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Title:
A METHOD TO ACHIEVE THE CASELESS AMMUNITION FIRING WITH LIQUID PROPELLANT FOR AUTOMATIC WEAPONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/084656
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention proposed a method to achieve the caseless ammunition firing with liquid propellant for automatic weapons. The weapons with this method were driven by a servo motor that led a slider for linear reciprocating motion, and then the slider drove the combustion chamber and rotary lock to complete the projectile loading and combustion chamber locking. The combustion chamber locking was done with the help of fixed plunger. A separated binary liquid gunpowder (oxidizer and fuel) was used as a propellant. The constant liquid propellant injection pressure was maintained by a constant pressure regulator; and electronic fire control unit (EFCU) precisely controlled the solenoid valve opening time in order to control the injection amount of the mixture. The gunpowder was injected through the nozzle on the fixed plunger, and was ignited by an electronic igniter to launch the projectile. The application of electronic fire control unit (EFCU) made the weapon can easily realize single fire, burst fire, fully automatic fire, as well as blank ammunition or grenades launching. It can adjust the injection quantity of propellant to achieve the optimal killing effect against the objectives in different distance with different protection level; in order to ensure the stability of the outer trajectory, temperature, humidity and pressure sensors can be installed to make internal ballistic correction; comparing with the bolt-action weapons, by using the firearms with such technology can achieve better shooting accuracy and continuous firepower suppression simultaneously.

Inventors:
LUO, Tao (57 Graham, Montreal, Quebec H3P 2C2, H1X2H2, CA)
DENG, Zhoutong (4305 Charlemagne, Montreal, Québec H1X 2H2, H1X2H2, CA)
Application Number:
CA2017/051316
Publication Date:
May 09, 2019
Filing Date:
November 06, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
LUO, Tao (57 Graham, Montreal, Quebec H3P 2C2, H1X2H2, CA)
DENG, Zhoutong (4305 Charlemagne, Montreal, Québec H1X 2H2, H1X2H2, CA)
International Classes:
F41A7/00; F41A7/06; F41A9/38; F41A9/66; F41A99/00; F42B99/00
Foreign References:
US9618284B12017-04-11
JP3894270B22007-03-14
US6212990B12001-04-10
US5202530A1993-04-13
US4930423A1990-06-05
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

[Claim 1 ] A method to achieve automatically reciprocating motion and latching the bolt with electric means for firearms, characterized in that the method comprises:

the projectile filling and bolt latching were achieved after reciprocating motion driven by electric motor; the driven force can be from a rotating servo motor or a linear servo motor; the bolt was driven by motor to perform the reciprocating motion which leads the projectile filling and bolt locking; the position of the bolt can be obtained from the signal of the servo motor, which could also determine whether the bolt has been locked; in the locked state, the trigger signal could trigger gunpowder injection and ignition as well as a series of follow-up actions.

[Claim 2] A method of automatically loading a projectile by linear reciprocating

motion of the combustion chamber, characterized in that the method comprises:

The combustion chamber, as a moving part inside the cartridge receiver, performed linear reciprocating motion along the axis of the bore, the front part of the combustion chamber is in a form of convex cone, the bore was shaped in a corresponding female cone; the cone-shaped end of the combustion chamber has a triangular fin, the bore has a corresponding groove for the fin, the groove can provide the guidance for the projectile to enter the bore, here known as the projectile guidance groove; the magazine was slightly tilted into the range of the female cone of the bore alone the axis of the feed lips; the projectile was pushed against the outer wall of the combustion chamber under the force of the magazine spring; and the projectile was sliding on the outer wall of the combustion chamber with frictions; when the combustion chamber left the bore with a rearward motion, the cone-shaped end moved back and positioned completely rear of the magazine opening, a projectile will be pushed by spring into the space where the combustion chamber doing reciprocating motion, when the combustion chamber moved in the direction to the bore, the triangular fin on the cone-shaped end will push the projectile out of the feed lips of the magazine, the projectile will be pushed along the projectile guidance groove into the female cone section of the bore, when the projectile just entered the bore, the feed lips still held the projectile partially, through the self-guided ability of the female cone, the projectile will enter automatically into the bore under the pushing force of the cone-shaped end to complete the loading.

] A method of achieving the gastight locking of bore and combustion chamber, characterized in that the method comprises:

The main body of the combustion chamber has a thick-walled tubular shape, the gastight sealing of the combustion chamber and the bore is achieved by their conical surfaces touching; the combustion chamber body and its cone-shaped end are made with different materials. The main body of the combustion chamber is made of high strength material; the cone-shaped end is made of high elastic material, and its high elasticity made the cone-shaped end is easy to deform under high pressure, which improves gas tightness between the bore and the combustion chamber; there is a gear-shaped rotary lock at the tail of the combustion chamber, inside the cartridge receiver, there are the corresponding teeth; the rotary lock and combustion chamber are coaxial, rotary lock is positioned outside of the combustion chamber' s tail, the rotary lock can rotate around the axis freely, the tail of the combustion chamber is a shaft shoulder, together with a retaining ring, they can limit the rotary lock sliding axially; the cartridge receiver has a L-shaped guide groove, the rotary lock can be moved along the guide groove with the guidance of guide pin; when the projectile loading is completed, the combustion chamber cone-shaped end and bore's female cone overlap to stop the movement, and the rotary lock will continue to rotate under the combined effect the guide pin and guide groove, and finally make the gear teeth of the rotary lock overlap with corresponding teeth inside the cartridge receiver, then the combustion chamber can no longer move back and forth along the axial to achieve latch-up; rotary lock teeth and the cartridge receiver teeth are shaped in wedge, by rotating of the rotary lock, combustion chamber can be pushed as close as possible to the bore, so that the cone-shaped end and the female cone of the bore can fit closely.

[Claim 4] A method of achieving the gas tightness at the front end of a combustion chamber by means of a cone-shaped end of the projectile extending into a combustion chamber, characterized in that the method comprises:

The diameter of the gas outlet of the combustion chamber is smaller than the diameter of the projectile, but slightly larger than the diameter of the trailing end of the projectile. The gas outlet is in form of a certain trumpet shape outward. During the loading of the projectile, the front tip of the projectile will enter into the bore under the pushing force from combustion chamber, at the same time the end of the projectile will be partially entered the combustion chamber through the gas outlet to form the gastight condition.

[Claim 5] A method of achieving gas tightness of the combustion chamber by a

fixed plunger, characterized in that the method comprises:

A cylindrical plunger and combustion chamber are coaxial, the plunger was fixed on the cartridge receiver with the screw, the plunger is inserted into the combustion chamber through the tail end, with a clearance fit to form certain gastight conditions, similar to the piston and cylinder; The combustion chamber is guided by the guidance groove and the plunger to maintain accuracy of reciprocating motion along a straight line; after the burning of the gunpowder, the combustion chamber gas outlet transferred energy to the projectile while the plunger is also taken the gas pressure and passes it to the cartridge receiver.

[Claim 6] A method of performing gunpowder injection and ignition by means of a stationary plunger, characterized in that the method comprises:

The plunger has machined deep holes along the axial direction, the holes are used to install the igniter and as a fuel injection aperture. [Claim 7] A method for performing joint-action of liquid gunpowder injection and ignition with respect to the characteristics of liquid gunpowder leaking, which is characterized in that the method comprises:

The retention of liquid gunpowder in the combustion chamber always occurs at a moment after the trigger is pulled; the injection and ignition of the liquid gunpowder are carried out in conjunction, the injection of the fuel and the oxidizer is before the ignition; when signal sent by the trigger, EFCU will determine the other launch conditions and then issued the turn- on signal to solenoid valve to inject fuel and oxidizer, at the moment when solenoid valve closed, EFCU will send the ignition command to igniter to complete the ignition; the total time consumption of injection and ignition was controlled within the response time of human in order to avoid shooting delay.

[Claim 8] A method of performing accurate single shot, characterized in that the method comprises:

In the single shot mode, after each launch, the gun will give an appropriate delay before performing latching and stop, and waiting until the next ignition command; when the trigger is pulled again, EFCU will give conjunction signal to inject gunpowder and complete the ignition launch, after the ignition, EFCU will perform the delay again and then drive the bolt to complete the loading and locking, the delay can ensure the subsequent action performing after that the previous projectile has left the muzzle.

[Claim 9] A method of achieving high-speed firing, characterized in that the method comprises:

In the burst and full auto mode, the combustion chamber will continuously perform the reciprocating cycle to complete the loading and locking without cease until pre-set number of shots was achieved or the trigger was released; EFCU can determine the combustion chamber position from the angular displacement signal of the servo motor, and within the appropriate time period, give command of gunpowder injection and ignition according to the combustion chamber position information; In each of the high-speed continuous chamber-lock cycles, there is a moment that the combustion chamber is at rest in a locking state, the gunpowder and ignition are completed during this time period, the servo motor and other moving parts are always in a continuous cycle of running state in order to avoid the frequent turn on and turn off which could cause delay and affect the shooting speed.

[Claim 10] A method of implementing fire controlling by using microcontroller,

characterized in that the method comprises:

Using microcontroller and relative program to actualize intelligent fire controlling unit, all kinds of electronic switches such as: trigger, fire mode switch, power selection switch and environment-related sensors are considered as input devices. Solenoid valves, igniter, gunpowder and projectiles remaining quantity indicator are used as output devices, and the servo motor controller has both input and output functions. The EFCU processes the input command according to the pre-set program and outputs the result to the corresponding output device.

[Claim 1 1 ] A method of implementing a trigger function by using an electronic switch via EFCU, characterized in that the method comprises:

The use of an electronic switch to achieve the trigger function, the switch provides trigger signal for EFCU, and then the subsequent command of the EFCU will instruct the other components to complete the shooting action.

[Claim 12] A method of implementing safety and fire mode switching via EFCU by using an electronic switch, characterized in that the method comprises:

The use of rotary band switch or other forms of multi-pole switch to achieve the weapon's fire mode switching function, different rotation position on behalf of the safety off (power off), single shot, multiple shot (2 shots or 3 shots) and burst fire mode; when the trigger signal is sent, the EFCU will determine the fire mode according to the state of the firepower mode switch. [Claim 13] An method of implementing the weapon launching power adjusting by means of an electronic switch via EFCU, characterized in that the method comprises:

The use of rotary band switch or other forms of multi-pole switch to achieve the selection of weapon launching power, the corresponding launching power can be high, medium and low and anti-riot non-lethal power; EFCU will determine the opening duration of the solenoid valve according to the position of the switch, and control the amount of gunpowder injected to determine the launch power.

[Claim 14] An method of implementing the gun grenades launching and blank

launching by means of an electronic switch via EFCU, characterized in that the method comprises:

Using electronic switch to achieve the grenade (blank) launching. When the grenade mode () is turned on, the combustion chamber will always be in the locked state, the system will no longer load the projectile until the switch is turned off.

[Claim 15] A method of adjusting an internal trajectory to automatically adapt the variance of ambience, characterized in that the method comprises:

Through the temperature, humidity and pressure sensor to obtain environmental shooting parameters, EFCU determines the corresponding correction parameters, adjust the solenoid valve opening duration to change the amount of gunpowder injection, by adjusting the internal trajectory characteristics to ensure the consistency of the external trajectories.

AMENDED CLAIMS

received by the International Bureau on 28 September 2018

(28.09.2018) I An automatic weapon firing caseless projectiles with liquid propellant, which achieves reciprocating motion and latching bolt with electric means, and which is characterized in that: projectile filling and bolt latching were achieved after reciprocating motion driven by an electric motor; driven force could be generated by a rotating servo motor or a linear servo motor; Here, the bolt is replaced with a combustion chamber(3) and a rotary lock(4), and driven by motor to perform the reciprocating motion which leads the projectile filling and the combustion chamber(3) locking; an electronic fire control unit (EFCU) will get the position of the combustion chamber(3) from angular movement signal of the servo motor, which can also determine whether the combustion chamber(3)has been locked; in the locked state, the trigger signal is able to trigger gunpowder injection and ignition. Once the trigger is triggered, two solenoid valves will get opening signal from the EFCU and be opened for a pricise certain time slot, and pressurized liquid gunpowder will be injected into the the combustion chamber(3); and once the liquid gunpowder is injected, the electronic igniter will start to ignite. An automatic weapon firing caseless projectiles with liquid propellant, acorrding to claim 1 , the combustion chamber(3) replaced the traditional bolt, as a moving part inside a sleeve of cartridge receiver(2), performed linear reciprocating motion along the axis of a barrel's bore(16), the front part of the combustion chamber(3) is in a form of convex cone which be called cone-shaped end(14), the end of the bore(16) was shaped in a corresponding female cone(20); the cone-shaped end(14) has a triangular fin(17), the end of the bore(16) has a corresponding groove for the fin, the groove can provide guidance for the projectile to enter the bore(16), here known as the projectile guidance groove(19); a magazine's feed lips(18) was slightly tilted(41 ) into the range of the female cone(20) of the bore(16) along the axis of the bore(16); the first projectile was pushed against the outer wall of the combustion chamber(3) under the thrust force of the magazine spring; and the projectile was sliding on the outer wall of the combustion chamber(3) with frictions; when the combustion chamber(3) left the bore(16) with a rearward motion, the cone-shaped end(14) moved back and positioned completely rear of the magazine opening(15), a projectile will be pushed by magazine spring slightly sink into the space where the combustion chamber(3) doing reciprocating motion, when the combustion chamber(3) moved in the direction to the bore(16), the triangular fin(17) on the cone-shaped end(14) will push the projectile out of the feed lips(18) of the magazine(31 ), the projectile will be pushed along the projectile guidance groove(19) into the female cone(20) section of the bore(16), when the projectile just entered the bore(16), the feed lips(18) still held the projectile partially, through the self-guided ability of the female cone(20), the projectile will enter automatically into the bore(16) under the thrust force of the cone-shaped end(14) to complete the loading. An automatic weapon firing caseless projectiles with liquid propellant, acorrding to claim 2,the main body(21 ) of the combustion chamber(3) has a thick-walled tubular shape, the gastight sealing of the combustion chamber(3) and the bore(16) is achieved by their conical surfaces touching, and both conical surfaces has a same cone angle; the

combustion chamber body(21 ) and its cone-shaped end(14) are made with different materials. The main body(21 ) of the combustion chamber(3) is made of high strength material; the cone-shaped end(14) is made of high elastic material, and its high elasticity made the cone-shaped end(14) is easy to deform under high pressure, which improves gas tightness between the bore(16) and the combustion chamber(3); there is a gear- shaped rotary lock(4) at the tail of the combustion chamber(3), inside the sleeve of cartridge receiver, there are corresponding teeth (22); the rotary lock(4) and the combustion chamber(3) are coaxial, the rotary lock(4) is positioned outside of the combustion chamber's tail,the rotary lock(4) can rotate around the combustion chamber axis freely, the tail of the

combustion chamber(3) is a shaft shoulder(39), together with a retaining ring(6), they can limit the rotary lock(4) sliding axially; a sleeve of cartridge receiver(2) has a L-shaped guide groove(25), there is a

mounting hole(42) on the rotary lock, a guide pin(5) insert into the hole(42), the rotary lock(4) can be moved along the guide groove(25) with the guidance of guide pin(5); when the projectile loading is completed, the combustion chamber cone-shaped end(14) and bore's female cone(20) overlap to stop the movement, and the rotary lock(4) will continue to rotate under the combined effect the guide pin(5) and the guide groove(25), and finally make the gear teeth (22) of the rotary lock(4) overlap with

corresponding teeth(22) inside the sleeve of cartridge receiver(2), then the combustion chamber(3) can no longer move back and forth along the axial to achieve latch-up; rotary lock teeth (22) and the cartridge receiver teeth(22) are shaped in wedge, by rotating of the rotary lock(4),

combustion chamber(3) can be pushed as close as possible to the bore(16,20), so that the cone-shaped end(14) and the female cone(20) of the bore(16) can fit closely. An automatic weapon firing caseless projectiles with liquid propellant, acorrding to claim 3,the diameter of the gas outlet(27) of the combustion chamber(3) is smaller than the diameter of the projectile, but slightly larger than the diameter of the trailing end of the projectile. The gas outlet(27) is thin wall and has a trumpet shape outward. During the loading of the projectile, the front tip of the projectile will enter into the bore(16) under the pushing force from the combustion chamber(3), at the same time the end of the projectile will be partially pushed into the gas outlet(27) to achieve gastight condition of the front end of the combustion chamber(3). An automatic weapon firing caseless projectiles with liquid propellant, accorrding to claim4, the gas outlet(27) is able to achieve gastightness by the projectitle partially enter the gas outlet(27) of the combustion chamber(3). And the tail of the combustion chamber(3) is able to achieve gas tightness by the fixed plunger(7).A cylindrical plunger(7) and combustion chamber(3) are coaxial, the plunger was threaded on the sleeve of cartridge receiver(2), the plunger(7) is inserted into the combustion(3) chamber through the tail end, with a clearance fit to form certain gastight conditions, similar to piston for cylinder; The combustion chamber(3) is guided by the guidance rail(37) and the plunger(7) to maintain accuracy of reciprocating motion along a straight line; after the burning of the gunpowder, the combustion chamber gas outlet(27) transferred energy to the projectile while the plunger(7) is also taken the gas pressure and passes it to the sleeve of cartridge receiver.

[Claim 6] An automatic weapon firing caseless projectiles with liquid propellant, accorrding to claim5 the liquid gunpowder injection and ignition by means of a stationary plunger.The plunger(7) has machined deep holes along the axial direction, the holes are used to install the igniter discharge needle (38) and as liquid gunpowder injection aperture(30).

[Claim 7] An automatic weapon firing caseless projectiles with liquid propellant, accorrding to claiml , iglition will allways follow liquid gunpower injection, in other words, liquid gunpowder injection and ignition are joint- action.Take into account the characteristics of liquid gunpowder leakage. the retention of liquid gunpowder in the combustion chamber(3) only occurs at a moment after the trigger is triggered; the injection of liquid gunpowder and ignition are allways carried out in conjunction, the injection of the fuel and the oxidizer is before the ignition; when signal sent by the trigger, EFCU will judgement other launch conditions then issued the turn-on signal to solenoid valve to inject fuel and oxidizer, at the moment when solenoid valve closed, EFCU will send the ignition command to igniter to complete the ignition; the total time consumption of injection and ignition is controlled within tens of milliseconds in order to avoid liquid leak and shooting delay.

[Claim 8] An automatic weapon firing caseless projectiles with liquid propellant, follow to claim7, once the ignition is complete, and fire mode selection is single shot mode, the EFCU will perform a precise delay time before performing reloading and latching, then waiting until the next trigger triggered; This delay time can ensure the subsequent action performing after that the previous projectile has left the muzzle completely, which to ensure single shot accuracy.

[Claim 9] An automatic weapon firing caseless projectiles with liquid propellant, which is able to perform high-speed firing. When the burst mode or full auto mode is selected, the combustion chamber(3) will continuously perform the reciprocating cycle to complete the reloading and locking without cease until the EFCU knows pre-set number of shots was achieved or the trigger was released; The cylindrical cam(1 1 ) has surrounded by a ring curved cam path, one section of the cam path is straight and perpendicular to the camshaft(12), this straight cam path(23) is about to 90 radians. When the cam pin(24) of the slider(9) moves in the straight cam path(23), the slider(9) is able to in a relatively static state to the cartridge receiver(2) and the cylindrical cam(1 1 ) can keep rotating, while the combustion chamber(3) is keep in the Lockout state. The EFCU is able to determine the combustion chamber(3) position from the angular displacement signal of the servo motor, and within the appropriate time period, give command of gunpowder injection and ignition according to the combustion chamber position information; In each of the high-speed continuous chamber-lock cycles, there is a moment when the combustion chamber is stationary in the locked state, the gunpowder injection and ignition are completed during this time period, the servo motor and other moving parts are always able to in a continuous cycle of running state in order to avoid the frequent running or stopping. An automatic weapon firing caseless projectiles with liquid propellant, which achieves fire controlling by using microcontroller. The weapon uses microcontroller and relative program to actualize electronic fire controlling unit, all electronic switches uesed by the weapon such as: trigger, fire mode switch, power selection switch, grenade switch and environment- related sensors are considered as input devices. Solenoid valves, igniter, gunpowder and projectiles remaining quantity indicator are used as output devices, and the servo motor controller has both input and output functions. The EFCU processes the input command according to the preset program and outputs the result to the corresponding output device. An automatic weapon firing caseless projectiles with liquid propellant, according to claiml O, the weapon uses an electronic switch as an input device to achieve the trigger function, the switch provides trigger signal for EFCU, and then subsequent command of the EFCU will instruct other components to complete the shooting action. An automatic weapon firing caseless projectiles with liquid propellant, according to claiml O which achieves the safety and fire mode switching via EFCU by using an electronic switch. The weapon uses rotary band switch or other forms of multi-pole switch to achieve the weapon's fire mode switching function, different rotation position on behalf of the safety off (power off), single shot, multiple shot (2 shots or 3 shots) and burst fire mode; when the trigger signal is sent, the EFCU will determine the fire mode according to the state of the firepower mode switch. An automatic weapon firing caseless projectiles with liquid propellant, according to claiml O which achieves the weapon launching power adjusting by means of an electronic switch via EFCU. The weapon uses rotary band switch or other forms of multi-pole switch to achieve the selection of weapon launching power, the corresponding launching power can be high, medium and low and anti-riot non-lethal power; EFCU will determine the opening duration of the solenoid valve according to the position of the switch, and control the amount of gunpowder injected to determine the launch power. An automatic weapon firing caseless projectiles with liquid propellant, which achieves the gun grenades launching and blank launching by means of an electronic switch via EFCU. The weapon uses electronic switch to achieve grenade (or blank) launching. When the grenade mode (or blank mode) is turned on, the combustion chamber(3) will always be in the locked state, the system will no longer load the projectile until the switch is turned off. An automatic weapon firing caseless projectiles with liquid propellant, according to claiml O which achieves the adjusting of internal trajectory to automatically adapt the variance of ambience. Through temperature sensor, humidity sensor and air pressure sensor to obtain environmental shooting parameters, EFCU determines the corresponding correction parameters, adjust the solenoid valve opening duration to change the amount of gunpowder injection, by adjusting the internal trajectory characteristics to ensure the consistency of the external trajectories.

Description:
Description

Title of Invention : A method to achieve the caseless ammunition firing with liquid propellant for automatic weapons

Technical Field

[1 ] The invention relates to the technological development for weapon, gunpowder, electromechanical hardware and software of embedded devices, and in particular relates to the automatic control of weapon, the use of liquid gunpowder and the related technology of the caseless weapon.

Background Art

[2] Nowadays, the bullets used by firearms and small caliber guns are in a form that the projectiles and shells are packed in one, and in this form, the role of the shells is indispensable. Shells pack the propellant powder and primer, wrap the projectiles, seal the bore and take away part of the heat for cooling. However, the shells also have many drawback, such as: copper shells caused a huge waste of resources; shells accounted for half of the weight of bullets, limiting the amount of ammunition that soldiers to carry; the ejection of the shells and the demand for left and right switching makes the structure of the firearms more complicated.

[3] In the case of NATO's 5.56 x 45 mm caliber ammunition, the weight of the bullet is about 1 1 .8 g, of which the weight of the projectile is about 4.02 g (62 gr), the weight of shell is about 6.16 g (95.1 gr), and the weight of the powder is roughly around 1 .6 g (24.5 gr). It could be seen that the weight of the bullet is 52.2% occupied by the shell. In the case of a soldier battle fighting, the maximum amount of the ammunition to carry is around 10 kg. Considering the weight of the magazine, a soldier could carry about 660 rounds of 5.56 mm of bullets, with a total weight of about 7.8 kg, of which 4.06 kg are shells weight.

[4] Due to the existence of shells, the relevant weapons must perform shell ejection actions. For most of the firearms, they are using the right side shell ejection design. The high temperature shells not only interfere with the comrades around, but also cause greater trouble for left-handed shooters, and this trouble will be more prominent in Bullpup firearms, many firearms had to oe designed to nave a structure that could switch the side of shell ejection.

[5] In addition to the trouble caused by high-temperature copper shell, due to the short distance between the shell ejection window and the shooter, the gunpowder smoke and residual gas will also bring some troubles to the shooter.

[6] The solid gunpowder firearms have been invented for hundreds of years, the

current large-scale equipped of the firearms are based on machinery and gunpowder. In order to meet the needs of semi-automatic or automatic shooting, most of the modern firearms are using the energy of combusted gas to complete the shell ejection and loading; however it is difficult to accurately estimate the energy of combusted gas for completing the next cycle. In order to meet the reliability requirements, it could only excessively use gas energy to complete the shell ejection and loading in a very violent way. This will reduce the efficiency of gunpowder consumption, but also affect the accuracy of shooting. Due to the limitations of the mechanical structure, it is difficult perform both fully automatic shooting and high precision sniping on one single firearm, in order to meet high shooting precision, the current sniper rifle had to use the bolt structure or semiautomatic structure.

[7] Nowadays liquid gunpowder has been widely used in mining, marine engineering operations, military engineering blasting and special engineering blasting areas. Liquid gunpowder has several of advantages, such as high mobility, high explosion temperature, high energy/volume ratio and safety. Among all kinds of liquid gunpowder, a binary non-spontaneous combustion liquid gunpowder, which consists a oxidizer and a fuel, is very suitable for firearm's safety requirements, the combustible explosive liquid could only be formed when both components of the binary liquid gunpowder are injected into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer of the binary liquid gunpowder could be nitric acid, dinitrogen tetroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and ammonium pernitrate (N 2 H 4 0 4 ) and so on. The fuel could be decahydronaphthalene, kerosene (JP4), isooctane and isopropanol (IPA). Liquid fuel has characteristics as such low viscosity, easy to atomize, small atomization diameter, easy to be mixed, burned and evaporated. In addition, the volume of liquid fuel is relatively stable with temperature changes; the flow rate could be precisely controlled in order to meet the requirements of the internal ballistic stability.

[8] Liquid gunpowder has good fluidity, so liquid gunpowder could be injected into the combustion chamber by pressure to complete the loading of the gunpowder. For armored vehicles or other mechanized vehicles with sufficient power supply, the liquid powder could be loaded at atmospheric pressure, and then be propelled to the pressure regulator through the high-pressure pump. The fuel and oxidizer are stored separately; this storage method could improve the safety and greatly avoid the occurrence of ammunition's accidental explosion. In addition, the liquid itself has a high specific heat and good thermal conductivity, this characteristic have a very good effect on the cooling of combustion chamber, which could effectively prevent the combustion chamber and casing part to overheat.

[9] The function of the Electronic Fire Control Unit (EFCU) is very close to that of the engine control unit (ECU) used by the car, and regarding the requirement of reaction speed, the firearms are far less demanding of EFCU than the engine is to ECU. Refer to the performance of today's mainstream individual firearms, in the automatic fire mode, fire rate of 400 ~ 900 rounds / minute could meet the needs of the battlefield; in the multi-burst fire mode, the fire rate of 80 ~ 120 rounds/minute could meet the demand. Through the microcontroller, memory, power module, digital-analog conversion module, it could be very easy to meet the needs of the electronic fire control unit (EFCU) for weapon system. Combined with switching devices, sensors, solenoid valves, indicator lights and servo motor, it could be a good to make a liquid gunpowder based caseless weapons.

[10] Based on the limitations of today's artillery and ammunition, the present

invention provides an approach to build a liquid gunpowder based caseless weapons, with which the amount of ammunition carried by combat personnel under the same load conditions could be greatly improved, and could meet the requirements of shooting accuracy and firepower at the same time, in addition, such weapons systems could greatly save the consumption of precious metals such as copper, as a result to make shooting costs greatly reduced. Summary of Invention

[1 1 ] The present invention proposed a method to achieve the caseless

ammunition firing with liquid propellant for automatic weapons. The weapons with this method were driven by a servo motor that led a slider for linear reciprocating motion, and then the slider drove the combustion chamber and rotary lock to complete the projectile filling and combustion chamber lock. The combustion chamber locking was achieved with the help of fixed plunger. A separated binary liquid gunpowder (oxidizer and fuel) was used as a propellant. The liquid propellant injection pressure was maintained by a constant pressure regulator; and electronic fire control unit (EFCU) precisely controlled the solenoid valve opening time in order to control the injection dose of the mixture. The gunpowder was injected through the nozzle on the fixed plunger, and was ignited by an electronic igniter to achieve the projectile launch.

Technical Problem

[12] The loading of the projectile.

[13] The leakage issue of the liquid propellant.

[14] The air tightness of the bore and combustion chamber.

[15] Timing coordination between the locking of combustion chamber, the injection of liquid propellant and the ignition.

Solution to Problem

[16] The combustion chamber, as a moving part inside the cartridge receiver,

performed linear reciprocating motion along the axis of the bore. The cone- shaped end of the combustion chamber has a triangular fin. when the cone- shaped end moved back and positioned completely rear of the magazine opening, a projectile will be pushed by spring into the space where the combustion chamber doing reciprocating motion, when the combustion chamber moved in the direction to the bore, the triangular fin on the cone-shaped end will push the projectile out of the feed lips of the magazine with certain speed, the projectile will be pushed along the projectile guidance groove into the female cone section of the bore, through the self-guided ability of the female cone, the projectile will enter automatically into the bore under the pushing force of the cone-shaped end to complete the loading.

[17] The fuel and oxidizer of the liquid propellant may be pressurized and stored by means of a pressure vessel, in the moment after the trigger is triggered, the propellant was injected into the combustion chamber and then complete the ignition, the presence of liquid propellant in the combustion chamber is only a transient, it makes the leakage of liquid gunpowder to be avoided.

[18] The gastight sealing of the combustion chamber and the bore is achieved by their conical surfaces touching; the combustion chamber body and its cone- shaped end are made with different materials. The main body of the combustion chamber is made of high strength material; the cone-shaped end is made of high elastic material, and its high elasticity made the cone-shaped end is easy to deform under high pressure, which improves gas tightness between the bore and the combustion chamber; there is a gear-shaped rotary lock at the tail of the combustion chamber, inside the cartridge receiver, there are the corresponding teeth; rotary lock teeth and the cartridge receiver teeth are shaped in wedge, by rotating of the rotary lock, combustion chamber can be pushed as close as possible to the bore, so that the cone-shaped end and the female cone of the bore can fit closely.

[19] For the design of the columnar cam has a straight cam path which is

perpendicular to the camshaft, when the cam pin of the slider moves in this straight cam path, the slider is in a relatively static state to the cartridge receiver, while the combustion chamber is also in the Lockout state. In the full auto fire mode, the cylindrical cam will rotate continuously without interruption. The EFCU determines the cam position by the angular displacement of the servo motor and complete the propellant injection and ignition each time the cam pin of the slider travels in the straight cam path.

Advantageous Effects of Invention

[20] The present invention provides an approach to build a liquid gunpowder

based caseless weapons, with which the amount of ammunition carried by combat personnel under the same load conditions could be greatly improved, and could meet the requirements of shooting accuracy and firepower at the same time, in addition, such weapons systems could greatly save the consumption of precious metals such as copper, as a result to make shooting costs greatly reduced.

Brief Description of Drawings

Fig.1

[21 ] [Fig.1 ] The main mechanical parts.

Fig.2

[22] [Fig.2] The main moving parts.

Fig.3

[23] [Fig.3] The projectile loading process.

Fig.4

[24] [Fig.4] The bore, combustion chamber and the projectile loading action. Fig.5

[25] [Fig.5] The rotary lock and cartridge receiver.

Fig.6

[26] [Fig.6] The path cylindrical cam.

Fig.7

[27] [Fig.7] The cam and camshaft timing scheme.

Fig.8

[28] [Fig.8] The structure of the plunger.

Fig.9

[29] [Fig.9] The seat of solenoid valve.

Fig.10

[30] [Fig.10] The magazine and feed lips.

Fig.11

[31 ] [Fig.1 1 ] The magazine layout and mounting. Fig.12

[32] [Fig.12] The EFCU module diagram.

Fig.13

[33] [Fig.13] The flow chart of EFCU software boot process.

Fig.14

[34] [Fig.14] The flow chart of EFCU operation.

Fig.15

[35] [Fig.15] The flow chart of EFCU shutdown process.

Fig.16

[36] [Fig.16] The overall layout of the gun.

Fig.17

[37] [Fig.17] The weapon system diagram.

Description of Embodiments

[38] The present invention will now be described in detail with reference to the appendix figures and specific examples thereof in order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more apparent.

[39] The main embodiment process of the method provided by the invention

comprises the following steps:

[40] Refer to the relevant parameters of the NATO 5.56 mm caliber ammunition, this embodiment is based on a Bullpup assault rifle design that uses a 508 mm (20 in.) in length heavy barrel with a 5.56 mm caliber. The assault rifle could be used for precise sniping and full auto shooting, to meet the needs of most of the field and street battle, the Bullpup structure will also be suitable for using in narrow vehicles.

[41 ] The main mechanical parts of the rifle as shown in Figure 1 , mainly contains the following components: (l) barrel, (2) sleeve of cartridge receiver, (3) combustion chamber, (4) rotary lock, (5) guide pin, (6) retaining ring, (7) plunger, (8) valve seat, (9) slider, (io) rail bracket, (11) cylindrical cam, (12) camshaft, (13) positioning pin. EFCU, servo motor, solenoid valve, pressure regulator, all kinds of switches, sensors, indicator lights and batteries are not shown with figures.

[42] In the main mechanical parts given above, the barrel, the combustion

chamber, the rotary lock, the guide pin, the retaining ring, the plunger and the positioning pin are made of steel, and the other parts could be manufactured all in 6061 -T6 aluminum alloy, Figure 1 shows the total weight of all parts is 2.66 kg.

[43] In the present embodiment, the battery is energy source, and the stepped motor is used to drive the cylindrical cam. The cylindrical cam drives the slider to make reciprocating motion along the rail bracket. The slider is then acted on the guide pin, which bring rotary lock to make reciprocating motion along the L- shaped guide groove on the sleeve of cartridge receiver, and ultimately achieve the cycle process of projectile loading and locking. In this case, the cartridge receiver and the guide bracket are machined separately, and the cartridge receiver is machined with a positioning groove in order to be mounted on the rail bracket. The rail bracket could be assembled with the sleeve of the cartridge receiver by means of welding or riveting to form the whole cartridge receiver. The relationship between the moving parts is shown in Figure 2.

[44] The barrel and the sleeve of cartridge receiver could be threaded, they could also be connected with fast plug-in method, the positioning pin could ensure that the installation is properly done. The base of the barrel is the bore, the cone bottom radius needs to be slightly larger than the central axis of the extension line of the projectile, to ensure that the tip of the projectile could enter into the guide range of the conical bore, projectile loading process is shown in Figure 3.

[45] In the case of ensuring the strength, the combustion chamber has to be as light as possible to reduce inertia, it will improve the firing rate of weapons. The working volume of the combustion chamber is determined by the position of the projectile and the plunger, and the volume size of the combustion chamber needs to be considered in numerous ways, and ultimately it needs to be determined experimentally. The high-strength combustion chamber allows weapons to be used with higher intensity, and burning gunpowder with higher explosive rate. The radius of combustion chamber gas outlet needs to be slightly larger than the projectile tail radius, but must be less than the maximum radius of the projectile. The relationship between bore, combustion chamber and projectile are shown in Fig.4

[46] In the present embodiment, the combustion chamber is made of steel and copper, in which the main body of the combustion chamber is made of steel, and the front end of the combustion chamber is made of copper. Under the strong explosion pressure, the copper will show good ductility and elasticity, the front cone of the combustion chamber will be slightly deformed and be better fitted with the concave bore, in order to achieve good air tightness, but also to prevent the tip of the cone be cracked under the pressure of explosion.

[47] In the present embodiment, the rotary lock and the sleeve of the cartridge receiver each has six teeth uniformly distributed around the circumference, and the locking angle was 30 degrees. When the rotary lock was rotated by 30 degrees along the L-shaped guide groove on the sleeve of the cartridge receiver, the rotary lock 's teeth will overlap with the teeth on the sleeve of the cartridge receiver to complete the combustion chamber lockout, rotary lock teeth and the cartridge receiver teeth are shaped in wedge, by rotating of the rotary lock, the interaction between the wedge surfaces could push the combustion chamber as close as possible to the bore, so as to ensure air tightness and to prevent the fragile front tip of the combustion chamber be cracked due to lack of support of the bore, at the same time it could reduce the mechanical processing and assembly accuracy requirements. The relationship of the rotary lock and cartridge receiver is shown in Figure 5.

[48] In the present embodiment, the helical groove on the slider and the cylindrical cam is rotated at a 45 degree helix angle, the guide pin and the cam pin of the slider are moved relative to each other in the grooves. In the case of a slider, a 45 degree helix angle could ensure that the distance traveled by the slider is equal to the arc length of the guide pin traveled in the L-shaped guide groove of the cartridge receiver. The cylindrical cam is driven directly by the servo motor, and the cylindrical cam interacts with the cam pin of the slider while rotating to cause the slider to reciprocate along the guide groove. The path of the cam is shown in Figure 6 . [49] It could be seen from Figure 6 that the path surrounds the cam. The cam path is a horizontal arc perpendicular to the camshaft from the A-B segment. When the cam pin of the slider traveled from point A to point B, the rotated angle of the cam is about 90 degrees , during which the cam pin of the slider will be in a relatively stationary state while the combustion chamber is also in a latching state. In the high-speed full auto mode, the cam will rotate continuously without interruption. Whenever the cam pin of the slider is in between point A and point B, the EFCU determines the cam position by the angular displacement of the servo motor, and completes the gunpowder injection and ignition during this period.

[50] The height of the cam path curve H c is determined by three parameters,

which are the distance of the cone tip of the combustion chamber extending into the female cone base of the bore L 0 , the diameter (or width) of the magazine's feed lip D m and the length of the 30 degree arc l_ a that is travelled by the guide pin along the sleeve of the cartridge receiver when the combustion chamber is locked. Therefore, H C =L 0 +D m +L a , (note that the helix angle of the helical groove is limited to 45 degrees).

[51] The cam path's straight section A-B occupies a quarter of the circumference, helical groove's helix angle is 45 degrees, therefore, the cylindrical cam diameter D C =8H C /3π

[52] The distance travelled by the combustion chamber L c is: L c = L 0 +D m

[53] The EFCU needs to determine the timing of the gunpowder injection and the ignition by the angular displacement of the servo motor. The position and direction of movement of the slider could be uniquely determined by the angle and direction of rotation of the cylindrical cam, the position and the moving direction of the rotary lock as well as the combustion chamber could be uniquely determined by the position and direction of the slider. So as long as the timing of the assembly between the servo motor and the cylindrical cam is determined, the time requirements of the whole system could be solved. As shown in Figure. 7, the present embodiment uses a semi-circular camshaft to connect the servo motor and the cylindrical cam, which completely eliminates the timing problems caused by the assembly. [54] The plunger is a relatively central part of the system, the plunger has to withstand the high temperature and high pressure produced by the explosion in order to provide the gas tightness to the combustion chamber, it also needs to accommodate the ignition device and be the nozzle of the liquid gunpowder. As shown in Figure 8, the structure of the ignition device on the plunger could refer to the manufacturing process of the car spark plus , considering that the maximum chamber pressure could reach 430 MPa, therefore the plunger needs to be made of high strength steel and high strength insulating ceramic.

[55] Valve seat could be made of 6061 -T6 hard aluminum alloy, valve has to

withstand the high pressure passed from the plunger, but also plays the role of connecting the solenoid valve and plunger, as shown in Figure 9, there are 2 cylindrical solenoid valve socket on the tail end of the valve seat, which can facilitate the plugging of the solenoid valve.

[56] The fuel and oxidizer of the liquid propellant may be pressurized and stored by means of a pressure vessel and then connected by means of a quick plug joint to firearm. The liquid fuel and the liquid oxidizer will each pass through a separate conduit into the respective pressure regulator, and finally get a constant pressure through the pressure regulator and then be injected into the two solenoid valve.

[57] In the present embodiment, the liquid propellant is mixed until it enters the combustion chamber, thereby ensuring the safety of such weapons.

[58] Considering the existing technical conditions, the using of pressure vessels to supply of liquid propellants for individual weapons is relatively realistic. Take 5.56 mm ammunition as an example, the shell charge is about 1.5 g, the volume of about 1.85 ml, considering that the liquid gunpowder energy/volume ratio is higher than the solid gunpowder, and the present weapon system has a higher gunpowder consumption efficiency, so the use of 450 ml pressure bottled liquid gunpowder meet requirements of continuous launching for at least 300 times.

[59] For the pressure that the vessel has to maintain, here is a simple estimation:

[60] Assuming that the weapon is designed with a firing rate of 600 rounds per minute (i.e., the rotational speed of the cylindrical cam is 600 rpm), the average time taken for each bullet launching is 00 milliseconds. As shown in Figure 6, in the fully automatic mode, the slider cam pin travelled from point A to point B, the cam rotation angle is about 90 degrees, during which EFCU will complete the gunpowder injection and ignition process, the ignition time is negligible, then the time taken for slider cam pin travelling from A to B is about Tj = 100 * 90/360 = 25 ms. The amount of liquid gunpowder injected each time is Cj = 1.5 ml, its flow rate Q, = 1.5 / 0.025 = 60 ml / sec, the injection nozzle diameter D, = 2 mm, and the gunpowder injection rate is D, 2 , then the rate can be calculated as

[61] When the solenoid valve is opened, the gunpowder will flow from the pressure regulator into the injection hole of the plunger through the valve opening and get into the combustion chamber by the injection hole. Assume that the constant pressure required for the pressure regulator to be maintained is P r , The flow rate in the regulator could be considered to be approximately 0, and the pressure Pj at the outlet of the plunger nozzle is approximately equaled to atmospheric pressure, ignoring the effect of the liquid level difference. According to the Bernoulli equation, P r =Pi+pVj 2 /2, where p is the density of the liquid gunpowder, which is approximately 1000kg / m3. From the previous calculated value, P r =

P,+0.183MPa=0.284MPa, it could be seen that in the ideal state P r is less than three times of the atmospheric pressure, even taking into account the viscosity of the liquid and the friction of the hole, P r should still be within the scope of implemented in practical production.

[62] Since the projectiles are much smaller than the complete shelled bullet,

therefore the magazine of this inventive weapon has a greater capacity potential to implement on drum magazine and cylindrical magazine. Herein, the present invention is incorporated by reference with The Top Mounted Longitudinal

Magazine (patent number US4905394A), which has been published in the United States in 1990 and has been in use for more than 20 years and now is free to use. The magazine has a simple, lightweight and large capacity, especially suitable for this embodiment. This patent magazine is currently used by P90 which is produced by Belgium Fabrique Nationale Company, the magazine length is about 28 cm, 50 capacity. The present embodiment uses 22 cm magazine, its capacity could reach 60 rounds. As shown in Figure 10, in this embodiment, the magazine is loaded above the cartridge receiver, which requires a slightly downwardly inclined angle to facilitate the projectile to enter into the bore. In addition, in the present embodiment, the magazine loading is different with P90, where the magazine is arranged at the rear of the firearm body, so that the arrangement of the hand and the guide rail will not be affected, as shown in Figure 11.

[63] EFCU is the brain of the whole system, is one of the most core components of the system, and it is consisted of hardware and related software components, the diagram of hardware modules is shown in Figure 12, the flow chart of software boot process is shown in Figure 13, the flow chart of EFCU operation is shown in Figure 14, and Figure 15 shows the EFCU shutdown flow chart. In the case with installation of environmental sensors, the EFCU will detect the firing parameters each time the trigger triggers, and the EFCU will obtain the actual parameters from the individual environmental sensor and determine the correction value for valve opening time by the interpolation algorithm.

[64] As electronic components used by the present weapon, all electronic

components and circuits in the entire embodiment need to meet the requirements of waterproof impact resistant and anti-electromagnetic.

[65] The overall layout of the gun is shown in Figure 16, using a 20 inch heavy

barrel, aluminum alloy hand guard and rail, engineering plastic buttstock and grip, the overall length of the gun does not exceed 790 mm, the height is less than 220 mm, the total weight is within 3.5 kg (including battery, but without magazine and liquid gunpowder tank). Wherein the fuel and the oxidizer tank may be made of aluminum alloy or other pressure resistant and corrosion resistant materials, and the inside thereof is filled with fuel and oxidizer respectively. The tank itself could be mounted and fixed by means of the rails on the lower part of the hand guard, with the outlet of the fuel and oxidizer connected to the quick plug valve on the gun.

[66] The foregoing is intended only as a preferred embodiment of the present

invention and is not intended to be limiting of the invention, and any modifications, equivalent substitutions, improvements, and the like, which are within the spirit and principles of the invention, must be within the scope of protection. Examples

[67]

Industrial Applicability

[68]

Reference Signs List

[69]

Reference to Deposited Biological Material

[70]

Sequence Listing Free Text

[71]

Citation List

[72]

Patent Literature

[73] PTL1 : US4905394A

Non Patent Literature

[74] NPL1 :