor firing temperature is reached, while keeping the adjustable inlet guide vanes in a start position adapted to reduce the mass flow of air into the compressor, whereby the predetermined combustor firing temperature is chosen to be an emission-compliant temperature,

- step 2: further increasing the load of the gas tur bine engine while opening the adjustable inlet guide vanes and keeping the predetermined combustor firing temperature constant until the inlet guide vanes reach an end position adapted to increase the mass flow of air into the compressor,

- step 3: further increasing the load of the gas tur bine engine while keeping the adjustable inlet guide vanes in the end position until a predeter mined load of the gas turbine engine is reached.

The objective of the invention is further achieved by a gas turbine engine of a combined cycle power plant, comprising:

a compressor, a combustor and a turbine, the com pressor providing compressed air to the combustor for combustion with a fuel to produce a working fluid and the turbine receiving the working fluid to produce pow er; the compressor comprising adjustable inlet guide vanes, the adjustable inlet guide vanes being adjustable between a fully closed position for minimizing the mass flow of air into the compressor and a fully open posi tion for providing the maximum mass flow of air into the compressor;

a control unit for modulating the adjustable inlet guide vanes between a fully closed position for minimiz ing the mass flow of air into the compressor and a fully open position for providing the maximum mass flow of air into the compressor, the modulation of the adjustable inlet guide vanes depending on a combustor firing tem perature, whereby the predetermined combustor firing temperature is an emission-compliant temperature.

The objective of the invention is finally achieved by a com bined cycle power plant comprising:

a gas turbine engine as described above, the gas turbine engine producing an exhaust fluid;

a heat recovery steam generator receiving the exhaust fluid and producing steam;

a steam turbine engine receiving the steam of the heat recovery steam generator.

Advantages relating to the described method may as well per tain to the gas turbine engine and/or the combined cycle pow er plant and vice versa.

When reading the following description of embodiments of the invention, it is to be understood that the concept of a com bined-cycle system being "emission-compliant" refers to providing levels at least of CO (carbon monoxide) , if appli cable also of NOx (nitrous oxide) in the exhaust gas of the gas turbine which are within regulatory limits which may vary based on geographic area. The levels of pollutants produced in a gas turbine engine exhaust can be dependent on a number of parameters such as temperature, pressure ratio and combus tion time. The concentration of CO is high at low-power con ditions and decreases with increased power. Nitrous oxides are insignificant at low power and attain maximum values the highest temperature and pressure.

The essential idea of the present invention is to manage sim ultaneously both CO emissions and HRSG life by introducing a new loading profile when starting up the gas turbine engine in order to achieve a good, practical balance of these two combined cycle power plant characteristics.

In the first step, while applying load to the gas turbine en gine and increasing the gas turbine engine load, the adjusta ble inlet guide vanes are kept in the start position adapted to reduce the mass flow of air into the compressor and hence reduce exhaust flow. The start position might be the fully closed position or any position close to the fully closed po sition of the adjustable inlet guide vanes in which the mass flow of air to the combustor is reduced. At low loads, the CO emissions are normally very high. Therefore, the goal is to keep the combustion temperature high and to minimize the ex haust flow, so that the CO production is low.

Loading in the closed position of the adjustable inlet guide vanes continues until a predetermined combustor firing tem perature is reached. Hereby the predetermined combustor fir ing temperature is chosen so that it is compliant with the local CO emission requirements.

When the predetermined combustor firing temperature is reached, in the second step the load of the gas turbine en gine is further increased while the adjustable inlet guide vanes are opening and the combustor firing temperature is kept constant until a predetermined end position of the ad justable inlet guide vanes is reached. The end position might be the fully open position or any position of the inlet guide vanes close to the fully open position, so that the mass flow of air to the combustor is increased. Opening the adjustable inlet guide vanes results in reducing the exhaust tempera ture. Yet, for this period of time the combustor firing tem perature, which is important for the CO emissions, is main tained constant. This alleviates the HRSG components and at the same time the operation of the gas turbine engine remains emission-compliant .

In the third step the load of the gas turbine engine is in creased, e.g. by increasing the fuel flow, while the inlet guide vanes are kept in the end position. In this operating region, the CO-compliant temperature is obtained even with fully open adjustable inlet guide vanes, hence this operation does not penalize CO emissions.

In summary, the method comprises running hot at the start for a limited period of time to minimize CO production, then op erating the gas turbine engine just hot enough to reach and stay within the CO-compliant zone until reaching the prede termined load.

In one embodiment, the predetermined combustor firing temper ature is between 1000 °C and 1850°C. This range is optimal for meeting the emission requirements in most geographical places .

In one further embodiment, in step 3 the predetermined load is a base load of the gas turbine engine, where base load is the condition of the gas turbine at a predetermined design exhaust temperature in combination with the design position of the inlet guide vanes. In this case an emission-compliant ramp of gas turbine engine is provided up to the base load, in which condition the turbine is operated most of the time.

In one embodiment, in step 1 the start position of the ad justable inlet guide vanes is the fully closed position. In another embodiment, in step 3 the end position of adjustable inlet guide vanes is the fully open position. In these cases the method for starting up the gas turbine engine is carried out under the optimal conditions based on the combination of step 1 and step 3.

These and other advantages of the invention will be more ap parent from the following description in view of the drawings that show:

FIG 1 a schematic diagram of a combined cycle power plant ;

FIG 2 a new start-up profile of a gas turbine engine according to the present invention in a dia gram showing the power of gas turbine engine over the exhaust temperature;

FIG 3 in a diagram two new start-up profiles accord ing to the present invention in a diagram showing the exhaust temperature over the gas turbine power of the gas turbine engine; and

FIG 4 in a diagram the development of a combustor firing temperature over the power of a gas turbine engine for two new start-up profiles according to the present invention.

Referring to FIG 1 an abstract, schematic drawing of a com bined cycle power plant 2 is shown. In the figure a gas tur bine engine 4 and a steam turbine engine 6 are shown. The gas turbine engine 1 comprises an inlet 8, a compressor

10, a combustor 12 and a turbine 14. A fuel 16 is supplied to the combustor 12 as indicated by an arrow. A fluid which is exhausted by the turbine 14 is identified as exhaust fluid 18.

The exhaust fluid 18 is provided to a heat exchanger 20, in particularly a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) . In the HRSG 20 all of the heat recovered from the exhaust fluid 18 is converted into high pressure steam 22. This steam 22 is used to drive the steam turbine engine 6 which converts the energy of the steam to mechanical energy, which in its turn is converted into electrical power.

The gas turbine engine 4 is driving a first generator 24, so that the mechanical load on the gas turbine engine 4 is con verted in the first generator 24 into electrical power. The steam turbine engine 6 is driving a second generator 26. Al ternatively mechanical components could be driven.

As an alternative to the power plant design shown in FIG 1, the combined cycle power plant 2 may be designed as a single shaft combined cycle having the gas turbine engine 4 and the steam turbine engine 6 on one shaft line, both driving a com mon generator.

A steam exhaust 28 passes through a condenser 30 and water 32 coming from condenser 28 is fed into the HRSG 20.

The steam turbine engine 6 comprises for example a low, a me dium and a high steam turbine section which are not shown in FIG 1.

A control unit 34 is simply indicated by a rectangle. A sin gle or several control units may be present. The control unit 34 may control all shown components or only a subset. In FIG 2 the method for starting up a gas turbine engine 4 of a combined cycle power plant 2 is visualized by means of a diagram showing the load P [%] as percent ratio of the base load generated by gas turbine engine 4 over an exhaust tem perature T E x H [°C] of the turbine 14. The dashed lines within the diagram represent isothermal lines for different firing temperatures T F in the combustor 12.

Starting at minimum load in the first step Si the profile follows the traditional path, whereby adjustable inlet guide vanes located in the compressor 10 are kept in the fully closed position. At low loads, the CO emission is very high, this is why it is preferable to keep the combustion tempera ture high and to minimize the exhaust flow 18 by keeping the adjustable inlet guide vanes closed. In this case, the start position of the adjustable inlet guide vanes corresponds to the fully closed position, in which the mass flow of air 8 to the compressor 10 is minimized.

When an exhaust temperature T EXH of about 1200°C is reached at a turbine load between 10% to 20% of the base load, in the second step S 2 a firing temperature T F is kept constant and the load on the gas turbine engine 4 is increased up to about 40% of the base load, while the adjustable inlet guide vanes are opened. This results in a decrease of the exhaust temper ature T EXH from about 500°C to about 375°C. Thus, the thermal stress on the HRSG 20 components is alleviated and at the same time the firing temperature T F remains CO-compliant at the level of about 1200°C.

Once an end position of the adjustable inlet guide vanes is reached at a firing temperature=1200°C, whereby in the exam ple shown in FIG 2 the end position corresponds to a fully open position for providing the maximum mass flow of air 8 into the compressor 10, in the third step S 3 the load of the gas turbine engine 4 is increased. In the third step S3 the gas turbine engine 4 reaches its base load. The power of the gas turbine engine 4 increases to 100% load, the firing tem perature T F reaches approximately 1850°C and the exhaust tem perature T E x H is about 680°C.

The profile of the temperature development of the method as shown in FIG 2 is characterized by "sliding backwards" along the constant firing temperature T F in the range between about 15% and 40% of the base load, which results in a reduction of the exhaust temperature T EXH with increasing power, while the firing temperature T F is kept CO-compliant.

A profile of the temperature development of the method ac cording to the present invention is shown in FIG 3, whereby the x-axis represents the engine load P [%] as percent ratio of the base load of the gas turbine engine 4 and the y-axis represents the exhaust temperature T EXH [°C] . The flexibility of the new loading strategy is illustrated by two different firing temperatures T (1200°C and 1400°C) in step S 2 . De pending on the CO emission regulation one of these firing temperatures T (or a different CO-compliant firing tempera ture T F) may be applied, resulting in an offset of the ex haust temperature profile while startup.

The corresponding relationship of the firing temperature T [°C] and the gas turbine load P [%] as percent ratio of the base load is shown in FIG 4, whereby the horizontal lines show step S 2 of the loading strategy - the maintenance of a constant firing temperature T F .