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Title:
METHOD AND SYSTEM OF MAPPING EMISSIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/134989
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention relates to a method comprising:receiving location of a network of vehicles and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from each vehicle;predicting a travel path and NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle;receiving the generated route by a navigation system of a host vehicle;causing, by at least one actuator of the host vehicle, the host vehicle to autonomously travel along the generated route.The invention further relates to a navigation system comprising: a processor; at least one computer readable storage medium coupled to the processor and storing a plurality of instructions which, when executed by the processor, cause the processor to: receive location of a network of vehicles and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from each vehicle;receive a predicted travel path and NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle; receive a route generated from a starting location to a destination location, such that the route generated minimizes exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission;instruct at least one actuator of the host vehicle to cause the host vehicle to autonomously travel along the generated route.

Inventors:
DAS, Mithun (10 Whampoa East, Eight Riversuites # 13-32, Singapore 1, 338521, SG)
SARADINDUBASU, Saptarshi (50 Bukit Batok East Avenue 5, Regent Heights #14-02, Singapore 1, 659801, SG)
AGARWAL, Manuj Prakash (Block 914, Jurong West Street 91 #04-202, Singapore 4, 640914, SG)
Application Number:
EP2019/050214
Publication Date:
July 11, 2019
Filing Date:
January 07, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CONTINENTAL AUTOMOTIVE GMBH (Vahrenwalder Straße 9, Hannover, 30165, DE)
CONTINENTAL AUTOMOTIVE SINGAPORE PTE. LTD. (80 Boon Keng Road, Singapore 0, 339780, SG)
International Classes:
G01C21/34; B60H1/00; G01C21/32; G01C21/36; G01N33/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2009091258A12009-07-23
Foreign References:
US20090309744A12009-12-17
US20130080053A12013-03-28
US20040039517A12004-02-26
PT105929A2013-04-12
KR20120061414A2012-06-13
US20160318368A12016-11-03
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CONTINENTAL AUTOMOTIVE GMBH (Daniel Lee, c/o Continental Teves AG & Co. OHGGuerickestr. 7, Frankfurt am Main, 60488, DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
PATENT CLAIMS

1. A method comprising:

receiving location of a network of vehicles and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from each vehicle;

predicting a travel path and NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle;

generating a route from a starting location to a destination location, such that the route generated minimizes exposure to NOx emission;

receiving the generated route by a navigation system of a host vehicle;

causing, by at least one actuator of the host vehicle, the host vehicle to autonomously travel along the generated route .

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the route generated is a route having the lowest exposure to NOx emission.

3. The method of claim 1 or 2, further comprising: activating an air filter system of the host vehicle when the NOx emitted from the network of vehicles along the generated route is above a threshold amount.

4. The method of any preceding claim, further comprising: closing air vents of a climate control system of the host vehicle when the NOx emitted from the network of vehicles along the generated route is above a threshold amount.

5. The method of any preceding claim, further comprising: wirelessly communicating to the network of vehicles along the generated route to avoid the generated route when the NOx emitted from said network is above a threshold amount.

6. The method of any preceding claim, wherein the generating step comprises: generating alternative routes from the starting location to the destination location, wherein one of the alternative routes is the route generated to minimize exposure to NOx emission; and wherein the method further comprises selecting one of the generated routes for the host vehicle to autonomously travel thereon.

7. The method of any preceding claim, further comprising: displaying the location and an indication of the NOx emission of each vehicle in the network of vehicles on a digital map displayed on a display of the navigation system. 8. The method of any preceding claim, further comprising: displaying the predicted travel path and an indication of the predicted NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle in the network of vehicles on a digital map displayed on a display of the navigation system.

9. The method of claim 7 or 8, wherein the display of the location and the indication of the NOx emission of each vehicle is presented as a real-time layer on the digital map and the display of the predicted travel path and the indication of the predicted NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle is presented as a prediction layer on the digital map.

10. The method of claim 9, wherein each layer is selectable upon user command.

11. The method of any one of claims 7-10, wherein a higher amount of NOx emitted is indicated as a different colour to that of a lower amount of NOx emitted.

12. The method of any preceding claim, further comprising: displaying an indication of NOx present in the environment on a digital map displayed on a display of the navigation system.

13. A navigation system of a host vehicle, the system comprising :

a processor;

at least one computer readable storage medium coupled to the processor and storing a plurality of instructions which, when executed by the processor, cause the processor to :

receive location of a network of vehicles and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from each vehicle;

receive a predicted travel path and NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle;

receive a route generated from a starting location to a destination location, such that the route generated minimizes exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission; instruct at least one actuator of the host vehicle to cause the host vehicle to autonomously travel along the generated route.

14. The navigation system of claim 13, further comprising a positioning device to detect location of the system.

15. The navigation system of claim 13 or 14, wherein the processor is further configured to receive environmental NOx data .

Description:
Method and System of Mapping Emissions

FIELD OF INVENTION

This invention relates to a method and system for creating an emission map and navigating traffic away from polluted areas.

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

As vehicles for transportation become more accessible to the public, the number of vehicles on the roads will continually increase, leading to increased pollution on the roads. While government regulations to control vehicle emissions help reduce pollution to a certain extent, anyone near motorways may still be exposed to a certain level of unhealthy vehicle emissions.

There is therefore a need to provide intelligence to the public on the amount of pollution present along motorways.

DESCRIPTION

It is therefore an object to provide a method to address the problems discussed above. Particularly, it is an object to provide intelligence on pollution levels so that the community is more aware and better equipped to avoid or at least reduce exposure to pollution.

To accomplish these and other objects of the invention, there is provided, in an aspect, a method comprising: receiving location of a network of vehicles and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from each vehicle; displaying the location and an indication of the NOx emission of each vehicle on the digital map; predicting a travel path and NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle; displaying the predicted travel path and an indication of the predicted NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle on the digital map.

Nitrogen oxides or NOx refer to a compound or a mixture of compounds, wherein each compound consists of one or more nitrogen atoms and one or more oxygen atoms . Examples of NOx compounds include nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide. As NOx compounds are typically formed during combustion processes, motor vehicles including cars, trucks and various non-road vehicles (e.g. construction machinery, boats, etc) are contributors to NOx emissions. NOx is also emitted by agricultural processes and industrial plants. NOx is considered a pollutant because it contributes to the formation of smog, acid rain and ground level ozone. NOx in certain forms may also directly be hazardous to health. Accordingly, many governments regulate the amount of, e.g., NOx emitted from vehicles.

Many vehicles possess sensors, e.g. NOx sensors, to monitor the emission levels of the vehicle, to ensure compliance with emission standards . Similarly, other types of vehicle sensors can also be realized by an estimation of emission levels based on the performance, parameters and settings of the vehicle, especially of the engine of the vehicle. Vehicle sensors are termed "mobile sensors" herein. The NOx sensor of the vehicle may be located at an appropriate location for NOx detection, such as at the source of NOx production, e.g. at the exhaust. The data or readings from the NOx sensor may be used for different purposes. For example, NOx readings may be used to diagnose whether exhaust treatments or engines are functioning properly. In another example, the vehicle may transmit the NOx readings to a remote database for monitoring. The vehicle may transmit the NOx readings through a wired connection or communication interface, e.g. an OBD-II connector, or by wireless communication, e.g. Wi-Fi or cellular networks. The vehicle may transmit the NOx readings from the NOx sensor through an in-vehicle network to a system configured to wirelessly transmit data from the vehicle. Such wireless transmission systems may use long-range communication techniques and/or short-range communication techniques. Exemplary wireless transmission systems include telematics systems, DSRC systems, etc. The vehicle may similarly transmit other types of data to the remote database, e.g. amount of particulate matter or electrostatic particulate matter or carbon monoxide produced by the vehicle, vehicle location data, etc.

The remote database may be a central repository of information stored in one or a plurality of servers in one or a plurality of locations. The remote database may be a repository administered by a government body, e.g. a national environment agency or environmental protection agency. The remote database may be a repository administered privately. In an example, the remote database may be administered by a vehicle manufacturer wherein its manufactured vehicles transmit vehicle data to the database for, e.g., maintenance purposes. In another example, the remote database may be administered by an information aggregator, a service or data analytics provider or a map provider. The database may comprise a valuable source of information, e.g. the location of the vehicles in the network of vehicles and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from each vehicle and/or a predicted travel path and NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle and/or environmental NOx amounts and/or cost, e.g. NOx cost, of road segments. The information in the database may be provided to interested third parties or used to train data sets or systems, e.g. the drive actuator systems of autonomous vehicles. Parties that may be interested in such information may be for example a driving school to determine a suitable driving route for learner drivers . Another interested party may be insurance companies to determine a premium of an insurance policy of a road user. Yet another interested party may be a government body, e.g. a traffic authority or urban planning authority. Accordingly, the database may receive location of a network of vehicles and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from each vehicle; predict a travel path and NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle, or receive the predicted travel path and NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle; calculate NOx cost of road segments, e.g. along the travel path, or receive the NOx cost of road segments; and provide the location of each vehicle, NOx emitted from each vehicle, predicted travel path of each vehicle, NOx emission along the predicted travel path, and NOx cost, to third parties .

The disclosed method may receive or obtain location and emission data from such remote database. Alternatively or additionally, the disclosed method may receive or obtain location and emission data directly from vehicles capable of transmitting the data.

The disclosed method may receive or obtain location and emission data from sources other than connected vehicles. For example, sensors located around a city or town controlled by a city or town council may transmit emission data to the remote database or directly to the disclosed method. Such public sensors may be located on stationary infrastructure such as buildings or traffic lights and are thus stationary sensors. Such public sensors may be part of infrastructure capable of communicating with vehicles using, e.g., DSRC, and therefore may be part of a V2X or V2I network. Accordingly, the method may further comprise displaying an indication of NOx emission from other sources on the digital map. The disclosed method may be capable of monitoring pollution emitted from vehicles as well as pollution produced or generally present in the environment in a region like a city or town.

The disclosed method may receive or obtain other data relevant to emission levels, such as weather or wind direction. Data from the various sources may be fused to provide an accurate indication of the emission levels on the digital map. Fusion of data may be performed in any suitable way. For example, emission data for a particular location may be the sum of vehicle emissions and environment emission data in that location, taking into account the speed and direction of the prevailing wind.

The disclosed method may continuously receive the data for display on the digital map, e.g. every second, or at predefined time intervals, or when a change in emission levels is detected, such as when NOx levels exceed permissible levels.

The data received may be displayed on a digital map, which is understood to include not only maps available in digital form for a local or global navigation system but also maps used for computer systems, e.g. advanced driving assistance systems, wherein no navigation takes place. The digital map may be displayed on a display of a navigation system.

The vehicle location or sensor location may be displayed with a pin or a point on the digital map. The emission or NOx emission data may be displayed as a value next to or near to the display of the vehicle location. Alternatively, the emission or NOx emission data may be grouped into ranges, wherein each range is marked differently, e.g. by colour, shape, etc. For example, a higher amount of NOx emitted may be indicated as a different colour to that of a lower amount of NOx emitted. The display of the location and emission data may be combined into one indication on the digital map. For example, the location pin may be coloured according to the emission range.

Accordingly, the disclosed method maps the amount of pollution, such as NOx, emitted by a vehicle or a network of vehicles and/or amount of pollution that is generally present in the environment at any given time, even in real-time.

The method further comprises predicting a travel path of each vehicle. The prediction may comprise storing travel routes of the vehicle and the associated timings that the travel routes are taken. The stored information may be used to train a neural network model to learn about travel patterns/behaviour of the vehicle. For example, a vehicle may travel from destination A to destination B at around 8 am every weekday morning using a specific route. Thus, the travel path of this vehicle for the following weekday at around 8 am may be predicted as the specific route between destination A and destination B. The neural network may also take into account various variables and give appropriate weights to the variables to predict the future travel path of the vehicle more accurately.

Similarly, the method further comprises predicting the NOx emission of each vehicle. The historical emission or NOx emission along the historical travel routes may be stored and used to train the machine learning model , e.g. a neural network or an artificial neural network, to predict the emission along the predicted travel path of the vehicle. The model may also take into account various variables, such as current vehicle emission data, emission data from other sources and/or other data relevant to emission levels, e.g. wind or weather data, and give appropriate weights to the variables in order to predict the future NOx emission along the predicted travel path or along any motorway. As mentioned above, the data from various sources may be fused and fed into the model.

Similarly as discussed above, the predicted travel path may be displayed on the digital map as a lightly shaded line or a series of dots or pins. The predicted emission or NOx emission may be indicated as a value or as a range of values or distinctly marked in terms of range along the predicted travel path of the vehicle. The predicted travel path may be marked according to emission range. The predicted emission or NOx emission may be indicated along any motorway or path on the digital map.

Accordingly, the disclosed method does not only provide intelligence and awareness on pollution levels at a given time, but pollution levels and locations of these pollution levels in the future. Further advantageously, the disclosed method as sists users in visualising on a map where the polluted areas or the NOx footprint may be at a given time and in the future. Exposure to pollution may therefore be avoided or at least reduced, thereby improving the health of people who may otherwise be exposed to the pollution. While prior art methods may provide current and forecasted weather mapping or haze mapping for large regions as a whole, e.g. over a city or a country, prior art methods do not provide current and/or forecasted pollution mapping at a roadway level, directly from the source of the pollution, i.e. the vehicle.

The display of the real-time location and pollution levels and the display of the predicted location and pollution levels may be marked differently on the digital map for clarity to the user, e.g. lighter and darker shades, or different colours, etc.

The display of the location and the indication of the NOx emission of each vehicle may be presented as a layer on the digital map (real-time layer) . The display of the predicted travel path and the indication of the predicted NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle may be presented also as a layer on the digital map (prediction layer) . There may also be a layer displaying historical travel paths and indications of the historical NOx emissions along the historical travel paths of each vehicle (historical layer) . The layers may be presented on the same layer or maybe presented on separate layers. The layers may be selectable upon user command. Advantageously, as the intelligence provided by the disclosed method may be provided in layer (s) , the disclosed method may be provided to map providers to enhance the functionality of the map with pollution information. Advantageously, the user may turn off the layer (s) if such intelligence is not required or if a default map is simply required .

The method may further comprise generating a route from a starting or current location to a destination location on the digital map, such that the route generated minimizes exposure to NOx emission. The route generated may be dependent on user command. For example, the user may be able to choose whether the route generated is a route having the lowest exposure to NOx emission, or whether the user wishes to balance distance to the destination location and exposure to NOx emission.

The method may comprise generating alternative routes for the user to select. At least one of the alternative routes may include a route that minimizes exposure to NOx emission. Roads may be segmented and for each segment, a cost may be calculated, e.g. a time cost, distance cost or NOx cost. Thus, if the user prefers a shortest distance or time of travel between the starting location and the destination location, the route may be calculated to lower the time or distance cost. Alternative routes may be generated based on the costs of the various road segments for the user to select. Other ways of generating route options are possible.

Although a user may have selected a route based on a criterion, the user may wish to receive alternative route options midway through traveling along the selected route. Accordingly, the method may comprise continuously updating the selected route by providing alternative routes or road segments to e.g. minimize time, distance or NOx exposure, as the vehicle travels along the selected route. In such example, the starting location will be the current location of the vehicle, which may be updated periodically .

Advantageously, the route generation takes into account the intelligence on pollution levels provided by the method and provides assistance to users of the method, such as pedestrians, so they can avoid or at least minimize exposure to pollution along polluted routes.

As the level of pollution may provide an indication of the amount of traffic on the road, users of the method may include vehicle drivers who wish to avoid or at least minimize travelling on congested routes to the destination location. In an example, roadways in the city centre during after-office peak hours may be indicated as high emission zones. A driver navigating from destination A on a left side of the city centre to destination B on a right side of the city centre may use the method to generate a route from destination A to destination B that avoids the high emission zone at the city centre. In another example, a route generated for a user navigating from destination A outside the city centre to destination B within the city centre may include a driving leg to the fringe of the city centre and a public transport leg from the fringe to destination B within the city centre. Accordingly, a route that minimizes exposure to NOx emission may also minimize exposure to congestion.

Thus, the disclosed method may provide assistance to drivers or pedestrians or the community in general so that they can avoid (if desired) travelling to polluted areas at any given time of the day. The method may comprise some or all of the disclosed steps.

The method may be implemented for autonomous operation of a vehicle, which may be fully autonomous or semi-autonomous. For example, there is provided a method comprising: receiving location of a network of vehicles and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from each vehicle; predicting a travel path and NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle; generating a route from a starting location to a destination location, such that the route generated minimizes exposure to NOx emission; receiving the generated route by a navigation system of a host vehicle; causing, by at least one actuator of the host vehicle, the host vehicle to autonomously travel along the generated route. The navigation system may receive a route generated to minimize exposure to NOx emission and/or other alternative routes for the user to select. Where the navigation system is capable of continuously updating the selected route midway through the journey, the host vehicle may be capable of autonomously adapting its actuator (s) to travel along an updated route .

The term "host vehicle" may also be referred to as the ego vehicle . The host vehicle may be the vehicle that comprises the navigation system. If the host vehicle possesses a NOx sensor, the host vehicle may be part of the network of vehicles .

For fully autonomous vehicles, the actuator (s) may cause the vehicle to autonomously travel along the generated or selected route without requiring operator intervention. For example, the wheels of the vehicle may be automatically steered to travel along the generated route in response to receiving the generated route. Alternatively, the actuator ( s ) may automatically, in response to the generated or selected route, assist a manual vehicle operator or driver to travel along the generated route. For example, a left or right turn indicator may automatically be switched on, or audible instructions may automatically be emitted from speakers of the vehicle, to signal the directions of the generated route to the vehicle operator. Thus, the method may be implemented in semi-autonomous vehicles.

The navigation system may store in its non-transitory computer-readable storage medium a predetermined or user-selected threshold amount of NOx, e.g. a threshold amount considered comfortable or safe for the vehicle's occupants. In scenarios where the NOx emitted from the network of vehicles along the generated or selected route is above the threshold amount, the vehicle may be programmed to execute certain actions automatically to mitigate the crossing of the threshold amount. Advantageously, even if the route selected is not for minimizing exposure to NOx emission or if the generated routes are so polluted, the comfort and health of the vehicle's occupants may not be compromised. For example, the method may comprise: activating an air filter system of the host vehicle when the NOx emitted from the network of vehicles along the generated route is above the threshold amount. The air filter system may aid in filtering, adsorbing, absorbing, or otherwise removing NOx in the air of the vehicle cabin. The air filter system may remove NOx from the air entering the vehicle cabin, which may be recirculated air or air entering the vehicle cabin from the vehicle's air vents. The air filter system may also be configured to remove NOx from the air surrounding the vehicle to reduce the amount of NOx in the surrounding air.

In an alternative or additional example, the method may comprise: closing air vents of the host vehicle or air vents of a climate control system of the host vehicle when the NOx emitted from the network of vehicles along the generated route is above the threshold amount.

In an alternative or additional example, the method may comprise: activating an air filter system of the host vehicle or opening air vents of an air filter system of the host vehicle when the NOx emitted from the network of vehicles along the generated route or the NOx along the generated route is above the threshold amount .

In scenarios where the NOx emitted from the network of vehicles along any route, road or road segment, e.g. the generated or selected route, is above a threshold amount, the method may comprise transmitting a wireless communication to the network of vehicles to avoid that route, so that the crossing of the threshold amount is mitigated. The network of vehicles may be persuaded to alter or modify their driving route, thereby lowering the NOx amount associated with the route. In such scenarios, the threshold amount may be a predetermined threshold amount of NOx, e.g. a threshold amount considered safe for road users by government authorities . Where certain steps of the method are implemented in a remote server, e.g. the step of receiving the location and NOx emitted from the network of vehicles and/or the step of predicting and/or the step of receiving the prediction, the wireless communication may be executed by the remote server. Alternatively, if the navigation system of the host vehicle receives costing of the road segments of the route, the wireless communication may be executed by the vehicle, e.g. via vehicle-to-vehicle communication, upon crossing a threshold amount set in the navigation system.

In another aspect, there is provided a computer program product residing on a computer readable storage medium, e.g. a non-transitory memory, the storage medium having a plurality of instructions stored thereon which, when executed by a processor, cause the processor to perform the disclosed method or at least some of the steps of the disclosed method. A server or database remote from the network of vehicles may comprise the computer readable storage medium and the processor. Alternatively, a navigation system of a vehicle may comprise the computer readable storage medium and the processor.

In some embodiments, the prediction and route generation may be done in the remote server. In such embodiments, the remote server may receive location of a network of vehicles and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from each vehicle; predict a travel path and NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle; generate a route from a starting location to a destination location, such that the route generated minimizes exposure to NOx emission; and wirelessly communicate the generated route to a navigation system of a vehicle.

In other embodiments, the prediction and route generation may be done in the navigation system of the vehicle . In such embodiments , the navigation system may receive the location of the network of vehicles and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from each vehicle; display, on a display of the navigation system, the location and an indication of the NOx emission of each vehicle on a digital map; predict a travel path and NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle; display the predicted travel path and an indication of the predicted NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle on the digital map; generate a route from a starting location, e.g. the current location of the vehicle, to a destination location, such that the route generated minimizes exposure to NOx emission. At least one actuator of the vehicle may be instructed to autonomously operate the vehicle to travel along the generated route. The actuator (s) may cause the vehicle to autonomously travel along the generated route. Alternatively, the actuator (s) may assist a vehicle operator to travel along the generated route.

In yet other embodiments, certain steps of the disclosed method may be done in the navigation system while other steps may be done in the remote server.

In yet another aspect, there is provided a navigation system comprising: a communication interface configured to receive location of a network of vehicles and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from each vehicle; a processor; and at least one computer readable storage medium, e.g. a non-transitory memory, coupled to the processor and storing a plurality of instructions which, when executed by the processor, cause the processor to perform the disclosed method. The communication interface may transmit the location and NOx emission received to the processor. Alternatively, the communication interface may transmit the location and NOx emission received to the storage medium, after which the processor may retrieve the location and NOx emission from the storage medium. In particular, there is provided a navigation system of a host vehicle, the system comprising: a processor; at least one computer readable storage medium coupled to the processor and storing a plurality of instructions which, when executed by the processor, cause the processor to: receive location of a network of vehicles and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from each vehicle; receive a predicted travel path and NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each vehicle; receive a route generated from a starting or current location to a destination location, such that the route generated minimizes exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission; instruct at least one actuator of the host vehicle to cause the host vehicle to autonomously travel along the generated route. The processor or communication interface may be configured to receive or obtain location and emission data from a remote database as described above. Alternatively or additionally, the processor or communication interface may be configured to receive or obtain location and emission data directly from vehicles capable of transmitting the data. Emission data may be NOx data and/or other types of emissions, e.g. particulate matter or carbon monoxide. The processor or communication interface may be further configured to receive location and emission data from sources other than connected vehicles as described above, e.g. environmental NOx data, and/or other data relevant to emission levels. The communication interface may be a wired connection, e.g. an OBD-II connector, or may be a wireless communication interface, e.g. a Wi-Fi transceiver or cellular network transceiver .

The same or different computer readable storage medium may store a digital map or part of a digital map for display of the location and emission data. Alternatively or additionally, the processor or communication interface may be configured to receive digital map data or additional digital map data.

The system may further comprise a positioning device to detect location of the system. The current location of the system may therefore be detected to assist in generating a route from the current starting location to a destination location. The positioning device may not be particularly limited, and may include GPS module, Wi-Fi module, gyro sensor, etc.

The system may further comprise input means configured to receive user's input of the destination location. The system may further comprise a display configured to display the digital map and/or the location and emission data. The disclosed system may be part of an in-vehicle navigation system. In an example, a vehicle comprising the disclosed navigation system may be capable of receiving location and emission data from other vehicles. A vehicle comprising such navigation system may also comprise the NOx sensor and/or other sensors described above. Thus, such host vehicle may be capable of monitoring its own emission readings to diagnose whether its systems, e.g. its exhaust treatment or engine, are functioning properly. Such vehicle may be capable of using its emission readings for maintenance purposes or alerts. The vehicle may be configured to generate an alert when the NOx emitted from the host vehicle is above the threshold amount . For example, a sudden spike in NOx emission readings may indicate that the exhaust treatment or engine is not functioning properly and may cause a visual alert to display on, e.g. an instrument cluster, to alert the vehicle owner of the fact. Thus, vehicle life may be improved. In such examples, the network of vehicles comprises the host vehicle. Where the NOx emitted from the host vehicle is above a predetermined threshold amount of NOx, e.g. a threshold amount considered safe for road users by government authorities, the host vehicle may be configured to provide such NOx emission information of the host vehicle to a third party, e.g. an insurance company to determine a premium of an insurance policy of the vehicle owner. The host vehicle may be configured to provide a driving style, e.g. aggressive driving style, of the driver or the vehicle to such insurance company. Where the NOx emitted from the network of vehicles including the host vehicle along a route is above the threshold amount, the host vehicle may be configured to alert the driver to reduce aggressiveness in the driving style. Where the NOx emitted from the host vehicle is above the threshold amount, the host vehicle may be configured to activate or boost an emission cleaning system, e.g. a catalytic reduction treatment system, to remove NOx from the exhaust fumes emitted by the vehicle. The disclosed system may be part of a mobile device. A mobile device, in the context of the present disclosure, refers to any computing device that is portable. Examples of mobile devices include, but are not limited to, mobile phone, wearable device, portable computer, etc. In an example, a mobile device comprising the disclosed navigation system may comprise a digital map or at least part of a digital map stored in a memory, or may be connected to a cellular network to download a digital map from an external server to the memory. The mobile device may be capable of receiving user input, e.g. by means of a touch screen or a keyboard, to enter a destination location. For route generation, the user may be able to select a preferred mode of transportation, e.g. by foot, by driving, by public transportation, or a mixture of modes .

The description is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise embodiments disclosed. Modifications and equivalents will be apparent to practitioners skilled in this art and are encompassed within the scope of the appended claims.

DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

An exemplary embodiment will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 shows an illustration of a layer displaying location and an indication of NOx emission of a stationary sensor 104 on a digital map 102 according to an embodiment of the invention.

Figure 2 shows an illustration of a layer displaying location and an indication of NOx emission of mobile sensors 106 on a digital map 102 according to an embodiment of the invention. Figure 1 illustrates a layer displaying location and an indication of NOx emission of a stationary sensor 104 on a digital map 102 according to an embodiment of the invention. The stationary sensor 104 may be a NOx sensor located on a building. The stationary sensor 104 may transmit its NOx readings wirelessly to a wireless communication interface of a navigation system according to an embodiment of the invention (not shown) . The navigation system may comprise a display displaying the digital map 102 as well as the location and an indication of the NOx emission of the stationary sensor 104 (indicated as the shaded point 104) on the digital map 102. Although not shown, a user may choose to view the predicted NOx emission of the stationary sensor 104 on the digital map 102. The user may also choose not to view the layer illustrated in Figure 1, and will therefore only see the digital map 102 and its roadways but will not see the point 104.

Figure 2 illustrates a layer displaying location and an indication of NOx emission of mobile sensors 106 on a digital map 102 according to an embodiment of the invention. The mobile sensors 106 may be a collection of NOx sensors, each located on a vehicle in a network of vehicles. Each mobile sensor 106 may transmit its location and its NOx readings wirelessly to a wireless communication interface of a navigation system according to an embodiment of the invention (not shown) . The navigation system may comprise a display displaying the digital map 102. Displayed on the digital map 102 is a layer of a plurality of points, wherein some points indicate the current location and current NOx emission of each mobile sensor 106 while other points indicate the predicted travel path and predicted NOx emission along the predicted travel path of each mobile sensor 106. Although not shown, the points may be shaded with different intensity, wherein a darker intensity or darker shade indicates higher NOx emission and a lighter shade indicates lower NOx emission. Although not shown, a user may choose not to view the predicted travel path and predicted NOx emission along the predicted travel path of the mobile sensors 106 on the digital map 102, and only view the current location and current NOx emission of the mobile sensors 106 on the digital map 102 for clarity .