**METHODS AND DEVICES FOR OBTAINING QUANTUM CLUSTER STATES WITH HIGH FAULT TOLERANCE**

RUDOLPH, Terence (700 Hansen Way, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, US)

*;*

**G06N99/00***;*

**G06F13/36***;*

**G06F13/40**

**H03M13/29**WO2017189053A1 | 2017-11-02 |

US20170061317A1 | 2017-03-02 | |||

US20150214984A1 | 2015-07-30 | |||

US20160292586A1 | 2016-10-06 |

WHAT IS CLAIMED IS: 1. A method, comprising: obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits represented by a lattice structure, the lattice structure including a plurality of contiguous lattice cells, a respective edge of a respective lattice cell corresponding to one or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, a respective face of the respective lattice cell corresponding to one or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the one or more qubits that correspond to the respective face of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the respective face of the respective lattice cell, wherein at least one of the following is satisfied: at least a first face of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the first face of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the first face of the respective lattice cell, and at least a first edge of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the first edge of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the first edge of the respective lattice cell. 2. The method of claim 1, wherein: the first face of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits, of the plurality of entangled qubits, including a first qubit and a second qubit that is distinct from the first qubit; and the first qubit is not directly entangled with the second qubit. 3. The method of claim 1 or 2, wherein: the first face is a rectangular face defined by four edges of the respective lattice cell. 4. The method of claim 1 or 2, wherein: the first face is a triangular face defined by three edges of the respective lattice cell. 5. The method of any of claims 1-4, wherein: a second face of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first face of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the second face of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the second face of the respective lattice cell. 6. The method of claim 5, wherein: the second face is a rectangular face defined by four edges of the respective lattice cell. 7. The method of claim 5, wherein: the second face is a triangular face defined by three edges of the respective lattice cell. 8. The method of any of claims 5-7, wherein: a third face of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first face and the second face of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the third face of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the third face of the respective lattice cell. 9. The method of claim 8, wherein: the third face is a rectangular face defined by four edges of the respective lattice cell. 10. The method of claim 8, wherein: the third face is a triangular face defined by three edges of the respective lattice cell. 11. The method of any of claims 8-10, wherein: a fourth face of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first face, the second face, and the third face of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the fourth face of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the fourth face of the respective lattice cell. 12. The method of claim 11, wherein: the fourth face is a rectangular face defined by four edges of the respective lattice cell. 13. The method of claim 11, wherein: the fourth face is a triangular face defined by three edges of the respective lattice cell. 14. The method of any of claims 11-13, wherein: a fifth face of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first face, the second face, the third face, and the fourth face of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the fifth face of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the fifth face of the respective lattice cell. 15. The method of claim 14, wherein: the fifth face is a rectangular face defined by four edges of the respective lattice cell. 16. The method of claim 14 or 15, wherein: a sixth face of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first face, the second face, the third face, the fourth face, and the fifth face of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the sixth face of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the sixth face of the respective lattice cell. 17. The method of any of claims 1-16, wherein: the first edge of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits, of the plurality of entangled qubits, including a third qubit and a fourth qubit that is distinct from the third qubit; and the third qubit is not directly entangled with the fourth qubit. 18. The method of claim 17, wherein: a second edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the second edge of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the second edge of the respective lattice cell. 19. The method of claim 18, wherein: a third edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge and the second edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the third edge of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the third edge of the respective lattice cell. 20. The method of claim 19, wherein: a fourth edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge, the second edge, and the third edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the fourth edge of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the fourth edge of the respective lattice cell. 21. The method of claim 20, wherein: a fifth edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge, the second edge, the third edge, and the fourth edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the fifth edge of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the fifth edge of the respective lattice cell. 22. The method of claim 21, wherein: a sixth edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge, the second edge, the third edge, the fourth edge, and the fifth edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the sixth edge of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the sixth edge of the respective lattice cell. 23. The method of claim 22, wherein: a seventh edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge, the second edge, the third edge, the fourth edge, the fifth edge, and the sixth edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the seventh edge of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the seventh edge of the respective lattice cell. 24. The method of any of claims 1-23, wherein: obtaining the plurality of entangled qubits includes fusing (i) at least one qubit of a first set of multiple entangled qubits and (ii) at least one qubit of a second set of multiple entangled qubits, the second set of multiple entangled qubits being mutually exclusive from the first set of multiple entangled qubits. 25. The method of claim 24, wherein: the first set of multiple entangled qubits includes three or more qubits; and the second set of multiple entangled qubits includes two or more qubits. 26. The method of any of claims 1-23, wherein: obtaining the plurality of entangled qubits includes: receiving a first set of entangled qubits, including a first center qubit entangled with three or more peripheral qubits; receiving a second set of entangled qubits, including a second center qubits entangled with three or more peripheral qubits, the second set of entangled qubits being mutually exclusive to the first set of entangled qubits; and fusing each peripheral qubit of the first set of entangled qubits with a respective peripheral qubit of the second set of entangled qubits. 27. A method, comprising: obtaining a plurality of qubits, including a first qubit entangled with second, third, fourth, and fifth qubits, wherein: the plurality of qubits also includes one or more of: a sixth qubit entangled with the fifth qubit; an seventh qubit entangled with the second qubit; an eighth qubit entangled with the third qubit; a ninth qubit entangled with the fourth qubit; an tenth qubit entangled with at least one of the sixth qubit and the seventh qubit; an eleventh qubit entangled with at least one of the seventh qubit and the eighth qubit; a twelfth qubit entangled with at least one of the eighth qubit and the ninth qubit; a thirteenth qubit entangled with at least one of the sixth qubit and the ninth qubit; a fourteenth qubit entangled with the sixth qubit; a fifteenth qubit entangled with the seventh qubit; a sixteenth qubit entangled with the eighth qubit; an seventeenth qubit entangled with the ninth qubit; and an eighteenth qubit entangled with at least one of the fourteenth qubit, the fifteenth qubit, the sixteenth qubit, and the seventeenth qubit; and the plurality of qubits further includes a nineteenth qubit entangled with the second, third, fourth, and fifth qubits. 28. The method of claim 27, including one or more of: entangling the first qubit with the second qubit; entangling the first qubit with the third qubit; entangling the first qubit with the fourth qubit; entangling the first qubit with the fifth qubit; entangling the sixth qubit with the fifth qubit; entangling the seventh qubit with the second qubit; entangling the eighth qubit with the third qubit; entangling the ninth qubit with the fourth qubit; entangling the tenth qubit with the sixth qubit; entangling the tenth qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the eleventh qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the eleventh qubit with the eighth qubit; entangling the twelfth qubit with the eighth qubit; entangling the twelfth qubit with the ninth qubit; entangling the thirteenth qubit with the sixth qubit; entangling the thirteenth qubit with the ninth qubit; entangling the fourteenth qubit with the sixth qubit; entangling the fifteenth qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the sixteenth qubit with the eighth qubit; entangling the seventeenth qubit with the ninth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the fourteenth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the fifteenth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the sixteenth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the seventeenth qubit; entangling the nineteenth qubit with the second qubit; entangling the nineteenth qubit with the third second; entangling the nineteenth qubit with the fourth qubit; and entangling the nineteenth qubit with the fifth qubit. 29. The method of claim 28, wherein: entangling two qubits includes performing a Bell state measurement on a first ancillary qubit entangled with one qubit of the two qubits and a second ancillary qubit entangled with the other qubit of the two qubits. 30. A method, comprising: obtaining a plurality of qubits, including a first qubit entangled with second and third qubits, wherein: the plurality of qubits also includes a fourth qubit entangled with the second and third qubits; and the plurality of qubits further includes one or more of: a fifth qubit entangled with the second qubit; a sixth qubit entangled with the third qubit; a seventh qubit entangled with the fifth qubit and the sixth qubit; an eighth qubit entangled with the second qubit; a ninth qubit entangled with the third qubit; a tenth qubit entangled with the ninth qubit; an eleventh qubit entangled with the second qubit; a twelfth qubit entangled with the third qubit; a thirteenth qubit entangled with the eleventh qubit; a fourteenth qubit entangled with the thirteenth qubit and the tenth qubit; a fifteenth qubit entangled with the seventh qubit and the thirteenth qubit; a sixteenth qubit entangled with the twelfth qubit; a seventeenth qubit entangled with the tenth qubit and the sixteenth qubit; an eighteenth qubit entangled with the seventh qubit and the sixteenth qubit; and a nineteenth qubit entangled with the thirteenth qubit and the sixteenth qubit. 31. The method of claim 30, including one or more of: entangling the first qubit with the second qubit; entangling the first qubit with the third qubit; entangling the fourth qubit with the second qubit; entangling the fourth qubit with the third qubits; entangling the fifth qubit with the second qubit; entangling the sixth qubit with the third qubit; entangling the seventh qubit with the fifth qubit; entangling the seventh qubit with the sixth qubit; entangling the eighth qubit with the second qubit; entangling the ninth qubit with the third qubit; entangling the tenth qubit with the ninth qubit; entangling the eleventh qubit with the second qubit; entangling the twelfth qubit with the third qubit; entangling the thirteenth qubit with the eleventh qubit; entangling the fourteenth qubit with the thirteenth qubit; entangling the fourteenth qubit with the tenth qubit; entangling the fifteenth qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the fifteenth qubit with the thirteenth qubit; entangling the sixteenth qubit with the twelfth qubit; entangling the seventeenth qubit with the tenth qubit; entangling the seventeenth qubit with the sixteenth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the sixteenth qubit; entangling the nineteenth qubit with the thirteenth qubit; and entangling the nineteenth qubit with the sixteenth qubit. 32. The method of claim 31, wherein: entangling two qubits includes performing a Bell state measurement on a first ancillary qubit entangled with one qubit of the two qubits and a second ancillary qubit entangled with the other qubit of the two qubits. 33. A method, comprising: obtaining a plurality of qubits, including a first qubit entangled with at least second, third, and fourth qubits, wherein: the plurality of qubits further includes a fifth qubit entangled with at least the second, third, and fourth qubits. 34. The method of claim 33, wherein the plurality of qubits also includes one or more of: a sixth qubit entangled with the second qubit; a seventh qubit entangled with the third qubit; an eighth qubit entangled with the fourth qubit; an ninth qubit entangled with the sixth qubit and the seventh qubit; a tenth qubit entangled with the seventh qubit and the eighth qubit; and an eleventh qubit entangled with the eighth qubit and the sixth qubit. 35. A method, comprising: obtaining a first set of multiple entangled qubits; obtaining a second set of multiple entangled qubits, the second set of multiple entangled qubits being mutually exclusive from the first set of multiple entangled qubits; and fusing (i) at least one qubit of the first set of multiple entangled qubits and (ii) at least one qubit of the second set of multiple entangled qubits, thereby obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits represented by a lattice structure, the lattice structure including a plurality of contiguous lattice cells, a respective edge of a respective lattice cell corresponding to one or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, a respective face of the respective lattice cell corresponding to one or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the one or more qubits that correspond to the respective face of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the respective face of the respective lattice cell, wherein: at least one of the following is satisfied: at least a first face of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the first face of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the first face of the respective lattice cell, and at least a first edge of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the first edge of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the first edge of the respective lattice cell. 36. A computer readable storage medium storing one or more programs for execution by one or more processors of a computing system, the one or more programs including instructions for performing the method of any of claims 1-35. 37. A computing system, comprising: one or more processors; and memory storing one or more programs, the one or more programs including instructions, which, when executed by the one or more processors, cause the computing system to perform the method of any of claims 1-35. 38. A photonic device, comprising: one or more gates configured to perform the method of any of claims 1-35. 39. The device of claim 36, wherein each gate includes one or more beam splitters. 40. A method comprising: providing a first cluster state, wherein the first cluster state of qubits comprises a plurality of first cluster state qubits; providing a second cluster state, wherein the second cluster state of qubits comprises a plurality of second cluster state qubits; selecting a first cluster state qubit of the plurality of first cluster state qubits; and generating a modified first cluster state that includes the first cluster state qubit by entangling leaf qubits from the second cluster state of qubits with nearest neighbor qubits of the first cluster state qubit. 41. The method of claim 40, wherein entangling the leaf qubits comprises applying a boosted fusion gate between the leaf qubits and nearest neighbor qubits from of the first cluster state qubit. 42. The method of claim 40, further comprising: performing a stabilizer measurement on the modified first cluster state by measuring the first cluster state qubit. 43. The method of claim 40, comprising: selecting a second cluster state qubit of the plurality of first cluster state qubits, wherein the second cluster state qubit is a nearest neighbor of the first cluster state qubit; and providing a third cluster state of qubits, wherein the third cluster state of qubits comprises a plurality of third cluster state qubits, wherein generating the modified first cluster further includes entangling leaf qubits from the third cluster state of qubits with the nearest neighbors of the second cluster state qubit. 44. A system comprising: a first cluster state of qubits comprising: a central qubit; a first nearest neighbor qubit; a second nearest neighbor qubit; and a third nearest neighbor qubit, wherein the central qubit is pairwise entangled with each of the first, second, and third nearest neighbor qubits; and a qubit that is separate and distinct from the central qubit, wherein the qubit is pairwise entangled with each of the first, second, and third nearest neighbor qubits. 45. The system of claim 44, wherein the first cluster state of qubits comprises a plurality of matter-based qubits disposed on a substrate, and the qubit that is separate and distinct form the central qubit is a matter-based qubit disposed on the substrate. 46. The system of claim 44, wherein the first cluster state of qubits comprises a plurality of photonic qubits localized in a waveguide, and the qubit that is separate and distinct form the central qubit is a photonic qubit localized in a waveguide. |

[0001] This relates generally to methods and devices for obtaining quantum cluster states, including but not limited to, methods and devices for obtaining quantum cluster states with high fault tolerance. BACKGROUND [0002] In quantum computing, quantum error correction is required to reduce errors in qubits. Topological codes are widely used for having relatively high fault tolerance. SUMMARY [0003] There is a need for quantum computers with high fault tolerance. Methods and devices for obtaining (e.g., generating) novel quantum cluster states with high fault tolerance are described herein. Such methods and devices improve efficiency, accuracy, and operation speed of quantum computers. Such methods and devices optionally complement or replace conventional methods and devices for obtaining quantum cluster states.

[0004] In accordance with some embodiments, a method includes obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits represented by a lattice structure, the lattice structure including a plurality of contiguous lattice cells, a respective edge of a respective lattice cell corresponding to one or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, a respective face of the respective lattice cell corresponding to one or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the one or more qubits that correspond to the respective face of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the respective face of the respective lattice cell. At least one of the following is satisfied: at least a first face of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the first face of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the first face of the respective lattice cell, and at least a first edge of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the first edge of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the first edge of the respective lattice cell.

[0005] In accordance with some embodiments, a method includes obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits represented by a lattice structure, the lattice structure including a plurality of contiguous lattice cells, a respective edge of a respective lattice cell corresponding to a respective qubit of the plurality of entangled qubits, a respective face of the respective lattice cell corresponding to one or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the one or more qubits that correspond to the respective face of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the respective face of the respective lattice cell. At least a first face of the respective lattice cell is defined by at least six edges of the respective lattice cell.

[0006] In accordance with some embodiments, a method includes obtaining a plurality of qubits, including a first qubit entangled with second, third, fourth, and fifth qubits. The plurality of qubits also includes one or more of: a sixth qubit entangled with the fifth qubit; an seventh qubit entangled with the second qubit; an eighth qubit entangled with the third qubit; a ninth qubit entangled with the fourth qubit; an tenth qubit entangled with at least one of the sixth qubit and the seventh qubit; an eleventh qubit entangled with at least one of the seventh qubit and the eighth qubit; a twelfth qubit entangled with at least one of the eighth qubit and the ninth qubit; a thirteenth qubit entangled with at least one of the sixth qubit and the ninth qubit; a fourteenth qubit entangled with the sixth qubit; a fifteenth qubit entangled with the seventh qubit; a sixteenth qubit entangled with the eighth qubit; an seventeenth qubit entangled with the ninth qubit; and an eighteenth qubit entangled with at least one of the fourteenth qubit, the fifteenth qubit, the sixteenth qubit, and the seventeenth qubit. The plurality of qubits further includes a nineteenth qubit entangled with the second, third, fourth, and fifth qubits.

[0007] In accordance with some embodiments, a method includes obtaining a plurality of qubits, including a first qubit entangled with second and third qubits. The plurality of qubits also includes a fourth qubit entangled with the second and third qubits. The plurality of qubits further includes one or more of: a fifth qubit entangled with the second qubit; a sixth qubit entangled with the third qubit; a seventh qubit entangled with the fifth qubit and the sixth qubit; an eighth qubit entangled with the second qubit; a ninth qubit entangled with the third qubit; a tenth qubit entangled with the ninth qubit; an eleventh qubit entangled with the second qubit; a twelfth qubit entangled with the third qubit; a thirteenth qubit entangled with the eleventh qubit; a fourteenth qubit entangled with the thirteenth qubit and the tenth qubit; a fifteenth qubit entangled with the seventh qubit and the thirteenth qubit; a sixteenth qubit entangled with the twelfth qubit; a seventeenth qubit entangled with the tenth qubit and the sixteenth qubit; an eighteenth qubit entangled with the seventh qubit and the sixteenth qubit; and a nineteenth qubit entangled with the thirteenth qubit and the sixteenth qubit.

[0008] In accordance with some embodiments, a method includes obtaining a plurality of qubits, including a first qubit entangled with at least second, third, and fourth qubits. The plurality of qubits further includes a fifth qubit entangled with at least the second, third, and fourth qubits. In some embodiments, the plurality of qubits also includes one or more of: a sixth qubit entangled with the second qubit; a seventh qubit entangled with the third qubit; an eighth qubit entangled with the fourth qubit; a ninth qubit entangled with the sixth qubit and the seventh qubit; a tenth qubit entangled with the seventh qubit and the eighth qubit; and an eleventh qubit entangled with the eighth qubit and the sixth qubit.

[0009] In accordance with some embodiments, a method includes obtaining a first set of multiple entangled qubits; obtaining a second set of multiple entangled qubits, the second set of multiple entangled qubits being mutually exclusive from the first set of multiple entangled qubits; and fusing (i) at least one qubit of the first set of multiple entangled qubits and (ii) at least one qubit of the second set of multiple entangled qubits, thereby obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits represented by a lattice structure, the lattice structure including a plurality of contiguous lattice cells. A respective edge of a respective lattice cell corresponds to one or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits. A respective face of the respective lattice cell corresponds to one or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits. Each qubit of the one or more qubits that correspond to the respective face of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the respective face of the respective lattice cell. At least one of the following is satisfied: at least a first face of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the first face of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the first face of the respective lattice cell, and at least a first edge of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the first edge of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the first edge of the respective lattice cell.

[0010] In accordance with some embodiments, a device includes one or more gates for performing any method described herein. In some embodiments, the one or more gates include one or more fusion gates. In some embodiments, each gate includes one or more beam splitters.

[0011] In accordance with some embodiments, a computer readable storage medium stores one or more programs for execution by one or more processors of a computing system. The one or more programs include instructions for performing any method described herein.

[0012] In accordance with some embodiments, a computing system includes one or more processors, and memory storing one or more programs. The one or more programs include instructions, which, when executed by the one or more processors, cause the computing system to perform any method described herein. In some embodiments, the computing system is coupled to one or more of: a quantum entanglement generator, a decoder, and a quantum operator.

[0013] In accordance with some embodiments, a system includes a first cluster state of qubits comprising: a central qubit; a first nearest neighbor qubit; a second nearest neighbor qubit; and a third nearest neighbor qubit. The central qubit is pairwise entangled with each of the first, second, and third nearest neighbor qubits. The system also includes a qubit that is separate and distinct from the central qubit. The qubit is pairwise entangled with each of the first, second, and third nearest neighbor qubits.

[0014] Thus, systems and devices are configured to operate with novel quantum clusters, thereby increasing the speed, effectiveness, efficiency, accuracy, and precision of such systems and devices. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [0015] For a better understanding of the various described implementations, reference should be made to the Detailed Description below, in conjunction with the following drawings in which like reference numerals refer to corresponding parts throughout the figures. [0016] Figure 1 shows a hybrid computing system in accordance with one or more embodiments.

[0017] Figure 2 shows a hybrid quantum computing system in accordance with some embodiments.

[0018] Figure 3A is a schematic diagram illustrating a solid representation of an example unit cell in accordance with some embodiments.

[0019] Figure 3B is a schematic diagram illustrating a wireframe representation of the unit cell shown in Figure 3A.

[0020] Figure 3C is an example net of the unit cell shown in Figure 3A.

[0021] Figure 3D is a schematic diagram illustrating an example cluster state with a plurality of unit cells in accordance with some embodiments.

[0022] Figure 4A is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with one face having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0023] Figure 4B is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with two faces each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0024] Figure 4C is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with three faces each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0025] Figure 4D is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with four faces each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0026] Figure 4E is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with five faces each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0027] Figure 4F is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with six faces each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0028] Figure 4G is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with two faces each having two or more qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0029] Figure 4H is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with four faces each having two or more qubits in accordance with some embodiments. [0030] Figure 5A is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with one edge having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0031] Figure 5B is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with two edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0032] Figure 5C is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with three edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0033] Figure 5D is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with four edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0034] Figure 5E is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with five edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0035] Figure 5F is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with six edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0036] Figure 5G is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with seven edged having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0037] Figure 5H is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with eight edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0038] Figure 5I is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with nine edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0039] Figure 5J is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with ten edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0040] Figure 5K is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with eleven edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0041] Figure 5L is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with twelve edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0042] Figure 5M is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with two edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0043] Figure 5N is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with four edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments. [0044] Figure 5O is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with four edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0045] Figure 5P is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with each face having two qubits and each edge having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0046] Figure 5Q is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with each edge having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0047] Figure 5R is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with each edge having two qubits and one face having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0048] Figure 6A is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with a face having two qubits and an edge having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0049] Figure 6B is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with a face having three qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0050] Figure 6C is a schematic diagram illustrating an example cell with a face initially having three qubits, one of which is subsequently lost.

[0051] Figure 6D is a schematic diagram illustrating an example cell with one or more faces and/or edges without corresponding qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0052] Figure 7 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example cluster state with a plurality of unit cells in accordance with some embodiments.

[0053] Figures 8A-8D are schematic diagrams illustrating example unit cells in accordance with some embodiments.

[0054] Figure 9 is a flowchart representing a method of obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0055] Figure 10 is a flowchart representing a method of obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0056] Figure 11 is a flowchart representing a method of obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0057] Figure 12 is a flowchart representing a method of obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits in accordance with some embodiments. [0058] Figures 13A illustrates operations for obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[0059] Figure 13B illustrates matter-based qubits located on a combination of a qubit entangling system and a qubit readout system in accordance with some embodiments.

[0060] Figures 13C-13F illustrate operations of Figure 13A with respect to the qubits shown in Figure 13B.

[0061] Figure 13G illustrates operations for obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits in accordance with some other embodiments.

[0062] Figure 13H illustrates matter-based qubits located on a combination of a qubit entangling system and a qubit readout system in accordance with some embodiments.

[0063] Figures 14A-14G are schematic diagrams illustrating example entanglement operations in accordance with some embodiments.

[0064] Figures 15A-15B are schematic diagrams illustrating example entanglement operations in accordance with some embodiments.

[0065] Figure 16 is a photonic circuit diagram in accordance with some embodiments.

[0066] Figure 17A is a type I fusion gate in accordance with some embodiments.

[0067] Figure 17B shows type I fusion in accordance with some embodiments.

[0068] Figures 18A-18F show a boosted type I fusion gates and associated fusion outcomes in accordance with some embodiments.

[0069] Figures 19A-19B shows boosted type I fusion gates in accordance with some embodiments.

[0070] Figure 20 shows schematic diagrams of beamsplitters and Hadamard gates in accordance with some embodiments.

[0071] Figure 21A is a block diagram illustrating components of an example quantum entanglement generator in accordance with some embodiments.

[0072] Figures 21B-21D illustrate schematic diagrams of waveguide beam splitters, in accordance with some embodiments. [0073] Figure 22 is a block diagram illustrating components of a quantum computer in accordance with some embodiments.

[0074] Like reference numerals refer to corresponding parts throughout the several views of the drawings. DETAILED DESCRIPTION [0075] Reference will now be made in detail to implementations, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. In the following detailed description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the various described implementations. However, it will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art that the various described implementations may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known methods, procedures, components, circuits, and networks have not been described in detail so as not to unnecessarily obscure aspects of the implementations.

[0076] Many modifications and variations of this disclosure can be made without departing from its spirit and scope, as will be apparent to those skilled in the art. The specific implementations described herein are offered by way of example only, and the disclosure is to be limited only by the terms of the appended claims, along with the full scope of equivalents to which such claims are entitled.

I. Introduction to Qubits and Path Encoding

[0077] The dynamics of quantum objects, e.g., photons, electrons, atoms, ions, molecules, nanostructures, and the like, follow the rules of quantum theory. More specifically, in quantum theory, the quantum state of a quantum object, e.g., a photon, is described by a set of physical properties, the complete set of which is referred to as a mode. In some embodiments, a mode is defined by specifying the value (or distribution of values) of one or more properties of the quantum object. For example, again for photons, modes can be defined by the frequency of the photon, the position in space of the photon (e.g., which waveguide or superposition of waveguides the photon is propagating within), the associated direction of propagation (e.g., the k-vector for a photon in free space), the polarization state of the photon (e.g., the direction (horizontal or vertical) of the photon’s electric and/or magnetic fields) and the like. [0078] For the case of photons propagating in a waveguide, it is convenient to express the state of the photon as one of a set of discrete spatio-temporal modes. For example, the spatial mode k _{i } of the photon is determined according to which one of a finite set of discrete waveguides the photon can be propagating in. Furthermore, the temporal mode tj is determined by which one of a set of discrete time periods (referred to herein as“bins”) the photon can be present in. In some embodiments, the temporal discretization of the system can be provided by the timing of a pulsed laser which is responsible for generating the photons. In the examples below, spatial modes will be used primarily to avoid complication of the description. However, one of ordinary skill will appreciate that the systems and methods can apply to any type of mode, e.g., temporal modes, polarization modes, and any other mode or set of modes that serves to specify the quantum state. Furthermore, in the description that follows, embodiments will be described that employ photonic waveguides to define the spatial modes of the photon. However, one of ordinary skill having the benefit of this disclosure will appreciate that any type of mode, e.g., polarization modes, temporal modes, and the like, can be used without departing from the scope of the present disclosure.

[0079] For quantum systems of multiple indistinguishable particles, rather than describing the quantum state of each particle in the system, it is useful to describe the quantum state of the entire many-body system using the formalism of Fock states (sometimes referred to as the occupation number representation). In the Fock state description, the many-body quantum state is specified by how many particles there are in each mode of the system. Because modes are the complete set of properties, this description is sufficient. For example, a multi- mode, two particle Fock state |1001 ^{ۧ } _{^,ଶ,ଷ,ସ } specifies a two-particle quantum state with one photon in mode 1, zero photons in mode 2, zero photons in mode three, and 1 photon in mode four. Again, as introduced above, a mode can be any set of properties of the quantum object (and can depend on the single particle basis states being used to define the quantum state). For the case of the photon, any two modes of the electromagnetic field can be used, e.g., one may design the system to use modes that are related to a degree of freedom that can be manipulated passively with linear optics. For example, polarization, spatial degree of freedom, or angular momentum, could be used. For example, the four-mode system represented by the two particle Fock state |1001 ^{ۧ } _{^,ଶ,ଷ,ସ } can be physically implemented as four distinct waveguides with two of the four waveguides (representing mode 1 and mode 4, respectively) having one photon travelling within them. Other examples of a state of such a many-body quantum system are the four photon Fock state that represents each waveguide containing one photon and

the four photon Fock state | ۧ that represents waveguides one and two respectively

housing two photons and waveguides three and four housing zero photons. For modes having zero photons present, the term“vacuum mode” is used. For example, for the four photon Fock state |2200 ^{ۧ } _{^,ଶ,ଷ,ସ } modes 3 and 4 are referred to herein as“vacuum modes” (also referred to as “ancilla modes”).

[0080] As used herein, a“qubit” (or quantum bit) is a physical quantum system with an associated quantum state that can be used to encode information. Qubits, in contrast to classical bits, can have a state that is a superposition of logical values such as 0 and 1. In some embodiments, a qubit is“dual-rail encoded” such that the logical value of the qubit is encoded by occupation of one of two modes by exactly one photon (a single photon). For example, consider the two spatial modes of a photonic system associated with two distinct waveguides. In some embodiments, the logical 0 and 1 values can be encoded as follows:

where the subscript“L” indicates that the ket represents a logical value (e.g., a qubit value) and, as before, the notation |ij ^{ۧ } _{^,ଶ }^on the right-hand side of the Equations (1)-(2) above indicates that there are i photons in a first waveguide and j photons in a second waveguide, respectively (e.g., where i and j are integers). In this notation, a two qubit state having a logical value |01ۧ _{^^ }(representing a state of two qubits, the first qubit being in a‘0’ logical state and the second qubit being in a‘1’ logical state) may be represented using photon occupations across four distinct waveguides by (i.e., one photon in a first waveguide, zero photons in

a second waveguide, zero photons in a third waveguide, and one photon in a fourth waveguide). In some instances, throughout this disclosure, the various subscripts are omitted to avoid unnecessary mathematical clutter.

[0081] A Bell pair is a pair of qubits in any type of maximally entangled state referred to as a Bell state. For dual rail encoded qubits, examples of Bell states include:

[0082] In a computational basis (e.g., logical basis) with two states, a Greenberger- Horne-Zeilinger state is a quantum superposition of all qubits being in a first state of the two states superposed with all of qubits being in a second state. Using logical basis described above, the general M-qubit GHZ state can be written as:

II. A Hybrid Classical-Quantum Computing System

[0083] Figure 1 shows a hybrid computing system in accordance with one or more embodiments. The hybrid computing system 101 includes a user interface device 103 that is communicatively coupled to a hybrid quantum computing (QC) sub-system 105, described in more detail below in Figure 2. The user interface device 103 can be any type of user interface device, e.g., a terminal including a display, keyboard, mouse, touchscreen and the like. In addition, the user interface device can itself be a computer such as a personal computer (PC), laptop, tablet computer and the like. In some embodiments, the user interface device 103 provides an interface with which a user can interact with the hybrid QC subsystem 105. For example, the user interface device 103 may run software, such as a text editor, an interactive development environment (IDE), command prompt, graphical user interface, and the like so that the user can program, or otherwise interact with, the QC subsystem to run one or more quantum algorithms. In other embodiments, the hybrid QC subsystem 105 may be pre- programmed and the user interface device 103 may simply be an interface where a user can initiate a quantum computation, monitor the progress, and receive results from the hybrid QC subsystem 105. Hybrid QC subsystem 105 further includes a classical computing system 107 coupled to one or more quantum computing chips 109. In some examples, the classical computing system 107 and the quantum computing chips 109 can be coupled to other electronic components 111, e.g., pulsed pump lasers, microwave oscillators, power supplies, networking hardware, etc. In some embodiments that require cryogenic operation, the quantum computing chips 109 can be housed within a cryostat, e.g., cryostat 113. In some embodiments, the quantum computing chips 109 can include one or more constituent chips, e.g., hybrid control electronics 115 and integrated photonics chip 117. Signals can be routed on- and off-chip any number of ways, e.g., via optical interconnects 119 and via other electronic interconnects 121. In addition, the hybrid computing system 101 may employ a quantum computing process, e.g., measurement-based quantum computing (MBQC), circuit-based quantum computing (CBQC, or any other quantum computing scheme.

[0084] Figure 2 shows a block diagram of a hybrid QC system 201 in accordance with some embodiments. Such a system can be associated with the hybrid computing system 101 introduced above in reference to Figure 1. In Figure 2, solid lines represent quantum information channels and dashed represent classical information channels. The hybrid QC system 201 includes a qubit entangling system 203, qubit readout system 205, and classical computing system 207. In some embodiments, the qubit entangling system 203 takes as input a collection of N physical qubits, e.g., physical qubits 209 (also represented schematically as inputs 211a, 211b, 211c,…, 211n) and generates quantum entanglement between two or more of them to generate an entangled state 215. For example, in the case of photonic qubits, the qubit entangling system 203 can be a linear optical system such as an integrated photonic circuit that includes waveguides, beam splitters, photon detectors, delay lines, and the like. In some examples, the entangled state 215 can be a lattice, cluster, or graph state, or one part of a larger lattice, cluster, or graph state that is created over the course of several clock cycles of the quantum computer. In some embodiments, the input qubits 209 can be a collection of quantum systems and/or particles and can be formed using any qubit architecture. For example, the quantum systems can be particles, such as atoms, ions, and nuclei. In another example, the quantum systems can be photons. In yet other examples, the quantum systems can be other engineered quantum systems such as flux qubits, phase qubits, or charge qubits (e.g., formed from a superconducting Josephson junction), topological qubits (e.g., Majorana fermions), or spin qubits formed from vacancy centers (e.g., nitrogen vacancies in diamond). Furthermore, for the sake of clarity of description, the term“qubit” is used herein although the system can also employ quantum information carriers that encode information in a manner that is not necessarily associated with a binary bit. For example, qudits can be used, i.e., quantum systems that can encode information in more than two quantum states in accordance with some embodiments.

[0085] In accordance with some embodiments, the hybrid QC system 201 can be a quantum circuit-based quantum computer or a measurement-based quantum computer. In either case, a software program (e.g., a set of machine-readable instructions) that represents the quantum algorithm to be run on the hybrid QC system 201 can be passed to a classical computing system 207 (e.g., corresponding to system 107 in Figure 1 above). The classical computing system 207 can be any type of computing device such as a PC, one or more blade servers, and the like, or even a high-performance computing system such as a supercomputer, server farm, and the like. Such a system can include one or more processors (not shown) coupled to one or more computer memories, e.g., memory 206. Such a computing system will be referred to herein as a“classical computer.” In some examples, the software program can be received by a classical computing module, referred to herein as a detection pattern generator 213. One function of the detection pattern generator 213 is to generate a set of machine-level instructions from the input software program (which may originate as code that can be more easily written by a user to program the quantum computer), i.e., the detection pattern generator 213 can operate as a compiler, logic processor, and/or encoder to allow software programs to be run on the quantum computer. Detection pattern generator 213 can be implemented as pure hardware, pure software, or any combination of one or more hardware or software components or modules. In some examples, the compiled machine-level instructions take the form of one or more data frames that instruct the qubit readout circuit to make one or more quantum measurements on the entangled state 215. Measurement pattern 217 (e.g., a data frame) is one example of the set of measurements that should be applied to the individual qubits of entangled state 215 during a certain clock cycle as the program is executed. In other examples, e.g., the measurement pattern 217 can include instructions for applying multi-qubit measurements and/or multi-qubit gates, e.g., in the case where a fusion gate is desired to be applied to two or more qubits. In some embodiments, several measurement patterns 217 can be stored in memory 206 as classical data. Generally, the measurement patterns 217 can dictate whether or not a detector from the qubit detection array 221 of the qubit readout circuit 205 should make a measurement on a given qubit that makes up the entangled state 215. In addition, the measurement pattern 217 can also store which basis (e.g., Pauli X, Y, Z, etc.) the measurement should be made in order to execute the program. In some examples, the measurement pattern 217 can also include a set of gates that should be applied by the qubit entangling circuit to the next set of physical qubits 209 that are to be processed at some future clock cycle of the hybrid QC system 201.

[0086] A controller circuit 219 of the qubit readout circuit 205 can receive data that encodes the measurement pattern 217 and generate the configuration signals necessary to drive a set of detectors within the qubit detection array 221. The detectors can be any detector that can detect the quantum states of one or more of the qubits in the entangled state 215. For example, for the case of photonic qubits, the detectors can be single photon detectors that are coupled to one or more waveguides, beam splitters, interferometers, switches, polarizers, polarization rotators and the like. One of ordinary skill will appreciate that many types of detectors may be used depending on the particular qubit architecture.

[0087] In some embodiments, the result of applying the detection pattern 217 to the qubit detection array is a readout operation that“reads out” the quantum states of the qubits in the entangled state 215. Once this measurement is accomplished, the quantum information stored within the entangled state 215 is converted to classical information that corresponds to a set of eigenvalues that are measured by the detectors, referred to herein as“measurement outcomes.” These measurement outcomes can be stored in a measurement outcome data frame, e.g., data frame 222 and passed back to the classical computing system for further processing.

[0088] In some embodiments, any of the submodules in the hybrid QC system 201, e.g., controller 223, quantum gate array 225, detection array 221, controller 219, detection pattern generator 213, decoder 233, and logical processor 208 can include any number of classical computing components such as processors (CPUs, GPUs, TPUs) memory (any form of RAM, ROM), hard coded logic components (classical logic gates such as AND, OR, XOR, etc.) and/or programmable logic components such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs and the like). These modules can also include any number of application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), microcontrollers (MCUs), systems on a chip (SOCs), and other similar microelectronics.

[0089] In some embodiments, the entangled state 215 can be any cluster state described herein. Most generally, a cluster state of highly entangled qubits can be described by an undirected graph G = (V, E) with V and E denoting the sets of vertices and edges, respectively. Each vertex of the graph corresponds to a physical qubit in the cluster state. The physical qubits are initialized in the |+ۧ state, where | ^ۧ ൌ |^●ۧ ^ |^ۧ^/Ö^.^On each edge of the graph, a controlled-phase gate CZ is applied to the qubits that terminate that edge.

Accordingly, any cluster state, which physically corresponds to a large entangled state of physical qubits can be described as

where the Zij is the controlled phase gate operator. Thus, any cluster state (and the quantum circuit operations to generate the corresponding cluster state) can be graphically represented by a graph that includes vertices that represent physical qubits and edges that represent entanglement between them.

[0090] One useful feature of the generalized graph state written above is that it is a +1 eigenstate of a special class of operators K called stabilizers. More specifically the stabilizers of a graph state |Y are

where a is any qubit in the state and Na is the neighborhood of a, i.e., the set of qubits that are connected to it by an edge. X and Z are the Pauli operators. Thus, if no errors are present a measurement of the observable associated with the stabilizer will return a +1 eigenvalue.

On the contrary, if an error is present, measurement of the observable associated with the stabilizer will return a -1 eigenvalue. Thus, graph states can be useful states for quantum error correction.

[0091] As described herein, the logical qubit measurement outcomes 227 can be fault tolerantly recovered, e.g., via decoder 233, from the measurement outcomes 222 of the physical qubits. In the case of a cluster state that is also a stabilizer state, the error syndrome generated by the measurement of joint parity measurements (formed from the combination of one or more stabilizer measurements) are used by the decoder to identify and correct errors so that the correct logical qubit measurement outcome can be determined. Logical processor 208 can then process the logical outcomes as part of the running of the program. As shown, the logical processor 208 can feed back information to the detection pattern generator 213 to affect downstream gates and/or measurements to ensure that the computation proceeds fault tolerantly.

[0092] In the description that follows, embodiments will be described that employ spatial modes of photons as the qubit system, but one of ordinary skill will appreciate that any type of qubit described by any type of mode can be employed without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. Furthermore, in what follows, photonic waveguides are used to define the spatial modes of the photon. However, one of ordinary skill having the benefit of this disclosure will appreciate that any type of mode, e.g., polarization modes, temporal modes, and the like, can be used without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. The diagrams shown in the remaining figures are schematic diagrams with each horizontal line representing a mode of a quantum system, e.g., a waveguide.

III. Quantum Cluster States with High Fault Tolerance

[0093] Figure 3A is a schematic diagram illustrating a solid representation of an example unit cell in accordance with some embodiments.

[0094] The unit cell shown in Figure 3A has a shape of a convex hexahedron (e.g., a cuboid, such as a rectangular cuboid, and in particular, a cube).

[0095] The unit cell in Figure 3A has six faces (of which three faces 302-1, 302-2, and 302-3 are shown in Figure 3A). In Figure 3A, each face of the unit cell has a corresponding qubit (also called herein a face qubit). For example, in Figure 3A, face 302-1 corresponds to qubit 304-1, face 302-2 corresponds to qubit 304-2, and face 302-3 corresponds to qubit 304- 3.

[0096] The unit cell in Figure 3A has twelve edges (of which nine edges are shown in Figure 3A). In Figure 3A, each edge of the unit cell has a corresponding qubit (also called herein an edge qubit). For example, in Figure 3A, each of edge qubits 306-1, 306-2, 306-3, 306-4, 306-5, 306-7, 306-8, 306-9 corresponds to a distinct edge.

[0097] Figure 3B is a schematic diagram illustrating a wireframe representation of the unit cell shown in Figure 3A. Faces and edges and their corresponding qubits, masked by faces 302-1, 302-2, and 302-3 in Figure 3A, are visible in Figure 3B. For example, qubits 304-4, 304-5, and 304-6, which are not shown in Figure 3A, are illustrated in Figure 3B. [0098] Figure 3C is an example net of the unit cell shown in Figure 3A. The net shown in Figure 3C can be understood as an unfolded representation of the unit cell shown in Figure 3A.

[0099] Figure 3C illustrates that the net includes six faces 302-1 through 302-6 and corresponding qubits 304-1 through 304-6 (e.g., face 302-4 corresponds to qubit 304-4, face 302-5 corresponds to qubit 304-5, and face 302-6 corresponds to qubit 304-6).

[00100] Figure 3C also illustrates that the net includes twelve edges and corresponding qubits 306-1 through 306-12. Qubit 304-1 is entangled with qubits 306-1, 306-2, 306-3, and 306-4. Qubit 304-2 is entangled with qubits 306-5, 306-6, 306-7, and 306-2. Qubit 304-3 is entangled with qubits 306-7, 306-8, 306-9, and 306-3. Qubit 304-4 is entangled with qubits 306-10, 306-11, 306-5, and 306-1. Qubit 304-5 is entangled with qubits 306-10, 306-4, 306-9, and 306-12. Qubit 304-6 is entangled with qubits 306-11, 306-12, 306-8, and 306-6.

[00101] Figure 3D is a schematic diagram illustrating an example cluster state with a plurality of unit cells in accordance with some embodiments. The example cluster state shown in Figure 3D includes a contiguous block of unit cells, each unit cell corresponding to the unit cell described with respect to Figures 3A-3C. The cluster state shown in Figure 3D is sometimes called a Raussendorf lattice.

[00102] Figure 4A is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with one face having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00103] The unit cell shown in Figure 4A is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 3B, except that face 302-1 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 304-1 and 314-1). Thus, the unit cell shown in Figure 4A has only one face that corresponds to two qubits.

[00104] Figure 4B is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with two faces each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00105] The unit cell shown in Figure 4B is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 4A, except that face 302-2 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 304-2 and 314-2). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 4B, each of the two faces (e.g., faces 302-1 and 302-2) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00106] Figure 4C is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with three faces each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments. [00107] The unit cell shown in Figure 4C is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 4B, except that face 302-3 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 304-3 and 314-3). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 4C, each of the three faces (e.g., faces 302-1 through 302-3) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00108] Figure 4D is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with four faces each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00109] The unit cell shown in Figure 4D is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 4C, except that face 302-4 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 304-4 and 314-4). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 4D, each of the four faces (e.g., faces 302-1 through 302-4) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00110] Figure 4E is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with five faces each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00111] The unit cell shown in Figure 4E is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 4D, except that face 302-5 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 304-5 and 314-5). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 4E, each of the five faces (e.g., faces 302-1 through 302-5) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00112] Figure 4F is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with six faces each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00113] The unit cell shown in Figure 4F is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 4E, except that face 302-6 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 304-6 and 314-6). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 4F, each of the six faces (e.g., faces 302-1 through 302-6) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00114] Figure 4G is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with two faces each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00115] The unit cell shown in Figure 4G is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 4A, except that face 302-6 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 304-6 and 314-6). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 4G, each of two faces (e.g., faces 302-1 and 302-6) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00116] Although Figure 4G is similar to Figure 4D, the unit cell shown in Figure 4G has two pairs of opposite faces each having a distinct set of two qubits. [00117] Figure 4H is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with four faces each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00118] The unit cell shown in Figure 4H is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 4G, except that face 302-2 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 304-2 and 314-2) and face 302-5 correspond to two qubits (e.g., qubits 304-5 and 314-5). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 4H, faces 302-1 and 302-6 with distinct sets of two qubits are positioned opposite to each other and faces 302-2 and 302-5 with distinct sets of two qubits are positioned opposite to each other.

[00119] Although Figure 4H is similar to Figure 4B, in Figure 4H, the faces corresponding to respective sets of two qubits are opposite to each other, whereas in Figure 4B, the faces corresponding to respective sets of two qubits are adjacent to each other.

[00120] Figure 5A is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with one edge having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00121] The unit cell shown in Figure 5A is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 3B, except that edge 308-1 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-1 and 316-1). Thus, the unit cell shown in Figure 5A has only one edge that corresponds to two qubits.

[00122] Figure 5B is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with two edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00123] The unit cell shown in Figure 5B is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5A, except that edge 308-2 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-2 and 316-2). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 5B, each of the two edges (e.g., edges 308-1 and 308-2) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00124] Figure 5C is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with three edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00125] The unit cell shown in Figure 5C is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5B, except that edge 308-3 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-3 and 316-3). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 5C, each of the three edges (e.g., edges 308-1 through 308-3) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00126] Figure 5D is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with four edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments. [00127] The unit cell shown in Figure 5D is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5C, except that edge 308-4 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-4 and 316-4). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 5D, each of the four edges (e.g., edges 308-1 through 308-4) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00128] Figure 5E is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with five edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00129] The unit cell shown in Figure 5E is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5D, except that edge 308-5 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-5 and 316-5). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 5E, each of the five edges (e.g., edges 308-1 through 308-5) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00130] Figure 5F is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with six edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00131] The unit cell shown in Figure 5F is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5E, except that edge 308-6 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-6 and 316-6). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 5F, each of the six edges (e.g., edges 308-1 through 308-6) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00132] Figure 5G is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with seven edged having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00133] The unit cell shown in Figure 5G is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5F, except that edge 308-7 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-7 and 316-7). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 5G, each of the seven edges (e.g., edges 308-1 through 308-7) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00134] Figure 5H is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with eight edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00135] The unit cell shown in Figure 5H is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5G, except that edge 308-8 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-8 and 316-8). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 5H, each of the eight edges (e.g., edges 308-1 through 308-8) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00136] Figure 5I is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with nine edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments. [00137] The unit cell shown in Figure 5I is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5H, except that edge 308-9 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-9 and 316-9). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 5I, each of the nine edges (e.g., edges 308-1 through 308-9) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00138] Figure 5J is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with ten edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00139] The unit cell shown in Figure 5J is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5I, except that edge 308-10 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-10 and 316-10). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 5J, each of the ten edges (e.g., edges 308-1 through 308-10) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00140] Figure 5K is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with eleven edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00141] The unit cell shown in Figure 5K is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5J, except that edge 308-11 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-11 and 316-11). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 5K, each of the eleven edges (e.g., edges 308-1 through 308-11) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00142] Figure 5L is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with twelve edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00143] The unit cell shown in Figure 5L is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5K, except that edge 308-12 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-12 and 316-12). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 5L, each of the twelve edges (e.g., edges 308-1 through 308-12) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00144] Figure 5M is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with two edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00145] The unit cell shown in Figure 5M is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5A, except that edge 308-8 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-8 and 316-8). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 5M, each of the two edges (e.g., edges 308-1 and 308-8) corresponds to a distinct (and non-overlapping) set of two qubits.

[00146] Figure 5N is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with four edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments. [00147] The unit cell shown in Figure 5N is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5M, except that edge 308-3 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-3 and 316-3) and edge 308- 11 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-11 and 316-11). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 5N, each of the four edges (e.g., edges 308-1, 308-3, 308-8, and 308-11) corresponds to a distinct set of two qubits.

[00148] Figure 5O is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with four edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00149] The unit cell shown in Figure 5O is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5M, except that edge 308-5 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-5 and 316-5) and edge 308- 9 corresponds to two qubits (e.g., qubits 306-9 and 316-9). Thus, in the unit cell shown in Figure 5O, each of the four edges (e.g., edges 308-1, 308-5, 308-8, and 308-9) corresponds to a distinct set of two qubits.

[00150] Figure 5P is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with each face having two qubits and each edge having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments. The first set of qubits on the faces and edges are entangled to form a first cluster state having a unit cell of the Raussendorf lattice, i.e., each face qubit (e.g., face qubit 304-3) has nearest neighbor entanglement to four edge qubits, one on each edge of that face of the unit cell. The second set of qubits forms a second cluster state having second unit cell with a second set of qubits on its faces and edges to form a second unit cell having the geometry of the Raussendorf lattice. To entangle the first and second cluster states with each other to form the modified cluster state having improved fault tolerance, each face qubit from a respective cluster state is also entangled with all the edge qubits from the other unit cell for the corresponding face, i.e., for the edge qubits associated with the edges that form the face where the face qubit resides. For example, in the modified cluster state, face qubit 304-3 is entangled with not just the edge qubits from the first cluster state, but also all the edge qubits from the second cluster state, and thus, each face qubit in the modified cluster state is entangled with 8 nearest neighbors. Stated another way, in the modified cluster state, a face qubit of the second cluster state (e.g., face qubit 314-3) is entangled with the first cluster state by entangling the face qubit of the second cluster state with all the nearest neighbors of the corresponding face qubit (i.e., qubit 304-3) from the first cluster state. [00151] Advantageously, when used as a quantum error correcting code (i.e., when used as a unit cell for a larger cluster state formed from many unit cells that encodes a logical qubit within the arrangement of physical qubits), the modified cluster state as shown has a higher tolerance to errors on the individual physical qubits (such as qubit loss, also referred to as erasure error, and Pauli error), as discussed in further detail below. While the example of the Raussendorf lattice is shown here as one example, the fault tolerance of any underlying cluster state can be enhanced via the entanglement geometry disclosed herein. Some additional examples are shown in Figures 8A-8D.

[00152] In some embodiments, each face of a unit cell has three or more qubits and each edge of the unit cell has three of more qubits.

[00153] In some embodiments, each face of a unit cell has a first number of qubits and each edge of the unit cell has a second number of qubits that is distinct from the first number of qubits. For example, each edge has only one qubit and each face has two qubits as shown in Figure 4F. In another example, each face has only one qubit and each edge has two qubits as shown in Figure 5L. In yet another example, each face has two qubits and each edge has three qubits.

[00154] In some embodiments, a first subset of faces of a unit cell has a first number of qubits, a second subset of the faces of the unit cell has a second number of qubits that is distinct from the first number of qubits, a first subset of edges of the unit cell has a third number of qubits, and a second subset of edges of the unit cell has a fourth number of qubits that is distinct from the third number of qubits. In some embodiments, the third number is distinct from the first number and the second number. In some embodiments, the fourth number is distinct from the first number and the second number. In some embodiments, the third number is identical to the first number. In some embodiments, the fourth number is identical to the second number.

[00155] Figure 5Q is a schematic diagram illustrating another example unit cell with twelve edges each having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments. The unit cell shown in Figure 5Q is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5L, except that two qubits corresponding to a respective edge are located on the respective edge. Although the unit cell shown in Figure 5Q is illustrated differently from the unit cell shown in Figure 5L, the unit cells shown in Figures 8L and 8Q are different graphical representations of the same unit cell (having the same entanglements). [00156] Figure 5R is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell that is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 5Q, except that the unit cell shown in Figure 5R has a face that corresponds to two qubits 304-1 and 314-1. Each of qubits 304-1 and 314-1 is entangled with qubits 306-1, 316-1, 306-2, 316-2, 306-3, 316-3, 306-4, and 316-4. While not shown for the clarity, a full unit cell of the form shown in Figure 5R would have two qubits all faces corresponding to each of the six faces, in which case, the cluster state is the same modified cluster state shown in Figure 5P.

[00157] Figure 6A is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with a face (e.g., face 302-1) having two qubits and an edge (e.g., edge 308-8) having two qubits in accordance with some embodiments.

[00158] Figure 6B is a schematic diagram illustrating an example unit cell with a face (e.g., face 302-1) having three qubits (e.g., qubits 304-1, 314-1, and 324-1) in accordance with some embodiments.

[00159] In other implementations, each of any subset of the faces is configured to correspond to two or more qubits (e.g., three qubits) and/or each of any subset of the edges is configured to correspond to two or more qubits (e.g., three qubits).

[00160] Figure 6C is a schematic diagram illustrating an example cell with a face initially having three qubits, one of which is subsequently lost. The cell shown in Figure 6C is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 6B, except that the cell shown in Figure 6C is missing qubit 304-1. Because qubits 314-1 and 324-1 corresponding to face 302-1 remain, the absence of qubit 304-1 has no impact on quantum computation based on the example cell (when there are no other errors). Even when other errors are present (e.g., probabilistic Pauli errors or probabilistic erasure), the presence of qubits 314-1 and 324-1 reduces the impact of missing qubit 304-1.

[00161] Figure 6D is a schematic diagram illustrating another example cell with one or more faces and/or edges without corresponding qubits in accordance with some embodiments. The cell shown in Figure 6D is similar to the unit cell shown in Figure 6B, except that the cell shown in Figure 6D has one face that does not have a corresponding qubit (e.g., qubit 304-4 shown in Figure 6B is not present) and one edge that does not have a corresponding qubit (e.g., qubit 306-8 shown in Figure 6B is not present). [00162] In some implementations, absence of one or more qubits is repeated in multiple cells of a cluster state (e.g., each cell of the cluster state has missing qubits at same or corresponding locations).

[00163] In some other implementations, absence of one or more qubits differs among cells. For example, in some cases, a first cell has a missing qubit at a first location within the first cell (e.g., the first cell is missing a first face qubit) and a second cell has a missing qubit at a second location that is distinct from (and does not correspond to) the first location within the second cell (e.g., the second cell is missing a third edge qubit instead of the first face qubit). In cases where qubits are lost during formation of the cluster state or in subsequent processing, the cluster states having the structures described herein have been shown to have a high fault tolerance.

[00164] For example, a cluster state based on any of the unit cells shown in Figure 4A- 7H, 8A-8P, and 9A-9C has a higher fault tolerance than a cluster state based on the unit cell shown in Figure 3B. For example, the fault tolerance obtained by using the unit cell shown in Figure 3B and the improved fault tolerance obtained by using the unit cell shown in Figure 5P are shown in the following table:

[00165] As shown above, the unit cell shown in Figure 5P has more than two times higher fault tolerance for erasure and more than three times higher fault tolerance for Pauli error compared to the unit cell shown in Figure 3B. Even when the increased number of bonds is accounted for, the Pauli error threshold per bond is nearly two times higher with the unit cell shown in Figure 5P than the unit cell shown in Figure 3B. [00166] In some embodiments, presence of one or more additional qubits is repeated in multiple cells of a cluster state (e.g., each cell of the cluster state has one or more additional qubits at same or corresponding locations).

[00167] In some embodiments, presence of one or more additional qubits differs among cells. In some implementations, a first cell has an additional qubit at a first location within the first cell and a second cell has an additional qubit at a second location that is distinct from (and does not correspond to) the first location within the second cell. In some implementations, the first cell has only one qubit at the second location within the first cell. In some implementations, the second cell has only one qubit at the first location within the second cell. For example, the first cell has two qubits for a first face and the second cell has two qubits for a third edge. In some cases, the first cell has only one qubit for the third edge and only one qubit for the first face. In some other cases, the first cell has two qubits for the third edge and only one qubit for the first face.

[00168] Figure 7 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example cluster state with a plurality of unit cells in accordance with some embodiments.

[00169] In Figure 7, the cluster state includes a plurality of contiguous unit cells (e.g., any of the plurality of unit cells has a face that is overlapped by a face of another of the plurality of unit cells). In Figure 7, respective unit cells of the plurality of contiguous unit cells correspond to the unit cell shown in Figure 7F. However, in some implementations, a cluster state includes a plurality of unit cells, each unit cell of the plurality of unit cells corresponding to any unit cell described herein (e.g., any of the unit cells described with respect to Figures 7A-7H, 8A-8P, and 6).

[00170] Figures 8A-8D are schematic diagrams illustrating example unit cells in accordance with some embodiments.

[00171] The unit cell shown in Figure 8A has a shape of a pyramid (e.g., a rectangular pyramid, such as a rectangular right pyramid).

[00172] The unit cell in Figure 8A has five faces. In Figure 8A, each face of the unit cell has two corresponding qubits. Each face qubit of the unit cell shown in Figure 8A is entangled with edge qubits of edges defining (e.g., bordering) the corresponding face. For example, the bottom face of the unit cell has two corresponding qubits 804 and 814. Each of qubits 804 and 814 is entangled with qubits 806-1, 806-2, 806-3, and 806-4. [00173] Although Figure 8A illustrates that each face of the unit cell has two corresponding qubits, in some implementations, each face of only a subset of the faces of the unit cell has two corresponding qubits. For example, only the bottom face of the unit cell may have two (or more) corresponding qubits. In another example, only a side face of the unit cell may have two (or more) corresponding qubits.

[00174] The unit cell shown in Figure 8B has a shape of a tetrahedron. The unit cell shown in Figure 8B has four faces. In Figure 8B, at least one face of the unit cell has two corresponding face qubits 824 and 834. Each face qubit of the two face qubits 824 and 834 shown in Figure 8B is entangled with edge qubits 826-1, 826-2, and 826-3 of edges defining (e.g., bordering) the corresponding face.

[00175] Although Figure 8B illustrates that only one face of the unit cell has two corresponding qubits, in some implementations, any of the faces of the unit cell has two corresponding qubits.

[00176] Figures 8C and 8D illustrate additional example unit cells. Some of the unit cells shown in Figures 8C and 8D have hexagonal faces and/or octagonal faces. In some embodiments, a unit cell has a shape of a truncated polyhedron (e.g., a truncated octahedron).

[00177] In some implementations, each of any subset of the faces (of the cells shown in Figures 8A-8D) is configured to correspond to two or more qubits (e.g., three qubits) and/or each of any subset of the edges (of the cells shown in Figures 8A-8D) is configured to correspond to two or more qubits (e.g., three qubits).

[00178] Although Figures 3A-3D, 7A-7H, 8A-8P, 6A-6C, 7, and 8A-8D illustrate cluster states in particular graphical representations, a person having ordinary skill in the art would understand that the same cluster states may be illustrated in other graphical representations. These graphical representations have been selected to illustrate the entanglements among a plurality of qubits. However, these graphical representations do not necessarily indicate physical locations of the represented plurality of qubits. Thus, equivalents and analogs (e.g., physical and/or geometrical equivalents) of the illustrated cluster states are within the scope of claims.

[00179] In Figures 3A-3D, 7A-7H, 8A-8P, 6A-6C, 7, and 8A-8D, each qubit of the cluster states may have any qubit state. In some embodiments, one or more qubits of any cluster state are further processed (e.g., using one or more gates for quantum operations, such as rotations) subsequent to formation of the cluster state while the other qubits of the cluster state are not processed in a same manner (e.g., the other qubits are not put through the one or more gates for the same quantum operations). In some embodiments, one or more qubits are processed (e.g., using one or more gates for quantum operations, such as rotations) prior to formation of a cluster state while the other qubits to be included in the cluster state are not processed in a same manner (e.g., the other qubits are not put through the one or more gates for the same quantum operations).

[00180] In some cases, qubits in one or more cluster states (e.g., cluster states illustrated in Figures 3A-3D, 7A-7H, 8A-8P, 6A-6C, 7, and 8A-8D) are used in a quantum memory device. Due to the multiple entanglements among the qubits, such cluster states can maintain quantum information in case of an erasure (e.g., a loss of a qubit or a loss of qubit information for a particular qubit) or a Pauli error (e.g., a measurement error). A cluster state having a high fault tolerance (e.g., cluster states illustrated in Figures 7A-7H, 8A-8P, 6A-6C, 7, and 8A-8D) can preserve the quantum information even in the event of multiple erasures or multiple Pauli errors, and thus, enables a more robust quantum memory device. The use of the cluster state having a high fault tolerance, in turn, improves the performance and reduces the size of a quantum memory device, as it requires a less stringent error correction mechanism or fewer qubits to provide a particular level of fault tolerance.

[00181] Figure 9 is a flowchart representing method 900 of obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits in accordance with some embodiments. Method 900 is performed using a quantum entanglement generator (e.g., quantum entanglement generator 372).

[00182] Method 900 includes obtaining (910) a plurality of entangled qubits represented by a lattice structure (e.g., Figure 7). The lattice structure includes a plurality of contiguous lattice cells (e.g., a plurality of contiguous unit cells, such as unit cells shown in Figures 7A- 7H, 8A-8P, and 9).

[00183] A respective edge of a respective lattice cell corresponds to one or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits. For example, in Figure 3C, each edge of the unit cell corresponds to at least one qubit. However, in some implementations, as shown in Figure 6D, one or more edges do not have corresponding qubits. In some other implementations, every edge has at least one corresponding qubit. [00184] A respective face of the respective lattice cell corresponds to one or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits. For example, in Figure 3C, each face of the unit cell corresponds to at least one qubit. However, in some implementations, as shown in Figure 6D, one or more faces do not have corresponding qubits. In some other implementations, every face has at least one corresponding qubit.

[00185] Each qubit of the one or more qubits that correspond to the respective face of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the respective face of the respective lattice cell. For example, in Figure 3C, each face qubit is entangled with adjacent edge qubits (e.g., face qubit 304-1 corresponding to face 302-1 is entangled with qubits 306-1, 306-2, 306-3, and 306- 4 that correspond to edges that at least partially or fully border face 302-1). In Figure 4A, face qubit 304-1 is entangled with edge qubits 306-1, 306-2, 306-3, and 306-4, and face qubit 314- 1 is also entangled with edge qubits 306-1, 306-2, 306-3, and 306-4. However, face qubit 314- 1 is not directly entangled with face qubit 304-1.

[00186] In some embodiments, at least a first face of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits (e.g., face 302-1 in Figure 4A corresponds to two face qubits 304-1 and 314-1). Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the first face of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the first face of the respective lattice cell (e.g., face qubit 304-1 is entangled with edge qubits 306-1, 306-2, 306-3, and 306-4, and face qubit 314-1 is also entangled with edge qubits 306-1, 306-2, 306- 3, and 306-4).

[00187] In some embodiments, at least a first edge of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits (e.g., edge 308-1 in Figure 5A corresponds to two edge qubits 306-1 and 316-1). Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the first edge of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the first edge of the respective lattice cell (e.g., edge qubit 306-1 is entangled with face qubits 304- 1 and 304-4 that correspond to faces 302-1 and 302-4, which are at least partially bordered by edge 308-1). [00188] In some embodiments, at least the first face of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits while no edge of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits (e.g., Figure 4A). In some embodiments, at least the first edge of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits while no face of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits (e.g., Figure 5A). In some embodiments, at least the first face of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits and at least the first edge of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits (e.g., Figure 6A).

[00189] In some embodiments, the first face of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits, of the plurality of entangled qubits, including a first qubit and a second qubit that is distinct from the first qubit (e.g., qubits 304-1 and 314-1 in Figure 4A). The first qubit is not directly entangled with the second qubit.

[00190] In some embodiments, the first face is a rectangular face defined by four edges of the respective lattice cell (e.g., face 302-1 in Figure 4A is a rectangular face defined by four adjacent edges).

[00191] In some embodiments, the first face is a triangular face defined by three edges of the respective lattice cell (e.g., a triangular face shown in Figure 8B).

[00192] In some embodiments, a second face of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first face of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits (e.g., face 302-2 in Figure 4B corresponds to qubits 304-2 and 314-2). Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the second face of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the second face of the respective lattice cell.

[00193] In some embodiments, the second face is a rectangular face defined by four edges of the respective lattice cell (e.g., face 302-2 in Figure 4B is a rectangular face).

[00194] In some embodiments, the second face is a triangular face defined by three edges of the respective lattice cell (e.g., in some cases, the first face is a rectangular face and the second face is a triangular face as shown in Figure 8A, and in some cases, the first face and the second face are both triangular faces as shown in Figure 8B). [00195] In some embodiments, a third face of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first face and the second face of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits (e.g., face 302-3 in Figure 4C corresponds to qubits 304-3 and 314-3). Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the third face of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the third face of the respective lattice cell.

[00196] In some embodiments, the third face is a rectangular face defined by four edges of the respective lattice cell.

[00197] In some embodiments, the third face is a triangular face defined by three edges of the respective lattice cell.

[00198] In some embodiments, a fourth face of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first face, the second face, and the third face of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits (e.g., face 302-4 in Figure 4D corresponds to qubits 304-4 and 314-4). Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the fourth face of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the fourth face of the respective lattice cell.

[00199] In some embodiments, the fourth face is a rectangular face defined by four edges of the respective lattice cell.

[00200] In some embodiments, the fourth face is a triangular face defined by three edges of the respective lattice cell.

[00201] In some embodiments, a fifth face of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first face, the second face, the third face, and the fourth face of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits (e.g., face 302-5 in Figure 4E corresponds to qubits 304-5 and 314-5). Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the fifth face of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the fifth face of the respective lattice cell.

[00202] In some embodiments, the fifth face is a rectangular face defined by four edges of the respective lattice cell. [00203] In some embodiments, a sixth face of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first face, the second face, the third face, the fourth face, and the fifth face of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits (e.g., face 302-6 in Figure 4F corresponds to qubits 304-6 and 314-6). Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the sixth face of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the sixth face of the respective lattice cell.

[00204] In some embodiments, the first edge of the respective lattice cell corresponds to two or more qubits, of the plurality of entangled qubits, including a third qubit and a fourth qubit that is distinct from the third qubit (e.g., edge 308-1 in Figure 5A corresponds to qubits 306-1 and 316-1). The third qubit is not directly entangled with the fourth qubit.

[00205] In some embodiments, a second edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits (e.g., edge 308-2 in Figure 5B corresponds to qubits 306-2 and 316-2). Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the second edge of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the second edge of the respective lattice cell (e.g., edge qubit 306-2 is entangled with face qubits 304-1 and 304-2 and edge qubit 316-2 is also entangled with face qubits 304-1 and 304-2).

[00206] In some embodiments, a third edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge and the second edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits (e.g., edge 308-3 in Figure 5C corresponds to qubits 306-3 and 316-3). Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the third edge of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the third edge of the respective lattice cell.

[00207] In some embodiments, a fourth edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge, the second edge, and the third edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits (e.g., edge 308-4 in Figure 5D corresponds to qubits 306-4 and 316-4). Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the fourth edge of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the fourth edge of the respective lattice cell.

[00208] In some embodiments, a fifth edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge, the second edge, the third edge, and the fourth edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits (e.g., edge 308-5 in Figure 5E corresponds to qubits 306-5 and 316-5). Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the fifth edge of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the fifth edge of the respective lattice cell.

[00209] In some embodiments, a sixth edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge, the second edge, the third edge, the fourth edge, and the fifth edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits. Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the sixth edge of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the sixth edge of the respective lattice cell.

[00210] In some embodiments, a seventh edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge, the second edge, the third edge, the fourth edge, the fifth edge, and the sixth edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits. Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the seventh edge of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the seventh edge of the respective lattice cell.

[00211] In some embodiments, an eighth edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge, the second edge, the third edge, the fourth edge, the fifth edge, the sixth edge, and the seventh edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits. Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the eighth edge of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the eighth edge of the respective lattice cell.

[00212] In some embodiments, a ninth edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge, the second edge, the third edge, the fourth edge, the fifth edge, the sixth edge, the seventh edge, and the eighth edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits. Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the ninth edge of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the ninth edge of the respective lattice cell.

[00213] In some embodiments, a tenth edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge, the second edge, the third edge, the fourth edge, the fifth edge, the sixth edge, the seventh edge, the eighth edge, and the ninth edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits. Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the tenth edge of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the tenth edge of the respective lattice cell.

[00214] In some embodiments, an eleventh edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge, the second edge, the third edge, the fourth edge, the fifth edge, the sixth edge, the seventh edge, the eighth edge, the ninth edge, and the tenth edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits. Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the eleventh edge of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the eleventh edge of the respective lattice cell.

[00215] In some embodiments, a twelfth edge of the respective lattice cell, that is distinct from the first edge, the second edge, the third edge, the fourth edge, the fifth edge, the sixth edge, the seventh edge, the eighth edge, the ninth edge, the tenth edge, and the eleventh edge of the respective lattice cell, corresponds to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits. Each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the twelfth edge of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the twelfth edge of the respective lattice cell.

[00216] In some embodiments, obtaining the plurality of entangled qubits includes (920) fusing (i) at least one qubit of a first set of multiple entangled qubits (e.g., qubits 531, 533, 535, 537, and 539 in Figure 14D) and (ii) at least one qubit of a second set of multiple entangled qubits (e.g., qubits 541, 543, 545, 547, and 549 in Figure 14D). The second set of multiple entangled qubits is mutually exclusive from the first set of multiple entangled qubits. [00217] In some embodiments, the first set of multiple entangled qubits includes three or more qubits (e.g., qubits 531, 533, 535, 537, and 539 in Figure 14D); and the second set of multiple entangled qubits includes two or more qubits (e.g., qubits 541, 543, 545, 547, and 549 in Figure 14D).

[00218] In some embodiments, obtaining the plurality of entangled qubits includes (930): receiving a first set of entangled qubits, including a first center qubit entangled with three or more peripheral qubits; receiving a second set of entangled qubits, including a second center qubits entangled with three or more peripheral qubits, the second set of entangled qubits is mutually exclusive to the first set of entangled qubits; and fusing each peripheral qubit of the first set of entangled qubits with a respective peripheral qubit of the second set of entangled qubits (e.g., Figure 14D).

[00219] In some embodiments, obtaining the plurality of entangled qubits includes receiving a first set of entangled qubits, receiving a second set of entangled qubits, and causing entanglement of at least a subset of the first set of entangled qubits and at least a subset of the second set of entangled qubits (e.g., by placing two matter particles, such as ions, in proximity of each other).

[00220] In some embodiments, the method includes performing measurements on at least a subset of the plurality of entangled qubits (e.g., measurements in X-basis).

[00221] In some embodiments, the method includes providing results of the measurements from a quantum computer to one or more classical computers (e.g., a conventional computer having semiconductor-based processor(s)).

[00222] It should be noted that details described herein with respect to the structures of the plurality of entangled qubits are also applicable in an analogous manner to method 900 described above with respect to Figure 9. For brevity, these details are not repeated herein.

[00223] Figure 10 is a flowchart representing method 1000 of obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits in accordance with some embodiments. Method 1000 is performed using a quantum entanglement generator (e.g., quantum entanglement generator 372).

[00224] Method 1000 includes obtaining (1010) a plurality of entangled qubits, including a first qubit entangled with second, third, fourth, and fifth qubits (e.g., qubit 304-1 shown in Figure 4A is entangled with qubits 306-1, 306-2, 306-3, and 306-4). The plurality of qubits also includes one or more of: a sixth qubit entangled with the fifth qubit; an seventh qubit entangled with the second qubit; an eighth qubit entangled with the third qubit; a ninth qubit entangled with the fourth qubit; an tenth qubit entangled with at least one of the sixth qubit and the seventh qubit; an eleventh qubit entangled with at least one of the seventh qubit and the eighth qubit; a twelfth qubit entangled with at least one of the eighth qubit and the ninth qubit; a thirteenth qubit entangled with at least one of the sixth qubit and the ninth qubit; a fourteenth qubit entangled with the sixth qubit; a fifteenth qubit entangled with the seventh qubit; a sixteenth qubit entangled with the eighth qubit; an seventeenth qubit entangled with the ninth qubit; and an eighteenth qubit entangled with at least one of the fourteenth qubit, the fifteenth qubit, the sixteenth qubit, and the seventeenth qubit. The plurality of qubits further includes a nineteenth qubit entangled with the second, third, fourth, and fifth qubits (e.g., qubit 314-1 shown in Figure 4A is entangled with qubits 306-1, 306-2, 306-3, and 306-4). The nineteenth qubit is different from the first qubit. In some embodiments, the sixth qubit is not entangled with the second, third, and fourth qubits. In some embodiments, the seventh qubit is not entangled with the third, fourth, and fifth qubits. In some embodiments, the eight qubit is not entangled with second, fourth, and fifth qubits. In some embodiments, the ninth qubit is not entangled with the second, third, and fifth qubits.

[00225] In some embodiments, the method includes (1020) one or more of: entangling the first qubit with the second qubit; entangling the first qubit with the third qubit; entangling the first qubit with the fourth qubit; entangling the first qubit with the fifth qubit; entangling the sixth qubit with the fifth qubit; entangling the seventh qubit with the second qubit; entangling the eighth qubit with the third qubit; entangling the ninth qubit with the fourth qubit; entangling the tenth qubit with the sixth qubit; entangling the tenth qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the eleventh qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the eleventh qubit with the eighth qubit; entangling the twelfth qubit with the eighth qubit; entangling the twelfth qubit with the ninth qubit; entangling the thirteenth qubit with the sixth qubit; entangling the thirteenth qubit with the ninth qubit; entangling the fourteenth qubit with the sixth qubit; entangling the fifteenth qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the sixteenth qubit with the eighth qubit; entangling the seventeenth qubit with the ninth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the fourteenth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the fifteenth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the sixteenth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the seventeenth qubit; entangling the nineteenth qubit with the second qubit; entangling the nineteenth qubit with the third second; entangling the nineteenth qubit with the fourth qubit; and entangling the nineteenth qubit with the fifth qubit. For example, the method includes obtaining a first sets of entangled qubits and a second set of entangled qubits and fusing a subset of the first set of entangled qubits and a subset of the second set of entangled qubits as shown in Figure 14F. In another example, the method includes entangling each qubit of the plurality of entangled qubits one by one.

[00226] In some embodiments, the method includes two or more (e.g., three or more, four or more, five or more, six or more, seven or more, eight or more, nine or more, ten or more, etc.) of: entangling the first qubit with the second qubit; entangling the first qubit with the third qubit; entangling the first qubit with the fourth qubit; entangling the first qubit with the fifth qubit; entangling the sixth qubit with the fifth qubit; entangling the seventh qubit with the second qubit; entangling the eighth qubit with the third qubit; entangling the ninth qubit with the fourth qubit; entangling the tenth qubit with the sixth qubit; entangling the tenth qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the eleventh qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the eleventh qubit with the eighth qubit; entangling the twelfth qubit with the eighth qubit; entangling the twelfth qubit with the ninth qubit; entangling the thirteenth qubit with the sixth qubit; entangling the thirteenth qubit with the ninth qubit; entangling the fourteenth qubit with the sixth qubit; entangling the fifteenth qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the sixteenth qubit with the eighth qubit; entangling the seventeenth qubit with the ninth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the fourteenth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the fifteenth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the sixteenth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the seventeenth qubit; entangling the nineteenth qubit with the second qubit; entangling the nineteenth qubit with the third second; entangling the nineteenth qubit with the fourth qubit; and entangling the nineteenth qubit with the fifth qubit.

[00227] In some embodiments, the method includes entangling the first qubit with the second qubit; entangling the first qubit with the third qubit; entangling the first qubit with the fourth qubit; entangling the first qubit with the fifth qubit; entangling the sixth qubit with the fifth qubit; entangling the seventh qubit with the second qubit; entangling the eighth qubit with the third qubit; entangling the ninth qubit with the fourth qubit; entangling the tenth qubit with the sixth qubit; entangling the tenth qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the eleventh qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the eleventh qubit with the eighth qubit; entangling the twelfth qubit with the eighth qubit; entangling the twelfth qubit with the ninth qubit; entangling the thirteenth qubit with the sixth qubit; entangling the thirteenth qubit with the ninth qubit; entangling the fourteenth qubit with the sixth qubit; entangling the fifteenth qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the sixteenth qubit with the eighth qubit; entangling the seventeenth qubit with the ninth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the fourteenth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the fifteenth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the sixteenth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the seventeenth qubit; entangling the nineteenth qubit with the second qubit; entangling the nineteenth qubit with the third second; entangling the nineteenth qubit with the fourth qubit; and entangling the nineteenth qubit with the fifth qubit. As a result, all of the entangling operations listed in operations 1020 are performed.

[00228] In some embodiments, entangling two qubits includes (1030) performing a Bell state measurement on a first ancillary qubit entangled with one qubit of the two qubits and a second ancillary qubit entangled with the other qubit of the two qubits (e.g., performing a Bell state measurement on qubits 405 and 407 as shown in Figure 21A, where qubit 405 is entangled with qubit 403 and qubit 407 is entangled with qubit 409).

[00229] It should be noted that details described herein with respect to the structures of the plurality of entangled qubits are also applicable in an analogous manner to method 1000 described above with respect to Figure 10. For brevity, these details are not repeated herein.

[00230] In addition, one or more features described with respect to method 900 shown in Figure 9 can apply to method 1000 shown in Figure 10 in an analogous manner. For brevity, these details are not repeated herein.

[00231] Methods analogous to method 1000 can be applied to other cluster states, e.g., the cluster states illustrated in Figures 8A-8D. For example, in accordance with some embodiments, a method includes obtaining a plurality of qubits, including a first qubit entangled with at least second, third, and fourth qubits (e.g., in Figure 8B, qubit 824 is entangled with qubits 826-1, 826-2, and 826-3). The plurality of qubits further includes a fifth qubit entangled with at least the second, third, and fourth qubits (e.g., in Figure 8B, qubit 834 is entangled with qubits 826-1, 826-2, and 826-3). In some embodiments, the plurality of qubits also includes one or more of: a sixth qubit entangled with the second qubit; a seventh qubit entangled with the third qubit; an eighth qubit entangled with the fourth qubit; a ninth qubit entangled with the sixth qubit and the seventh qubit; a tenth qubit entangled with the seventh qubit and the eighth qubit; and an eleventh qubit entangled with the eighth qubit and the sixth qubit. In some embodiments, the ninth qubit is not entangled with the eighth qubit. In some embodiments, the tenth qubit is not entangled with the sixth qubit. In some embodiments, the eleventh qubit is not entangled with the seventh qubit.

[00232] Figure 11 is a flowchart representing method 1100 of obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits in accordance with some embodiments. Method 1100 is performed using a quantum entanglement generator (e.g., quantum entanglement generator 372).

[00233] Method 1100 includes obtaining (1110) a plurality of qubits, including a first qubit entangled with second and third qubits (e.g., qubit 306-1 entangled with qubits 304-1 and 304-4 as shown in Figure 5A). The plurality of qubits also includes a fourth qubit entangled with the second and third qubits (e.g., qubit 316-1 entangled with qubits 304-1 and 304-4 as shown in Figure 5A). The fourth qubit is different from the first qubit. The plurality of qubits further includes one or more of: a fifth qubit entangled with the second qubit; a sixth qubit entangled with the third qubit; a seventh qubit entangled with the fifth qubit and the sixth qubit; an eighth qubit entangled with the second qubit; a ninth qubit entangled with the third qubit; a tenth qubit entangled with the ninth qubit; an eleventh qubit entangled with the second qubit; a twelfth qubit entangled with the third qubit; a thirteenth qubit entangled with the eleventh qubit; a fourteenth qubit entangled with the thirteenth qubit and the tenth qubit; a fifteenth qubit entangled with the seventh qubit and the thirteenth qubit; a sixteenth qubit entangled with the twelfth qubit; a seventeenth qubit entangled with the tenth qubit and the sixteenth qubit; an eighteenth qubit entangled with the seventh qubit and the sixteenth qubit; and a nineteenth qubit entangled with the thirteenth qubit and the sixteenth qubit.

[00234] In some embodiments, the method includes (1120) one or more of: entangling the first qubit with the second qubit; entangling the first qubit with the third qubit; entangling the fourth qubit with the second qubit; entangling the fourth qubit with the third qubits; entangling the fifth qubit with the second qubit; entangling the sixth qubit with the third qubit; entangling the seventh qubit with the fifth qubit; entangling the seventh qubit with the sixth qubit; entangling the eighth qubit with the second qubit; entangling the ninth qubit with the third qubit; entangling the tenth qubit with the ninth qubit; entangling the eleventh qubit with the second qubit; entangling the twelfth qubit with the third qubit; entangling the thirteenth qubit with the eleventh qubit; entangling the fourteenth qubit with the thirteenth qubit; entangling the fourteenth qubit with the tenth qubit; entangling the fifteenth qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the fifteenth qubit with the thirteenth qubit; entangling the sixteenth qubit with the twelfth qubit; entangling the seventeenth qubit with the tenth qubit; entangling the seventeenth qubit with the sixteenth qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the seventh qubit; entangling the eighteenth qubit with the sixteenth qubit; entangling the nineteenth qubit with the thirteenth qubit; and entangling the nineteenth qubit with the sixteenth qubit.

[00235] In some embodiments, entangling two qubits includes (1130) performing a Bell state measurement on a first ancillary qubit entangled with one qubit of the two qubits and a second ancillary qubit entangled with the other qubit of the two qubits.

[00236] It should be noted that details described herein with respect to the structures of the plurality of entangled qubits are also applicable in an analogous manner to method 1100 described above with respect to Figure 11. For brevity, these details are not repeated herein.

[00237] In addition, one or more features described with respect to method 1100 shown in Figure 11 or method 1000 shown in Figure 10 can apply to method 1200 shown in Figure 12 in an analogous manner. For brevity, these details are not repeated herein.

[00238] Figure 12 is a flowchart representing method 1200 of obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits in accordance with some embodiments. Method 1200 is performed using a quantum entanglement generator (e.g., quantum entanglement generator 372).

[00239] Method 1200 includes (1210) obtaining a first set of multiple entangled qubits (e.g., five entangled qubits shown in Figure 14F) and (1220) obtaining a second set of multiple entangled qubits (e.g., eighteen entangled qubits shown in Figure 14F). The second set of multiple entangled qubits is mutually exclusive from the first set of multiple entangled qubits.

[00240] Method 1200 also includes (1230) fusing (i) at least one qubit of the first set of multiple entangled qubits and (ii) at least one qubit of the second set of multiple entangled qubits, thereby obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits represented by a lattice structure, the lattice structure including a plurality of contiguous lattice cells (e.g., the fused cluster of entangled qubits as shown in Figure 14F). A respective edge of a respective lattice cell corresponds to one or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits. A respective face of the respective lattice cell corresponds to one or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits. Each qubit of the one or more qubits that correspond to the respective face of the respective lattice cell is entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the respective face of the respective lattice cell. [00241] In some embodiments, at least a first face of the respective lattice cell corresponds (1240) to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the first face of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective edges of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the first face of the respective lattice cell. In some embodiments, at least a first edge of the respective lattice cell corresponds (1250) to two or more qubits of the plurality of entangled qubits, each qubit of the two or more qubits that correspond to the first edge of the respective lattice cell being entangled with respective qubits that correspond to respective faces of the respective lattice cell that are adjacent to the first edge of the respective lattice cell.

[00242] It should be noted that details described herein with respect to the structures of the plurality of entangled qubits are also applicable in an analogous manner to method 1200 described above with respect to Figure 12. For brevity, these details are not repeated herein.

[00243] In addition, one or more features described with respect to method 1200 shown in Figure 12, method 1000 shown in Figure 10, and method 1400 shown in Figure 14 can apply to method 1200 shown in Figure 12 in an analogous manner. For brevity, these details are not repeated herein.

IV. Circuit-Based Implementation

[00244] Figures 13A-13G illustrate a circuit-based quantum computing approach for employing the modified clusters states described herein and used as error correcting codes, e.g., as stabilizer states that can be used for quantum error correction on a logical qubit that is formed from a cluster state of several physical data qubits. The circuit-based approach disclosed herein can be useful for a quantum computing system that employs matter-based qubits. For example, the qubits can be particles, such as atoms, ions, and nuclei. In another example, the qubits can be photons. In yet other examples, the quantum systems can be other engineered quantum systems such as flux qubits, phase qubits, or charge qubits (e.g., formed from a superconducting Josephson junction), topological qubits (e.g., Majorana fermions), or spin qubits formed from vacancy centers (e.g., nitrogen vacancies in diamond).

[00245] Figure 13A shows an illustration of the sequence of quantum gates and qubit measurements that can be applied to employ one version of the modified cluster state disclosed herein. In this example, the system is operating as a quantum memory that fault tolerantly preserves the quantum state of a logical qubit that is encoded by the data qubits of the cluster state. More specifically, the diagrams shown in Figures 13A-13G show a method of operating a quantum circuit to repeatedly produce temporal slices of one unit cell of the modified cluster state shown in Figure 5P and how to conduct the associated stabilizer measurements used for quantum error correction.

[00246] At a high level, first block 1312 generates a first temporal slice of the modified unit cell (e.g., A and A’ correspond to qubits 314-3 and 304-3 shown in Figure 5P). Measurement of the ancilla A and A’ in the X basis then performs the first joint parity check on the data qubits 1-4’. Although not shown here, the outcomes of the parity check measurement (which are classical bits) are stored in a classical memory, like that shown in Figure 2 above, to generate the error syndrome for later error correction by the decoder. In practice, data qubits 1-4’ could be only a fraction of the total number of data qubits used to encode the quantum information of the logical qubit that is being protected by the modified cluster state if a cluster state of multiple unit cells is used (analogous to the multi-cell lattice shown in Figure 7). Next in 1314, the quantum information stored in data qubits 1-4’ is teleported to corresponding data qubits 5-8’ where the teleportation is an encoded entangling operation followed by single qubit measurements. This teleportation step is not required but can be beneficial for qubits that tend to leak out of the computation basis over time due to noise. The next layer of the modified cluster state is then generated in 316 and a set of 4 joint parity checks are then measured, with the results also stored for later use in the error syndrome for error correction. In step 1318, the quantum state of data qubits 5-8’ is teleported back to data qubits 1-4’, via the encoded teleportation operation and single qubit measurements, and the sequence repeats. By using the syndrome measurement outcomes obtained from the join parity checks and the teleportation measurement outcomes, errors in the data qubits or errors in the ancilla qubits can be accounted for or corrected as a quantum computation that involves the logical qubit proceeds. Alternatively, this process can serve to simply preserve the quantum information stored on the logical qubit over time, thereby making the system a form of cluster state protected quantum memory.

[00247] To return to the details of the specific gates in the process shown in Figure 13A, operations are performed on 26 qubits labeled 1, 1’, 2, 2’, 3, 3’, 4, 4’, 5, 5’, 6, 6’, 7, 7’, 8, 8’, A, A’, B, B’, C, C’, D, D’, E, and E’. Icon 1302 represents measurement in the x basis, and icon 1304 represents a CZ gate operation over two qubits, which leads to entanglement of the two qubits. [00248] The operations shown in Figure 13A are grouped into groups 1312, 1314, 1316, and 1318, which are described in detail with respect to Figures 13C-13F.

[00249] Figure 13B illustrates a combination of the qubit entangling system 203 (described with respect to Figure 2) and the qubit readout system 205 (described with respect to Figure 2). The system includes a substrate 1320 on which a collection of matter-based qubits is arranged in a manner that facilitates the use of the modified cluster state disclosed herein for fault tolerant quantum computation. In some embodiments, the qubit entangling system 203 and the qubit readout system 205 can be integrated together as a single quantum chip. In some embodiments, the qubit entangling system 203 and the qubit readout system 205 are distinct and separate from each other, e.g., they can be distinct dies that are linked via optical and or electrical interconnects.

[00250] Figure 13B also illustrates an example configuration of the qubits on the substrate 1320. However, the qubits may be arranged in many other configurations, which are omitted herein for brevity.

[00251] Figure 13C illustrates group 1312 of operations that includes obtaining eight qubits, namely data qubits 1, 1’, 2, 2’, 3, 3’, 4, and 4’, and two ancilla qubits A and A’. The ancilla are initialized to the |+> state. CZ gates are then applied between each ancilla and every data qubit (1320-B) to entangle each of the qubits 1, 1’, 2, 2’, 3, 3’, 4, and 4’ with qubits A and A’. The two ancilla A and A’ are then measured in the x basis to perform the joint parity check measurement of qubits 1, 1’, 2, 2’, 3, 3’, 4, and 4’.

[00252] Figure 13D illustrates group 1314 of operations that includes obtaining qubits 5, 5’, 6, 6’, 7, 7’, 8, and 8’ initialized to the |+> states (or setting the states of qubits 5, 5’, 6, 6’, 7, 7’, 8, and 8’ to the |+> states) (1320-D), and entangling each of qubits 1 and 1’ with qubits 5 and 5’, each of qubits 2 and 2’ with qubits 6 and 6’, each of qubits 3 and 3’ with qubits 7 and 7’, and each of qubits 4 and 4’ with qubits 8 and 8’ (1320-E), and performing measurements (in x basis) on qubits 1, 1’, 2, 2’, 3, 3’, 4, and 4’ (1320-F). This results in a teleportation of the quantum states from 1, 1’, 2, 2’, 3, 3’, 4, and 4’ to 5, 5’, 6, 6’, 7, 7’, 8, and 8’, respectively (where the teleportation is indicated by the arrows pointing form 1, 1’, 2, 2’, 3, 3’, 4, and 4’ to 5, 5’, 6, 6’, 7, 7’, 8, and 8’. Quantum control circuitry (not shown) can then reset qubits 1, 1’, 2, 2’, 3, 3’, 4, and 4’ to ensure they remain maximally in the computational basis. [00253] Figure 13E illustrates group 1316 of operations that includes obtaining ancilla qubits B, B’, C, C’, D, D’, E, and E’ initialized it the |+> states (or setting the states of qubits B, B’, C, C’, D, D’, E, and E’ to the |+> states) (1320-G), entangling each of qubits B and B’ with qubits 5, 5’, 8, and 8’, each of qubits C and C’ with qubits 5, 5’, 6, and 6’, each of qubits D and D’ with qubits 6, 6’, 7, and 7’, and each of qubits E and E’ with qubits 7, 7’, 8, and 8’ (1320-H), and performing measurements (in x basis) on qubits B, B’, C, C’, D, D’, E, and E’ (1320-I). This results in the measurement of 4 joint parity measurement on the data qubits. As before the results of the join parity measurements can be stored in classical computer memory and used later for error correction.

[00254] Figure 13F illustrates group 1318 of operations that includes obtaining qubits 1, 1’, 2, 2’, 3, 3’, 4, and 4’ set to the |+> states (or setting the states of qubits 1, 1’, 2, 2’, 3, 3’, 4, and 4’ to the |+> states) (1320-J), entangling each of qubits 5 and 5’ with qubits 1 and 1’, each of qubits 6 and 6’ with qubits 2 and 2’, each of qubits 7 and 7’ with qubits 3 and 3’, and each of qubits 8 and 8’ with qubits 4 and 4’ (1320-K) (all by performing CZ gates between the pairs of qubits), and performing x basis measurements on qubits 5, 5’, 6, 6’, 7, 7’, 8, and 8’ (1320- L).

[00255] While the CZ between particular pairs of qubits are depicted here in a certain temporal order, the order that the CZ’s are applied can be altered without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. Furthermore, the initialization of any qubits (e.g., initialization of ancilla in the |+> state) can be performed any time before the first entangling gate is applied to the qubit being initialized. Likewise, the measurements on any qubit can be performed any time after the final entangling gate on that qubit has been applied.

[00256] Figure 13G illustrates operations for obtaining a plurality of entangled qubits from matter-based qubits in accordance with some other embodiments. More specifically, Figure 13G shows an arrangement that does not require quantum teleportation and thus requires fewer data qubits. The operations shown in Figure 13G include an encoded Hadamard in the form of CNOT followed by Hadamard gate operations represented by icon 1306. One of ordinary skill will appreciate that other forms for the encoded Hadamard may be used without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. These operations perform a change of basis and allow the second set of joint parity checks to be made by measuring the ancilla in the x basis. In Figure 13G, 18 qubits, instead of 26 qubits shown in Figure 13A, are used to preserve the quantum state information. [00257] In some embodiments, the qubits can be arranged on the surface of the quantum chip in a manner that facilitates tiling of the cells for generation of a larger cluster state. For example, Figure 13H shows an alternative geometric arrangement of the qubits to that shown in Figure 13B. The alternative arrangement 1309 is advantageously able to be manufactured as a repeated tile in a larger unit while still providing for the use of the modified cluster state disclosed herein. Arrangement 1309 includes alternating rows of qubits with individual rows being assigned specific qubit types (e.g., a row of ancilla followed by a row of data qubits, followed by another row of ancilla qubits, etc.). Arranged in this way, a unit cell (as shown by the dashed box) that can be tiled into a large bulk lattice is formed. Advantageously, tiling many lattice cells forms a larger cluster state (including more physical qubits) over which to encode the logical qubit thus leading to a higher tolerance to error on the encoded logical qubit.

V. Fusion-Based Implementation

[00258] Figures 14A-14D are schematic diagrams illustrating example entanglement operations in accordance with some embodiments. More specifically Figures 14A-14D show how fusion operations, also referred to herein as fusion gates, can be applied to small cluster states, e.g., cluster states of 2, 3, 4, 5 qubits and so on, to form larger cluster states. In accordance with some embodiments a fusion-based scheme can be used to generate a large modified cluster states with improved fault tolerance using only smaller cluster states. As described in more detail below, the fusion process can be“boosted” by consuming one or more ancilla entangled states to improve the probability of success. In such a way a modified cluster state can be generated with probability of error below the threshold for the modified cluster state and thus, the modified cluster state formed by fusions can be employed as a resource to perform fault tolerant quantum computation.

[00259] Figure 14A illustrates two pairs of entangled qubits: a first pair of entangled qubits 1403 and 1405 and a second pair of entangled qubits 1407 and 1409. Figure 14A also illustrates fusion of qubits 1405 and 1407, which leads to three entangled qubits (e.g., qubit 1403 is entangled with a middle qubit, which is, in turn, entangled with qubit 1409).

[00260] Figure 14B illustrates two sets of entangled qubits: a first set of three entangled qubits 1411, 1413, and 1415 and a second set of three entangled qubits 1417, 1419, and 1421. Figure 14B also illustrates fusion of qubits 1413 and 1419, which leads to five entangled qubits (e.g., a middle qubit entangled with qubits 1411, 1415, 1417, and 1421). [00261] Figure 14C illustrates two sets of entangled qubits: a first set of three entangled qubits 1421, 1423, and 1425 and a second set of two entangled qubits 1427 and 1429. Figure 14C also illustrates fusion of qubits 1423 and 1427, which leads to four entangled qubits (e.g., a middle qubit entangled with qubits 1421, 1425, and 1429).

[00262] Figure 14D illustrates two sets of entangled qubits: a first set of five entangled qubits 1431, 1433, 1435, 1437, and 1439 and a second set of five entangled qubits 1441, 1443, 1445, 1447, and 1449. Figure 14D also illustrates fusion of qubits 1435 and 1445, which leads to six entangled qubits (e.g., qubit 1435 and qubit 1445 each entangled with four qubits).

[00263] Figures 14E and 14F are schematic diagrams illustrating example entanglement operations in accordance with some embodiments.

[00264] Figure 14E shows example entanglement operations for forming a cluster state (e.g., a Raussendorf lattice). In Figure 14E, multiple sets of five entangled qubits (e.g., a middle qubit entangled with four peripheral qubits) are sequentially entangled to form the example cluster state 1450. In practice, the fusion operations may not succeed in every attempt and boosting may be required to generate a cluster state with low enough loss to operate below threshold.

[00265] Figure 14F shows example entanglement operations for forming a modified cluster state in accordance with some embodiments. In Figure 14F, the cluster state 1450 shown in Figure 14E is entangled with another set 1452 of five entangled qubits. More specifically, four fusion operations are performed to fuse the leaf (i.e., terminal) qubits of set 1452 with the edge qubits from the original Raussendorf lattice (where the edge qubits correspond to the nearest neighbor qubits from the face qubit form the unit cell being fused to. The resulting cluster state 1454 corresponds to a cluster state described herein with respect to Figure 4A.

[00266] Figure 14G shows example entanglement of operations for forming another modified cluster state in accordance with some embodiments. In Figure 14G, the cluster state 1450 shown in Figure 14E is entangled with a cluster state 1456 of three entangled qubits, this time with two fusion operations, again on the leaf (i.e., terminal) qubits of cluster state 1456. The resulting cluster state 1458 corresponds to a cluster state described herein with respect to Figure 5A.

[00267] Although Figures 14E-14G illustrate example entanglement operations, a person having ordinary skill in the art would understand that there are numerous ways to obtain the same resulting cluster states. In some cases, the sequence of entangling the sets of qubits may vary. In some cases, one or more sets of qubits may have different numbers of qubits (e.g., a set of three entangled qubits, a set of four entangled qubits, a set of six entangled qubits, etc.). For brevity, such details are omitted herein.

[00268] A person having ordinary skill in the art would understand that the example entanglement operations depicted in Figures 14E-14G and analogous operations may be used to form different cluster states, such as cluster states shown in Figures 7B-7H, 8A-8P, 9A-9C, 10, and 11A-11D. For brevity, such details are omitted herein.

a. Photonic Circuit for Fusion Generated Cluster State

[00269] Figure. 16 shows one example of linear optical circuit that can be used to generate a portion of the modified cluster state disclosed herein. More specifically, the circuit shows a collection of optical channels and Type I fusion gates that can be applied to generate the modified cluster state shown inf Figures 15A-15B.

[00270] Figure 16 illustrates a device 1600 for generating a cluster state, in accordance with some embodiments. In some embodiments, the device can be implemented on an integrated photonics chip, in which case the lines shown may be one or more photonic waveguides. In such an implementation, the qubit sources (not shown) can be photon sources of various levels of entanglement, e.g., photonic Bells state generators, or higher entangled state generators such as generators or one or more portions of the modified cluster state. Such sources can include integrated optical components such as waveguides, beamsplitters, photon detectors, phase shifters, and photonic switches in any appropriate combination to produce the entangled quantum systems that will be fused to generate the larger cluster. Likewise, the fusion gates can include integrated optical circuits components such as waveguides, beamsplitters, photon detectors, phase shifters, photonic switches, and the like. One of ordinary skill will appreciate that the diagram shown in Figure 16 can also be interpreted as a generalized schematic diagram that is not strictly limited to a photonic implementation but rather can employ any other qubit architecture without departing from the scope of the present disclosure.

[00271] Device 1600 includes a plurality of (boosted and/or unboosted) fusion generators (e.g., fusion generator 1611, 1613, 1615, 1617, 1619, 1621, and 1625). In some embodiments, device 1600 includes one boosted fusion generator for fusion operation to be performed on the underlying cluster state being modified, 7 in this case, where the device 1600 is designed to form modified cluster state shown in Figures 15A-15B, given an input Raussendorf lattice unit cell. Note that for the sake of simplicity, any optical waveguides that confine the photonic qubits that do not undergo fusion at this stage of the device are not shown and it should be recognized that they would simply be unencumbered paths that pass through the device similar to the waveguide that confines photonic qubit 1507c shown here.

[00272] Boosted fusion generators 1611, 1613, 1615, 1617, 1619, 1621, and 1625 generate the following entangled qubits of the modified cluster state: 1505d, 1505c, 1501b, 1503b, 1507b, 1509b, and 1508b, respectively. In some embodiments, the boosted fusion generators can all be part of a chip and can share the same substrate, or they can be formed from different chips on different substrates and networked together by way of optical interconnects. In the simplified diagram shown in Figure 16, only a small section of the sub- circuits are shown in order to avoid over complicating the description. However, one of ordinary skill will appreciate that the size of the circuit shown in Figure 16 will map directly to the size of the modified cluster state desired.

[00273] In some embodiments, the fusion generators shown here can be two-way Type I fusion gates (boosted or unboosted) the details of which are described in more detail below in reference to Figures 17A-17B, 18A-18F, and 19A-19B. The Type I fusion gates can include internal detectors that can perform a measurement, e.g., a Bell measurement, on their respective input qubits. The results of these measurements take the form of classical data, e.g., binary data that can signal (also referred to as“herald”) the different outcomes (e.g.,“success” or“failure” to generate a fused qubit) of each fusion gate. The classical data output from the two-way Type I fusion gates can be provided to a classical controller (not shown, but could be implemented as any processor, ASIC, classical computer logic, and the like) via classical information channels and stored in a classical computer memory that is accessible by the controller. Such information can be useful for a number of operations because it gives the controller information regarding specific errors in the cluster state (e.g., which qubits within the cluster state are missing). Such information can be used by the controller to improve a number of processes that may be required to perform the quantum computation, including, e.g., renormalizing the percolated cluster to an error correcting code, decoding the measurement results, performing adaptive cluster state generation, performing adaptive measurements, and etc. b. Type I Fusion

[00274] In the schematic diagrams used herein, e.g., Figures 17A, 18B, 19A-19C, certain photonic components and quantum gates are represented using notation described in detail below in reference to Figure 20.

[00275] Figure 17A shows a linear optical circuit for performing Type 1 fusion on dual rail encoded photonic qubits. Figure 17B shows two examples of qubit cluster states that result from fusion operations in accordance with some embodiments. In the description that follows, embodiments will be described that employ spatial modes of photons as the qubit system, but one of ordinary skill will appreciate that any type of qubit described by any type of mode can be employed without departing from the scope of the present disclosure.

Furthermore, in what follows, photonic waveguides are used to define the spatial modes of the photon. However, one of ordinary skill having the benefit of this disclosure will appreciate that any type of mode, e.g., polarization modes, temporal modes, and the like, can be used without departing from the scope of the present disclosure.

[00276] In general, in a photonic system, fusion gates can be linear optical circuits that allow the fusion of small entangled resources, e.g., Bell pairs, to obtain larger entangled states and, ultimately, generate a cluster state used for quantum computation. There are two types of fusion gates, Type I and Type II fusion gates, with Type I described in detail below. Both types of fusion gates work by performing a probabilistic Bell state measurement (BSM) on the input state to collapse the two input qubits onto a Bell pair when the fusion succeeds. For the case of Type I fusion, the collapse of the state of the two input qubits onto a Bell pair can be viewed as the application of Kraus operators to the input.

[00277] Figure 17A shows a circuit diagram illustrating a (unboosted) type I fusion gate in accordance with some embodiments. The diagram shown in Figure 17A is schematic with each horizonal line representing a mode of a quantum system, e.g., a waveguide with a photon confined therein. In the dual rail path encoding, each pair of modes represents a qubit. In a photonic implementation of the gate, the modes in diagrams such as that shown in Figure 17A can be physically realized using single photons in photonic waveguides. Most generally, a type I fusion gate like that shown in Figure 17A fuses qubits A (physically realized by photon modes 1703 and 1705) and B (physically realized by photon modes 1707 and 1709) to create a Bell pair between them. Qubits A and B are each entangled with the modes of one or more other qubits (not shown) and thus, when they are fused by the gate, a larger cluster state can be created.

[00278] For example, Figure 17B shows the result of fusing two qubits A and B that are each, respectively, a qubit located at the end (i.e., a leaf) of some longer entangled cluster state (only a portion of which is shown). The qubit 1717 that remains after the fusion operation inherits the entangling bonds from the original qubits A and B thereby creating a larger fused linear cluster state. Figure 17B also shows the result of fusing two qubits A and B that are each, respectively, an internal qubit that belongs some longer entangled cluster of qubits (only a portion of which is shown). As before, the qubit 1719 that remains after fusion inherits the entangling bonds from the original qubits A and B thereby creating a fused cluster state. In this case, the qubit that remains after the fusion operation is entangled with the larger cluster by way of four other nearest neighbor qubits as shown.

[00279] Returning to the schematic illustration of the type I fusion gate shown in Figure 17A, qubit A is dual rail encoded by modes 1703 and 1705 and qubit B is dual rail encoded by modes 1707 and 1709. For example, in the case of path encoded photonic qubits, the logical zero state of qubit B |0>B occurs when mode 1703 is a photonic waveguide that includes a single photon and mode 1705 is a photonic waveguide that includes zero photons (and likewise for qubit B). Thus, the type 1 fusion gate shown in Figure 17A takes as input two dual rail encoded photon qubits thereby resulting in a total of four input modes (e.g., modes 1703, 1705, 1707, and 1709). To accomplish the fusion operation, a mode coupler (e.g., 50:50 beamsplitter) 1713 is applied between a mode of each of the input qubits, e.g., between mode 1703 and mode 1709 before performing a detection operation on both modes using photon detectors 1715 (which includes two distinct photon detectors coupled to modes 1703 and 1709 respectively). In addition, to ensure that the output modes are adjacently positioned, a mode swap operation 1711 can be applied that swaps the position of the second mode of qubit A (mode 1705) with the position the second mode of qubit B (mode 1709). In some embodiments, mode swapping can be accomplished through a physical waveguide crossing or by one or more photonic switches or by any other type of physical mode swap.

[00280] Figure 17A shows only an example arrangement for the type I fusion gate and one of ordinary skill will appreciate that the position of the beamsplitter and the presence of the mode swap region 1711 can be altered without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. For example, beamsplitter 1713 can be applied between modes 1705 and 1707. Mode swaps are optional and are not necessary if qubits having non-adjacent modes can be dealt with, e.g., by tracking which modes belong to which qubits by storing this information in a classical memory.

[00281] The type I fusion gate shown in Figure 17A is a nondeterministic gate, i.e., the fusion operation only succeeds with a certain probability and in other cases the quantum state that results is not a larger cluster state that comprises the original cluster states fused together to a larger cluster state. More specifically, the gate“succeeds” with probability 50%, when only one photon is detected by detectors 1715, and“fails” if zero or two photons are detected by detectors 1715. When the gate succeeds, the two cluster states that qubits A and B were a part of become fused into a single larger cluster state with a fused qubit remaining as the qubit that links the two previously unlinked cluster states (see, e.g., Figure 17B). However, when the fusion gate fails, it has the effect of removing both qubits from the original cluster resource states without generating a larger fused state.

[00282] While the type I fusion gate described above exhibits only a 50% success rate, in accordance with some embodiments, it is possible to increase the success probability of the gate by interfering the qubits that enter the gate with an ancillary entangled resource before the detection. This type of fusion gate, referred to herein as a two-way boosted type I fusion gate exhibits a success probability of where n is referred to as the“level” of

the boosting and defines the size of the ancilla resource that is used for the boosting. In general, the ancilla is prepared in a 2 ^{n }-Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, also referred to as a 2 ^{n }-GHZ state. For n=1, the ancilla resource used for boosting is two qubits in a Bell state resulting a 75% fusion success probability, as described in further detail below.

[00283] Figure 18A shows an example of two input states for a typical fusion operation. More specifically the input qubits to the fusion gate are two qubits a and b that are each entangled to larger states represented as regions A and B (e.g., A and B could be respective unit cells of a Raussendorf lattice). Such a state can be described as

where a, b label the qubits entering the fusion gate, A, B label the systems entangled to them respectively, and |0ۧ, |1ۧ^are the basis states in the qubit basis (also referred to as the computational basis or z basis). This state can be further expanded as:

where in the second line the qubit states have been expressed in the path encoding (Fock notation) and in the third line, the modes have been rearranged so that even modes are first and odd modes are second, where even and odd refer to the mode ordering on input, e.g., as shown in Figure 18B.

[00284] In the same notation (dual rail path encoding, even modes first) the state of an ancilla Bell pair can be written as

where in the second line the modes have been rearranged to place even modes first and odd modes second.

[00285] To illustrate the boosted fusion operation, consider sending the last two modes of each of |Y _{୧୬ }ۧ and |^ ^{ା }ۧ (in the rearranged form) through a four-mode Hadamard gate and then detecting them, as shown in the schematic of Figure 18B. Such a four-mode Hadamard can be realized with a series of four beamsplitters, as further explained in reference to Figure 20 below. Such a Hadamard gate applied to the modes as shown in Figure 18B has the effect of removing the information about which modes the detected photons come from, without altering their number.

[00286] Figure 18B shows a Boosted Type I fusion circuit, including the input qubits a and b, the ancilla Bell pair |^ ^{ାۧ }, and mode swaps on the input and ancilla. The cluster states A and B with which qubits a and b are entangled are not shown to avoid complicating the diagram. Each input mode 1-8 is labeled as an integer with modes 1 and 2 belonging to qubit a, and modes 3 and 4 belonging to qubit b and modes 5, 6, 7, and 8, belonging to the two qubits associated with the Bell state |^ ^{ାۧ }. Mode swaps are shown as crossing lines and are used to rearrange the even and odd modes to be adjacent such that the diagram corresponds to the more mathematical description above. One of ordinary skill will appreciate that the modes need not be rearranged as shown as long as the mode coupling and detector placement is consistent with the description above, i.e., the 4-mode Hadamard can take in one respective mode from each of the input qubits a and b and can take in two modes from the Bell pair ancilla. At the output of the gate, all four of these modes are measured by a corresponding photon detector. The Hadamard is configured (by the application of the appropriate pair-wise beam splitters) to ensure that a detection of a photon by any one of the 4 detectors does not reveal any information about which input mode the detected photon originated. At the output of the boosted fusion gate, modes 1 and 3 from qubits a and b constitute the fused qubit that, under certain detector results, is fused with the cluster states A and B that were originally entangled with the input qubits a and b.

[00287] The possible detection outcomes are determined by taking the sum of the photon counts on the detectors of modes 2, 4, 6, and 8 that are coupled to the outputs of the Hadamard gate. Possible outcomes for the final quantum state are shown in Figures 18C-18E with Figures 18C-18D illustrating the result of a successful fusion and Figure 18E illustrating the result of a failed fusion.

Odd Number of Photons Detected

[00288] If the total number of photons detected is odd, then the fusion result is the success scenario illustrated in Figure 18C where the cluster states A and B are fused via a single fused qubit. This can be understood by recognizing that the Bell pair ancilla can contribute either 0 or 2 photons to the detection pattern. So, in the case of an odd number of photons detected, it must be the case that the modes coming from |Y _{୧୬ }ۧ | contain 1 photon. The probability of this happening is Podd=1/2. In this case, the (unnormalized) post- measurement state of the output modes is one of:

depending on whether 1 or 3 photons are detected (as indicated by the superscript). The relative phase between the two terms is determined by the specific measurement pattern obtained.

[00289] The state of the two modes coming from the Bell pair (modes 5 and 7) is revealed by the number of photons detected and factors out (i.e., the modes can be discarded), while the two modes coming from |Y _{୧୬ }ۧ (modes 1 and 3) become entangled to both systems A and B, resulting in successful fusion. This is illustrated graphically in Figure 18C. 2 Photons Detected

[00290] The detection of two photons can happen in two cases: either contributes

2 photons and the Bell pair contributes zero 0 or vice versa. The probability of this happening is therefore . The (unnormalized) post-

measurement state of the output modes is:

where, in the first line, the first two modes come from |Y ۧ and the other two from and the second line is obtained by rearranging the modes. Again, the sign between the two terms depends on the specific detection pattern observed. This state corresponds to a successful fusion, where both systems A and B end up entangled to a single redundantly-encoded qubit, as illustrated in Figure 18D.

Zero or Four Photons Detected

[00291] The detection of 0 or 4 photons collapses both and to one of their

terms only, since these outcomes can only be obtained if both states contribute the same number of photons, 0 or 2, respectively. In such a case, the post-measurement states in the two cases are the product states:

neither of which produce any entanglement between the two systems A and B and therefore correspond to failure of the gate. In this case both the input qubits are destroyed, as illustrated in Figure 18E.

In summary:

[00292] The overall success probability of the scheme is therefore 3/4=75%.

[00293] In some embodiments, boosted Type I fusion can employ some form of adaptivity, i.e., certain operations such as mode swaps can be conditioned on a certain detection pattern. For example, in the case that 2 photons are detected, the output modes can be swapped so that the modes that define the output qubits are adjacent in the circuit. Such a swap is shown in Figure 18F. However, such adaptivity is not necessary if the position, i.e., mode number for each mode of the output qubits is stored in memory and tracked such that any gates/measurement to be applied to those modes will be applied consistently despite the fact that the qubit itself may be defined in non-adjacent modes.

[00294] Figures 19A-19C show examples of two-way boosted type I fusion gates in accordance with some embodiments. As in Figure 18B, qubit modes are represented as horizontal lines. Entangled states of many modes are represented by rectangles that extend across, and thereby join, multiple modes. For example, rectangle 1901 in Figure 19A signifies that the four modes 5-8 form a Bell state). In the examples shown here, qubits are encoded in a two-mode (i.e., dual rail encoding). For example, in a photonic implementation, all modes can be physically implemented as waveguides as already described above.

Furthermore, in Figures 19A-19C, collections of components that can be grouped together functionally to form gates are outlined by larger rectangles. For example, Hadamard gate 1902 is outlined in a shaded rectangle having four input modes (2, 4, 6, 8) and four output modes (2, 4, 6, 8). In the diagrams shown here, modes that pass through a rectangular block are not part of the gate, e.g., modes 5 and 7 in Figure 19A are not acted on by the Hadamard gate 1902. Photon detectors are shown as small rectangles that terminate a given mode, e.g., detectors 1914, 1916, 1918, and 1920. Detectors generally measure whether or not the quantum system being measured is in the mode being measure (e.g., whether or not any given waveguide being measured includes a photon). For example, the two-way boosted type I fusion gate shown in Figure 19A includes four detectors that terminate modes 2, 4, 6, and 8 labeled as detectors 1914, 1916, 1918, and 1920, respectively. Such detectors can be any type of single photon detector, including, e.g., superconducting nanowire single photon detectors, SPADs, APDs and the like.

[00295] In the two-way boosted type I fusion gate shown in Figure 19A, the Hadamard gate 1902 includes a collection of mode couplers, e.g., beam splitters 1906, 1908, 1910, and 1912. At a high level, the function of the beam splitters is to couple the modes such that if a photon is detected at any one of detectors 1914, 1916, 1918, and 1920 it is impossible to determine which input mode that photon originated from. To function this way, the example shown in Figure 19A includes a first mode coupler 1906 that couples two of the modes from input qubits a and b and a second mode coupler 1908 that couples two of the four modes that make up the ancilla Bell pair |f ^{+ }>. The coupled modes 2 and 4 from the input qubits a and b and the coupled modes 6 and 8 from the ancilla Bell pair are then coupled via beam splitter 1916 and beam splitter 1910, respectively. Details of the operation of the fusion gate shown in Figure 19A were previously described above in reference to Figures 18A-18F and therefore will not be repeated here.

[00296] Figure 19B shows another example of two-way boosted type I fusion gate shown i) without the mode swaps shown in Figure 19A; ii) with additional circuitry to effectuate a conditional mode swap described in more detail above in reference to Figures 18A-18F; and iii) two additional detectors 1922 and 1924 to measure out the two Bell state modes that do not contribute to the fused cluster state. Before detection, the two Bell state modes are coupled to ensure that detection in either mode does not provide information relating to which mode the photon originated from thereby ensuring that the measurements at detectors 1922 and 1924 do not collapse the output modes of the fusion operation to an undesired state.

[00297] The fusion gate shown in Figure 19B also includes a set of components that form a Mach-Zehnder interferometer 1903 that accomplishes a conditional mode swap between modes 3 and 5 depending on the detection results from detectors 1950. More specifically the Mach-Zehnder interferometer 1903 includes a phase shifter 1905 sandwiched between to mode couplers 1926 and 1928, which can be 50/50 beamsplitters. One of ordinary skill will appreciate that the Mach-Zehnder interferometer shown here is but one example and many different implementations of Mach-Zehnder interferometers (or conditional mode swappers) can be implemented without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. In the boosted type I fusion gate shown in Figure 19B, the Hadamard gate 1930 is implement as in Figure 19A, i.e., by a set of mode couplers that couple four modes (two from the input qubits and two from the ancilla Bell pair).

[00298] In each of boosted fusion circuits shown in Figures 19A-19B, Hadamard gates are accomplished by a collection of beam splitters that operate to couple all the input modes together in such a way that detection of a photon at one of the detectors located at one of the output ports of the Hadamard does not reveal which mode the detected photon originated from, i.e., the action of the Hadamard is to erase any information relating to which input modes any given detected photon originated from. This“mode-scrambling” or“information erasure” function of the Hadamard can be implemented in any number of ways without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. For example, as shown schematically in Figures 19A-19B Hadamard 1902 can be accomplished in a photonic system by coupling the two input modes 2 and 4 (originating from qubits a and b, respectively) via a 50/50 beamsplitter 1906. In other architectures other types of physical mode couplers can be used. For example, in trapped ion systems or superconducting qubits may employ mode couplers that are physically implemented by some form of electromagnetic coupling between qubit modes, e.g., via laser light and/or RF/microwave electromagnetic fields.

[00299] In each of the boosted type 1 fusion gates shown in Figures 19A-19B, detectors are placed on the even modes (or more generally they can be placed on the modes that do not make up the final fused qubit). Backing logic circuitry (not shown) can take the detector outputs (which can be analog pulses and/or digital data in the forms of 1’ and 0’s) and can then determine an action to take (e.g., swap modes 3 and 5) based on the detection result. As described above, if a total of two photons is detected by the detectors, then the backing logic circuity can send a control signal to the phase shifter 1905 of the Mach- Zehnder interferometer 1903 resulting in the desired mode swap.

[00300] Figure 19C shows a three-way boosted type I fusion gate in accordance with some embodiments. This three-way boosted type I fusion gate 1930 is one way to implement the boosted fusion generators described above in reference to Figure 5 above. At a high level, the three-way boosted type I fusion gate 1930 includes two two-way boosted type I fusion gates 1932 and 1934 such as those described above in reference to Figures 19A-19B. Modes 1-8 are input on two-way boosted type I fusion gate 1932, which is a circuit that is equivalent to that described above in reference to Figure 19B. Likewise, the two output modes from the two-way boosted type I fusion gate 1932 and new modes 9-15 form the 8 input modes for the second-stage two-way boosted type I fusion gate 1934, which is equivalent to the gate shown in Figure 19A but without the optional mode swaps.

c. Notation

[00301] In the schematic diagrams used herein, e.g., Figures 17A, 18B, 19A-19C, certain components/quantum gates are represented as shown in Figure 20. In general, the definitions and relations between beamsplitters and n-mode Hadamards can be translated to the path- encoded diagrams using the notation shown in Figure 20. Mathematically, the imaginary Hadamard can be written as

and the real Hadamard h ^{r } can be written as

Physically, e.g., in a photonic system, the above Hadamard gates can be implemented as beamsplitters and/or directional couplers. The real and complex Hadamards can be transformed into one another by applying a േ^ phase shift to the second mode. The unitary operators that define such a phase shift are given by

in which case

[00302] In view of the above mathematical relations, the complex Hadamard corresponds to a real Hadamard preceded and followed by a phase of i on the second mode, and the real Hadamard corresponds to a complex Hadamard preceded and followed by a phase of -i on the second mode. Both matrices are symmetric, but they differ in that h ^{i } applies the same operation to both the modes it acts on, while h ^{r } acts differently on the two modes. This means that, while the order of the input modes is irrelevant when the complex Hadamard is used, it is important if the real version is applied.

[00303] The two-mode imaginary Hadamard h ^{i } and the two-mode real Hadamard h ^{r } can be represented schematically as mode couplers 2003 and 2005, respectively. The transformations between the two are also shown via schematic elements 2007, where -i phase shifts applied to a mode are represented by open boxes and i phase shifts applied to a mode are represented by boxes with black fill. As already described above, these mode couplers can be physically implemented as beamsplitters, directional couplers and the like.

[00304] The above description for two-mode Hadamard gates can be generalized to n- mode situations. More specifically an n-mode (also referred to herein as an n-th order Hadamard) real/imaginary Hadamard can be expressed as

For example, the 2 ^{nd } order Hadamards are

[00305] More generally, the 2n×2n Hadamards (real or complex) can be decomposed into products of single beamsplitters using the following formula:

[00306] Where and the lower indices on indicate the modes the

beamsplitters act on. For example, expanding this formula gives:

Schematic diagrams 2009 show one example of the real second order Hadamard. Likewise, schematic 2011 shows the imaginary second order Hadamard. Also included are the steps by which the real Hadamard can be converted to the imaginary Hadamard.

d. Example Implementations of Beam Splitters

[00307] Figure 21A is a block diagram illustrating components of an example quantum entanglement generator in accordance with some embodiments.

[00308] The example quantum entanglement generator shown in Figure 21A includes beam splitter 2102 (e.g., a polarizing beam splitter) configured to receive single photon 2105 of entangled photons 2103 and 2105 and single photon 2107 of entangled photons 2107 and 2109 (without receiving photons 2103 and 2109). In Figure 21A, beam splitter 2102 is coupled with detector 2104. Detector 2104 is configured to detect one or more photons. In some implementations, detector 2104 is used for determining whether quantum entanglement has been successfully performed. For example, when only one photon is detected by detector 2104, photons 2103 and 2109 and the photon output from beam splitter 2102 are deemed to be entangled. In some embodiments, a quantum entanglement generator includes one or more polarization-based elements (e.g., quarter waveplates, half waveplates, linear polarizers, etc.). For brevity, such details are omitted herein.

[00309] Figures 21B-21D illustrate schematic diagrams of waveguide beam splitters 2100 (e.g., 2100a, 2100b, and 2100c, respectively), in accordance with some embodiments. In some embodiments, beam splitters are implemented in integrated photonics via directional couplings, which are realized by bringing together the different waveguides (e.g., waveguides 2112a and 2112b) close enough so that the evanescent field of one of them can couple into the other one. By controlling the separation d between the waveguides 2112 and/or the length l of the coupling region 2114, different transmissivity can be obtained and therefore this implementation is equivalent to a beam-splitter in bulk optics. In this manner, wave guide beam splitter 2100 may be configured to have a transmissivity equal to 0.5 (e.g., a 50:50 beam splitter, greater than 0.6, greater than 0.7, greater than 0.8, or greater than 0.9).

[00310] In some embodiments, waveguide beam splitters 2100 include variable phase- shifters 2116. Variable phase-shifters can be implemented in integrated circuits, providing control over the relative phases of the state of a photon spread over multiple modes. For the silica-on-silicon materials some embodiments implement variable phase-shifters using thermo- optical switches. The thermo-optical switches use resistive elements fabricated on the surface of the chip, that via the thermo-optical effect can provide a change of the refractive index n by raising the temperature of the waveguide 2112 by an amount of the order of 10 ^{-5 } K. One of skill in the art, however, having had the benefit of this disclosure, will understand that any effect that changes the refractive index of a portion of the waveguide can be used to generate a variable, electrically tunable, phase shift. For example, some embodiments use beam splitters based on any material that supports an electro-optic effect, so-called c ^{2 } and c ^{3 } materials such as lithium niobite, BBO, KTP, and the like and even doped semiconductors such as silicon, germanium, and the like.

[00311] Beam-splitters with variable transmissivity and arbitrary phase relationships between output modes can also be achieved by combining directional couplings and variable phase-shifters in a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) configuration, e.g., as shown in Figure 21C. Complete control over the relative phase and amplitude of the two paths in dual rail encoding can be achieved by varying the phases imparted by phase shifters 2116a, 2116b, and 2116c. Figure 21D shows a slightly simpler example of a MZI that allows for a variable transmissivity between modes 2112a and 2112b by varying the phase imparted by the phase shifter 2116. Figures 21B-21D are only three examples of how one could implement a mode coupling in a physical device, but any type of mode coupling/beam splitter can be used without departing from the scope of the present disclosure.

[00312] For example, the waveguide beam splitter in Fig. 21D can be used to switch photons in mode 2112a into either mode 2112a or 2112b by adjusting the phase of phase shifter 2116b appropriately. Thus, a tunable waveguide beam splitter is a device for mode swapping and optical switching. In addition, these beam splitters, e.g., in a 50:50 configuration can be used to spread the quantum state of a single photon equally across multiple modes (waveguides).

VI. Quantum Computing System

[00313] Figure 22 is a block diagram illustrating components (e.g., electronic components, optical components, etc.) of quantum computer 2200 in accordance with some embodiments. Quantum computer 2200 typically includes one or more processing units 2202 (central processing units, application processing units, application-specific integrated circuit, etc., which are also called herein processors), one or more network or other communications interfaces 2204, memory 2206, and one or more communication buses 2208 for interconnecting these components. In some embodiments, one or more processing units 2202 include integrated circuit configured for performing various computational and data processing operations. In some embodiments, communication buses 2208 include circuitry (sometimes called a chipset) that interconnects and controls communications between system components. In some embodiments, quantum computer 400 includes user interface 2294 (e.g., a user interface having a display device, which can be used for displaying acquired images, one or more buttons, and/or other input devices).

[00314] In some embodiments, quantum computer 2200 also includes quantum entanglement generator 2272 (e.g., quantum entangling system 223, Figure 2) configured for generating entangled qubits. In some embodiments, quantum entanglement generator 2272 includes one or more quantum bit (also called herein qubit) sources (e.g., one or more single photon sources, one or more trapped ion sources, etc.). In some embodiments, quantum entanglement generator 2272 also includes one or more entanglement generators to entangle qubits provided by the one or more qubit sources.

[00315] In some embodiments, quantum computer 2200 includes decoder 2274 (e.g., quantum detection array 221, Figure 2) configured for correcting errors in quantum state information.

[00316] In some embodiments, quantum entanglement generator 2272 includes one or more detectors for obtaining certain quantum state information (e.g., syndrome states and/or qubit states) from the entangled qubits. In some embodiments, the one or more detectors are configured for obtaining only a subset of quantum state information. In some embodiments, decoder 2274 includes the one or more detectors.

[00317] In some embodiments, quantum computer 2200 includes quantum operator 2276 for processing entangled qubits. In some embodiments, quantum operator 2276 includes photonic circuits (e.g., integrated optical circuits), electrical circuits, and/or magnetic circuits for processing the entangled qubits. In some embodiments, quantum operator 2276 is configured to perform logical operations (e.g., logic gate operations, such as AND, OR, NOT, XOR, NAND, NOR, and/or any combination thereof) with the entangled qubits. In some embodiments, quantum operator 2276 is configured to perform a quantum gate operation (e.g., Hadamard transformation, Pauli-X operation, Pauli-Y operation, Pauli-Z operation, square- root-of-NOT operation, phase shift operation, swap operation, square-root-of-swap operation, Toffoli operation, Fredkin operation, Ising operation, Deutsch operation, and/or any combination thereof). In some embodiments, quantum operator 2276 is configured to perform compression of the entangled qubits (e.g., determine a sum or a product of qubit states for the entangled qubits).

[00318] In some embodiments, quantum entanglement generator 2272 includes one or more quantum operators 2276 for changing states of qubits or obtaining qubits in particular states prior to entanglement so that qubits in the particular states are used in entanglement.

[00319] In some embodiments, quantum computer 2200 includes one or more routing elements (e.g., photonic waveguides) for routing qubits (e.g., photons) among quantum entanglement generator 2272, decoder 2274, and quantum operator 2276. For example, in some implementations, the one or more routing elements (e.g., photonic waveguides) route qubits provided by quantum entanglement generator 2272 to decoder 2274 and/or quantum operator(s) 2276. In some implementations, the one or more routing elements (e.g., photonic waveguides) route qubits provided by decoder 2274 to quantum operator(s) 2276. In some implementations, the one or more routing elements (e.g., photonic waveguides) route qubits processed by quantum operator(s) 2276 back to the same or different quantum operator(s) 2276 for further processing. In some implementations, the one or more routing elements (e.g., photonic waveguides) route qubits processed by quantum operator(s) 2276 to quantum entanglement generator 2272 and/or decoder 2274 for further processing (e.g., further entanglements and/or decoding).

[00320] In some embodiments, communications interfaces 2204 include wired communications interfaces and/or wireless communications interfaces (e.g., Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, etc.).

[00321] Memory 2206 of quantum computer 2200 includes high-speed random access memory, such as DRAM, SRAM, DDR RAM or other random access solid state memory devices; and may include non-volatile memory, such as one or more magnetic disk storage devices, optical disk storage devices, flash memory devices, or other non-volatile solid state storage devices. Memory 2206 may optionally include one or more storage devices remotely located from the processors 2202. Memory 2206, or alternately the non-volatile memory device(s) within memory 2206, comprises a computer readable storage medium (which includes a non-transitory computer readable storage medium and/or a transitory computer readable storage medium). In some embodiments, memory 2206 includes a removable storage device (e.g., Secure Digital memory card, Universal Serial Bus memory device, etc.). In some embodiments, memory 2206 is a physically separate and distinct storage device (e.g., a memory chip). In some embodiments, memory 2206 is integrated in another electronic component (e.g., cache and/or register of a processor).

[00322] In some embodiments, memory 2206 or the computer readable storage medium of memory 2206 stores the following programs, modules and data structures, or a subset thereof:

● operating system 2210 that includes procedures for handling various basic system services and for performing hardware dependent tasks;

● network communication module (or instructions) 2212 that is used for connecting quantum computer 2200 to other computers (e.g., clients and/or servers) via one or more communications interfaces 2204 and one or more communications networks, such as the Internet, other wide area networks, local area networks, metropolitan area networks, and so on; and

● quantum computing application 2214 that controls operations of quantum

entanglement generator 2272, decoder 2274, and/or quantum operator 2276.

[00323] In some embodiments, quantum computing application 2214 includes the following modules and data structures, or a subset or superset thereof:

● quantum entanglement module 2220 configured for operating quantum entanglement generator 2272;

● decoder module 2230 configured for operating decoder 2274;

● quantum state information 2240 storing various quantum state information, such as qubit states and/or syndrome states for a respective set of entangled qubits;

● quantum operator module 2250 configured for operating quantum operator 2276; and● database module 2260 configured to assist storage and/or retrieval of data on quantum computer 2200 or a remote data storage device (e.g., a remote data server).

[00324] In some embodiments, quantum entanglement module 2220 includes the following programs, modules and data structures, or a subset or superset thereof: ● source control module 2222 configured for controlling one or more qubit sources in quantum entanglement generator 2272 (e.g., providing instructions to the one or more qubit sources to provide a certain number of qubits);

● entanglement generator control module 2224 configured for controlling the one or more entanglement generators (e.g., providing instructions to the one or more entanglement generators to entangle certain groups of qubits); and

● error correcting code design(s) 2226 (e.g., information identifying how a group of qubits needs to be entangled, such as Shor code, Steane code, CSS codes, stabilizer codes, topological quantum codes, etc.).

[00325] In some embodiments, decoder module 2230 includes the following programs, modules and data structures, or a subset or superset thereof:

● decoder control module 2232 configured for controlling decoder 2274 (e.g., providing instructions to decoder 2274 to initiate correction of errors in quantum state information); and

● decoder operations 2234 including information identifying particular decoder

operations (e.g., cluster identification, selective growth of a cluster, etc.). In some embodiments, decoder operations 2234 also include instructions for transferring data between decoder 2274 and other components (e.g., quantum entanglement generator 2272 and/or quantum operator 2276).

[00326] In some embodiments, quantum state information 2240 includes the following data structures, or a subset or superset thereof:

● uncorrected information 2242 obtained from quantum state measurements; and● corrected information 2244 obtained by processing uncorrected information 2242 with decoder 2274.

[00327] In some embodiments, quantum state information 2240 includes multiple copies, including one or more interim copies, of corrected information 2244 based on a number of iterations of error correction operations.

[00328] In some embodiments, quantum state information 2240, or a subset or superset thereof, is stored outside memory 2206 (e.g., quantum state information 2240, or a subset or superset thereof, is stored in decoder 2274). [00329] In some embodiments, quantum operator module 2250 includes the following programs, modules and data structures, or a subset or superset thereof:

● logical operations module 2252 configured for controlling quantum operator 2276 for logical operations (e.g., providing instructions to quantum operator 2276 to initiate certain logical operations); and

● compression module 2254 configured for controlling quantum operator 2276 for compression operation (e.g., providing a sum or a product of a group of entangled qubits).

[00330] Each of the above identified modules and applications correspond to a set of instructions for performing one or more functions described above. These modules (e.g., sets of instructions) need not be implemented as separate software programs, procedures or modules, and thus various subsets of these modules may be combined or otherwise re-arranged in various embodiments. In some embodiments, memory 2206 may store a subset of the modules and data structures identified above. Furthermore, memory 2206 may store additional modules and data structures not described above.

[00331] The above-described components need not be implemented as separate components, and thus various subsets of these components may be combined or otherwise re- arranged in various embodiments. For example, in some embodiments, quantum entanglement generator 2272 and decoder 2274 are integrated in a single physical component (e.g., a single integrated photonic circuit). In some embodiments, quantum entanglement generator 2272, decoder 2274, and quantum operator 2276 are integrated in a single physical component (e.g., a single integrated photonic circuit).

[00332] In accordance with some embodiments, a photonic device includes one or more gates configured to perform any of the methods described herein.

[00333] In some embodiments, the photonic device includes one or more fusion gates. For example, the one or more gates of the photonic device include one or more fusion gates.

[00334] In some embodiments, the photonic device includes one or more beam splitters (e.g., beam splitter 2102 in Figure 21A or beam splitters 2100a, 2100b, or 2100c shown in Figures 21B-21D).

[00335] In some embodiments, each gate includes one or more beam splitters. [00336] In some embodiments, the photonic device includes one or more single-photon sources (e.g., a photon source configured to attempt provision of only a single photon at a time).

[00337] It will also be understood that, although the terms first, second, etc. are, in some instances, used herein to describe various elements, these elements should not be limited by these terms. These terms are only used to distinguish one element from another. For example, a first edge could be termed a second edge, and, similarly, a second edge could be termed a first edge, without departing from the scope of the various described implementations. The first edge and the second edge are both edges, but they are not the same edge unless explicitly stated as such.

[00338] The terminology used in the description of the various described implementations herein is for the purpose of describing particular implementations only and is not intended to be limiting. As used in the description of the various described implementations and the appended claims, the singular forms“a”,“an” and“the” are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. It will also be understood that the term“and/or” as used herein refers to and encompasses any and all possible combinations of one or more of the associated listed items. It will be further understood that the terms“includes,”“including,”“comprises,” and/or“comprising,” when used in this specification, specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof.

[00339] As used herein, a qubit refers to a particle in a particular physical state referred to as a quantum state. Typically, the physically state of the qubit can be used to encode quantum information, which can then be processed by one or more quantum gates, a process referred to herein as quantum computing. For example, the qubits can be particles, such as atoms, ions, and nuclei. In another example, the qubits can be photons. In yet other examples, the quantum systems can be other engineered quantum systems such as flux qubits, phase qubits, or charge qubits (e.g., formed from a superconducting Josephson junction), topological qubits (e.g., Majorana fermions), or spin qubits formed from vacancy centers (e.g., nitrogen vacancies in diamond).

[00340] The foregoing description, for purpose of explanation, has been described with reference to specific implementations. However, the illustrative discussions above are not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the scope of the claims to the precise forms disclosed. Many modifications and variations are possible in view of the above teachings. The implementations were chosen in order to best explain the principles underlying the claims and their practical applications, to thereby enable others skilled in the art to best use the implementations with various modifications as are suited to the particular uses contemplated.

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