Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS RELATING TO CARNITINE- DERIVED MATERIALS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/226841
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Zwitterionic monomers, camitine-derived zwitterionic polymers, carnitine ester cationic monomers, carnitine ester cationic polymers, conjugate compositions including a carnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer, and related compositions' and methods are provided which have various uses including as coatings, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, encapsulation materials, and antifouling materials, among other utilities.

Inventors:
CAO, Zhiqiang (159 Aberdeen Dr, Troy, MI, 48098, US)
WANG, Wei (5200 Anthony Wayne Dr, Room 415Detroit, MI, 48202, US)
LU, Yang (5200 Anthony Wayne Dr, Room 415Detroit, MI, 48202, US)
Application Number:
US2018/036271
Publication Date:
December 13, 2018
Filing Date:
June 06, 2018
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY (5057 Woodward Ave, Suite 6400Detroit, MI, 48202, US)
International Classes:
C07C229/22; A61K9/127; A61K47/58; C07C227/16; C08F20/06; C08L33/04
Domestic Patent References:
WO2000061543A22000-10-19
Foreign References:
GB2071091A1981-09-16
US20060153775A12006-07-13
US20120183602A12012-07-19
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
STAPLE, Julie, K. et al. (Dinsmore & Shohl LLP, 900 Wilshire DriveSuite 30, Troy MI, 48084, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CL.

A e nritme-derlved zwitterionic monomer haying the structural formula

, where M is a monomerie repeating unit, Li is a linker, X- is a coimter ion associated with a cationie center of structure (I) and Y+ is a counter ion associated with an anionic center of structure (I).

2. The caniiiine-derived zwitterionic monomer of claim 1, where M is a repeating unit of a polymer selected from the group consisting of: polyester, polyarnide> poly(arnino acid), polyimide, polycarbonate, polysiloxane, polyurcthane, polyphosphazene, acrylic polymer, amin resin, epoxy resin, phenolic resin, and a!kyd resin,

3. The camitine-derived zwitterionic monomer of claim 1 or 2 wherein LI is where nl is an integer from 1 to 20, such as where nl is 3 ,

4. The earnitine-derived zwitterionic monomer of any one of claims I to 3, having: the structural, formula 11;

, where Rj is selected from the group consisting of; hydrogen, fluorine, triiluoromethyl, Cj-Cg a!kyl, and ¾~Cj2 aryi groups, X- is a counter ion associated with the cationie center of structure (II) and Y+ is a counter ion associated with the .anion center of structure (II)-

5. The carnitine -derived zwitterioaic monomer of any one of claims 1 to 4, having the slmetural formula Ila:

i0 , where X- is a counter ion associated with the cationie center of structure (Oa) and Y+ is a counter ion associated with the anio center of structure (lia).

6. A eamitine-derived zwttteriomc polymer having the structural formula

(IV):.

, where M is a mononieric repeating unit, Lj is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about 100005 X" is a counter ion associated with the eationic center, and Y+ is a counter ion associated with the anionic center.

7, The earnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer of claim 6, where M is a repeating unit of a polymer selected from the group consisting of: polyester, polyamide, poiy(amin acid), polyimide, polycarbonate, po!ysiloxane, poiyurethane, polyphosphazene,- acrylic polymer, amino resin, epoxy resin, phenolie resin, and afkyd resin.

8. The earnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer of claim 6 or 7 wherein 1,1 i - nl is an integer from 1 to 20, such as where nl is 3.

9. The camitine-derived zwitterionic polymer of any one of claims having the structural formula V:

, where Rj is selected .from, the grou consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, trifluoromethyl, Ci-Q alkyl, and Q-C^ -aryi groups, n is an integer from 1 to. about 10000, X is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and YT is a counter ion associated wife the anionic center.

10. The camitine-derived zwitterionic polymer of any one of claims 6 to 9, having the structural formula Va:

, where n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X" is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Y~ is a counter ion associated with the anionic center.

11. A carnitine ester cationic monomer having the structural formul (ΥΉ):

, where M is a monomelic repeating unit, Lj is a linker, X' is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Z is an alkyl, aryl,, acyl, silyl group, or substituted alkyl, ary L acyl, or silyl group.

12, A carnitine ester cationic monomer having the stmctural formula (VIII):

, where is a monomeric repeating unit, Lj is a linker, X" is a counter ion associate with the cationic center, and j is a protecting group,

13. A carnitine ester cationic polymer having the structural formula (XVI):

, where M is a monomeric repeating unit, Lj is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X" is a eounier ion associated with the cationic center, and Z is an alkyi, aryl, acyl, silyl group, or a substituted alkyi, aryl, acyi, or silyi group.

14. A carnitine ester cationic polymer having the structural formula (XVII):

, where M is a monomeric repeating unit, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X" is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Zj is a protecting group.

15. A method of synthesizing a camitine-derived zwitterionie monomer having the structural formula (I) comprising; combining carnitine or a carnitine salt, hydfoquinone and anhydrous •dimelhylf rmamide in a reaction vessel purged with nitrogen producing a mixture; heating the mixture to a temperature in the range of 40°C to 60°C, for a time in the range of 5 minutes to 1 hour, producing a first heated mixture;

adding acryloyl chloride to the first heated mixture;:

heating the first heated mixture to a temperature in the range of 70°€ to 90°C, producing a second heated mixture;

absorbing excess H.C1 from the second heated mixture while reacting the second heated mixture at a temperature in the range of 70° C to 90°C, for a reaction time in the range of 1 to 5 hours, producing a carnitine-derived zwitterionic monomer having the structural formula (I).

16. The method of claim 15, wherein the carnitine is L-carnitine and the carnitine salt is an L~camitine salt.

17. The method of claim 15 .or 6, wherein the carnitine or carnitine salt has a concentration in the range of about 0.01-2 ol L in dimethylformamide.

18. The method of any one of claims. 15. 16, or 17, wherein the molar ratio of the carnitine or carnitine salt to acryloyl chloride is in the range from about 20:1 to 1:20,

19. The method of any one of claims 1 to 18, wherein the molar ratio of hydroquinone to acryloyl chloride is in the range of about 1 :1 to 1:2000. 20. The method of any one of claims 15 to 19, further comprising purification of the earnitine-derived zwitterionic monomer.

21. A composition comprising a carnitine-derived polymer wherein polymer has structural, formula (XXV):

, where M is a monomerie repeating unit, Lj is a linker, n is an integer from. 1 to about 10000·, X" is a counter ion. associated with the eationic center, and Y+ is- a counter ion associated with the anionic center.

22. A composition comprising a carnitine-derived polymer wherein the polymer has structural formula (XXVil)i

(XXVii)

, where M is a monomerie repeating unit, L\ is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X" is a counte ion associated with the eationic center, and Y i a counter ion associated with the anionic, center.

23. A conjugate composition comprising a carni tine-derived zwitterionie polymer eovalentSy coupled to a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent, wherein the carnitine-derived zwltterionic polymer has structural formula (TV), (V), or (Va),

24. The conjugate composition: of claim 2:3 wherein the carnitine-derived zwiiterionic polyme is covalently coupled to a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent b a degradable linkage between th polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent, and wherein the caniitine-derived zwitterionic polymer has structural formula (TV), (V or (Va). 25, The conjugate composition according to claim 24, wherein the degradable linkage between the polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent is degradable, allowing the release of the agent in a particular environment

26, The conjugate composition of any one of claims 23, 24, or 25 wherein the conjugate composition comprises a plurality of conjugates, and wherein the plurality of conjugates are- associated to form an assembly,

27, The conjugate composition of claim 26, wherein the assembly is in the form of a micelle or a particle.

28, The composition of any one of claims 23 to 27, further comprising a pharmaceutically accepted carrier or diluent

29. A conjugate composition comprising a camitine-derived. zwitteriom polymer covalentiy coupled to a vesicle-forming lipid, wherein the camitine-derived zwitterionic polymer has the structural formula (IV), ( V), or (Va).

30. The conjugate composition of claim 29, wherein the lipid is distearoy!phosphatidyiethanolamme (DSEP), and wherein the conjugate; composition has the structural formula (XXVI)

(XXVI) , where M is a monomeric repeating unit, Lj is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X" is a counter ion associated with the oationic center, and Y+ is a counter ion associated with the anionic center.

5 31. The conjugate composition of claim 30, wherein the lipid is a phospholipid, sphingq!ipid, or a sterol.

32. The conjugate composition of claim 30, wherein the lipid is a diaeylphosp iatidyletlianolataine, a eeraniide, a sphingomyelin, a dihydrosphingoniyelia, ø a cephalin, or a cerebrosi de.

33. The conjugate composition of claim 30, wherein the lipid is a phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a phosphatidylglyeeroi (PG), aphosphatidie acid (PA), or a pnasphatidylinositol (Pi).

5

34. T conjugate composition of claim 30, wherein the lipid is selected from the group consisting of dioleoylphosphatidyig!yceiOl (DQPG), dipaimitoylphosphaiidyiglycerol (DPPG), dioleoyl-phosphatidyiethanolarnine (DOPE), palmitoyloleoyl-phosphatidylethanoiamine (POPE), dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl0 ethanolamine (DPPE), dimyristoylphosphoethanolamifie (BMPE), distearoyl- phosphatidy!ethano lamine (DSPE), 16-0-nionom.ethy -phospiioethanolaHiine, 16-0- diniethyl-phosphoeihaiiolaiiiine, 18- 1 -trans-phosphoeihanolamine, 1 -stearoyl-2-oleoyl- phosphatklyethanolamine (SOPE)¥ and 1 ,2-dioieoyl~sn-glycero-3-phophoethanolamine (transDOPE).

5

35 .. An assembly* comprising a pluralit of conjugates of an one of claims 30 to 34.

36. The assembly of claim: 35 wherein the assembly is in the form, of a0 micelle, a liposome, or a polymersome.

37. The assembly of claim 35 or 36, further comprising a pharmaceutically accepted carrier or diluent. 38, The assembly of any one of claims 35, 36, or 37, further coinprising a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent 39. A diblock copolymer, comprising (a) a earnitine-derived zwitlerionic polymer block according to struetorai fbrnmla (IV),. (V), or (Va), and (b) a non~ z itterionic block.

40. The diblock copolymer of claim 39, wherein the nofl-zwitterlonic block i a hydrophobic block.

4L The diblock copolymer of claim 39 or 40, wherein the non-zwitterionic block comprises a homopolymer or copolymer. 42. The diblock copolyme of any one of claims 39, 40, or 41, wherein the non¾witterionic block comprises a biodegradable copolymer,

43. The diblock copolymer of any one of claims 40 to 42, wherein the non- z itterionic block comprises a polymer selected from the group consisting of poIy(lactic- eo-g!ycolic acid), polycaprolactone, polygiycolide, polylactie acid, poly-3- hydroxybirt ate, polydio anone, polytrimethylenecarbotiate. poly(glycGiide~eo~ caprolactone), poly(glycoLide-co riniethyienecarbonate), and poly(dioxanoii-co- trimethylenecai-bonate-co-glycoiide). 44. The dibloek copolymer of any one of -claims .19 to 43, wherein the non- zwiiterionie block comprises a polymer selected from poly(iactic-c0-glycoHc acid) (PLGA), poly-(FIydroxyeihyl)metliacryiate (HEMA), poly-acrylamide (PAA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), alginate, polycaprolactone (PCL), polygiycolide (PG), polylactie acid (PL A), poly-3-liydroxybutyrate, pol ioxarione, polyirimetliyleneearbonate, polyCglycolide-co-eaprolactone) (MonocrylTM), poly(glycolide-co-trimethyleneearbonate) ( axonTM), and poly(dioxanon~cG- trimethylenecarbonate--eo-glycoli de) (BioSynTM) .

45. The diblock copolymer of any one of claims 39 to 44, wherein the hydrophobic block has a number average molecular weight from about 1,000 to about 200,000.

46. An assembly, comprising a plurality of diblock copolymers of any on of claims 3 to 45.

47. The assembly of claim 46 in the form of a micelle, a polyniersome, or a particle,

48. The assembly of claim 46 or 47, further comprising a phannaceuticalJ acceptable carrier or diluent.

49. The assembly of any one of claims 46 to 48, further comprising a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent.

Description:
METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS RELATING

TO CARN1TIN&-DERIVED MATERIALS

REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[000.1] This application claims priority from U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial Nos. .62/515,704, filed June 6, 2017;; 62/573,431 , filed October 17, 2017; and 62/623,844, filed January 30, 2018. The entire content of each application is incorporated herein by reference.

GRANT REFERENCE

{ ' 0002] This invention was made with government support under Grant No. DM I 4:10853, awarded by the NSF and Gran No, DP2DK1 1 1910, awarded by the NI.H. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0003] According to general aspects, earnitme-derived monomers and polymers are provided, along with methods of their synthesis. According to specific aspects, L- carnitine-derived monomers and polymers are provided, along with methods of their synthesis.

BACKGROUND Of THE INVENTION

[0004] Zwitterionie materials, such as (PGB), poly- suifobetaine (PSB) and poly-phosphory!cholme (PPC), have been intensely studied for applications in the fields of biomedical devices and marine coating industry as an effective anti -fouling strateg to avoid protei binding: and microorganism adhesion. Currently, most of these betaine polymers or monomers are synthesized from petrochemical derivatives. As globai fossil fuel, dwindles, there is a continuing need for methods and -compositions relating to zwitterionie materials produced from natural feedstock, such as carnitine-derived zwiiterionic materials and L-carnitine-derived zwitterionie materials.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

0005] Camitine-deriyed zwitterionie monomers having the structural formula (I);

are provided according to aspects of the present invention, where M is a monomelic repeating unit, Lj is a linker, X- is a counter ion associated with a eaiionic center of structure (I) and Y+ is a counter ion associated with an anionic center of structure (ί). According to aspects of the present invention, M is a repeating uni t of a polymer selected from the group consisting of: polyester, po!yamide, poly(amino acid), polyimide, polycarbonate, polysiloxane, polyurethane, polyphospbazene, acrylic polymer, amino resin, epoxy resin, phenolic resin, and alkyd resin. According to aspects of the present invention, LI is an integer from 1 to 20, such as where nl is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, % 10, . 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or 20,

-derived zwitterionic monomers having the structural formula (II):

are provided according to aspects of the present invention, where Ri is selected from the group consisting of: hydrogen, fluorine, triiluoromethyl, Ci-Cg a!kyS, and Q-Cn aryl groups, X- is a counter i on associated with the catiomc center of structure (II) and Y+ is a couiiter ion associated with the anion center of structure (II);.

[0007] Carnitine-derived zvvitterionic monomers having the structural formula (Ila):

are provided according to aspects of the present in vention, where X- is a counter ion associated with the eationie center of structure (lia) and Y- is a counter ion associated with the anion center of structure { lia).

[0008] Camltine-derived zwitterionic polymers havin the structural formula. (IV):

are provided according to aspects of the present, invention, where M is a rnonomerie repeating unit, Lj is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about IGOOO, X " is a counter ion associated with the eationie center, and Y + is a counter ion associated with the anionic, center. According to aspects of the present, invention, M is a repeating unit of a polymer selected from the group consisting of: polyester, polyamide, poiy(amino acid), polyimide, polycarbonate, polysiloxane, polyiu¾thane, poiypbosphazene, acrylic polymer, amino resin, epoxy resin, phenolic resin, and alkyd resin.

[0§f)9] According t aspects of the present invention, LI is or - C( ))NH-(CH2) n j- 'where nl is an integer from 1 to 20, such as where nl i 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 . 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 1,7, 18, 19, or 20.

BOiOi Carni tine-derived zwitterionic polymers having the structural formula (V):

are provided according to aspects of the present invention, where R { is. selected, from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, trifluoromethyl, Ci-C* alkyl, and C § -<¾ aryl groups, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X " is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and is a counter ion associated with the anionic center,

Carnitine-derived zwitterionic polymers having the- tructural formula (Va):

are provided according, to aspects of the present invention, where n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X " is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Y ÷ is a counter ion associated with the anionic center,

[0012] Carnitine ester cationic monomers having the structural formula (V ΪΓ):

ar provided according to aspects of the present invention,, where M ' is a monomelic repeating unit, Li is a linker, X " is a counter ion .associated with the cationic center, and Z is an alkyl, ar yl, acyi, silyl group, or a substituted, alkyl, aryl, aeyl, or silyl group.

[0013] Carnitine ester cationic monomers having the structural formula (VIII):

are provided according to aspects of the present invention, where M is a monomelic repeating unit, Lj is a linker, X " is a counier ion associated with the cationic center, and Zj is a protecting group.

[0014] Carnitine ester cationic polymers having the structural formula (XVI):

are provided according to aspects of the present invention, where M is a monomelic repeating unit, Li is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X " is a counter ion associated with the eationic center, and Z is an alkyl, aryl, aeyl, silyl group, or a substituted alkyl, aryl, aeyl, or silyl group.

;[0β15} Carnitine ester eationic polymers having the structural formula (XVU):

(XVII) .are provided according to aspects of the present invention, where M is a monomelic repeating unit, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000,, X *" is a counter ion associated with the cationie center, and Zi is a protecting group,

[O016 Conjugate compositions including earnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer covalently coupled to a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent are provided according to aspect of the present invention, wherein the earnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer has structural formula (IV),- (V), or (Va).

|0017] Compositions including a camitine-derived polymer wherein the polymer has structural formula (XXV):

X (XXV)

are provided according to aspects of the present invention, where M is a monomelic repeating unit, Lj is a linker, n is an integer from- 1 to about 10000, X " is a counter ion associated with the cationie center, and r is a counter ion associated with the anionic center.

[0018] Composition comprising a earnitine-derived polymer wherein the polymer has structural formula XX II):

(XXVII) are provided according to- aspects of the present invention, where M is a monomelic; repeating unit, Lj is a linker,, n is an integer from 1 to about ΙΟΟΟΟ,. X " is .a counter ion associated with the eationie center, and Y + is a counter ion associated with the anionic center.

[0019] Conjugate compositions including a carnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer covalently eoupled to a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent by a degradable linkage between the polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent .are provided according: to aspects of the present invention, wherein the carnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer has structural formula (IV), (V), or (Va), Optionally, the conjugate composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent,

[ 020J Conjugate compositions including a carnitiiie-derived zwitterionic polymer covalently coupled to a therapeutic .and/or -diagnostic agent by a degradable linkage between the polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent are provided according to aspects of the present invention, wherein the camitine-derived zwitterionic polymer has structural formula (IV), (V), or ( a), and wherein the degradable linkage between the polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent is degradable under certain conditions corresponding to conditions, suitable- for degradation of the specific linkage, examples of which are- described herein, allowing the release of the agent in a particular environment. Optionally, the conjugate composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent,

[0021] Compositions including a plurality of conjugates including a carmiine- derived zwitterionic polymer -covalently- coupled to a therapeutic and/or diagnostic- agent by a degradable linkage between the polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent are provided according to aspects of the present invention, wherein the eamitme-deriyed. zwitterionic polymer has structural formula (IV), ( V). or (V a), and wherein the plurality of conjugates is associated to form an assembly, such as, but not limited -to, a micelle or a particle. Optionally,; the conjugate composition includes a pharmaceutically ' acceptable carrier or diluent.

|0022] Compositions including a plurality of conjugates includin a carnitine- derived zwitterionic polymer covalently coupled to a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent by a degradable linkage between the polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent are provided according to aspects of the present invention,, wherein the carnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer is eovalently eoupled to a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent by a degradahle linkage between th polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent, wherein the camitine-derived zwitterionic polymer has structural formula (IV), (V), or (Va), wherein the degradable linkage between the polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent is degradable under certain conditions corresponding to conditions suitable for degradation of the specific linkage, examples of which are described herein, allowing the release of th agent in a particular environment, and wherein the plurality of conjugates is associated to form an assembly, such as, but not limited to, a micelle or a particle. Optionally, the conjugate compositio includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent,

[0023] Conjugate compositions including a carnitiiie-derived zwitterionic polymer covalenil coupled to a vesicle-forming lipid are provided according to aspects of the present invention, wherein the camitine-derived zwitterionic polymer has the structural formula (W), (Vj, or (Va). An assembly composition including a plurality of the conjugates is provided by the present invention. The assembly composition can be in the form of a micelle, a Liposome, or a polymersome. According to aspects of the present invention, the- assembly composition, such as a micelle, a liposome, or a polymersome, further includes a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent. Optionally, the assembl composition include a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.

[002:4 Conjugate compositions including a camitine-derived zwitterionic polymer eovalently coupled to a vesicle-forming lipid are provided according to- aspects of the present invention, wherein the earniiine-derived zwitterionic polymer has the structural formula (IV), (V), or (Va), wherei the lipid is a phospholipid, a sphingolipid, or a sterol An assembly composition including a plurality of the conjugates is provided by the present invention, The assembly composition can. be in the form of a micelle, a liposome, or a polymersome. According to aspects of the present invention, the assembly composition, such as a micelle, a liposome, or a polymersome, further includes a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent. Optionally, the assembly composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.

{00251 Conjugate compositions including a earnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer eovalently coupled to a vesicle-forming lipid are provided accordin to aspects of the present invention, wherein the camitine-derived zwitterionic polymer has the structural formula (IV), (V), or (Va), wherein the lipid is a diacylphosphaiidyieihanoiamine, eeramide, a sphingomyelin, a dihydrosphmgomyelin, a cephalin, o a cerebroside. An assembly composiiion including a plurality of the conjugates is provided b the present invention,. The assembiy composition can e in, the form of a micelle, a liposome, or a polyrnersome. According to aspects of the present invention, the assembly composition, such as a micelle, a liposome, or a polyrnersome, further includes a therapeutic arid or diagnostic agent. Optionally, the assembiy composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent,

[00261 Conjngate compositions including a camitine-derived zwitterionic polymer eovalently coupled to a vesicle-forming lipid are provided according to aspects of the present invention, wherein the camitine-derived .zwitieriome polymer has the structural formula (IV), (V), or (Va), wherein the lipid is a pliospliatidyiethanolamine (P£), a phosphatidylgjyeerol (PG), aphosphafidic acid (PA), or a phosphatidylinosiiol (PI). An assembly composition including a plurality of ' the- conjugates is provided b the present invention. The assembiy composition can be in the form of a micelle, a liposome, or a polyrnersome. According to aspects of the present in vention, the assembly composition, such as a micelle, a liposome, or a polymersorne, further includes a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent. Optionally, the assembly composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent,

P027] Conjugate compositions including a carni tine-derived zwitterionic polymer covalently coupled to a vesicle-forming lipid are provided according to aspects of the present invention, wherein the earnitine-derived zwiitexionic polymer has the structural formula (IV), (V), or (Va). wherein the lipid is selected from the grou consisting of; dioleoylphosphatidylgiycerol (DOPG), dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycero S (L)PPG), dioleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), palmitoyloleoyl-phosphatidyiethanolamine (POPE), dipalrmtoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DPPE), dimyristoylphosphoethanolamine (DMPE), distearoyl-phosphatidylefhanoSamine (DSPE), 16 ' 0-fiionomethyl-phosphoethanolarninei,. 16~0-dirriethYi- phosphoethanoiamine, 1 -stearoyi-2-oleoyl- phosphatidyethanolamine (SGPE), L2-dioleoy3-sn-glycero-3-phophoethanolaniine (transDOPE) and a combination of any two or more thereof. A assembly composition includin a plurality of the conjugates is provided by the present invention. The assembly composition can be in the form of a micelle, a liposome, or a polyraersoine. Accordin to aspects of the present invention, the assembly composition, such as a micelle, a liposome, or a polyrnersonie, further includes a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent. Optionally, the assembly composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.

{0028] Conjugate compositions including a earnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer covalenily coupled to a vesicle-forming lipid are provided according to aspects of the present invention, wherein the eamitine-derived zwitterionic polymer has the structural formula (IV), wherein the lipid is distearoylphosphatidyleihanoiamine (DS P), and wherein the conjugate composition has th structural fonnula (XXVI)

, where M is a monomelic repeating unit, Li is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X ' is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Y + is a counter ion associated with the anionic center-;. An .assembly composition including a plurality of the conjugates is provided by the present invention. The assembly composition can be in the form of a micelle, a liposome, or a polymersome. According to aspects of the presen invention, the assembly composition, such as a micelle, a liposome, or a polymersome, further includes a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent. Optionally, the assembly composition includes a pharmaeeutieally acceptable carrier or diluent.

[0029] Diblock copolymers are provided according to aspects of the present invention which include; (a) a eamitine-derived zwitterionic polymer block according to structural formula (IV), and (b) a non-zwitterionic block. According to aspects of the present invention, the hydrophobic block has a number average molecular weight from about 1,000 to about 200,000. An assembly composition including a plurality of the diblock copolymers is provided by the present invention. The assembly composition can be in the form of a micelle, a particle, or a polymersome. According, to aspects of th present invention, the assembl composition * such as a micelle, a particle, or a polymersome, further includes a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent. Optio ally, the assembly composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent. [0030] Diblock copolymers are provided according to aspects of the present invention which include: (a) a carnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer block according to structural formula (IV), (V), or (Va), and (b) a. nQE-zwiiterioiiie block, wherein the non- zwitteri nic block is a hydrophobic block. Accordin to aspects of the present invention, the hydrophobic block has a number average moiecuiar weight from about 1,000 to about 200,000. A assembly composition including a plurality of the diblock copolymers is provided by the present invention. The assembly composition can be in the form of a micelle, a particle, or a polymersome. According to aspects of the present invention, the assembly composition, such as a micelle, a particle, or a polymersome, further includes a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent. Optionally, the assembly composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent,

10031] Diblock copolymers are provided according t aspects of the present invention which include: (a) a carnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer block according to structural formula (IV), (V), o .(Va), and (b) a non-zwitterionic block, wherein the non- zwi tterionic block includes a homopolymer or copolymer. According to aspects of the present invention, the hydrophobic block has a number averag molecular weight from about L000 to about 200,000. An assembly composition including a plurality of the diblock copolymers is provided by the present invention. The assembly composition can be in the form of a micelle, a particle, or a polymersome. According to aspects of the present invention, the assembly composition, such as a micelle, a particle, or a polymersome, further includes a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent. Optionally, the assembly composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.

[it( 2j Diblock copolymers are provided according to aspects of the present invention which include: (a) a carnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer block according to structural formula .(IV), (V), or (Va), and (b) a non-zwitterionic block, wherein the non- zwitterionic block includes a biodegrabie copolymer, According to aspects of the present invention, the hydrophobic block has a number average molecula weight from about 1,000 to about 200,000. An assembly composition including a plurality of the diblock copolymer is provided by the present invention. The assembly composition can be in the form of a micelle, a particle, or a polymersome * According to aspects of the present invention, the assembly composition, such a a micelle, a particle, or a polymersome, further includes a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent. Optionally, the assembly composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent. [0033] Diblock copolymers are provided according to aspects of the present invention which include: (a) a eamitine-deriyed zwitterioiiie polymer block according to structural formula (IV), (V), or (Va),. and (b) a non-zwitterionie block, wherein the non- zwitterionie block incldues a polymer selected from the group consisting of oly(lactk- co-glycolie acid), polyeapro lactone, poSyglycolide, polylacfic acid, poly-3- hydroxybutyrate, poiydioxanone, polytrimethyienecarbonate, poly(glyeolide-co- oaproiactone), poiy(glyeolide~eo~trin½thylenecarbonate) ? a d poly(dioxano?r-co- trimeihyieiiecarbonate-co-giycolide). According to aspects of the present myention, the hydrophobic block has a number average molecular weight from about 1,000 to about 200,000. An assembly composition including a plurality of the diblock copolymers is provided by the present invention. T he assembly composition can he in the form of a micelle, a particle, or a polymersonie. According to aspects of the present invention, the assembly composition, such as a micelle, a particle, or a polymersonie, further includes a therapeutic arid or diagnostic agent, Optionally, the assembly composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.

[0O34J Diblock copolymers are provided according to aspects of the present invention which include; (a) a eamitine-deriyed zwitterionic polymer block according to structural formula (IV), (V), or (Va), and (b) a mon-z itierionic block, wherein the non- zwitterionic block comprises a polymer selected from poly(lactie-co-g3yco)ic acid) (PLGA), poSy-(Hydroxyethyi)metliacrylate (ΗΈΜΑ), poly-acrylamide (PAA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), alginate, polycaproSactone (PC! .), polyglyeolide (PG), polyiactic acid (PL A), poly-3-hydroxybuiyrate, poiydioxanone, poly rimethylenecarbonate ? poly(glycoIide~co~caprolactQrie) (MonocrylTM), poly:(glycolide~co-trimethylenecarbonate) ( axonTM), and poly(dio anon~eo-- trimethyienecarbonate-Go-glycolide) (BioSwTM), According to aspects of the present invention, the hydrophobic block has a number average molecular weight from about 1 ,000 to about 200,000. An assembly composition including a plurality of the diblock copolymers is provided by the present invention. The assembly composition can be in the form of a micelle, a particle, or a polymersome. According to aspects of the present invention, the assembly composition, such as a micelle, a particle, or a polymersome, further includes a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent. Optionally, the assembly composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent. [0035-j Accordin to aspects of the present invention, eamitine-derived zwitterionie

}:

(IV arc provided, where M is a monoffieric repeating unit, !..· is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X ' is a counter ion assoeiaied with the eaiionic center, and Y T is a counter ion assoeiaied with the anionic center, with the proviso that the polymer does not have or include the structure of formula XXX:

where i f R 2 , and R» are each independentl selected from hydrogen, alkvl, and aryi groups; Li is a linker that eovalently couples the polymer sidechain to the polymer ' backbone; X " is counter ion associated with the eaiionic center; M 1 is a metal ion, an ammonium ion, or an organic ion; L3 is a linker that eovalently couples two polymer backbones; n is an integer in the range of 2 to about 100,000; m is a positive non-zero integer; and m/n is i the range of Q, 1 % - 99.9%,

{0.036] According to aspects of the present invention, carnitine-derived zwitterionie polymers having ' the structural formula (IV) are provided, where M. is a monomerie repeating unit, L { is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X " is a counter ion associated with the eaiionic center, and Y ÷ is a counter ion associated with the anionic center, with the proviso that, the polymer does not have or include the structure of formula XXX where Ri, R , and R are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, irifluoromethyl, Ci-Q alkyl, and C $ -Cr2 aryl. groups; L j is is an integer from 1 to 20,

[0037] Methods of synthesizing a earnitine-derived zwitferionic monomer having the structural fonnula (I) including: combining carnitine or a carnitine salt, hydroquinone and anhydrous dimethylformamide in a reaction vessel purged with nitroge producing a mixture; heating the mixture to a temperature in the range of 40°C to 60°C, for a lime in the range of 5 minutes to 1 hour, producing a first heated mixture; adding acryioyl chloride to the first heated mixture; heating the first heated mixture to a temperature in the range of 70°C to 90°C 5 producing a second heated mixture; absorbing excess HC1 from the second heated mixture while reacting the second heated mixture at a temperature in the range of 70°C to 90 P C, for a reaction time in the range of 1 to 5 hours, producing a earnitine-derived zwitterionie monomer having the structural formula (I). According to aspects of the present invention, the carnitine or carnitine salt has a concentration in the range of about 0.01-2 mol L i dimethylfonnamide. According to aspects of the present invention, the molar ratio of the carnitine or carnitine salt to acryioyl chloride is in the range from about 20:1 to 1 :20, According to aspects of the present invention, the molar ratio of hydroquinone to acryio l chloride is in the range of about 1 :1 to 1:2000. Optionally, the method further includes purification of the eami tine-derived zwitteriomc monomer, (0038| Methods of synthesizing- a earnitine-derived zwitterionie monomer having the structural formula (I) including: combining L-camitine or an L-camitine salt, hydroquinone and anhydrous dimethylformamide in a reaction vessel purged with nitrogen producing a mixture; heating the mixture to a temperature in the range of 40°C to 60°C, for a time in the range of 5 minutes to I hour, producing a first heated mixture; adding acryioyl chloride to the first heated mixture; heating the first heated mixture to a temperature in the range of 70°C to 90°C, producing a second heated mixture; absorbing excess I ICI from the second heated mixture while reacting the second heated mixture at a temperatur in the range of 70°C t 90°C, for a reaction time in the range of 1 to 5 hours, producing an L-caraitine- derived .-zwi-tterionic monomer having the structural formula (I), Aecording to aspects of the present invention, the L-carniline or L-camitine salt has a concentration in the range of about 0.01-2 mol/L in dimethylformamide. According to aspects of the present invention, the molar ratio of the L-camitine or L-camitine salt to acryioyl chloride is in - 1.5 - the range from about 20:1 to 1:20. According to aspects of the present invention, the molar ratio of hydroquinone to acryloyl chloride is in the range of about 1 :1 to 1 :2000, Optionally, the method further includes purification of the L-carni tine-derived zwitterionie monomer.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0039] FIGURE 1 is a diagram showing a synthetic scheme for an L-camitine derived zwitterionie acryiate monomer called L-carnitineMA monomer herein;

[0040] FIGURE 2 shows H 1 NMR characterization of ' L-eamitine A monomer;

[0041] FIGURE 3A shows atomic force microscop (AFM) images comparing a. bare gold surface with an L-carnitineMA polymer brush surface;

[0042] FIGURE 3B is a graph showin adsorption of 1 mg/mL fibrinogen and lysozyme in PBS buffer on L-carnitineMA polymer coated gold surface as determined by SPR;

[0043] FIGURE 4A is an image showing an E, eol adhesion test on a bare gold ■surface.;

[0044] FIGURE 4B is an image showing an E. eoli adhesion test on a PCBMA polymer brush coating;

[0045] FIGURE 4C is an image showin an E. eoli adhesion test on an L- cariiitineM A polymer brush coating;

[0046] FIGURE. 4D is a graph showing calculated bacteria adhesion density by comparison of th number of bacteria per 100 square microns on a bare gold surface, a PCBMA coated gold surface., and a poly-L-cai-mtineMA coated gold surface, Statistical analysis: one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni multi-comparison,: ***: p < 0.0001, rus,: no significant differences, p > 0,5, Scale bar = 10 μπ

i[0O47] FIGURE. 5 A is a graph showing results of a protein binding, test on HEM A, poly~L-carniiineM and PCBMA hydrogel;

[0048] FIGURE SB is an optical image of poly-L-cami.tineMA. hydrogel;

[0049] FIGURE 6 shows I V NMR characterization of L-carmtine; and

[0050] FIGURE 7 is an image showing measurement of scratch depth on the L~ carnitineMA polymer brush surface, scale bar - 1 μηι,

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION [0051] Carnitine derived zwiiteriome materials, methods of synthesizing carnitine derived zwitteriome materials and methods of using carnitine- derived zwitterionic materials are provided according to aspects of the present invention,

[0052J Carnitine ester materials, methods of synthesizing carnitine ester materials, and methods of using carnitine ester materials, are provided according to aspects of the present invention.

[0053] General and specific chemical structures of carnitine derived zwitterionic materials and carnitine ester materials ate shown herein below. Several variables associated with the -structures- shown, mcludkig M, Li, Z, Zi, X-, Y+ and ¾ are described here and these definitions apply in each structure where the variable is present.

[00S4J The monomeric repeating unit, M, Is not particularly limiting and can be, for example, suitable monomeric repeating units include repeating units for polyesters, poi amides, poly(amino- acids), polyimides, polycarbonates:, polysfloxanes, polyurethanes, polyphosphazenes, acrylic polymers, amin resins, epoxy resins, phenolic resins, and aikyd resins,

[0055] Li is a linker that covalently couples the carnitine molecule to the monomeric repeating unit. Representative L¾ groups include and - where nl is an integer from 1 to 20 (e.g., 3).

[0056] X " is a counter ion associated with the cationic center. The counter ion X ' can be the counter ion that results from the synthesis of the -cationic- polymers or the monomers (e.g., halides such as CI " , Br " , and Γ). The counter ion X " that: is initially; produced from the synthesis of the cationic center can also be exchanged with other suitable counter ion to provide polymers having controllable hydrolysis properties and other biological, properties. Representative- hydrophobic counter ion X " include carboxyiates, such as benzoic acid and fatty acid anions (e.g.,

1-19); alkyl sulfonates (e.g., CH 3 (CH 2 ) n SO. where n = 1-19); salicylate; lactate; bis(tri:tluoromethyIsulfonyl)amide anion (N " (S!(¾CF3) 2 ) and derivatives thereof. Other counter ions X " also can be chosen from halides such as chloride, bromide, iodide, sulfate; nitrate; perchlorate (CIO 4 ); tetraimorohorate (BF 4 ); hexafl-UorGphosphate (PFg) trifluoromethylsulfonate (SO 3 CF 3 ); and derivatives thereof. Other suitable counter ions X " include hydrophobic counter ions and counter ions having therapeutic activity (e.g., an antimicrobial agent, such as salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid), benzoate, and lactate, WS1 Y : is a counter ion associated with the anionic: center. At each occurrence is a metal ion (e.g., sodium, lithium, potassium, calcium), ammonium ion (e.g., R , where each R is the same or different and selected from-, hydrogen, alkyl, and aryl), or an organic ion.

[0058] Z is an alkyl, aryl, aeyl, o silyl group, where the alkyl, aryl, ae i, : or silyl grou is optionally further substituted with one or more sufestituents. According to particular aspects Z is selected from Cj-Cao alkyl, Ca~C \ i aryl, cyclic alkyl (e.g., isobornyl, eyelohexyl, cyclopeniyl), and fluoroalkyl (e.g., perflttorobutyL perfluoroethyl).

[0059] By wa of non-limiting example, Z 5 can be selected from, hut not limited to, tert-butyl (Bu), 2-chlorotrityI (2-Cl-Trt , 2,4~di ethoxybenzyl (Dmb), 2-phenyiisopropyl (2-PhiPr), 5-phenyi-3,4-ethyienedioxythenyl (phenyl- ED()Tn), and a derivative of any thereof; or a benzyl group and a derivative thereof.

[0060] Rj is selected from, the group consisting of: hydrogen, fluorine, triiluoromethyl, d-Q-alk i, and€$-Cn aryl.

[0062] Carnitine derived zwitterionic materials pro vided accordi ng to aspects of the present invention include carnitine derived .zwi . tterionic monomers, their polymers,, copolymers,: lipid-polymer conjugates, protein-polymer conjugates, and hydrogels.

[0D63] Carnitine derived zwitterionic monomers.

A general structural formula for a earnitine-derived material which is a monomer is shown herei as structure (i);

, where M is a monomelic repeatin unit, Li is a linker, X- is a counter ion associated with the cationic center of structure (i) and Y+ is a. counter ion associated with the anionic center of structure (I). A specific structural foi ula for a carnitine-derived material which i a monomer is shown herein as structoe (Π)

, where ¾ is selected from the group consisting of: hydrogen, fluorine, trii¾oromethyl, Q-C f i alkyl, and (,~Cu aryl groups, X- is a counter ion associated with the caiionic center of structure (II) and Y+ is a counter ion associated with the anion center of structure (II).

[0065] A specific structural formula for a earmtme-derived material which is L- carnitine derived zwitterionic aerylate monomer is shown herein as stmctitre (ila)

, where X- is a counter ion associated with the cationio center of structure (Ila) and Y÷ is a counter ion associated with the anion center of structure (Ila).

|006 ' 6J A specific structural formula for a earnitine-derived material which is a monomer is shown herein as structure (ill)

, where Li is a linker that covalently couples the carnitine molecule to the ammo acid unit, X- i s a co unter ion associated with the cationic center of .structure- (III) and Y+ i s a counter ion associated with the anion center of structure (III).

[00671 A carnitine derived zwitterionic monomer according to aspects of the present invention can be a D-camitine derived zwitterionic monomer or an L-camitine derived zwitterionic monomer. Compositions according to aspects of the present invention include a D-camitine derived zwitterionic monomer, an L-camitine derived zwitterionic monomer or a mixture of both a D-earmtine derived zwitterionic monomer and an. L- carnitine deri ed, zwitterionic monomer,

[01)68] An L-camitine derived zwitterionic acrylate monomer (L-camiiineMA) is provided according to aspects of the present invention, shown i Figure 1.

[0069] Carnitine derived zwitterionic joiyniers

[0070] A general structural formula for a eamitme-derived material which is- a polymer is shown herein as structure (IV) :

, where M is a monomeric repeating -unit, Li is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X ~ is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Y ÷ is a counter ion associated with the anionic center, [0071] A specific structural formula for a carniiffie-derived material which is a

, where ]¾ is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine., trifluorometliyl, C C<, alkyl, and Cg-C^ aryi groups, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X " is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Y is a counter ion associated with the anionic center.

[0072] A specific structural formula for a carnitine-derived material which is a polymer of L-carmiine derived zwitterionic a.ery!ate monomer is shown herein as structure (Va):

, where n is an: integer from 1 to about 10000, X " is a counter ion associated with the eationic center, and Y + is a counter ion associated with the anionic center. [0073] A specific structural formula for a camiiine-derived materia! which is a polymer is shown herein as structure (VI):

, where Ll is a linker that covalently couples the carnitine molecule to the amino acid repeating units as shown and n is an integer from 1 to about 10000. Representative L; groups include and ~C( ::: Q)NH~{CH2) n i~, where nl is an integer from 1 to 20 ie.g„ 3),

[0074] M feods: of syathegi^ f carnitin derived zwifterionic materials

[0075] Provided according to aspects of the present invention Is a single-ste synthesis protocol to obtain a novel zwitterionic carboxybetaine monomer using carnitine as a natural product starting material, i.e. carnitine derived zwitterionic materials.

[ §§ 76] A method of synthesizing a eamitine-derived zwitterionic monomer having the structural formula 0) includes combining, carnitine, hydroqumone and anhydrous dimethylfbrmanilde according to aspects of the present invention. In one example, L-eamitine is used and the method includes; combining L-camitlne hydrochloride, hydroquinone and anhydrous dimethylfomianiide in a container purged with mtrogen to produce a mixture; heating the mixture to a temperature in the range of 40°C to 60°C i , such as 40°C, for a time in the range of 5 minutes t 1 hour, such as 10 minutes, t produce a first heated mixture; adding .acryioyl chloride to the first heated mixture; heating the first heated mixture to a temperaiure in the range of 70°C to 90°C, such as 80 S C, to produce a second heated mixture; absorbing excess HQ from the second heated mixture while reacting the second heated mixtur at a temperature in the range of 70°C to 90°C, such as 80°C for a reaction time in the range of i to 5 hours, such as 3 hours, producing a eamitme-derived zwitterionic monomer having the structural formula (I).

[0077] According to aspects of the present invention, the carnitine or carnitine salt monomer has concentration in the range of about 0.01 -2 mol L in dimethylfomiamide. The molar ratio of the carnitine or carnitine salt to aery!oyi chloride is, in the range from about 20:1 to 1:20. The molar ratio of hydroquinone to acryloyl chloride is in the range of about 1:1 to 1:2000,

[00783 According to aspects of the present invention, the carnitine or carnitine salt monomer has a concentration in the range of about 0.1 -I mol L in dimethyiformamide. The molar ratio of the carnitine or carnitine salt to acryloyl chloride is in the range from about 1:1 to 1 :10. The molar ratio of hydroqumone to acryloyl chloride is in the range of about 1 :500 to 1 : 1500.

[0079] According to aspects of die present invention, ^carnitine hydrochloride is the carnitine salt used and the L-earnitine hydi ichioride has a concentration of 0.2-0,5 mol L in dimethylfbrma-mide. The molar ratio of L~carnitine hydrochloride to acryloyl chloride ranges from 1:2 to 1 :6. The molar ratio of hydfoquinGrte/ acryloyl chloride is 1:1000.

[0080] A method of synthesis of a purified carnitine-derived zwitterionic, monome having the straetural formula (1) optionally includes purification of the carnitine-derived zwitterionic monomer..

[0081] Optionally, the purification includes removal of excess acryloyl chloride to produce a purified camitine-derived zwitterionic monomer having the structural formul (I),

[0082] I a further option, the purification includes precipitation of unreacted L- carnitine hydrochloride to produce precipitated L-camitine hydrochloride and removal of the precipitated L-earnitine hydrochloride to produce a purified camitme-derived zwitterionie monomer having: the structural formula (I),

[0083] in a further option, purification includes precipitating the camitine-derived zwitterionic monomer having the structural formula (I).

[0084] In a still, further option, purification includes dissolving the precipitate in anhydrous methanol stirred with activated charcoal at a temperature in the range of 30°C to 50°C, such as 40 °C, for a time in the range of 30 minutes to 5 hours, such as 2 hours, to produce an activated charcoal mixture; centrifuging the activated charcoal mixture to produce a pellet and supernatant;, adding diethyl ether to the supernatant, producing a supernatant mixture and drying the supernatant mixture under vacuum to produce a purified caraitine-derived zwitterionic monomer havin the structural formula (I) in powder form. [0085] A zwitterionic monomer (L-camitineM A) according to aspects of the present invention was prepared by a single-ste reaction accordin to farther aspects of the present invention including reacting L-caroiiine with acryloyl chloride as show in Figure 1 and described in Example 1.

[0086] Polymer coatings according to aspects of the present invention were prepared b atom-transfer radical-polymerization (ATRP) and hydrogels through crosslinking, and the anti -fouling performance was verified using surface piasmon resonance (SPR) sensor and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test to quantify protein: adsorption, and assays to evaluate bacterial adhesion.

| 087] Carnitine derived zwitterionic- materials provided by the present invention are useful in various ways such as, but not limited to, polymer surface coatings with superior antifouling performance, bulk hydrogel materials with superior antifouling performance; cell encapsulation materials; tissue engineering materials; and drug delivery carriers.

[0088] Carnitine derived zwitteriome material: polymer modified therapeutic and diagnostic agents

[§089] A conjugate is provided according to aspects of the present invention, wherein a earnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer is covalently coupled to a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent wherein the earnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer has the structural formula (IV).

[0090] A conjugate is provided according to aspects of the present invention, wherein a earnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer is covalently coupled to a therapeutic .and/or diagnostic agent, wherein the earnitine-derived zwitteriome polymer has the structural formula shown below, wherein R2, R3, R4, R5, and R6 is each independently selected from a reactive functional group such as but not limited to, amine group, hydroxy! group, aldehyde group, carboxylic acid group, etc., wherein each of M. Ml, and M2 is independently a monomelic- repeating unit, L. , Li is each independently a linker, n, nl, ;x2 is each independently an integer from 1 to about 10000, X " is a counter io associated with the cationic center, and Y + is a counter io associated with the anionic center, 100921

X

According to aspects of x e present invention, a conjugate including a carnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer covalently coupled to a therapeutic and/or diagnosti agent, wherein the carnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer has the structural formula (IV), is produced by reaction of a carnitine-derived polymer having a reactive functional terminal group with a therapeutic and/of diagnostic agent, generating the conjugate, as further described herein,

[0Θ96] A specific structural formula for a ca itine-derived polymer having a reactive functional terminal group is shown herein as structure (XXV);

XV)

, where M is a mononieric repeating unit, Lj is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X " is a counter ion associated with the canonic center, and Y '" is a counter ion associated with the anionic center.

{0.097] A specific structural formula tor a carnitine-derived polymer having a reactive functional terminal group is -shown herein as structure (XXVTI);.

(XXVII)

, where M is a nionomerie repeating: unit, L; is a linker, n. is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X " is counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Y * is a counter ion associated with the anionic center,

[0098] I certain embodiments, the therapeutic agent o diagnostic agent in the conjugate is selected, from -small molecules, organometallic compounds,, nucleic acids, proteins (including multimeric proteins, protein complexes, peptides), lipids, carbohydrates, hormones, metals, radioactive elements' and compounds, drugs, vaccines, immunological agents, and/or combinations thereof.

[0099] In some embodiments, the therapeutic agent is a small molecule and/or organic compound with pharmaceutical activity, in some embodiments, the therapeutic agent is a clinically-used drug, hi some embodiments, the drug is an anti-cancer agent, antibiotic, anti-viral agent, anti-H!V agent, anti-parasite agent, anti-protozoal agent, anesthetic, anticoagulant., inhibitor of an enzyme, steroidal agent, steroidal or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, antihistamine, immunosuppressant agent, antineoplastic agent, antigen, vaccine, antibody, decongestant, sedative, opioid, analgesic, anti-pyretic, birth control agent, hormone, prostaglandin, progestational agent, anti- glaucoma agent, ophthalmic agen anti-cholinergic, analgesic, anti-depressant, antipsychotic, neurotoxin, hypnotic, tranquilizer, anti-eon vulsant muscle relaxant, anti- Parkinson agent, anti- spasmodic, muscle contractant, channel blocker, an i-mifotie agent, anti-secretory agent, anti-tkrombotic agent, anticoagulant anti-eholinergie, β-adrenergie blocking agent, diuretic, cardiovascular active agent, vasoactive agent, vasodilating agent, anti-hypertensive agent, angiogenic agent, modulators of ' cell-extracellular matrix interactions (e.g. cell growth' inhibitors and anti-adhesion molecules), inhibitor of DNA, RNA, or protein synthesis and/or a combination of any two or more thereof,

(lOlOOj In certain embodiments, a small molecule therapeutic agent can be any -drug. In some embodiments, the drug is one that has already been deemed safe and effective for use in humans or animals by the appropriate governmental agenc or regulatory body. For example, drugs approved for human use are listed by the FDA under 21 C,F.R,§§330.5, 331 through 361, and 440 through 460, incorporated herein by reference; drugs for veterinary use are listed by the FDA under 21 C.F.R.f 500 through 589, incorporated herein by reference. All listed drugs are considered acceptable for use in accordance with the present invention.

[00101] A more complete listing of classe and specific drugs suitable for use in . the present invention may be found in Pharmaceutical ' Drugs: Syntheses, Patents, Applications by Axel Kleemann and Jurgen Engel, Thieme Medical Publishing, 1999 and the Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologieals, Ed, by Budavari et al, CRC Press, 1996, both of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[00102] In certain embodiments of the invention, the therapeutic agent is nucleic acid (e.g., DNA, RNA, derivatives thereof), in some embodiments, the nucleic acid agent is a functional RNA. In general, "functional RNA" is an RNA that does not code for a protein but instead belongs to class of RNA molecules whose members characteristicall possess one or more different functions or activities within a ceil. It will he appreciated thai the relative activities of functional RNA molecules having different sequences may differ and may depend at least in part on the particular eel! type in which the RNA. is present. Thus the term "functional R A" is used herein to refer to class of RNA molecule and is not intended to imply that all members of the class will in fact display the activity characteristic of that class unde any particular set of conditions. In some embodiments, functional RNAs include .RNAi-inducing entities (e.g., short· interfering RNAs (siR As):, short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs), and rnicroRNAs), rihozynies, tR As, rRNAs, RNAs useful for triple helix formation.

[00103] In some embodiments, the nucleic acid agent is a vector. As used herein, the term "vector" refers .to a nucleic acid molecule (typically, hut not necessarily, a D A molecule) which can transpoxt another nucleic acid, to which it has been linked., A vector can achieve extra-chiOniosoroal .replication and ' or expression of nucleic acids to which they are linked in a host cell. In. some embodiments, a vector can achieve integration into the genome of the host cell.

[00104] In some embodiments, vectors are used, to direct protein and/or RNA expression. In some embodiments, the protein and/or RNA to be expressed is not normally expressed by the cell. I some embodiments, the protein and/or RNA to be expressed is normally expressed b the cell, hut at lower levels than it is expressed when the vector has not been delivered to the cell In some embodiments, a vector directs expression of any of the functional RNAs described herein, such as RNAi-inducing: entities, ribozymes.

[00105] In some embodiments, the therapeutic agent may be a protein, or peptide. The terms "protein," "polypeptide," and "peptide" can be used interchangeably. In certain embodiments, peptides range from about 5 to about 5000, 5 t about 1000, about 5 to abou 750, abou 5 to abou 500, about 5 to about 250, about 5 to about 100, about 5 to about 75, about 5 to about 50, about. 5 to about 40, about 5 to about 30, about 5 to about 25, about 5 to about 20, about 5 to about 15, or about 5 to about 10 amino acids in size.

[00106] Polypeptides ma contain L-amino acids, D-amino acids, or both and may contain any of a variet of amino acid modifications or analogs known in the art.. Useful modifications- include, e.g., terminal aeetylatkm, arnidation. in some embodiments, polypeptides comprise natural amino acids, unnatural amino acids, synthetic amino aeids. and combinations -thereof, as described herein.

[00107] in some embodiments, the therapeutic agent is a hormone, erythropoietin, . . insulin, cytokine, antigen for vaccination, growth, factor, in some embodiments, the therapeutic agent may be an antibody and/or characteristic portion thereof. In. some embodiments, antibodies include, but are not limited to, polyclonal, monoclonal., chimeric (i.e., "humanized"), or single chain .(recombinant) antibodies, in some embodiments, antibodies have reduced effector functions and/or bispeeifie molecules, in some embodiments, antibodies include Fab fragments and/or fragments produced by a Fab expression library (e.g. Fab, Fab', F(ab')¾ scFv, Fv, dsFv diabody, and Pd fragments).

[00108] in some embodiments, the therapeutic agent is a carbohydrate, in certain embodiments, the carbohydrate is a carbohydrate that is associated with a protein (e.g. glycoprotein, proteoglycan). A carbohydrate may be natural or synthetic. A carbohydrate ma also be a derivatized natural carbohydrate. In certain embodiments, a carbohydrate may be a simple or complex sugar. In certain embodiments, a carbohydrate is- a monosaccharide, including but not limited to glucose, fructose, galactose,, and ribose. In certain embodiments,, a -carbohydrate- is a disaeeharide, including but not limited to lactose, sucrose, maltose, trehalose, and cellobiose. In certain embodiments, a carbohydrate is a polysaccharide, fflciuding but. not limited to cellulose, mieroerystaUIne cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), methylc-ellulose (M€¾ dextrose, dextran, glycogen, xanfhan gum, gellan gum, starch, and pullulan. In certain embodiments, a carbohydrate is a suga alcohol, including but not limited to mamvitol, sorbitol, xylito ' l, erythritol, malitol, and lactitol.

{00109] . In some embodiments, the therapeutic agent is a lipid, In certain embodiments, the lipid is a lipid that is associated with a protein (e.g., lipoprotein). Exemplary lipids that may be used in accordanc with the present invention include, but are not limited to, oils, fatty acids, saturated fatty acid, unsaturated fatty acids, essential fatty acids, cis fatty acids, trans fatt acids, glyeerides, rnonoglycerides, digiycerides, triglycerides, hormones, steroids (e.g., cholesterol, bile acids), vitamins (e.g., vitamin E), phospholipids, sphingolipids, and lipoproteins. [00110] In some embodiments, the lipid includes one or more fatty- acid groups or salts thereof, in some embodiments, the fatty acid group includes digestible, long chain (e.g., C8-C50), substituted or unsubsiituted ' hydrocarbons, in some embodiments, the fatty acid group Is one -or .more of butyric, caproic, caprylic, eaprie, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, hehente, or lignoeerie acid, in some embodiments, the fatty acid grou is one or more of palmitoleie, oleic, vaeeenlc, linoleic, alpha-linoienic, gamnia-linoleic, arachidoiiic, gadoleic, araehidonic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, or eruc-ie acid.

[OOlll ' l Diagnostic Agents;

[00112 in certain embodiments, -a conjugate according to the present invention: includes one o more diagnostic agents. In some eitibodiments, an included diagnostic agent includes commercially available imaging agent used in positron emissions tomography (PET), computer assisted tomography (CAT), single photon emission computerized tomography, x-ray, fluoroscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRl);: anti-emetics; and contrast agents. Examples of suitabl materials for use as contrast agents in Mill include gadolinium chelates, as well as iron, magnesium, manganese, copper, and chromium. Examples of materials useful fo CAT and x-ray imaging include iodine-based materials.

{00113] In some embodiments, a diagnostic and/or therapeutic agent included in a conjugate composition or the present invention is a radionuclide. Among the radionuclides used, gamma-emitters, positron-emitters, and X-ray emitters are suitable for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes, while beta emitters and alpha-emitters may also be used for therapy. Suitable radionuclides for use in the invention include, but are not limited to. 1231, 1251, 1301, 1311, 1331, 1351, 47Se, ?2As, 72Se, 90Y, 88Y, 97 u, lOOPd, lOlmRh,: 119Sb, 128Ba, 197H.g, 21 1 At, 212ΒΪ, 2J2Ph, 109Pd, 111 In, 67Ga, 68Cm, 67Cu, 75Bf, 77Br, 99mTo, 14C-, 33N, 150, 32P, 33P, and 18F«.

|04>1I4] In some embodiments, a diagnostic agent included in. a conjugate composition of the present invention is a fluorescent, luminescent, or magnetic moiety. Fluorescent and luminescent moieties include a variety of different organic or inorganic small molecules commonl referred to a "dyes," "labels," or "indicators," Examples include fluorescein, rhodamine, acridine dyes, Alexa dyes, cyanine dyes. Fluorescent and luminescent moieties include a variety of naturally occurring proteins and derivatives thereof, e.g., genetically engineered variants. For example, fluorescent proteins include green fluorescent protein (GPP), enhanced GFP, red, blue, yellow, cyan, and sapphire fluorescent proteins, reef coral fluorescent protein. Luminescent proteins include luciferase, aequorin and derivatives thereof Numerous fluorescent and luminescent dyes and proteins are known in the art (see, e.g..,. U.S. Patent Application Publication 2004/0067503; Valeur, B., "Molecular Fluorescence: ' Principles and Applications," John Wiley and Sons, 2002; Handbook of Fluorescent Probes and Research Products, Molecular Probes, 9th edition, 2002; and The Handbook— A Guide to Fluorescent Probes and Labeling Technologies,, invitregen, 10th edition, available at the invitrogen web site).

[00115] In some embodiments, a diagnostic agent included in a conjugate composition of the present invention is nanopartieles which can be detected by certain diagnostic methods, such as quantum dots, iron oxide, gold nanopartlcies, nano-rod or .nano-shell, carbon nanatube,. nano-sheet, silica protected nanopartieles or combinations of these nano-rriaterials.

[00116] in certain embodiments, such nanopartieles further include one or more therapeutic agents and/or one or more diagnostic agents.

[00117| In certain embodiments, reaction of a earaitine-derived polymer having a reactive functional terminal group with a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent, generates a conjugate wherein the linkage between the polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent is degradable,

[00118] in certain embodiments, the linkage between the eamitine-derived polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent is degradable under certain conditions, allowing the release of the agents at certain environment {e.g., the disease site).

[00119] In. certain embodiments, the linkage between the eamitine-derived polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent is hydmlysable including but not limited to a carhoxylate ester, a phosphate ester, a carbamate, ail .anhydride, an acetal, a ketal, an acyloxyaikyl ether, an inline, a hydrazone, an. orthoester, a thioester, a carbonate, a peptide, an oligonucleotide, etc,

[00120] in certain embodiments, the linkage between the eamitine-derived polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent is enzymatieall degradable including but not limited to a tobacco etch viru protease (TEY) cleavabie sequence, a trypsin cleavabie sequence, a thrombin cleavabie sequence, a cathepsin B cleavabie sequence, a cathespm D cleavabie sequence, a cathepsin K cleavabie sequence, a caspase cleavabie sequence, a matrix metalloproieinase, a phosphodiester, a phospholipid, an ester, a beta-g!aetose, etc., where the linkage is degraded by one or more enzymes.

[00121] In certain embodiments, the linkage between the camitine-derived polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent is cleavable under nucleophilic or basic condition, including but not limited to a dialkyl dialkoxysilane, a eyanoethyl group, a sulfone, an ethyl eneglycolyl di Succinate, a 2-N-acyl nitrobenzenesuLfonaiiiide, an alpha- thiop.henyiester, an unsaturated vinyl sulfide, a sulfonamide after activation, a malondialdehyde (MDA)-mdole derivative, a levuSinoyl ester, a hydrazone, an aeylhydrazone, an alkyl thioester, etc.

£00122] in certain embodiments, the linkage between the camitine-derived polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent is cleavable under reducing agents or environment, including but not limited to a disulfide, an azo compound, etc.

[00123] I certain embodiments* the linkage between the camitine-derived polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent is cleavable under photo irradiation, including but not limited to a 2-nitrobenzyl derivative, a phenacyl ester, a 8-quinolinyl benzenesulfonate, a eoumarin, a phosphotriester, a bis-arylhydrazone, a bimane bi- thiopropionic acid derivative, etc.

[00124] In certain embodiments, the linkage between the earaitine-derived polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent is cleavable under electrophilic or acidic condition, including but not limited to a parametho.xybenzyl derivative, a tert- butylearbarrsate analogue, a dialkyi or di ' aryl dialkox silane, an orthoester, an acetal, an aconityi, a hydrazone, a beta-thiopropionate, a. phosphoramidate, an imine, a trityl, a vinyl ether, a po!yketal, an alkyl 2-(diphenylphosphino)benzoate derivative, etc,

[00125] in certain embodiments, the linkage between the camitine-derived polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent is cleavable under oxidizing condition, including

[Θ0127] A method of synthesizing a carni tine-derived zwitterionic polymer- therapeutic or diagnostic agent conjugate includes, but is not limited to, cova!ent!y coupling a suitably funetionalized camitine-derived zwitterionic polymer (e.g., having an end terminal amino, earboxyUc acid, NHS ester group, or other functional group) or their hydrophobic derivatives (e.g., carnitine ester materials) to a therapeutic or diagnostic agent with suitable functional groups (e.g., having an carboxyiic acid, amino, thiol group, or reactive derivative thereof).

f 00128] A further method of synthesizing a carni tine-deri ved zwitterionie jjoiymer- therapeutic or diagnostic agent conjugate includes preparing a radical initiator based on the therapeutic or diagnostic agent (e.g., the agent functionalized to include a terminal radical initiator group) followed by polymerization of a suitable carnitine-derived monomer of the present invention, or a hydrophobic derivatives thereof (e.g., a carnitine ester monomer).

[00129] A further method of synthesizing a caraitine-derived zwit enonie polymer- therapeutic or diagnostic agent conjugate includes preparing a monomer based on the therapeutic or diagnostic agent (e.g., the agent functional ized to include polymerizable monomer group) followed by co-polymerization with a suitable carnitine-derived monomer, or their hydrophobic derivatives (e.g., carnitine ester monomer). In the cas when a carnitine hydrophobic derivatives) (e.g., carnitine ester monomer or polymer) is involved, a de-protection procedure is performed after the carnitine hydrophobic and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent(s) is eovakmtly linked to generate a zwiiterionic eaniitine-derived structure in the conjugate.

[00130] Reactive group terminated zwitterionie carnitine-derived polymers, such as an. NHS ester terminated zwitterionie carnitine-derived polyme and an amino group terminated zwitterionie carnitine-derived polymer according to aspects of the present invention can be prepared as described in Example 2.

[00131] An insiilin-zwitterionic caraitine-derived polymer conjugate according to aspects of the present invention was prepared by a coyalently- coupling reaction according to further aspects of the present invention including reacting NHS ester terminated carnitine derived zwitterionie polymer with amino groups on insulin.

[00132] A paclitaxel (TXL) zwitterionie carnitine-derived polymer conjugate according to aspects of the present invention was prepared by a copoiymerization of TXL derived monomer and carnitine t-Bu ester monomer, followed by deprotection of t- Bu groups.

[00133] Conjugates including a carnitine derived zwiiterionic polymer and a therapeutic agent and/or diagnostic agent provided by the present invention are useful in various ways such as, but not limited to, forming an assembly, comprising a plurality of the conjugates in the form of, but not limited to, a micelle or a particle, and forming a composition, comprising the assembly and a pharmaceutically accepted carrier or diluent. They are useful for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

[O0134J Carnitine derived zwitterionie material: Lipid-polymer conjugate

[00135] A conjugate is provided according to the. present invention including a carnitine-derived zwitterionie polymer eovalent!y coupled to a lipid, wherein the camitrae-detived zwitterionie polymer has the structural formula (IV),

[00136] A specific structural, formula for a caraitine-derived zwitterionie polymer covalently coupled to a lipid, wherem the eamitme-derived zwitterionie polymer has the structural formula (IV) and wherein the lipid is distearoylphosphatkiylethanolamirie

(DSPE), shown herein as structure (XXVI);

, where M is a fflono.mer.ic repeating unit, L| is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X " is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Y + is a counter ion associated with the anionic center.

[00137] In certain .embodiments, the lipid in a carnitine-derived zwitterionie polymer covalently coupled to a lipid, wherein the camitiiie-derived zwitterionie polymer has the struetarai formula (IV) is selected from synthetic lipids and naturally-occurring lipids.

[00138] In certain embodiments, the lipid in a camitme-derived zwitterionie polymer covalently coupled to a lipid, wherein the carnitme-derived zwitterionie polymer has the structural formula (IV) is a phospholipid, a spbingolipid, or a sterol.

[00139] in certain embodiments, the lipid in a carni tine-derived zwitterionie polymer covalentl coupled, to a lipid, wherein the eamitiiie-derived zwitterionie polymer has the structural formula (IV) contains, a reactive functional group, such as an amine group, hydroxyl group, aldehyde group, or earhoxyiic aeid group, at its polar head group, wherein the reactive functional group is suitable for reaction with a reactive group termmated zwitterionic carnitine-derived polymer resulting a conjugate wherein a camitine-derived zwitterionic polymer Is covalently coupled to a lipid.

[00140] In certain embodiments, the lipid in the lipid-polymer conjugate includes two hydrocarbon chains, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) 5 phosphaiidic acid (PA), or phosphatidylinosiiol (PI), where each hydrocarbon chain contain 3-24 carbon atoms in length and have varying degrees of unsaturation.

[00141] in certain embodiments, the lipid in the lipid-polymer conjugate is a diacylphosphatidyiethanolan me, a ceramide, a sphingomyelin, a dihydtosphingornyelm, a cepha!in, or a eerebroside. For the diacyl compounds, the acy! group is a fatty acid

10 group (e.g., C8-C4G),

[00142] In certain' embodiments, the lipid in the lipid-polymer conjugate is a diacylphosphatidylethanolamine or a diacylphosphaiidylglyceroL

[00.143] in certain embodiments, the lipid in the lipid-polymer conjugate is selected from the group consisting of dioleoylphosphatidylglyeeroi (DOPG),

I S dipalrnitoylphosphatidylglyeerol (DPPG), dioleoyl-phosphatidylethano [amine (DOPE), palmitoyloleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE), dipalm oyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DPPE), dimyristoyiphosphoethanolamme (DMPE), di ' stearoyl- phosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE), 16-0-monometliyl-phosphoethanolamine, 16-0- dittiethyl-pbosphoemanolairiine, 18-1 -trans-phosphoe&anolamine, 1 -stearoyl-2-o-leoyl- 0 phosphatidyethanolamine (SOPE), and l ,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phophoethan.olamine (iransDOPE).

[00144] Methods of syrahfegls of lipxd-poiymer conj gate

[00145] A method of synthesizing a earnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer-lipid conjugate- includes covalently coupling: a suitably functionalized lipid moiety (e.g., end 5 terminal amino) to a suitably functionaSized zwitterionic camitine-derived polymer (e.g., end terminal, earboxy group or reactive derivative thereof) or their hydrophobic derivatives (e.g., carnitine ester materials).

[00146] A DSPE-earnitine polymer conjugate according to aspects of the present invention was prepared by a covalently coupling reaction according to further aspects of 0 the present invention including reacting NHS ester terminated carnitine t-Bti ester polyme with DSPE followed by deprotection of t-Bu groups as described in Example 3.

[00147] Carnitine derived zwitterionic polymer-lipid conjugates provided by the present invention are useful in various ways such as, but not limited to, forming an assembly, comprising a plurality of the conjugates in the form of but not limited to a micelle, a liposome, or a polymerssome, forming a composition, comprising the assembly and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent, forming an assembly comprising a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent.

[00148] Carnitine derived zwitterianie material; dibloek copolymer

[00149] La one aspect, the inventio provides a camitine-derived material which is a dibloek copolymer. In one embodiment, the dibloek copolymer includes: (a) a zwiiterionic block according to structural formula (IV), and (b) a non-zwitterionie block, [00150] La one embodiment, the dibloek copolymer includes; (a) a zwitterionic block according to structural formula (IV), and (b) a hydrophobic block.

[00151] In one embodiment the non-zwitteriome block includes a omopolymer or copolymer

[00152] In one embodiment the non-zwitterionie block includes a biodegradable polymer.

[00153] In one embodiment the non-zwitterionie block includes a polymer selected from poiy(kctic-co-gIycolic acid) (PLGA), poiy-(Hydroxyethyl)methacrylate (HIMA), poiy-aciylarnide (PAA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), alginate, poly capro lactone (PCL), polygiyeolide (PG), polylaeiic acid (PLA), poly-3-hydroxybutyrate,. polydioxanone, polytrimethylenecarbanate, poly(glyeolide-co-caprolactone (Monocryl™), poiy(glyeolide-co-trimethylenecarbonate) (Maxon 1 M ), and poi (dioxanon-co- trimethyle-necarbonaie~co~glycolide) (BioSyn ' M ).

[0Θ154] In one embodiment the non-zwitterionie block includes a polymer selected from the group consisting of po!y(laetie-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), po!ycaprolaetone, polygiyeolide, poly lactic acid, poly-3-liydroxybutyrate, polydioxanone, polytrimethylenecarbonate, poly(glycolide-co-caprolaetone), poiy(glycoUde-co- trimethylenecarbonate):;, and poly(dtoxm on-co-:trimethylenecarbonate-eo~glyeolide).

[00155] I certain embodiments, the non-zwitterionic block has a number average molecular weight from about 1,000 to about 200,000.

[00157] ' A method of synthesizing a caraitine-derived zwitteriome polymer- containing dibloek copolymer includes preparing a radical initiator based on the non- zwitterionic block (e.g., the polymer functionalized to include a terminal radical initiator group) followed by polymerization of a suitable carnitine-derived monomer, or covalently coupling a suitably functionalized non-zwitterionlc polymer (e.g., having an end terminal amino group) to a suitably funetionalized zwitterionic camitine-derived polymer (e.g., having an end terminal carhoxy group or reactive derivative thereof) or their hydrophobic- derivatives (e.g., carnitine ester materials),

[00158} A PLGA-earmtine polymer block copolymer according to aspects of the present invention was prepared by a -cov-alently coupling reaction according to further aspects of the present invention including reacting N¾ terminated carnitine t-Bu ester polymer with COOH terminated PLGA followed by deproteetion of t-Bu groups as described in Example 4.

[00159] Carnitine derived zwitfceriome polymer based diblock copolymers provided by the present invention are useful in various ways such as, but not limited to, forming an assembly, comprising a plurality of the conjugates in a form such as, but not limited to, a micelle, a po!ymersome, or a particle, forming a composition, comprising the assembly and a pharmaceutically accepted carrier or diluent, forming an composition comprising a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent.

[00160] C¾m «¾.¾8t¾r ma erials

[0016.1] Carnitine esters are provided according to aspects of the present invention. Carnitine ester cationic monomers are provided according to aspects of the present invention. Polymers, copolymers, lipid-poly ef conjugates, protein-polymer conjugates, and hydrogels which incorporate the carnitine ester monomers and their reaction products are provided according to aspects of the present invention.

[00162] Carnitine ester cationic monomers

|O0163] A general structural formula for a carnitine ester cationic monomer is shown herein as structure (VII);

, where M is a monqmeric repeating unit, Lj is a linker, X " is counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Z is an alkyl, aryl, acyl, or silyl group, where the alkyl, aryl, acyl, or silyl group is optionally further substituted with one or more substituents. '• 00164] A general structural formula for a carnitine ester cationic monomer is shown herein as structure (ΥΙΠ) ;

, where M is a monomerie repeating unit, Li is a linker, X * is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Z \ is a protecting group.

100165] The term "protecting group ' as used herein, refers to a grou that masks or blocks a functional moiety,, e.g., O. The presence of the protecting group allows a reaction to be carried out selectively at another reactiv site in a carnitine ester cationic material. The protecting group is preferably selectively removable by well-known reagents that do not attack the other functional groups. By way of non-limiting example, As noted above. Zj can be selected from, but not limited to, tert-butyi (Bu , 2-chlorotrityl ί ' 2-Cl-T ' ri), 2,4-dimethoxybenzyl (Dmb), 2-pheny!isopropyl (2-PhiPr), 5-phenyl-3,4- ethy!enediox thenyl (phenyi-EDOTn), and a derivative of any thereof; or a benzyl group and a derivative thereof. These and other suitable protecting groups are described in Greene's Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis, P. Q. M. Wuts, 5th ed,, Wiley, 2014, the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference.

[00166] As an example, a typical condition for removal of tert-hutyl (Bii), 2- chlorotrityl (2-Cl-Trt), 2,4-dimethoxybenzyi (Dmb)^ 2-phenylisopr©pyl (2-PhiPr), 5- pheHyl-3,4-ethyienedioxythenyl {phenyi-EDOTn), ot a derivative of any thereof, is to treat a compound containing the protecting group with trifluoroacetic acid containing solvents.

00167] As example, a typical condition for removal of benzyl groups, or a derivative of any thereof, is to treat a compound containing the protecting group with NaB! u containing solvents.

[00168] A general structural formula for a carnitine ester cationic monomer is shown herein as structure (IX):

, where M is a monomeric repeating unit, Lj is a linker, and X " is a counter ion associated with the cationic center.,

[00169] As an example, a typical condition for removal of iert-butyl (Bu) protecting group shown in (IX) is to treat the compound with trifluoroacetic acid for 4 hours.

[0017 J A genera! structural formul for a carnitine ester cationic monomer is shown herein as structure (X)i

(X)

, where Li is a linker. X " is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, Z is an aikyl, aryl, aeyl, or silyl group, where the alkyl, aryl, acy!, or silyl group is optionally further substituted with one or more suhstituentSj and Ri is selected from the group consisting of; hydrogen, fluorine, trifluoroniethyl, CrC & alkyl, and Ce-Cra aryl.

[00171] A general structural formula for a carnitine ester cationic monomer is shown herein as structure (XI):

(XI) , where X " is a counter ίοη assoeiated with the cationic center, Zj is protecting group and | is selecied from the group eonsisting of: hydrogen, fluorine, trifluorometibyl, C ¾ - (¾ alkyl, and Q-Cu aryl.

[00172] A general structural formula for a carnitine ester cationic monomer is shown

(XII)

, where X " is a counter ion associated with the cationic center and ¾ is selected from the group consisting of: hydrogen, fluorine, triftuofomethyl, Ci-Cs -alky!, and Q-Co aryl, [00173! A general structural, formula for a carnitine ester eationie monomer is shown

, where Lj is a linker, X " is a counter ion assoeiated with the cationic center, and Z is an alkyl, aryl, acyl, o sil l group, where the alkyL ar h acyl, or siiyl group is optionally further substituted wit one or more .substituents.

A genera! structural formula for a carnitine ester cationie monomer is shown herein as structure (XIV);

, where Li is a linker, X " is a counter ion assoeiated with the caiionie center, and Ζ ' χ is protecting group.

[00175} A general structural forniiiia for a carnitine ester cationic .monomer is shown- (xv)

., L} is a linker, and X " is a counter ion associated with the cationic center.

[00176] Carnitine ester cationic polymer

[001 7] A general structural formula for a carnitine ester cationic material which is a

, where M. is a monomelic repeating unit, Li is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about .10000, X " is a counter ion assoeiated with the cationic center, and Z is a alkyl, aryl, aeyl, or silyl group, where the a iky I. aryl, acyl. or silyl group is optionally further substituted with one o more suhstituents.

[00178] A specific structural formula- for a eamitine-derivedjmateriai which is a polymer is shown herein as stricture (XYII):

, where M is a monomeric repeating unit, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X " is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and ¾ is a protecting group,

[00179] A specific structural formula for a earnitine-derived material which is a polymer- is shown herein as structure (XVIIi):

(XVIII)

, where M is a monomeric repeating unit, n is an integer from 1 to abou 10000-, X " is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Lj is a linke that covaleniiy couples the carnitine molecule t the monomeric repeating unit as shown.

{ΘΘ180] A general structural formula for a carnitme ester cationic material which is a

, where n is an mieger from 1 to about 10000, X " is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, Z is an alkyl, aryl, acyl, or silyl group, where the alkyl., aryl, acyf, or silyl group is optionally further substituted with one or more suiasti-tuents, and ¾ -is selected from the group consisting of: hydrogen, fluorine, trifluoromethyi, C Q alkyl, and Cg~ Ci-2 aryl. {00181] A specific structural fomrala for a carnitine ester eationic material which is a polymer is shown herei as structure (XX):

, E i an integer from 1 to about 10000, X " is a counter ion associated with the eationic center, Z ¾ is a. protecting group and ¾ is selected from the grou consisting of: hydrogen, fluorine, ttifiuoroniethyi, Ci-Cg alkyl and Ce ? aryL

[00182] By way of non-limiting example, Z ' i ca be selected from, but not limited to, tert-butyi (Bu), 2-chlorofrityi (2-Cl-Trt), 2 > 4~diniethoxybenzyl (Dmb), 2-phenyIisoprQ : pyl (2-PhiPr), 5-phenyl-3,4-ethylenedioxythenyi (phenyl-EDOTn), and a derivative of any thereof; or a benzyl grou and a derivative of a benzyl group.

[00183] A specific structural formula for a carnitine ester eationic material which is a

, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X " is a counter ion associated with the eationic center, and R> is selected from the group consisting of: hydrogen, fluorine, trifluoromethylv Ci-C ¾ alkyl, and C¾~C]2 aryl.

[00184] A general structural formula fo a carnitine ester eationic material which is a polymer is show herein as structure (XXII):

, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X " is a counter ion associated with the cationie center, L-. is a linker that covalently couples the carnitine molecule to the monomerie repeating unit, and Z. is an alkyl, aryi, aeyl, or silyl group, where the alkyl, aryi, acyl, or silyl group is optionally further substituted with one or more substituents.

[00185] A specific structural formula for a carnitine ester cationie material which is a olymer is shown herein as structure XXIII ;

, n is an integer from 1 to about lOOQO, Li . is a linker that covalently couples the carnitme molecule to the monomelic repeating unit, X " is a couirter ion associated with the cationie center, and Z \ is a protecting group.

!0018ό| A. specific structural formula for a carnitine ester cationie material which is a polymer is shown herein as structure (XXIV);

(XXIV) si Is art integer from 1 io about Ϊ ΘΘΟ0, Lj is a linker that eovalently couples the carnitine molecule to the monomenc repeating unit, and X " is a counter ion associated with the cationie center.

[00187] A specific structural formula fo a ear tine ester cationie material having a reactive functional terminal group, wherein the material is a polymer is shown herein as structure XXVIil):

(XXVIII)

, M is a monomelic repeating unit, 11 is an integer f om I to about 1-0000, Li is a linker that -eovalently couples the earnitine molecule to the monornerie repeating unit, and X ' is a counter ion associated with the cationie center,

|00188] A specific structural formula for a carnitine ester cationie material having a reactive functional teiiniiial group wherein the material is a polymer is shown herein as structure (XXIX):

, M is a monorneric repeating unit, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, Lj- is a linker that covalently couples the earnitine molecule to trie monomelic repeating unit, and X " is a counter ion associated with the cationie center.

Methods of s tith iS of eaitiiiine ester m terials [00190 Provided according to aspects of the present invention is a synthesis protocol to obtain a. novel carnitine ester material, exemplified in Example 5 herein.

[001 1 J Carnitine ester materials provided by the present invention are useful in various ways such as, but not limited to, use in synthesis of carnitine derived zwitterionic materials, as antimicrobial polymers, and as condensing/eomplexing polymer reagents for negativel charged proteins, genes or polymers.

100192} Assemblies

[00193] Assemblies, such as liposomes, micelles, poiymersomes and other particle assemblies are generated using well-known standard methods, such as described in Liao J et al, Recent advances in formation, properties, and applieations of polyiiiersoraes, Curr Pharni Des. 20I2;18(23),:3432-41; MxiUer L et al, Natural liposomes and synthetic polymeric structures for biomedical applications, Biochem Biophys Res Common. 2015, 468(3):4! ! -8; and Lu Y et al., Polymeric micelles and alternative nanonized delivery vehicles for poorly soluble drugs, Int J Pharm. 2013, 453.(1): 198-214. {00194] The term "liposome" refers to a bilayer particle of amphipaihic lipid molecules enclosing an aqueous interior space. liposomes are typicall produced as small ' miilammeliar vesicles (SUV's), large unilammellar vesicles (LUVs) or multilammellar vesicles (MLVs). A therapeutic and or diagnostic agent can be associated with liposomes by encapsulation, in the aqueous interior space of the liposomes, disposed in the lipid bilayer of the liposomes and/or associated, wit -the liposomes by binding, such as ionic binding or association by van der aals forces.

[00195] Liposomes, micelles, poiymersomes and other particle assemblies ' according to aspects of the invention are generally in the range of about 1 nanometer - 1 micron in diameter although the are not limited with regard to size.

[00196] Liposomes are generated using well-known standard methods, including, but not limited to, solvent/hydration methods, ethanol or ether injection methods, freeze/thaw methods, sonicatiott methods, reverse-phase evaporation, methods, and surfactant methods. Liposomes and methods relating to their preparation and use are found in Liposomes: A Practical Approach (The Practical Approach Series, 264), V, P. Torchilm and V. Weissig (Eds.), Oxford University Press; 2nd ed., 2003; N. uzgunes, Liposomes, Part A, Volume 367 (Methods in Enzymology) Academic Press; 1st ed., 2003; L.V. Allen, Jr. et al., Ansel's Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems, 8th Ed., Philadelphia, PA: Lippineott, Williams & Wilkins, 2005, pp. 663-666; aiid A, E, Oeiitiaro. Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 21st ed. ? .2005, pp, 766-767.

{00197] Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers and formulation of pharmaceutical compositions are known in the art, illustratively including, hut iot limited to, as described in Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy * 1 st Ed., Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, 2006; and Allen, L.V. ei al, Ansel's

Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems, 8 Ed,, Lippincott, Williams &: Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, 2005.

[00198] The singular terms "a," "an," and "the" are not intended to be limiting and include plural referents unless explicitly stated otherwise or the context clearly indicates otherwise.

[00199] Embodiments of inventive compositions and methods are illustrated in the following examples. These examples are provided fo illustrative purposes and are not considered limitations on the scope of inventive compositions and methods.

f0§2®0] Examples

ΟΘ2013 Example 1

{00202] Mi ¾ §

[00203] L-eamitme hydrochloride (>98%), anhydrous N,N~Dimethylfbrmarnide (DMF, : 99.8%), hydroquinone (99%), triethylamine (TEA, 99.5%), anhydrous dichloromefeme (DCM, 99.8%), anhydrous Diethyl ether (99%), eopper(I) bromide (99.9%), bromoisobutyryi bromide (BIBB 98%), l I-iBercapto-l-ittidecanol (97%), 2,2'- bipyridine (BPY 99%), and activated charcoal (DAR.CO, -100 particle size) were purchased from Sigma- Aldrlch Chemical Company, Milwaukee. Anhydrous Methanol (99%) and aeryloyl chloride (>96%) were obtained from Alfa Aesar, Therm Fisher Scientific. Alcohol (200 proof) was purchased fro Deeon Laboratories, Inc.

[00204] Sy and p lfi¾a : ion of the L-cam neMA monomer

[00205] Synthesis of the L-camitineMA monomer was achieved using a one- ste reaction, the scheme for which is shown in Figure 1. Briefl described, 1.97g L-carnitine hydrochloride ( 10 mraol) and 100 nig hydroquinone were added into 25 ml anhydrous dimetftylformamide (DMF) in a flask purged with nitrogen. The mixture was heated to 40 °C and stirred for 10 mins. Then 2.43 ml aeryloyl chloride (30 mmol) was dropped into the solution and the temperatare was raised to 80 ' -(. ' to react for 3 h. During the reaction, the flask was connected to a rube that leads to a liquid-seal ' bottle filled with triethylamine (TEA) to absorb excessive hydrogen chloride {HQ) from the reaction. The starting material L- carnitine hydrochloride graduall dissolved and the solution turned clear and brown.

[00206] It is critical to select the right solvent tor the one-step reaction to obtain L-camitmeMA monomer. Acryloyl chloride has to be dissolved in. a non- protic solvent to preserve its reactivity. L -carnitine on the other hand is hydrophilic and can hardly be dissolved in most non-protic solvents such as acetonitrile and DCM, as shown in Table 1. By increasing the temperature, L- carnitine hydrochloride can be paitially dissolved in DMF and dimethyl sulfoxide .(DM ' SO). Since DMSO drastically reacted with acryloyl chloride through Swern- oxidation, DMF was chosen as the solvent,

Chemicals TfC) DCM TUP EA CHCI3 Acetone AC ' N DMF DMSO

L-carrsitine 40 No No No No No No No partial hydrochloride 80 No No No No No No partial Yes

Lrcarnitrne. 40 No No o No No No No No inner-salt 80 No o No No No No No partial

Table 1: Solubility of L-caraitine hydrochloride and L-camitine inner-salt at 80 mg/ml in different solvent at 40· °C and 80 ¾ (No: not soluble; partial: partially soluble; Yes: soluble)

[00207] The reaction temperature was chosen at 80 °C since L~camiiine hydrochloride can be partiall dissolved in solvent DMF at this temperature to facilitate the reaction, in addition, maintaining high temperature (40 °C or above) is critical, since hydroquinone was oxidized to benzoquinane., which is a polymerization inhibitor, at lower temperatures and does not react with acryloyl chloride, leadin to side products. The data generated here show that at room temperature hydroquinone reacted with acryloyl chloride significantly (calculated Mw C12H 1.0P +H was 219,7, confirmed by mass spectroscopy of an tn z of 220.1 ).

[00208] In a typical reaction between a hydroxy group and acryloyl chloride, TEA is often used in such reaction- mixtures as the deacid reagent to increase reaction efficiency. However, TEA cannot be used in synthetic reaction systems of the present invention because: (I) it turned the L-carnitine from hydrochloride form to inner-salt form,, which was totall insoluble in D F even at 80 °C, see Table 1 ; and (2) at high temperature, the acryloyl chloride reacted with TEA significantly and produced side products that complicated the purification procedure,

[00209] After the single-step reaction described above, the rough product was purified as follows. The majority of hydrogen chloride generated and the excess amount of acryloyl chloride was removed under vacuum at room temperature by Stirring the reaction solution. The the resulting mixture was placed at -20 °C overnight. Unreacted L-carnltine hydrochloride was precipitated and removed by filtration. The resulting solution was further treated by anhydrous TEA where the L-carnitineMA monomer product, triethylamine hydrochloride and certain colored impurities were precipitated. The precipitate was. washed with dichloromethane (DCM to remove triethylamine hydrochloride and was vacuum-dried. To remove the colored impurity, the obtained product was dissolved in anhydrous methanol stirred with activated charcoal for 2 h at 40 °C. The supernatant was obtained by eetttrifugaiion, precipitated in diethyl ether and dried in vacuum-. L-carnitineMA monomer in the form of light-yellow powder was obtained at the optimized yield of~43 %.

[00210] Cha e ed^ion 0Tl,-c rnitineM Monomer

[00211] The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of L-carnitineMA was measured using a Yarian Mercury~400 MHz NMR, using the I¾0 as the solvent. The areas under the peak were calculated using mestrec23 software. The mass spectrometry was conducted on a Water Micromass ZQ ion trap mass spectrometer in methanol as the solvent,

[00212J As shown in Figure .2, the structure of L-carnitineMA monomer was confirmed with ' NMR,. Compared with NMR analysis of unreacted L- carnitine shown in Figure 6, it can be seen that L-camitineMA monomer showed three new NMR peaks (a, b and c) corresponding to the three hydrogens on the double bond structure. The area ratio of peak d (9 hydrogens from the quaternary ammonium structure) and peak b (1 hydrogen from the double bond structure) was 8.87, indicating no polymerization occurred during the monomer synthesis. The mass spectrometer -further confirmed the success of synthesis by giving, an m/z of 216.2 for the L-carnitineMA monomer (calculated Mw for L-earnitineMA+H was 216.4). {00214] SPR glass chip coated with surface plasmon activ gold layer was purchased from Institute of Photonics and Electronics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic, The gold surface was washed with DI water and pure ethanol, and then it was placed in an O-zone cleaner and heated for 20 mins. After cleaning, the chip was soaked overnight in the pure ethanol containing 1 mM ATRP initiator ω- raereaptoundeeyl ' bromoisobutyrate. The gold substrate was then rinsed with pure ethanol followed by tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dried in a stream of nitrogen. The L- caraitineMA polymers were grown onto the gold substrate by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Briefly, DI water and DMF were purged with nitrogen for 1 5 mins to remove oxygen. 21.4 mg CuBr and 46.25 rng 2,2'-Bi yridine (BPY), as well as the cleaned substrate, were added into a reaction tube treated with three vacuum/nitrogen cycles, 216 mg L-carnitineMA monomer (1 mniol) was added into another reaction tube treated with three vac-uum nitrogen cycles. 5 ml mixed solvent (DI water/DMT 2:1 volume ratio) was added to both tubes and the L-earaitineMA monomer solution was transferred to the tube containing, the gold chip using syringe. The tube was tightly sealed and the ATRP reaction was carried out with gentle stirring at room temperature for 3 h. After the reaction, the L-carnitineMA polymer coated substrate was immersed in DI water to remove unreacted L-caniitineMA monomer and other small molecules before the test,

100215] Coating: thickness e mmet¾yi¾ation

|00216 After ATRP, the polyme brush thickness was measured by surface ellipsonietr and atomic force microscope (AFM). The surface elHpsometry was perionned on an ellipsometer (a-SETM, J.A, Woollam Co., Inc.) and the thickness was calculated by the average of three measurements of different coating sites with an assumed gold surface refractive inde of 1,45, The AFM imaging of bare gold substrate and L~carnitine A polymer brush-coated gold substrate were conducted o a Dimension 31.00 AFM from VEECO. Samples were ' vacuum dried before imaging. An L- caniitineMA polymer brush coating was gently scratched with a sharp lancet to expose the coating section for ihickness measurement. The coating thickness and morpholog were measured in the air through the tapping mode using silicon probes (VEECO) with a nominal frequency of 150 kHz, The AFM images were analyzed using Nanoscope software version 5.12 (VEECO). [00217] It was found that the reaction temperature (room temperature or 40 Q C) and the reaction time (3 h or longer) did not affect, the coating .thickness significantly (differences les than 2%). The reaction solvent or mixed solvent, however, had a profound impact on the coating thickness as shown in Table 2, solvent Water D F Methanol .. / Film thickness (nmj

1 0 0 8,5 ± 1.3

1 1 0 16.4 ± 2.8

1 0 1 5.7 ± 1.2

Volume

0 0 1 2.3 ± 0.5

ratio

2 1 0 23.0 ± 3.8

2 0 1 7.3 + 1.9

1 1 1 6.5 ± 2.2

Table 2 L-caniitineMA polymer coating thickness on gold substrate obtained from different ATRP reactio solvent (average ± standard deviation, n-3)

[00218] It appeared that the use of methanol in the mixed solvent decreased the obtained polymer brush thickness. Water/DMF system was more suitable to grow L-earnitineM polymer films, and at. 2:1 water/DMF volume ratio, the film thickness reached 23.0 ± 3,8 nm (average ± standard deviation, n=3). This thickness is comparable to 26.6 ± 0.5 nm of PCBMA brush coating s which shows superior anti-foullng performance,

[00219] The morphology of L-earnitineMA polymer brush surface was significantly different from bare gold siirface as visualized by the taping mode of atomic force microscope (AFM), see Figure 3A. The thickness of L-earnitineM polymer brush surface was also measured by AFM. A shallow scratch was made on the L-earnitineMA polymer brush surface using a sharp lancet. B measuring the depth of the scratch, the polymer brush thickness was calculated, see Figure 7, to be 20.5 ± 4.6 nm (average ± standard deviation, n ::: 4), in agreement with the thickness value measured by surface eilisometry.

[00220] ½as rem¾nt of protein adsor tion by an !Tsensor

[00221] The protein absorptio on the bare gold substrate, the L-carmtiiieMA polymer brush-coated substrate, and the PCBMA polymer brush-eoated substrate were measured using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor custom-built by Institute of Photonics and Electronics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic, The tested chips were attached to the base of the prism. A four-channel flow cell with four independent parallel flow channels was. used to contain liquid samples durin experiments. PBS buffer at 50 μΐ/niin and 25°C was first used to obtain a stable baseline. Fibrinogen (negatively charged, from bovine plasma, Sigma) and lysozyxne (positively charged, from chicken egg white, Sigma) solutions of 1,0 nig mL in PBS .(0,15 M, pi I 7.4) flowed over the surfaces at a flow rate of 0.0.5 ml. An in ibr 10 mm followed by flowing PBS to remove any loosel bound proteins. A surface-sensitive SPR detector was used to monitor protein-surface interactions in real time. Wavelength shift between the baselines before and after protein injection was used to easure the non-specific protein adsorption (surface protein concentration in mass per unit area on the surface * For bare-gold SPR substrates, a 1 nm wavelength shift starting at a resonant wavelength of 750 nm represents 37 ng cm 2 of absorbed proteins, see J. Homola, : Surface Plasmon Resonanc Based Sensors, Springer- Veiiag, 2006. For L-carnitineMA polyme brash surface of 23 ran, a calibrator factor of 1.31 was calculated based on existing protocol described in detail in, Ca Z. et al, Angew. Chem. int. Ed., 2011, 50:6102-6104. Thus, ibr this specific L-carnitineMA polymer coated chip, a 1 nm shift in resonant wavelength represents 22.3 ng/cm of protein coverage.

[00222] Undetectable adsorption (< 0,3 ng em 2 ) of both fibrinogen and lysosome was Observed as shown m Figure 3B. The results indicate that the obtained L-carnitineMA polymer coated surface displaye "super-low-iouling" against protein binding that is comparable to PCBMA (< 0.3 ng/cm ) coatings. Super-low fouling is defined b being able to resist protein adsorption down to < 5 ng/cm , which is desirable to inhibit platelet adhesion for blood compatibility. As a reference, a monolayer of protein binding resulted, n a sensor response of 100-500 ng em 2 .

[00223] A hydrogel network, see Figure M, using L-carnitineMA monomer and commercial N ^ N'-Methylenebisacry'lamide (MBAA) crosslinker through UV initiation was prepared and tested for anti-fouling properties.

[00224] The L-camitineMA hydrogel was fabricated by UV initiation of L- earmtineMA monomer solution of 50 % (weight ratio) in the presence of 0,2% UV initiator 2-Hydroxy~4 , -(2-hydroxyethoxy)--2 -rnethylpropiophenone (1-2959) and 5% crosslinker N,N f -Methy!enebisacryiamide (MBAA). The pre-gel solution was filled in the space between two glass slides separated by a Teflon spacer with 1 iron thickness. The hydrogels were equilibrated in DI water to remove unreaeted small molecules. Hydrogei samples were tailored, into a disc shape (5 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness) using a punch for further evaluation.

100225] The anil-foulin property of the L-caraitineMA derived hydrogel in resisting protein binding was evaluated by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the human fibrinogen as the model protein.

[00226] To measure the human fibrinogen (Eg, Sigma-Aldrich) adsorption on PCB ' MA (positive control), PHEMA (negative control) and L-earnitine A hydrogel, the hydrogel samples were incubated with Img ml Fg in a 24-well plate for 10 minutes at room temperature, followed by 5 washes with PBS buffer. L^eamitineMA hydrogels ' were then incubated with 1 mg nil bovine serum albumin solution for 10 minutes at room temperature with 5 times: wash again with PBS buffer.. The tested hydrogel samples were then transferred to new wells. They were next incubated with a 1 ;2GQ-diiuiion of horseradish peroxidase (H P)~Gonjugated antt-fibrinogen in PBS for 10 minutes, followed by another 5 washes with the same buffer. After the fifth wash, the tested hydrogels were transferred to new wells and SIGMAFAST OPD was added to each well at 30-secQnd intervals. The samples were incubated in the OPD solution for 30 minutes away from light. The supernatant was removed from each test well, transferred to a 96- well plate, and its absorbance at 490 ran was measured. All samples were measured in triplicate.

[00227] Results indicated that the L-camitmeMA hydrogel showed better anti- fouling property compared to poiy-(Hydrox ethyl)met actylate : (PHEMA) hydrogel (negative control), and was able to achiev a similar arrti-fouling level as the commonly used PCBMA hydrogel, see Figure 5A,

[00228] Microorganism Adhesion Teat

[00229] The L-eamitiiieMA polymer brush coating was further challenged in a microorganism adhesion test using E. coii 12 as the model bacterium.

[00230] Fo bacteria culture, E. coli 12 was cultured overnight at 37 °C on Luria- Beriani (LB) agar plates, One colony was picked and transferred to the culture in 25 mL of LB medium (20 g L) overnight under 37 °C at 300 rpffi shaking: rate. The bacteria culture was used to inoculate a second culture in 150 mi of LB medium. The new culture was continuously shaken under 37 °C until it reached an optical density of 0.9 at 600 nm. The obtained bacteria were collected by centrifugation at 4400 rpm for 5 ruin. The - 5.3 - bacteria were then washed with sterile PBS for three times and diluted to a concentration of 10 cell/ml for the adhesion experiments.

[ΘΘ231] The bare gold- surface, gold surface coated with L-eamitmeMA polyme and PCBMA polymer were placed in the bacterial suspension (10 8 cells/ml) for 0.5 li followed by a gentle wash with PBS to remove loosel bound bacteria.

[00232] After bacteria incubation with the substrates, the substrates were removed and immersed in a fix solution of 2,5% glutaraldehyde, 2% paraformaldehyde in 0,1 M sodium phosphate buffer. Then the substrate was dehydrated in a gradient ethanoi series and dried i vacuum. Before SEM imaging, the substrate sample was coated with a nano- gold layer for 20 s using an SEEVae Conductive IV sputte eoater. The adhered bacteria were imaged using a JSM - 6510LV SEM at 5 μαχ. magtiifiGation and bacteria adhesion densit was calculated by counting the bacteria number per 900 μπτ ,

|00233] SEM images, see Figures 4A, 4B, and 4C showed that the L- eamitineMA polymer brush surface greatly reduced the bacteria adhesion (0,28 ± 0.03 bacteria per 100 im (average .± standard deviation, n==6).},. as compared to the uncoated bare gold surface (1 1.4 ± 2.2 bacteria per 100 μιη 2 ). The bacteria adhesion on PCBMA was 0.32 ± 0.05 bacteri per 100 pm"\ and there was no significant difference between the PCBMA coated surface and L-carnitineMA. polymer coated surface in bacteria adhesion density at < 0.0001, see Figure 4D, Results indicate that the L-camitineMA polymer has the same superior anti- fouling capability against bacteria adhesion as the state-of-the-art zwitterionic polymer PCBMA,

100234] Example 2

100235] Synthesis and purificatio of a NHS ester terminated earnitine-derived zwitterionie polymer

[00236] NHS ester terminated earmtine-tBu ester polymer was treated with trifluoracetic acid to remove tBu group, precipitated in ethyl ether and dried unde vacuum condition to obtain NHS ester termineated carnitine derived zwitterionie polymer.

[00237] Synthesis and purification of amin grou temiinate zwitterionie camitine- derlved zwitterionie polymer

[00238] Amino grou tenninated eamitine~tBu ester polymer was treated with trifluoraeetie acid to remove tBu group, precipitated in ethyl ether and dried under vacuum condition to obtain NHS ester teraiine ted carnitine derived zwitterionic polymer,

100239] Synthesis and purification of camitine-derived zwitterionic polymer-protein conjugate,

[00240] Synthesis- and purification of carnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer-insulin conjugate.

[00241] Conjugation of carnitine polyme and insulin will fee carried out by reacting NHS ester groups of the polymer with available amine groups on the protein, Typically, insuli (Img/ml) will be dissolved in 0.1 M Na2CC33 buffer, Pre-dissolved NHS ester terminated camitine-derived zwitterionic polymer will be added into the- insulin solution at polymer; insulin molar ratio=1.2; 1 , and the reaction mixture will be stirred at 700 rpm for one hour in ice: bath to obtain rough product. After the reaction, the buffer will be adjusted to pH 7.4 by HCi. To purify the obtained camitine-derived zwitterionic- polymer-insulin conjugate, the rough product will be placed in a dialysis kit (e.g„ 6-8 kDa, MWCO, Sigm.a~Aldrieh) against PBS. The MW cut off will be chosen to retain the polymer-insulin conjugates, but allow both free insulin and unconjugated polymer to go through. The purified polymer-insulin sample will be desalted using. PD- 10 colum and iyophilized for storage.

[00242] Synthesis of camitine-derived zwitterionic polymer- chemo drug conjugate [00243] Synthesis of camitine-derived zwitterionic. polymer-paclitaxe.1 conjugate.

[00244] 853 mg (1 m-mol) Paclitaxei and 280 ul (2 mmol) triethylamme will be dissolved in 5 ml DMF with, ice bath. 255 ui (3 mmol) acryloyl chloride will be then added into the mixture and continue reaction for 2 hours. Precipitates will be filtrated and excess acryloyl chloride will be removed under reduced pressure. Raw product will be obtained via precipitating mixture in ethyl ether, The product will be washed with, cold chloroform 3 times and dried under vacuum to obtain paclitaxei monomers (i.e.,. paclitaxei with hydroxy! groups, e.g., at€2' and/o C7, : modified with polymerisahle double bonds).

[00245] Paclitaxei monomer, caraitine-tBu monomer and benzyl peroxide will be dissolved in DMF at 60 °C and kept stirring for 1 hour. Resulting copolymers will be obtained via precipitating in ethyl ether to remove paclitaxei monomer. The raw product will be treated with trifluorace-tic acid to remove tBu group and precipitated in ethyl ether and dried under vacuum condition. The obtained product will be diaiyzed in ater to remov trace monomers and impurities. Final product of carnitine-derived zwitterionic polyraer-paclitaxei conjugate will be obtained after iyophilization.

[00246] Example 3

[00247] Synthesis and purification of lipid- .carnitine polymer conjugate

[00248 DSPE-cariiitine polymer conjugate

[00249] 1 ,2-Distearoyl-sn-glyeero-3-phosphoeihanolatnine (DSPH, Genzyme Pharmaceuticals) will be used as received, in a typical reaction, 0,73 g of NHS ester terminated carnitine t ' Bu polymer (MW for Polymer is 5K) and 0.31 g of DSPE will be stirred in 60 mL choloform/8,6- mL DMF mixed solvents in the presence of 142 μΕ triethylamine (TEA) for 5 days. The reaction -mixture will be then evaporated and precipitated in ethyl ether. The precipitates will be extracted by aeetonitrile and filtered to remove unconjugated DSPE. The filtrate containing DSPE-carnitine polymer conjugate and unconjugated, carnitin polymer will be dried, treated by trifluoroacetic acid (TEA) for 4 h, precipitated in ethyl ether, and vacuum dried, The resulting product conianing DSPE-carnitine polymer conjugate and unconjugated carnitine polymer -will be neutralized in 200 raM phosphate buffer (pH = 8) with 20 niM liydroxylamine. and ultrafi.ltra.ted (3 K MW cutoff, Amicon Ultra-! 5, Millipore, Billerica, MA) in PBS, and later in water repeatedly. The obtained llpid-polyme conjugate will be freeze-dried for fur use.

50] Example 4

I ] Synthesis and purification of lipid- carnitine polymer conjugate- PLGA- carnitine polymer block copolymer

[002531 The conjugation, process will be via NHS/'EDC chemistry. Briefly, 3.2 g COQH terminated PLGA (0.20 dl/g), 86.4 nig NHS and 147.2 mg EDC will be reacted in 6 ml methylene chloride for 4 fa at room temperature. Then, 5 ml ethyl ether will be added to obtain white precipitates. The resulting PLGA-NH ' S will be washed with cold ethyl ether methanol mixture (2/1, V/V). to remove any HS -and EDC residuals, then vacuum-dried before use. 925 mg NH2 terminated carnitine tBu ester polyme and 1.68 g PLGA-NHS will be conjugated in the presence of 50 μΐ triethylarnine in 7 ml acetomtrile •at 60°C for 20 fa. The resultin PI,GA-.caffliti.ne-tBu block polymer will be precipitated in cold methanol. Unconjugated polymer could dissolve in cold methanol and will be removed by repeating the washing cycle. Then PL-GA-co-Carnitine-tBu polymer will be treated with TFA for 1 h to remove tB ester groups. The resulting PLGA-co-CarMiine polymer will be precipitated into ethyl ether repeatedl and dried in vacuum, before use.

Θ254] Example 5

[00256] In this example, synthesis of a carnitine ester material, acrylic carnitine tert- butyrate, is described. This synthetic scheme can be modified, for example by use of alternate starting materials to produce other carnitine ester materials.

[00257] Ste 1 - synthesis of tert-butyi-3, 4-epoxybutyrate (2) fro tertbutyl 3- butenoate C 1 ) [00258] To a solution of 0.84g (6 mnioles) tertbutyl 3 : -:buienoate 1 in 10 ml of chloroform was added- dropwise, with cooling and stirring.,; a solution of L82g (9 iiimoles) of m-chloxoperbenzoic acid in 25mi of chloroform. The solution was allowed to stand at 40°C for 20 hours, using TLC to monitor whether the reaction lias complete, The resulting precipitate was removed by filtration, and the filtrate was stirred with 30 ml of freshly prepared aqueous 10% sodium sulfite- solution for 30 min (negative starch-iodide test). Then add 5 sodium bicarbonate solution until there is no bubble -formed Collect the organic phase and dry over anhydrous magnesium sulfate until the solution becomes clear. Remove the solvent of the filtrate by rotary vacuum until colorless liquid. The

00259] Step 2 - synthesis of carnitine tert-butyrate (3) from text-butyls, 4- epoxybutyxate (2)

|OO260] A mixture of 0.656 g 4.2mmoies) of 2, 0.320 g: (3.3 mmoies) of trirnethykmine hydrochloride, and 2.0 ml of anhydxous methanol wa stirred at room temperature for 3 days. The mixture was precipitated into ethyl ether. The product was extracted with water and iyophilized to obtain final product 3,

[00261] X is the counter ion associated with the catiome center (e.g., lialides such as Cr, Br\ dnd r)

[00262] Ste 3 - synthesis of acrylic carnitine tert-butyrate (earnitine-tBu monomer) (4) from carnitine tert-butyrate (3)

[00263] To a solution of 0.218 g (1 mmoies) acrylic carnitine ier?~butyrate 3 and 278 μL· (2 mmoies) triefhyiarnine in 3 ml of DMF, 161 (2 mmoies) of aeryloyl chloride in 1 ml DMF solution was added dropwise with ice bath. Then the reaction was continued 2 hours at 40°, Precipitate the mixture in ethyl ether and wash with chloroform for 3 times. Ca ftine-tBu monomer was obtained after dried under vacuum.

{00264] Synthesis and purification of NHS ester terminated carnitine t-I½ ester Polymer

f 00265] Synthesis of NHS ester ATRP initiator

' [00266] N-hydroxysuceimmide (2.26 g) and 1.45 n L of 2-bromopro . pionic acid were dissolved in 500 ml of anhydrous dlehloromethane. The mixture was cooled to 0°C and a solution of 3.35 g N 5 N'-dicyclohe ylcarbodiiiTiide in 25 tuL dichloroniethane was added drop wise. After stirring overnight at room temperature, the reaction mixture was filtered and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give a yellow solid. The product was further purified by flash chromatography; 2.4 g of NHS ester ATRP initiator (N- hydroxysuccinimide 2-bromopropanoate) was obtained as a white solid (yield ::::

)267] Synthesis of NHS ester terminated carnitine t-Bu ester Polymer.

] Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of camiiine-tBu monomer was carried out in anhydrous dimethylfonnamide (DMF) using a Cu(l)Br/ 1,1, 4,7,10, 10- hexamethyltriethylenetetramine (HMTETA) catalyst. In a typical polymerization, DMF and the liquid HMTETA iigand were separately purged of oxygen by bubbling with nitrogen. One gram of camitine-tBu monomer and 118 mg of N-hydroxysueeinimide (NHS) ester ATRP initiator were added to a Sehlenk tube. To a second Schlenk tube was added 68 mg of Cu(I)Br. Both tubes were deoxygenated by cycling between nitrogen and vacuum three times. Eight milliliters and 2 raL- of deoxygenated DMF were added to the monomer/initiator and C«(I)Br tubes, respectively; 129 μΕ of deoxygenated HMTETA . was added to the Cu(I)Br containing, solution and was stirred for 30 mm under nitrogen protection. The catalyst solution (€u(I)/HMTETA) was then transferred to the monomer/initiator solution to start the reaction, The reaction ran 12 hours at room temperature. After the polymerization, the reaction mixture was fully precipitated in ethyl ether. The precipitate was then dried under vacuum* redissoived in 3 ~ 5 mL DMF and precipitated in acetone to remove the soluble catalyst and trace monomers. This dissolve-preeipitation cycl was repeated 3 times to full remove the catalyst. The remaining ester polymer was dried overnight under vacuum, and analyzed b NMR,

[00269] Synthesis and purification of N¾ terminated carnitine t-Bu ester Polymer {00270 f Synthesis of Nl¾ terminated ATRP initiator

002-71] The A TRP initiator with N¾ functional, groups were synthesized via a modified method based on established procedures reported previously. Briefly,. 3,57 g 2- bromoisobutyryl bromide -was- added to a solution of 2,5 g t-Boc-aminoethyl alcohol and 1.73 g triethylamine in 8 mi methylene chloride in an ice bath. After 4 h reaction, the salts were filtered off and the filtrate was extraeted with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. Methylene chloride phase was dried over magnesium sulfate and evaporated, The resulting t-Boc-aminoethyl 2-bromoisobuiyrate was treated by 15 ml trifiuoroacetic

.

[00272] Synthesis of N¾ terminated carnitine t-B ' u- ester polymer The ATRP of carnitine -tBu monomers was carried out as follows: 74 mg

Cu(i)Br and 148,6 mg HMTETA were placed into a Sc lenk tube and underwent three vacuum-nitrogen cycles. Then, 7 ml degassed DMF was added to make solution A. Similarly, 1.9 g carnitine-tBu monomers and 80 mg 2-ammoethyl 2-bromoisohutyrate were placed into another Schlenk tube with oxygen fully excluded, followed by addition of 8 ml degassed DMF to make solution B. Polymerization was started by transferring solution B into solution A under N 2 protection. After reaction at 60 °C for 24 b, the polymers were first precipitated m ethyl ether, then were dissolved in a small amount of ethanol and precipitated in acetone repeatedly to remove residual monomers, initiators and catalysts. TFA~*N1¾ ÷ terminated polymer was treated with an excess of triethylamine to remove TFA protection. The resulting ¾ terminated carnitine t-Βύ ester polymer was obtained via precipitating into ethyl ether and dried under vacuum before further use.

274] Item List

[00275] Item 1. A carrdtine-derived zwitterionic monomer having the structural formula (I), where M is a monomeric repeating unit, Li is a linker, X- is a counter ion associated with a cat-ionic center of structure (I) and Y+ is a counter ion associated with an anionic center of structure (I).

[ΘΘ276] Item 2. The earnitine-derived zwitterionic monomer of item 1, where M is repeatin unit of a polyme selected from the group consisting of: polyester, polyamide, poiy.(am © aeid), poiyimide, polycarbonate, polysiloxane, polyurethane, polyphosphazene, acrylic polymer, amino resin, epoxy resin, phenolic resin, -and alkyd resin.

[00277] Item 3, The eami line-derived zwitterionic monomer of item 1 or 2 wherein Lr is -C(=O)0-(CI¾)ni- or ~C:( :::: Q)NH » (CH2) n r > where n 1 is an integer from. 1 to 20, such as where n i is 3.

100278] item 4, The camitine--derived zwitterionic monomer of any one of items 1 to 3, having the structural formula Π, where ¾ is selected from the grou consisting of: hydrogen, fluorine, trifluoromethyl, Ci-C* ..alkyL and Q Cia aryl groups, X- is a counter ion associated with the cationic center of structure (Π) and Y÷ is a counter ion associated wi th the anion center of structure (II).

[00279J Item 5. The eamitme-derived zwitterionic monomer of any one of items 1 to 4, having the structural formula Ha, where X- is a counter ion associated with the cationic center of sirucmre (11a) and Υ is a counte ion associated with the anion center of structure (!.!.ø) .

[00280} Item 6, A caraiiine-derived zwitterionic polyme having the structural formula (IV), where is a monorneric repeating unit, LI is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X- is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Y+ is a counter ion associated with th anionic center.

[0Ο28Ϊ ] Item 7. The carmtine-derived zwitterionic polymer of item 6, where M is a repeating unit of a polymer selected from the group eonsisting of: polyester, polyamide, poly(amino aeid), poiyimide, polycarbonate, polysiloxane, polyurethane, polyphosphazene, acrylic polymer, amino resin, epoxy resin, phenolic resin, and alkyd resin.

[00282] Item 8. The carnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer of item . 6 or 7 wherein Li is or -C( ) )NB~( { ¾) n ;~ ? where n,l is an integer from 1 to 20, such as where ni is 3.

|00283] item 9. The earnitine-derived. zwitterionic polymer, of an one of items 6 to 8, having the structural formula V, where ¾ is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, trifluoromethyl,. C1-C6 alkyL and Q~Ci 2 aryl groups, n . is an intege from 1 to about 10000, X- is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Y+ is a counte ion associated with the anionic center, {0028 J Hem 10, The carnitine-derived zwitierioiiic polymer of any .one of hems 6 to 9,. having the structural formula Va, where n Is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X- is a -counter ion associated with the cationie center, and Y+ is: a counter ion associated with the anionic center.

[00285] ' Item 1 1. A carnitine ester .cationie monomer having the structural formula (Vli), where M is a monomerie repeating unit, Li is a linker. X- is a counter io associated with the cationie center, and Z is an alkyl, aryl, acyl, silyi group, or a substituted alkyl, aryl, acyl, or silyl group.

[00.286] Item 1.2. A carnitine ester cationie monomer having the structural formula (VIII), where M is a monomerie repeating unit, LI is a linker, X- is a counter ion associated with the cationie center, and Zl is a protecting group.

[00287] Item 13. A carnitine ester cationie polymer haying the structural formula

(XVI) , where M is a monomerie repeating: unit, LI is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X- is a counter ion associated with the cationie center, and Z is an alkyl, aryl, acyl, silyl group, or a substituted alkyl, aryl acyl, o silyl group.

[00288] item 14. A carnitine ester cationie polymer having the: structural formula

(XVII) , where M is a monomerie repeating unit, n is. an integer from 1 to about 1.0000, X- is a counter ion associated with the cationie center, and Z 1 is a protecting group. [©§289] item .15. A method of synthesizing a carni tine-derived zwitterionic monomer having the structural formula (1) comprising -ombiriing: carnitine or a carnitine salt, Iiydroqiilnone and anliydrous dimethylfornianiide in a reaction vessel purged with nitrogen producing a mixture; heating the mixture: to a temperature in the range of 40°C to 6 ' 0°C, for a time in the range of 5 minutes to 1 hour, producing a first heated mixture; adding acryloyi chloride to the first heated mixture; heating the first heated mixture to a temperature in the range of 70°C to 90°C, producing a second heated mixture; absorbing excess HCI front the second heated mixture while reacting, the .second heated mixture at a temperature in the range of 70°C to 9Q°C,. fo a reaction time in the range of 1 to 5 hours, producing a carnitine-derived zwitterionic monomer having the structural formula (1).

[00290] Item 16. The method of item 15, wherein the carnitine is L-eamitine and the carnitine salt i an L-carnitine salt.

[002 1 J Item 17, The method of item 15 or 16, wherein the carnitine- or carnitine salt has a concentration in .the .range of about 0,0:1 -2 mol/L in dimethylfomiamide. [00292] Item 18. The method of any one of items 15, 16. or 17, wherein the molar ratio of the carnitine or carnitine salt to acryloyl chloride is in the range from about 20:1 to 1 :20.

[00293] Item 19. The method of any one of items 35 to 18, wherein the molar ratio of hydroquinone to acryloyl chloride is in the range of about 1:1 to 1 :2000.

[00294] Item 20·. The method of any one of items 15 to 19, further comprising purification of the carnitine-derived zwitterionic monomer.

[00295] Item 21, A composition comprising a carnitine-derived polymer wherein the polymer has structural formula (XXV), where M is a monomelic repeating unit, 1,1 is a linker, n is an integer ixom 1 to about 10000, X- is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Y+ i a counter ion associated wit the anionic center,

[00296] Item 22. A composition comprising a camitine-derived polymer wherein the polymer has structural formula (XXVII), where M is a monomeric repeating unit, LI is a linlier, n is an integer from i to about 10000, X- is a counter ion associated with the cationic center, and Y+ is counter ion associated with the anionic center.

[0O297J Item 23.. A conjugate composition comprising a camitine-derived zwitterionic polymer covalently coupled to a therapeutie and/or diagnostic agent, wherein the carnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer has structural: .formula (IV).

[00298J Item 24. The conjugate composition of item 23 wherein the camitine- derived zwitterionic polymer is covalently coupled to a therapeutie and/or diagnostic agent by a degradaJhle linkage between the polyme and the therapeutic: o diagnostic agent, and wherein the carnitine-derived zwitterionic polymer has structural formula (IV).

[00299 j Item 25. The conjugate composition according t item 24, wherein the degradabSe linkage between the polymer and the therapeutic or diagnostic agent is degradable, allowing the release of the agent in a particular environment.

|003O0J Item 26. The conjugate compositio of any one of items 23, 24, or 25 herein the conjugate composition comprises a plurality of conj gates, and wherei the plurality of conjugates are associated to form an -assembly.

[00301] Item 27. The conjugate composition of item 26, wherein the assembly is in the form of a micelle or a particle.

[00302] item 28. The composition of any one of items 23 to 27, further comprising a pharmaceutically accepted carrie or diluent [00303] Item 29, A conjugate composition comprising a camitine-derived zwitterionie polymer covalently coupled to a vesicle-forming lipid, wherein the carnitine-derived zwitterionie polymer lias the structural formula (IV).

[ )0304] item 30. The conjugate composition of item 29, wherein the lipid is distearoylphosphatidyiethanoiamine (DSEP), and wherein the conjugate composition has the structural formula (XXVI), where M is a monomerie repeating unit, LI is a linker, n is an integer from 1 to about 10000, X- is a counter ion associated with the eatiomc center, and Y+ is a counter ion associated with the anionic center.

[00305] Item 31 , The conjugate composition of item 30, wherein the lipid is a phospholipid, a sphingoHpid,. or a sterol.

[00306] Item 32. The conjugate composition of item 30, wherein the lipid is a diacylphosphatidyiethanolamine, a -eeraraide, a sphingomyelin, a diliydrosphmgornyelin, a cephaiin, or a cerebroside.

[00307] Item 33, The conjugate composition of item 30, wlierein the lipid is a pliosphatidylethanQlamine (PE), a phosphatidyiglyceroi (PG), aphosphalidie acid (PA), or a phosphatidylinositol (PI),

[00308] item 34. The conjugate composition of item 30, wherein the lipid is selected from the group consisting of dloleoylphosplmtidylglyeero! OPG), dlpal.rmto dphosphatid y !glyceroi (DPPG), dioieoyl-phosphatidyiethanolamine (DOPE), palmito loleoyl-phosphatidylethaiiolamiire (POPE), dipahnitoyl phosphatidyl eihaBolamine (DPPE), dimyristoylphosphoethanolainine (DMPE), distearoyl- phosphatidyleihanolamine (D.SPE), r6-0-mono.m.ethy]-phosphoethanola;mine,: 16-0- dimethyl-phosphoetlianolamine, 18- 1 -trans-phosphoethanolamme, 1 -stearoyl-2-oleoyI- phosphatidyethanolamine (SOPE), and l,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero~3-phQphoethariolarii:ine (transDOPE).

[00309] Item 35. An assembly, comprising a plurality of conjugates of amy one of items 30 to 34.

[003103 Item 36. The assembly of item 35 wherein the assembly is in the form of a micelle, a liposome, or a polymersome.

[00311] Item 37. The assembly of item 35 or 36, farther comprising a pharmaceutically accepted earner or diluent

[00312] Item 38. The assembly of any on of items 35 , 36, or 37, further comprising a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent. [00313| Item 39. A diblock copolymer, comprising (a) a camitme-derived witterionic polymer block according to structural formula (!Y), and (b) a non- zwitterionic block,

[00314] Item 40. The diblock copolymer of item 39, wherein the non-z iiterionic block is a hydrophobic block.

[003151 Item 41. The dibloek copolymer of item 39 or 40, wherein the non- zwitterionie block comprises a homopolyiiier or copolymer.

[00316] Item 42. The dibloek copolymer of any one of items 39, 40, or 41, wherein the non-zwitterionie block comprises a biodegradable copolymer.

[00317] Item 43. The diblock copolymer of any one of items 40 to 42, wherein the non-zwitterionic block comprises a polymer selected from the group consisting of poiy(laciic~eo-g!yeolic acid), poiycaprolactone., polygiycolide, polylactic acid, poly-3- hydroxyhiityrate, polydioxanone, polytrimethylenecarbonate, poly{glycolide-co- eaprolaeiorke), polyiglycoSide-eo-trimetliySenecarbonate). and poly(dioxanofi-co- trim.ethylenecai-bonate-co-glycoiide)-

[00318] Item 44, The diblock copolymer of any one of items 39 to 43, wherein the non-zwitterionic block comprises a polymer selected from poly(laetie-co-glycolie acid) (PLGA), poly-(Hydroxyethyl)methacrylate (HEMA), poly-acrylarnide (PAA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), alginate, poiycaprolactone (PCL), polygiycolide (PG), polylactic acid (PL A), poiy-3 -hydroxy butyrate, polydioxanone, poly rimethylenecarlwttate, poSy{glycoiide~CQ~capro lactone) (MonoerylTM), poiy(glyeolide-co-trimeihylenecarbonate) (MaxonTM), and poly(dioxanon-eo- trimethyleneearbonate-co-glycoSjde) (BioSyiiTM).

[003191 item 45. Th diblock copolymer of any one of items 3 to 44, wherein the hydrophobic block has a number average molecular weight from about 1,000 to about 200,000.

[003201 Item 46. An assembly, comprising a plurality of dibloek copolymers of any one of items 3 to 45 ,

[00321] Item 47. The assembly of i tem 46 in the form of a micelle, a polymersome, or a particle,

[00322] item 48. The assembly of item 46 or 47, fxirther comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent. {00323] item 49. The assembly of any one of items 46 to 48, further comprising a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent,

[00324] Any patents or publications mentioned in this specification are incorpofated herein by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication is specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.

[00325? The -compositions and methods described herein are presently representative of preferred, embodiments-, exemplary , and not intended as limita tions on the scope of the invention. Changes therein and other uses will occur to those skilled in the art.. Such changes and other uses can be made without departing from the scope of the inventio as set forth in the claims.