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Title:
METHODS FOR HIGH SPEED HYDROGEN INJECTION, ACCELERATED COMBUSTION AND ASSOCIATED SYSTEMS AND APPARATUS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2015/066651
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Methods of initiating and/or accelerating combustion in an engine using a high speed injection of fluid(s) such as hydrogen, helium and neon. In an embodiment, the method comprises introducing an oxidant (e.g., oxygen, air, halogens, oxides of nitrogen and combinations thereof) into the combustion chamber of an engine. The oxidant has an oxidant speed of sound. The fluid is direct injected into the combustion chamber at a velocity less than the fluid's speed of sound and greater than the oxidant's speed of sound, thereby causing a shockwave in the oxidant sufficient to initiate combustion of the oxidant and the fluid.

Inventors:
MCALISTER, Roy, Edward (2901 E. Camelback Road, Phoenix, AZ, 85016, US)
Application Number:
US2014/063754
Publication Date:
May 07, 2015
Filing Date:
November 03, 2014
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
MCALISTER TECHNOLOGIES, LLC (2901 E. Camelback Road, Phoenix, AZ, 85016, US)
International Classes:
F02D41/30; F02D19/12; F02D21/06; F02M25/14; F02M33/00; F02M63/00
Foreign References:
US20060236975A12006-10-26
US20110209685A12011-09-01
US20130043323A12013-02-21
US20010025892A12001-10-04
US6003789A1999-12-21
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BORGHETTI, Peter, J. (Advanced Green Technologies, LLC7030 W. Oakland Street,Suite 10, Chandler AZ, 85226, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

I claim:

1 . A combustion process within a combustion chamber of an engine, the process comprising the steps of: providing an oxidant in the combustion chamber, wherein the oxidant has an oxidant speed of sound; and injecting a fluid in the combustion chamber, wherein the fluid has an injection speed greater than the oxidant speed of sound, whereby a Shockwave is generated in the oxidant to initiate and/or accelerate combustion of the oxidant and the fluid.

2. The process of claim 1 , wherein the fluid is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, helium and neon.

3. The process of claim 1 , wherein the step of injecting fluid in the combustion chamber further comprises injecting the fluid at a sonic, subsonic or supersonic speed relative to the oxidant speed of sound.

4. The process of claim 1 , wherein the oxidant comprises at least one substance selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, air, oxides of nitrogen, and combinations thereof.

5. The process of claim 1 , further comprising adding an additive to the fluid.

6. The process of claim 5, wherein the additive is selected from the group consisting of helium, hydrogen, argon, neon, xenon, krypton, chemical plasma generating agents, metal organics, metal inorganic compounds and ignition ions produced by spark, Lorentz, corona, radiofrequency, microwave, and laser radiation.

7. The process of claim 1 , wherein the step of injecting the fluid in the combustion chamber further comprises heating the fluid from a first speed of sound to a second speed of sound.

8. The process of claim 1 , wherein the step of injecting the fluid in the combustion chamber further comprises injecting the fluid through a metering valve.

9. The process of claim 8, wherein the step of injecting the fluid through the metering valve further comprises setting a condition to cause a choked flow across the metering valve.

10. The process of claim 1 , wherein the step of injecting the fluid in the combustion chamber occurs prior to, at or after top dead center.

1 1 . The process of claim 1 , further comprising the step of partially or fully ionizing the fluid.

12. The process of claim 1 1 , wherein the step of partially or fully ionizing the fluid further comprising the step of ionizing with spark, Lorentz ions, corona, and/or selected chemical plasma agents.

13. The process of claim 1 , wherein a fluid speed of sound is greater than the oxidant speed of sound.

14. The process of claim 1 , wherein the step of injecting the fluid in the combustion chamber further comprises: injecting at least a first fluid into the combustion chamber at a speed less than the oxidant speed of sound; and injecting a second fluid into the combustion chamber at a speed equal to or greater than the oxidant speed of sound.

15. The process of claim 14, further comprising the step of adding an additive to the first fluid and/or second fluid, wherein the additive is selected from the group consisting of chemical plasma agents, ionization susceptors, combustion initiators, and combustion accelerators.

16. The process of claim 14, further comprising the step of heating the first fluid and/or the second fluid.

17. The process of claim 14, wherein the second fluid contains at least one combustible agent.

18. The process of claim 14, further comprising adding another fluid having a speed of sound characteristic lower than a speed of sound of the first fluid before the step of injecting the first fluid.

19. The process of claim 14, further comprising adding another fluid having a speed of sound characteristic higher than a speed of sound of the first fluid after the step of injecting the first fluid.

20. The process of Claim 18, wherein the another fluid is selected from the group consisting of methane, ethane and propane.

21 . The process of Claim 19, wherein the another fluid is selected from the group consisting of methane, ethane and propane.

Description:
METHODS FOR HIGH SPEED HYDROGEN INJECTION, ACCELERATED COMBUSTION AND ASSOCIATED SYSTEMS

AND APPARATUS

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] The present application claims the benefit of US Provisional Application No. 61/899,1 17, filed November 1 , 2013 and US Provisional Application No. 62/004,790, filed May 29, 2014, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] The present technology is generally directed to fuel injection and ignition. More specifically, some embodiments are directed to direct injecting hydrogen into a combustion chamber at a velocity that causes a Shockwave in an oxidant within the combustion chamber.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Persistent problems of internal combustion engine operations include emissions of oxides of nitrogen and particulates along with requirements for very narrow fuel combustion characteristics such as provided by octane and cetane ratings. Oxides of nitrogen NOx such as di-nitrogen oxide, nitrogen di-oxide and nitrogen monoxide are produced by endothermic reactions between various radicals formed from combustion heated fuel, oxygen, and nitrogen at significantly objectionable rates around temperatures of about 1300°C (2370°F).

[0004] However, external combustion engines and rapid cycles of internal combustion piston engines with intake, compression, power, and exhaust operations produce such oxides of nitrogen at combustion temperatures of about 2200°C (4000°F) and higher. Although small amounts of NO and other oxides of nitrogen are produced by soil microbes, lightning, and forest fires, more than 90% of atmospheric oxides of nitrogen is from various combustion engine operations. Such oxides of nitrogen cause acid rain, acidification of the oceans, smog in congested traffic areas, and significant global greenhouse gas warming. [0005] Particulates including hydrocarbons and organo-sulfur substances in diesel engine particulate matter or smoke contain respiratory irritants and carcinogenic agents. Smaller amounts of such substances along with benzene and carbon monoxide are found in the exhaust gases of spark- and compression-ignited gasoline and diesel engines. Visible and smaller invisible particulates along with CO2, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen now produce unacceptable greenhouse gas warming of the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and continents.

[0006] Accordingly, there is a need for improved engine operation that allows for reduced emissions of unwanted exhaust constituents. There is a further need for combustion initiation and/or acceleration methods that facilitate the use of cleaner fuels and an improved efficiency.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0007] Non-limiting and non-exhaustive embodiments of the devices, systems, and methods, including the preferred embodiment, are described with reference to the following figures, wherein like reference numerals refer to like parts throughout the various view unless otherwise specified.

[0008] Figures 1 -3 are cross-sectional side views of a representative combustion chamber illustrating progressive stages of stratified heat production in according to an embodiment of the present technology;

[0009] Figure 4 illustrates multiple fuel injection patterns according to an embodiment of the present technology;

[0010] Figure 5A is a cross-sectional side view of a suitable injection system for implementing aspects of the disclosed technology;

[0011] Figure 5B is an enlarged end view of the valve assembly shown in Figure 5A;

[0012] Figure 5C is a partial cross-sectional perspective view of an injector nozzle according to an embodiment of the present technology;

[0013] Figure 5D is a partial cross-sectional side view of a the injector nozzle shown in Figure 5C;

-9- [0014] Figure 5E is a perspective view of a the electrode shown in Figures 5C and 5D;

[0015] Figure 5F is a partial cross-sectional view of an embodiment for fluid injection into a combustion chamber.

[0016] Figure 6A is a schematic representation of a power generation system according to a representative embodiment;

[0017] Figure 6B is an enlarged cross-section side view of the carbon fuel cell shown in Figure 6A;

[0018] Figure 6C is an enlarged partial cross-section of the tubular proton exchange membrane shown in Figure 6B;

[0019] Figure 6D is an enlarged partial cross-section of ion transport membrane shown in Figure 6B;

[0020] Figure 7A is a schematic representation of a power generation system according to another representative embodiment;

[0021] Figure 7B is a partial cross-sectional side view of the exhaust manifold reactor shown in FIG. 7A;

[0022] Figure 7C is cross-sectional end view of the exhaust manifold reactor shown in Figures 7A and 7B;

[0023] Figure 7D is a schematic representation of a representative embodiment for injecting hydrogen from insulated accumulator;

[0024] Figure 7E and 7F illustrate a heat exchanger according to a representative embodiment;

[0025] Figure 8A is a flowchart illustrating a method for initiating combustion in an engine according to a representative embodiment;

[0026] Figure 8B is a schematic representation of a system for initiating combustion in an engine according to a representative embodiment;

[0027] Figure 8C is an enlarged view of combustion initiation as shown in Figure 8B; [0028] Figure 8D is a flowchart illustrating a representative process flow algorithm for introducing an oxidant into a combustion chamber;

[0029] Figure 9A is a cross-sectional side view of a suitable injection system for implementing aspects of the disclosed technology;

[0030] Figure 9B is an enlarged end view of the valve assembly shown in Figure 9A;

[0031] Figure 9C is a partial cross-sectional perspective view of an injector nozzle according to an embodiment of the present technology;

[0032] Figure 9D is a partial cross-sectional side view of a the injector nozzle shown in Figure 9C;

[0033] Figure 10 is a schematic representation of a system for initiating combustion in an engine according to a representative embodiment;

[0034] Figures 1 1 A-1 1 G show components and systems for piezoelectric drivers including temperature compensation;

[0035] Figures 12A and 12B are an embodiments for operation in accordance with principles of the invention.

[0036] Figures 13A and 13B shows a system for operation of an internal combustion engine such as a two or four stroke piston engine.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0037] Provided herein are methods for initiating and/or accelerating combustion such as in an engine having a combustion chamber. In an embodiment, the method comprises introducing an oxidant, such as air, into the combustion chamber. The oxidant has a speed of sound determined by the temperature and constituents of the oxidant. In a shock wave produced by an object such as a fluid breaking the speed of sound in the surrounding medium there is an extremely rapid rise in pressure, temperature, and density of the interface of the medium and the penetrating object.

[0038] A fluid such as hydrogen, helium, neon or mixtures/combinations thereof can be injected directly into the combustion chamber at controlled velocities such as less, equal or greater than the speed of sound of that fluid. The fluid velocity can be less, equal to, or greater than the speed of sound of oxidant in a combustion chamber. The examples provided herein are based on hydrogen, however, the invention has not to be construed as limiting to hydrogen only.

[0039] In an illustrative application hydrogen can be injected at a velocity that can be less than the hydrogen's speed of sound and greater than the oxidant's speed of sound, thereby causing a Shockwave in the oxidant that can be sufficient to initiate and/or accelerate combustion of the oxidant and hydrogen.

[0040] Specific details of several embodiments of the technology are described below with reference to Figures 1 -13B. Other details describing well-known structures and systems often associated with engine operation have not been set forth in the following disclosure to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the description of the various embodiments of the technology. Many of the details, dimensions, angles, and other features shown in the figures are merely illustrative of particular embodiments of the technology. Accordingly, other embodiments can have other details, dimensions, angles, and features without departing from the spirit or scope of the present technology. A person of ordinary skill in the art, therefore, will accordingly understand that the technology may have other embodiments with additional elements, or the technology may have other embodiments without several of the features shown and described below with reference to Figures 1 -13B.

[0041] The speed of sound in fluids varies with composition and temperature of the fluid. Combustion by "deflagration" is subsonic oxidation of a fuel in processes that propagate by heat transfer from a hot burning gas to heat adjacent cooler layers for ignition with air. Such subsonic combustion includes stable flames from burner tips and explosions typical to fuel and air mixtures in combustion chambers of engines. Supersonic combustion is defined as "detonation" in which the chemical reaction propagates through a sonic or supersonic shock wave. The present technology provides high speed hydrogen combustion in which hydrogen-defined patterns are directly injected into a combustion chamber to penetrate an oxidant, such as air, at rates that exceed the speed of sound in air including rates that can be subsonic, sonic, or supersonic within the penetrating hydrogen. [0042] Changes in fluid pressure (e.g., during the compression or expansion strokes) have relatively little effect on the speed of sound. In a selected gas, the speed of sound is a certain fraction of the average velocity of the particles such as atoms or molecules of the gas composition. Equation 1 shows the speed of sound (S) relationship to average molecular velocity (V) and the adiabatic constant (k).

[0043] S = V (k/3) 5 Equation

1

[0044] Where: V is the average velocity of the molecules at the given temperature and k= the adiabatic constant for the gas.

[0045] The speed of sound for various gas selections is shown in Table 1 .

Oxides include O2, NO x , Air, and mixtures of such substances

[0046] Increasing the temperature (Tc° - measured in Celsius degrees) increases the velocity of gas particles and thus increases the speed of sound (V). This is illustratively shown for the increased speed of sound in air as provided by Equation 2 at temperatures above 0°C. Table 2 lists adiabatic constants (k= c P /c v ) for various gases such as air which is approximately 1 .4 at temperatures up to about 1000°C.

[0047] V = 331 .4 + 0.6Tc° m/s Equation 2 TABLE 2: Heat Capacity Ratio (k) for various gases

Temp. Gas k Temp. Gas k Temp. Gas K

-181-C 1.597 200°C 1.398 20°C NO 1.400

-76°C 1.453 400°C 1.393 20°C N 2 0 1.310

Dry Air

20°C 1.410 1000°C 1.365 -181 °C 1.470

N 2

100°C H 2 1.404 2000°C 1.088 15°C 1.404

400°C 1.387 0°C 1.310 20°C Cl 2 1.340

1000°C 1.358 20°C 1.300 -115°C 1.410

2000°C 1.318 100°C C0 2 1.281 -74°C CH 4 1.350

20°C He 1.660 400°C 1.235 20°C 1.320

20°C 1.330 1000°C 1.195 15°C NH 3 1.310

100°C H 2 0 1.324 20°C CO 1.400 19°C Ne 1.640

200°C 1.310 -181°C 1.450 19°C Xe 1.660

-180°C 1.760 -76°C 1.415 19°C Kr 1.680

Ar

20°C 1.670 20°C 1.400 15°C S0 2 1.290 o 2

0°C 1.403 100°C 1.399 360°C Hg 1.670

20°C Dry Air 1.400 200°C 1.397 15°C C 1.220

100°C 1.401 400°C 1.394 16°C C3H8 1.130 [0048] Engine system 100 of Fig. 1 includes a suitable engine control and operating system 132, such as an electronic control that can reduce or eliminate oxides of nitrogen and particulate emissions along with other objectionable substances. Figs. 1 , 2, and 3 show progressive stages of stratified heat production in a partial section view of a piston 104 that can be capable of being reciprocated through operation in a cylinder 108 to substantially form a combustion chamber between selected piston features such as a flat top, Mexican hat or cup 122 and head assembly 1 14 of the engine 100. Fuel injection and/or ignition system 102 directly injects one or more bursts of fluid (i.e. 124, 126, 128, 130, etc.) in selected patterns and amounts to control engine power production from idle to full power.

[0049] In embodiments such as depicted in Fig. 4, the first injection 124 and/or other injections such as 126, 128, etc., can be made at a velocity that is sufficiently less than a subsequent higher speed injection such as 130 to provide for injection 130 to pass through the hydrogen-characterized slower expansion of injection 124 etc., and cause a shock wave pattern as the higher speed hydrogen enters the air or other oxidant within the combustion chamber. In other words the injection such as 130 causing the shock wave with oxidant can be subsonic, sonic, or supersonic as it penetrates the earlier injection(s) and creates a shock wave pattern 130S upon encountering oxidant such as or similar to selections listed in Table 1 to initiate and/or accelerate the completion of combustion of fuel in the combustion chamber. In operation, selected injections such as 124, 126, and/or 128 can be provided with ignition by spark, Lorentz ions, corona, and/or selected chemical plasma agents including impetus from locations such as the head gasket or other combustion chamber inserts and higher speed hydrogen or hydrogen-characterized injection of penetration 130 can cause shock front 130S to induce acceleration of such previously initiated combustion and/or propagation of additional combustion interfaces.

[0050] The included angle of penetrating injection 130 and/or shock wave 130S can be less than, equal or greater than previous injections such as 124, 126, and 128 depending upon conditions such as the temperature, pressure and/or additives such as chemical plasma generating agents to each inventory of injected hydrogen. Illustratively, embodiment 1000 can provide higher temperature and/or pressure injection of inventory 130 as a result of preconditioned heating such as by heat exchanger 1 160 and/or by additional heating by resistive or inductive heater 1024.

[0051] In certain embodiments, the amount of fuel and/or velocity and pattern of penetration before completion of combustion is controlled by variation of the fuel pressure and/or the valve opening and impedance and/or the time duration of fuel flow through a fuel control valve within injector 102. Illustratively, at idle, a relatively low fuel injection pressure and/or delivery time can be adequate. During acceleration, cruise, and full power operation, the time the valve remains opened and/or the fuel injection pressure is increased and/or the impedance of the fuel control valve is reduced by increasing the opening stroke to deliver the amount of combustion energy required. Multiple patterns of fuel penetration can include selections of more or less concentric conical fuel patterns 124, 126, 128, and 130 as shown in Fig. 4 and/or that provide adaptively varied timing between and during fuel injections to assure completion of combustion, optimization of fuel and air-utilization efficiencies, the surface to volume characteristics of expanding fuel patterns, and desired torque production along with reducing or preventing emissions of oxides of nitrogen.

[0052] Presentation of such multiple patterns provides expedited initiation and completion of fuel combustion events along with commensurately greater air- utilization efficiency in which the air supplies oxygen for combustion of fuel, surplus air for insulating the products of combustion and performing work by expansion , and additional surplus air for insulating and protecting the friction-reducing lubrication films between relative motion surfaces such as the swept areas of piston rings 106A, 106B, 106C, etc. This extends engine life, enables reduced fuel consumption to produce more power, reduction or elimination of particulates and oxides of nitrogen along with commensurately reduced heat loss to the environment such as by coolant circulated in passageways such as 1 16 near the combustion chamber.

[0053] Ignition of fuel in the combustion chamber can be accomplished by selected laser frequencies, microwave, spark, Lorentz thrust ions, and/or corona ignition within the combustion chamber. Referring to Fig. 5A, production of elevated voltage for such operations can be provided by coil assembly 518A-518N and conductor 520 can deliver the high voltage directly and/or to one or more capacitors of respective circuits for such ignition events. For example, with further reference to Figs. 5C-5F, corona ignition can be accomplished by a suitable circuit that includes capacitor 522 within a conductive or non-conductive case 532 - 534 near the corona field shaping electrodes 528, 540 and/or antenna 529 at the interface to combustion chamber 548. Antenna such as 529 may be of any suitable shape and number and/or presented at angles depending upon the combustion chamber geometry and/or pattern that fuel such as hydrogen is presented in the combustion chamber. In some embodiments, antenna 529 are adaptively adjusted by fuel pressure, magnetic force, or other mechanical linkages (not shown) depending upon fuel pressure and temperature, combustion chamber swirl, piston speed etc., and may be protected by suitable ceramic coatings or layers (not shown) to maximize corona ignition efficiency and antenna performance life. Such adjustments include retracting, extending, rotating, and/or tilting of antenna such as 529.

[0054] Occasional or cyclic production of corona ignition may be used independently and/or in conjunction with ions or ion patterns previously produced in oxidant and/or fuel particles for purposes such as improving ignition or oxidant utilization efficiencies along with reduction or elimination of undesirable exhaust emissions. Lorentz and/or corona event pathways or patterns include types that are produced by electric field pulses, laser or radiofrequency or microwave impetus and radiative ignition such as frequencies including but not limited to infrared ultraviolet, visible, and the range of about 3 kilohertz to 300 gigahertz or more.

[0055] Lorentz thrust, magnetic lens adjusted, and/or corona stimulated ion patterns may be controlled by DC and/or AC bias that is established by antenna incorporated in the head gasket and/or piston assembly of the host engine. This provides adaptive adjustments of such patterns to optimize oxidant-utilization efficiency in response to variations such as air and fuel temperatures, piston speed, oxidant swirl, and dynamic compression. Control of the magnitude of the hydrogen fuel injection pressure and/or the Lorentz ion thrust can provide variation of the hydrogen penetration rate from subsonic to supersonic velocities to thus control the rate that combustion occurs within the oxidant such as air in the combustion chamber. [0056] Plasma or spark ignition of hydrogen or hydrogen-characterized mixtures in oxidant such as air requires only about 0.02 millijoules at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure which can be about 10% of the energy needed for hydrocarbons such as methane, propane, gasoline and air mixtures. A virtually invisible spark represents this relatively small ignition energy value and less ignition energy may be adequate for heated oxidant such as compressed air. Thus, by launching an efficiently generated substantial quantity of hydrogen ions into high velocity penetration patterns that quickly convert the oxygen available in the compressed air to high temperature combustion steam the following is accomplished:

1 ) The kinetic and/or electrical energy requirement for hydrogen ignition can be far less than the magnitude required for hydrocarbon ignition to greatly reduce spark erosion of ignition electrodes and extend service life.

2) Accelerated ignition and completion of combustion of high-speed hydrogen injection is accomplished as hydrogen impinges available oxygen. In some embodiments, the high-speed hydrogen is injected at elevated temperatures and/or into oxidant that is Lorentz ion thrusted at elevated temperature. Such elevation in temperature provides higher speed of sound for either or both gases and higher shock and/or higher chemical activation and thus higher reaction rates are provided.

3) Accelerated ignition and completion of combustion of other fuels such as CO, CH 4 , Nhb, CH4N2O, CxH y , CH3OH, and various other compounds by kinetic energy, heat, radiative, and shock wave energy transfers from hydrogen penetration and combustion is accomplished.

Embodiment 570 shown in Fig. 5F utilizes a solenoid, pneumatic, hydraulic, magnetostrictive or piezoelectric or mechanical linkage through high dielectric strength actuator 576 to open valve 578 within bellows spring 580 away from the normally closed and seated position against conductive electrode 584 to provide flow of fluid such as fuel delivered through conduit 582 and thus through the annular space between electrode 585 and the bore of insulator 586. Electrode 585 can be an extension of valve 578 or it can be a stationary extension of electrode 584 to provide the electropotential from a suitable high voltage source through insulated conductor 583.

In certain applications, Lorentz current is initiated between coaxial electrodes 585 and 588 to form an ion pattern of oxidant and/or fuel particles that are projected into combustion chamber 594. The ion-current pattern may be further accelerated and shaped by permanent and/or electromagnets 587 and 589 that can be located in case 572, insulator 574, insulator 586, electrode 585 and/or flow-director 590. The ion pattern that is thus provided in combustion chamber 594 by such electric and/or electromagnetic events and/or by chemical plasma generation agents can subsequently induce corona discharge to initiate or accelerate completion of combustion of fuel in combustion chamber 594. Such ion patterns can also be generated by chemical plasma agents that are mixed with the fluid such as fuel that is delivered through conduit 582. Illustratively a mixture of hydrogen with relatively smaller amounts of DME, DEE, acetaldehyde, and/or metal organics such as iron or nickel carbonyl provides such ions to produce rapid rates and may be utilized with or without spark, Lorentz thrusting, or corona plasma production to stimulate initiation or acceleration of combustion. Suitable materials for conductive embodiments of case 532, 534 include steel, stainless steel, aluminum and copper alloys. Suitable materials for non-conductive embodiments of case 532, 534 include high strength glass, glass-ceramics, and ceramic compositions along with various composite assemblies.

[0057] Various system embodiments work well in two-stroke and four-stroke piston engines along with many other types including rotary combustion engines. Illustratively, referring again to Fig. 1 , in four-stroke engine operation, intake valve 1 10 is opened to allow throttled or unthrottled normally aspirated or supercharged air to enter the combustion chamber during crank rotation from about top dead center (TDC) to bottom dead center (BDC) through inlet passageway 120. After closure of intake valve 1 10 and exhaust valve 1 12, air is compressed during crank rotation from about BDC to TDC to provide compression ratios ranging up to about 8:1 for converted gasoline engines, up to about 22:1 for converted Diesel engines. Following one or more fuel injections such as 124, 126, 128, 130 etc., before, at, or after TDC, stratified combustion occurs to heat the combustion gases and surrounding air to pressurize the power stroke from TDC towards BDC. Subsequently, exhaust valve 1 12 is opened during piston travel corresponding to crank rotation from about BDC to TDC as exhaust gases are expelled from the combustion chamber through passageway 1 18.

[0058] System embodiments include applications in a wide variety of internal combustion engines and combustion chamber geometries that are enabled by adaptive operations by injector 102. Fig. 5A shows a partial section view of embodiment 500 for adaptively controlling each combustion chamber of an engine such as system 100. Injection system 500 provides selection through valve 503 of one or more fuel types including relatively cold fuels such as gases evaporated from cryogenic hydrogen, methane, or other fuels and relatively hot fluids such as gases produced by reactions at elevated temperatures including hydrogen, nitrogen, and/or carbon monoxide from reforming reactions. As shown in Figs. 5A and 5B, such selection of fuel and/or fluid types from ports such as 502 and/or 504 is conveyed through valve assembly 509 as determined by the position of spool or shuttle valve 506-508 according to the position or rotation of 503 with respect to fulcrum bearing 505 provides amplified travel through linkage 507 of valve assembly 506-508 to deliver fluid through passage ways 510 to 512 and connecting internal passageways around a suitable actuator such as a solenoid or piezoelectric assembly 514 to fuel control valve 524 which closes on the corresponding seat shown within electrode 526, 528 to meter fuel and/or other fluid flow bursts through ports 538 into the annular portion of the combustion chamber between electrodes 528 and 540.

[0059] Flow through or around a suitable flow metering valve such as 524 or orifices 538 or the annular nozzle between electrodes 528 and 540, is limited by choked flow to the speed of sound. Table 3 shows various ratios of upstream pressure to downstream pressure (Pu/Pd) for such choked flow under selected illustrative conditions Table 3

Minimum

Gas k =

required for

choked flow

Dry Air 1.400 1.893

Helium 1.660 2.049

Hydrogen 1.410 1.899

Methane 1.307 1.837

Propane 1.131 1.729

Butane 1.096 1.708

Ammonia 1.310 1.838

Carbon monoxide 1.404 1.895

Notes: P u = upstream pressure; Pd = downstream pressure; k values from Table 2.

[0060] Thus, if the maximum combustion chamber pressure near TDC is 123Bar (1808 PSI) the hydrogen injection supply pressure upstream of the limiting choked flow through the metering valve would be 1 .899 (123Bar) = 233.6Bar or 3434PSI to provide sonic velocity by pressure drop. However, depending upon piston speed and compression ratio, because of the very rapid combustion enabled by high speed hydrogen, the pressure in the combustion chamber after TDC at the time of injection for optimum brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) production could be considerably lower such as 68 Bar (1000PSI) and the minimum hydrogen upstream pressure would be 1 .899 (68Bar) =129 Bar or about 1900 PSI. Another embodiment uses relatively lower upstream pressure and subsequent Lorentz acceleration of hydrogen ions to produce one or more adaptively adjusted hydrogen launch velocities including velocities that are subsonic or considerably greater than the speed of sound of oxidant such as air in the combustion chamber.

[0061] In certain embodiments, the metering valve is modulated to optimize performance at idle, acceleration, cruise, full-power and in transient conditions by providing sufficient open area to produce hydrogen launch velocities that are below the hydrogen speed of sound but that exceed the speed of sound of oxidant that is encountered in the combustion chamber. This modulation may be further adjusted by extremely rapid production of Lorentz thrust in one or more successive bursts to adaptively optimize performance including transient mobile conditions or phase matching in CHP applications. [0062] In some embodiments, a primary fuel such as methane and/or hydrogen stored initially as a compressed gas at elevated pressure such as 700Bar (10.290PSI) could be regulated at a pressure of about 129Bar (1900 PSI) to injector 500 for production of high velocity or sonic flow of hydrogen into the combustion chamber at the most optimum crank angle after TDC for maximizing BMEP production including contribution by the pressure from compressed gas storage, gasification of cryogenic LNG to 1900 PSI, or dissociation to hydrogen at such pressure (i.e. the process of Equation 4). At times the storage or conversion pressure drops below the value to produce critical or near critical flow, controller 516 adaptively provides adjustments including utilization of additional galvanic energy for hydrogen separation and pressurization as it is delivered across proton membrane 641 of Figs. 6A - 6C.

[0063] Subsequently additional hydrogen acceleration may be applied by Lorentz thrust energy to achieve the desired velocity of hydrogen ions along with swept hydrogen molecular flow. Additional adaptive adjustments include beginning injection earlier, widening the crank-angle during which hydrogen injection occurs and reducing the crank angle interval between successive injections.

[0064] Even lower supply pressure occurs including times that it is desired to virtually empty the supply tank rather than sacrifice vehicle range. Another embodiment provides for excellent continued engine operation and suitable performance as the supply tank is emptied. Controller 516 provides progressively earlier hydrogen injection before TDC and eventually at, or before BDC and for coordinated ignition to be near, at or after TDC to enable the supply tank to be nearly emptied and the range of operation to be extended. Hydrogen facilitates such operation by combusting rapidly with unthrottled air at far lean fuel-air ratios that would not ignite or complete combustion with other fuel selections.

[0065] As shown in illustrative schematics of Fig. 5E, ports 538 can provide flow at any particular angle including embodiment angles that contribute angular velocity to swirl the fuel and may be combined with straight, progressively curved, or helical passageway embodiments defined by electrode regions 528S between electrode peaks as shown by the electrode configuration 500S of Figs. 5D and 5E. Further acceleration of the fluids passing along the electrode from narrow gaps such as tips 526 along features of region 528S into the combustion chamber can be provided by Lorentz thrust forces that are developed by application of pulsed high voltage to initiate small currents between gaps such as tips 526 and opposing or coaxial electrode surfaces 540 that allow controlled applications of relatively lower continuing voltage to adaptively induce much larger currents and resulting subsonic or supersonic launch velocities into combustion chamber 548.

[0066] In some embodiments, current initiation by low work function regions such as edges of 526, electrodes 569 or 585 is coupled with higher work function regions towards combustion chamber tips as shown. In addition antenna tips 526, 569, or features of 590 can be considerably sharper and many more may be placed in each of one or more concentric rings to produce sufficiently strong DC or AC fields including high frequency operations to cause hydrogen flowing in the region to produce a sufficient population of ions to cause ignition of injected hydrogen upon reaching oxidant in the combustion chamber at a velocity that initially or subsequently exceeds the sonic velocity of the oxidant. This may be provided in conjunction with flowing heated hydrogen and/or ion producing additives to the hydrogen such as helium, argon, neon, dimethylether (DME), diethylether (DEE), and various active metal ion donor substances including organic and inorganic compounds.

[0067] In certain other embodiments, tips 526 are considerably rounded compared to optionally sharper antenna 529 points to provide assured corona discharges into the fuel pattern that is launched into the combustion chamber. In addition to assuring efficient utilization of corona energy in the injected fuel patterns, the more rounded tips 526 provide much longer life by dissipating heat and reducing or eliminating oxidation damage and discharge erosion.

[0068] Further adjustments of the included angle and penetration patterns of fluids that are directly injected are provided by adjustment of the pressure at which that fluid is supplied from inlet ports 502 or 504 to valve 524, the geometrical design of electrodes such as 528 and 540 (Fig. 5D), and operation of suitably placed permanent or electromagnets such as 542A, 542B, and 542C (Figs. 5C, 5E, and 5F). Illustratively, the magnetic fields produced by such magnets can cancel, reverse, or supplement and increase the angular velocity to swirl ion currents and swept particles that may be initially imparted with angular velocity by the angles of ports 538 and helical or slanted passageways 528S. In other embodiments, magnetic forces are varied by controller 516 to change the patterns that injected fluids produce as they penetrate into combustion chamber 548. In other embodiments, the electrodes provide fluid flow passageways that induce swirl that supplement or encounter combustion chamber swirl to accelerate the rates that oxygen and/or other oxidants encounter fuel particles. The magnetic field provided by magnets such as 542A, 542B and 542C can be adaptively adjusted to add or subtract from such launch angles and resulting swirl patterns and combustion chamber presentations.

[0069] Suitable magnet wires and circuits for embodiments with high temperature electro-magnets 542A, 542B, and/or 542C include copper, nickel, and high conductivity forms of carbon wire including nano-wire filament assemblies. Suitable instrumentation such as pressure sensitive i.e. piezoelectric, thermoresistive, thermovoltaic, photovoltaic, etc., including fiber optics 530 such as Fabry Perot sensors may be comprised of or protected by sapphire or quartz material. Such instrumentation and/or sensory fiber optics detect and relay combustion chamber events including photo-optic or camera monitoring of combustion chamber fluid injection patterns, combustion patterns along with peak temperature and pressure measurements to controller 516 for adaptive adjustments to optimize fuel efficiency, performance, and minimization of objectionable exhaust emissions.

[0070] In some embodiments, selected fiber sensors 530 include photovoltaic detectors that monitor emissions at selected frequencies such as corresponding to temperatures approaching and/or surpassing 2200°C (4000°F) to enable adaptive fuel metering adjustments to minimize or avoid production of oxides of nitrogen or to promote production of oxides of nitrogen at crank angles such as between about TDC and 30° after TDC to produce activated oxidants to accelerate combustion. Engine operation with stratified heat production at temperatures exceeding 2200°C (4000°F) improves thermal efficiency and produces highly activated stratified oxidants such as ozone and oxides of nitrogen that are subsequently eliminated by oxidation of subsequent injections of fuel that are metered to produce peak combustion temperatures below 2200°C (4000°F). [0071] In some embodiments, hydrogen is provided by filtration, suitable electrolysis, selective ion membrane separation (i.e. proton or oxygen ion membranes), and/or thermochemical reaction processes as a fuel to port 502 and other fluids such as methane, propane, butane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, etc., are provided through one or more ports such as 504 for rapid selection of fluid for direct injection into combustion chamber 548. Hydrogen enables much higher subsonic launch velocities than other substances because its speed of sound is three or more times higher than other fluids as shown in Table 1 .

[0072] Control of fuel pressure and/or Lorentz thrust forces to provide hydrogen injection velocities that range from subsonic oxidant (e.g., air) velocities to supersonic for hydrogen thus provide adaptive optimization of fuel penetration extents and patterns of combustion heat generation along with oxidant-utilization efficiency, combustion rates, and peak temperatures. In some embodiments, operation from relatively low hydrogen injection velocities at idle to nearly sonic or supersonic at full power provides optimized energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen production and pressurization along with oxidant utilization. In other embodiments, hydrogen launch velocity is varied along with the ion production by spark, Lorentz, and/or corona stimulation, the time period of injection, and the time period between successive injections. This provides adaptation in transient conditions such as piston speeds that include startup, idle, cruise, full power etc., and widely varying load conditions.

[0073] The launch thrust efficiency (e.g., per KWH) for hydrogen ions and particles that are swept along is thus much higher for hydrogen compared to methane and other similar fluid selections as shown in Table 1 because hydrogen can be accelerated to about three times higher velocity without encountering the shock wave impedance of the sound barrier, drag turbulence, and high viscous losses that produce heating in the electrode gap. Consequently, hydrogen and/or hydrogen ions more efficiently gain higher launch velocity and greater kinetic energy to assure penetration for rapid ignition and completion of combustion upon interaction with oxidant within the combustion chamber. This greatly improves engine management capabilities to adaptively meet transient operating conditions along with other objectives. [0074] In addition, hydrogen has much lower viscosity and provides 7 to 10 times greater heat transfer rates and thus highly beneficial electrode cooling capacity before producing Joule-Thomson (J-T) expansion heating upon injection into the combustion chamber. This provides a new regime of hydrogen fuel induced combustion patterns that occur at the controlled rates that hydrogen and ions of hydrogen penetrate the oxidizing particles (e.g., air) in the combustion chamber.

[0075] The hydrogen injection events also serve as cleaning agents to remove any carbonaceous residue that may develop on electrode surfaces by ionization and Lorentz thrusting events with hydrocarbon fuel selections or from lubrication of components in engine operation. Maintenance intervals are thus extended by steady or occasional operation on hydrogen and operating costs are reduced.

[0076] In operation, high efficiency direct injection at velocities up to or exceeding hydrogen's speed of sound penetrates air in adaptively adjusted sequences and patterns to propagate fuel-induced high speed hydrogen combustion at far faster rates than conventional approaches and achieves much greater air- utilization efficiency along with conversion of injection pressure into higher torque and BMEP. The rate of combustion is governed by the hydrogen penetration rate, which can be controlled to be below, equal, or greater than the speed of sound in the oxidizing air and/or the speed of sound in mixtures of hydrocarbon fuels and air. This provides new capabilities for optimizing fuel efficiency, torque production, and engine life while minimizing oxides of nitrogen and eliminating particulate emissions.

[0077] Additional operational modes are provided in which fluids that have lower or higher speed-of-sound characteristics are introduced before or after hydrogen injection, respectively. In instances that lower speed of sound fluid fuels such as methane, ethane, propane etc., are introduced before TDC, beneficial J-T expansion cooling of the air undergoing compression can be achieved. This benefit is contrary to the goals for compression heating the air to the highest temperature to evaporate diesel fuel droplets and initiate compression ignition and combustion. This J-T expansion cooling is particularly effective for cooling the core of air undergoing compression to achieve the greatest reduction in work of compression. After achieving reduction of the work of compression, high speed hydrogen combustion regimes occur in high speed penetrating patterns of combustion that exceed the local speed of sound in the cooling fuel, oxidant, and products of combustion to assure much more rapid completion of combustion of all fuel constituents that are available. Nitrogen monoxide production is minimized because hydrogen rapidly penetrates the air mass to combine with oxygen and form water vapor.

[0078] High speed hydrogen combustion rapidly produces reactive collisions of penetrating hydrogen with oxygen to produce a trailing air composition that is rich with hot H2O (i.e. super-heated steam) and has depleted or reduced oxygen concentration. This is effective in reducing additional production of nitrogen monoxide and promoting the dissociation of nitrogen monoxide by utilization as an activated oxidant of the fuel present and stimulation of the enriched nitrogen concentration to form diatomic nitrogen as available oxygen combines with hydrogen. The super-heated steam and penetrating hydrogen provides a highly effective reactant with any oxide of nitrogen that is formed to produce additional steam and diatomic nitrogen in the pattern region that oxygen concentration is reduced by high speed hydrogen combustion as summarized by Equation 3.

[0079] 2H2 + 2NO→2H 2 0 + N2 + HEAT3 Equation 3

[0080] This overcomes the problems related to conventional relatively slow combustion rates of hydrocarbon fuels particularly including production of oxides of nitrogen and unburned hydrocarbon emissions and higher temperature exhaust because of failures to convert fuel potential energy into work during the power cycle of engine operation.

[0081] In certain embodiments, hydrocarbons (H x C y ) such as gasoline, diesel fuel, LP gases, natural gas or renewable methane are converted to carbon and hydrogen as shown in Equation 4.

[0082] HxCy + HEAT4→ x/2H 2 + yC Equation 4

The feedstock carbon and hydrogen donor (H x C y ) can be pre-pressurized and/or preheated by waste heat rejected including heat from reaction products that are exhausted by the engine or a fuel cell such as 610 and additionally heated to the temperature within insulated case 61 1 that may be needed to provide for rapid removal of hydrogen by a filter, selective membrane, or galvanic membrane cell to produce pressurized hydrogen that is separated from the carbon as shown in Equation 4.

The hydrogen can be used to produce high-pressure and/or high speed combustion at or after TDC to improve engine performance, life, and fuel efficiency along with reduction or elimination of particulates and nitrogen monoxide. In an embodiment, carbon typically produced at elevated temperatures by the endothermic process of Equation 4 is used in a high-temperature carbon fueled electrochemical cell (i.e. fuel cell) to produce electricity at efficiency up to about 85% or more. Some or all of HEAT4 for the process can be from regenerative energy conversion such as engine waste heat, regenerative springs and/or shock absorbers, deceleration of a vehicle, or utility spin-down energy. This greatly improves the efficiency of electricity production compared to operation of an engine at up to 50% efficiency to power an alternator at up to 90% efficiency to charge/discharge a lead-acid battery at up to 60% efficiency for less than 30% overall efficiency. Numerous other benefits include storage of heat, production of carbon for manufacturing durable goods, and/or storage of chemical fuel potential energy for subsequent efficient production of electricity by fuel cell 610.

[0083] A synergistic power generation system embodiment 600 as shown in Figs. 6A, B, C, and D provides combined operations of a high speed hydrogen combustion engine 602 and a carbon fuel cell 610 to produce heat and electricity and/or propulsive power at greater overall efficiencies than conventional engines and fuel cell systems. This further enables improved distributed production of net hydrogen fuels such as fuel alcohols, formic acid, DME, DEE, various aldehydes, ammonia, and urea. In operation a stationary energy conversion system can produce electricity, heat and/or net hydrogen fuels for transportation applications at overall efficiencies that double the efficiency of conventional power plants and refineries while reducing or eliminating pollution and greenhouse gases.

[0084] Direct current produced by the carbon fuel cell 604 can be supplied to an inverter 636 along with electricity from an engine driven generator such as alternator 634 to produce a combined cycle to meet peak power along with lower demands such as at night when the fuel cell can operate on hot-banked carbon to efficiently and quietly produce power. Fuel such as a suitable nitrogenous compound {NxCyHz}, fuel alcohol {CnH(2n+i)OH}, or hydrocarbon {CxH y } is preheated by heat transfers from engine coolant (H1 ) and/or the exhaust gases (H2) from renewable sources including regenerative operations (H3) and/or engine-generator 602-634 (H3). In this and other embodiments, such heat transfers are made according to source and receiver temperature differences and in magnitudes sufficient to accomplish the indicated thermochemical regeneration purposes.

[0085] Selected components of system 600 are shown in a simplified circuit for preheating fuel supplied through connection 622 to countercurrent heat exchanger 624 in insulated exhaust pipe 623 to insulated exhaust manifold heat exchange conduit 628 to substantially achieve the endothermic process summarized by Equation 4. Additional heat is supplied by resistive and/or inductive heating to deposit carbon and separate hydrogen in reactor 640-641 -642.

[0086] As shown in Figs. 6B, 6C and 6D preheated fuel such as methane or other carbon and hydrogen selections is delivered by conduit 628 and dissociated on suitably sited catalysts 638 presented at the surface of catalytic nucleation sites on tubular proton exchange membrane 641 to produce carbon such as amorphous, dendrites, fuzz, feather-like or otherwise highly faulted or disorganized carbon along with separated hydrogen including ions that are transported through membrane 641 across an electrical field between electrode 642 toward opposing electrode 640. Heat additions in reactor 640-641 -642 include resistive and/or inductive heating of electrodes 640-642 and/or membrane 641 along with resistive and/or inductive heating by elements 617 of suitable length and power rating or similar elements 619 within or around conveyer 630 in the annular space region. Thus, reactor portion of assembly 610 can produce galvanically pressurized hydrogen for operation of engine 602 and/or a hydrogen fuel cell along with separated carbon that is delivered to fuel cell 650-648-652 by rotary conveyer 630.

[0087] A portion of such carbon production can be directed to utilization in durable goods including fiber-reinforced components and equipment that can be stronger than steel, lighter than aluminum and/or that can conduct more electricity or heat than copper. Illustrative production of precursors or components of such durable carbon products is disclosed in co-pending PCT/US 14/62483. Remaining carbon is directed to energy conversion by a fuel cell that produces electricity far more efficiently than central power plants.

[0088] Galvanic pressurization of hydrogen is adaptively varied to optimize oxidant-utilization efficiency in the combustion chambers of engine 602. Such adaptive optimization and control include further pressure modulation and regulation by rapid adjustments by regulator 621 and similar provisions within each injector 620 along with adaptive duration of flow times and timing between successive injections and/or other injection pattern modifications as disclosed herein and by reference regarding operations by controller 625.

[0089] Porous, permeable, or helical electrode 640 and/or catalysts 638 produce amorphous or highly faulted or disorganized carbon growths or deposits 644 as galvanically pressurized hot hydrogen is delivered through insulated conduit 612 to injectors 620 for direct high speed hydrogen injection before, at, or after TDC for operation of engine 602. Carbon deposits 631 and 644 are ultrasonically and/or mechanically swept or dislodged from the locations of deposition and removed by a suitable mechanism such as rotary conveyer 630, ultrasonic impetus applied along with torque by driver 646, and/or gravity (in some but not all embodiment orientations) and constantly presented against electrode 650 such as by one or more helical conveyer features 631 on conveyer/compactor 630 to receive oxygen ions transported across suitable ion transport membrane 648 (e.g., stabilized zirconia or other suitable ceramics).

[0090] In some embodiments, conveyer screw 630 compacts the carbon particles sufficiently to make a carbon barrier or seal against the hydrogen produced by dissociation in the reactor section. In some embodiments, conveyer 630 initially compacts the carbon particles by changing the pitch of helical features 631 and/or by reduction of the cross section including changing the shape of these features to compact and subsequently continuously deliver carbon particles to the surface against fuel cell electrode 650 for reaction with oxygen ions delivered through membrane 648. At the reaction interfaces 650 the compaction previously established to form a barrier against hydrogen is relaxed to allow carbon dioxide to be easily expelled for travel along the helical passage ways to annular space 633 and accumulator 635 for transfer through conduit 637. [0091] Such hot carbon dioxide can be reacted with surplus carbon or another carbon donor to produce carbon monoxide for various "COx" reactions and processes such as production of fuel alcohols. In other suitable embodiments either oxide of carbon can be cooled by a countercurrent heat exchanger to preheat feed stock fuel and/or to facilitate reactions such as shown by Equations 7 and 9.

[0092] Hydrogen further pressurized by galvanic impetus is sealed by proton exchange membrane 641 , which may be made of suitable materials including Perovskite type oxide ceramics such as doped barium cerate oxides or various composites including nano-tubes and/or graphene and/or ceramic such as various spinels and oxynitrides.

[0093] Conveyer 630 thus serves as a process accelerator and facilitator including performance as a rotary and/or ultrasonic harvesting system for carbon fuel particles that are deposited by the reactor 640-641 -642, as a carbon particle compactor to block hydrogen travel from the reactor to the fuel cell 648-650-652 and as a carbon fuel presenter to fuel cell 648-650-652. Controller 625 adaptively adjusts the rotational speed of 646 and 630 along with the frequency and intensity of ultrasonic energy that can be applied separately and/or in addition to the energy generated by elements such as 617-619.

[0094] In some embodiments, air compressed by turbo-compressor 606-608 is delivered to membrane 648 to provide the portion of oxygen that is used by carbon- oxygen fuel cell portion of assembly 610 and the adaptively adjusted remaining portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied to engine 602. In some embodiments, this more efficiently accomplishes depression of the peak combustion temperature than exhaust gas recirculation and avoids the energy loss and difficult heat exchanger requirements to cool exhaust gases before such use.

[0095] Exhaust gas thermal energy that is wasted by expensive conventional exhaust recirculation systems is efficiently used by present embodiments to provide H2 for dissociation and improvement of energy yields of hydrogen and carbon derived from feed stock fuel compounds. Such nitrogen-enriched air can be adaptively mixed with air in conduit 609 from turbocharger 608 by valve 607 and supplied through conduit 632 for operation of engine 602 to attenuate peak combustion temperature and reduce or eliminate production of emissions such as NOx.

[0096] The case of assembly 610 insulates and contains pressurized hydrogen that is collected and delivered to engine 602 through conduit 612 and manifold 618 to injectors 620. Accumulator 616 stores hydrogen for delivery through valve 614 at cold engine startup and/or to provide hydrogen to cool selected components and subassemblies such as alternator 634 and/or hydraulic, pneumatic, magnetostrictive, piezoelectric, or solenoid actuators in injectors 620. Carbon dioxide produced by fuel cell 648-650-652 according to Equation 6 is delivered by helical passageways 631 in rotary conveyer 630 to annular passageway 633 to accumulator 635 for delivery through conduit 637 to various applications.

[0097] 02 + C -> CO2 + Electricity Equation 6

[0098] Carbon dioxide taken from the atmosphere or more concentrated sources such as a bakery, brewery, calciner, power plant using carbonaceous fuel or fuel cell 648-650-652, by delivery through helical spaces 631 to collector 633 and accumulator 635 to conduit 637 which can be nearly 100% carbon dioxide can be used to produce net hydrogen fuels such as a fuel alcohol as shown by representative Equation 7A.

[0099] CO2 + 3H2→ CHsOH + H2O Equation 7A

[00100] Another embodiment provides reaction of a carbon donor "C" such as farm wastes, forest slash, sewage or garbage with carbon dioxide collected from the atmosphere or more concentrated sources to produce carbon monoxide as summarized in Equations 7B and production of a fuel such as an alcohol or nitrogenous compound as shown by Equations 7A, 7B, 7C, 9A, 9B, and 9C.

[00101] "C + CO2 HEAT7→ 2CO Equation 7B

[00102] CO + 2H2→ CHsOH Equation 7C

[00103] This enables advantageous conversion of surplus, off-peak, spin-down, or regenerative energy into storable chemical fuel potential energy. A system embodiment with a carbon fueled fuel cell and a High Speed Hydrogen engine that uses the products of Equations 7A and/or 7C to serve as a solvent for carbon and/or hydrogen donor extracts (dC) from food wastes, agricultural animal and crop wastes, and solid municipal wastes accomplishes the process shown in Equation 8A.

[00104] CH3OH + H2O + dC + HEAT8→ 2CO + 3 H2 Equation 8A

[00105] In operation the products of Equations 7A, 7C or 8A can be separated into hydrogen, which is galvanically pressurized and the carbon monoxide can be used as a J-T expansive cooling fluid that is injected before TDC and high speed hydrogen is injected at or after TDC to assure rapid initiation and completion of oxidation of all fuel values and optimum air-utilization efficiency. In the alternative, portions of the carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by Equations 4 and 8 are stoichiometrically combined as shown in Equation 9 to produce liquid fuels such as formic acid, fuel alcohols (illustratively methanol) and other compounds such as chemical plasma agents such as dimethylether (DME), diethylether (DEE), acetaldehyde CH3CHO, or various other compounds such as ammonia and urea that may be selected for energy storage at ambient temperature and to facilitate convenient net-hydrogen fuel applications.

[00106] 2CO + 4H 2 → 2CH 3 OH Equation 9A

[00107] 2CO + 4H2→ C2H5OH + H2O Equation 9B

[00108] CO + 2H2 +N2→ CH 4 N20 Equation 9C

[00109]

[00110] Another embodiment reacts hot carbon from Equation 4 with hot steam to produce carbon monoxide as shown in Equation 10. Such steam may be produced by heating water by H1 , H2, and/or H3 additions in a heat exchanger such as 624 and/or 628.

[00111] H 2 O + C + HEAT10→CO + H2 Equation 10

[00112] Carbon monoxide can be used in the fuel cell of system 600 or another suitable fuel cell to produce electricity and/or as a fuel such as a J-T expansion cooling of fuel that is injected before TDC in engine 602 to reduce the work of compression after which hydrogen is injected to provide High Speed Hydrogen Combustion at propagation rates that can exceed the speed of sound in carbon monoxide, air, or products of combustion such as carbon dioxide or water vapor.

[00113] Another embodiment 700 that uses processes such as typically depicted in Equations 4, 9, and 10 is shown in Fig. 7A. An enlarged view of a representative section of reactor assembly 712 is shown in Fig. 7B along with an end view in Fig. 7C. A suitable substance that is at least a carbon and hydrogen donor (H x C y ) such as fossil petroleum or renewable methane that may be preheated by H1 and/or H2 in countercurrent heat exchanger 704-706 within insulated exhaust pipe 708 is delivered to exhaust manifold reactor 714-716-718 within insulator 71 1 of exhaust manifold 712 of internal combustion engine 702.

[00114] Reactor 716 is a tubular proton exchange membrane or a catalytic ceramic, composite, or permeable graphite such as graphite foam and receives H3 by radiant and/or conductive heat transfer from resistive and/or inductive heater 720 that can be within a protective tubular sheath such as a superalloy, alumina, quartz, magnesia, spinel, or sapphire 718. Feed stock such as methane is delivered through the annular passageway 717 between containment tube 714 and reactor tube 716. Hot carbon is deposited or banked on the outer surface or within open pores of reactor 716 upon receiving the endothermic heat required for dissociation as shown in Equation 4.

[00115] Co-produced hydrogen is delivered by proton transport or pressure- gradient diffusion through reactor 716 to 719 for adjusting the temperature for storage in accumulator 723 or 727 by regenerative heat exchange(s) depicted by one or more heat exchangers 703 to feedstock substances such as H x C y and/or an oxygen donor such as H2O, air or O2 that is extracted by a suitable method such as from the air by suitable filtration or from an aqueous source by electrolysis of from the exhaust system of engine 702 or fuel cell 604. Heat exchange from hot hydrogen is controlled to produce the desired temperature for delivery through insulated conduit 719 for direct High Speed injection through injectors 722 into compressed oxidant within the combustion chambers of engine 702. Hydrogen is also produced and stored in accumulator 723 for delivery through valve 721 for quick, clean start-ups, expediting completion of combustion of gasified carbon

-Of- constituents, and other transient operations including times that banked carbon on tube 716 is gasified.

[00116] After a suitable clean start and operation of engine 702 on hydrogen or hydrogen characterized fuel and a suitable amount of hot carbon is deposited on or within open pores of reactor 716, an oxygen donor such air, oxygen or preheated steam (H2O) from reservoir 707 and pressure pump 709 can occasionally be admitted such as through port 715 to counter current heat exchanger 706-716-717 to the annular passageway between containment tube 714 and reactor tube 716. This removes some or most of the hot banked carbon by production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The carbon monoxide and hydrogen may be used as feed stock reactants to produce chemical plasma agents and/or storable fuels such as ethanol or methanol as summarized by Equation 9 or the mixture can be directly injected and combusted or one of the constituents can be enriched to adjust fuel cell performance or combustion characteristics. Illustratively hydrogen may be separated by a suitable proton membrane and/or by diffusion through composite layer of 716 engineered for such hydrogen separation.

[00117] Composites suitable for such hydrogen separation include an inner liner of one or more layers of graphene upon which is a more or less open pore layer of graphite foam. Proton membranes for separation of hydrogen include one or more layers of graphene and/or nanotubes that may include radially oriented nanotubes and/or suitable ceramics such as Perovskite type ceramics which may also be sandwiched between suitable electrodes i.e. 640-641 -642.

[00118] Water for reaction with hot banked carbon may be stored in reservoir 707 and delivered by pump 709 at or above the pressure desired for delivery to the hydrogen separation membrane 716. Exhaust gases from engine 702 are cooled by such heat exchanges and/or work performed by turbocharger 710 and/or counter heat exchanges by subsystems 704-706 and to enable water to be collected from exhaust gases by further cooling by ambient air or another medium and separation in system 725-705 and stored in accumulator reservoir 707 as shown.

[00119] An embodiment 740 of Fig. 7D provides options for injection of relatively hot or relatively cool hydrogen from insulated accumulator 792 through 4-way valve 794 to injectors such as shown by embodiment 900 of Fig. 9. Injectors such as embodiment 900 also provide the option of separate injection of another fluid such as carbon monoxide at relatively hot or relatively cool temperature including suitable preparations such as summarized by Equations 8A, 10, 17, and/or 18.

[00120] Embodiment 740 provides liquid, gas, or mixtures of liquid and gas various fuel substances in storage in tank 742. Illustratively tank 742 can interchangeably or simultaneously store at suitable temperatures and pressures substances such as cryogenic liquid, solid or slush hydrogen and/or methane along with other selections such as ethane, propane, butane, fuel alcohols, water, urea, surface active agents, ammonia, gasoline and/or diesel fuel compounds. An oxygen donor such as water and/or oxygen in the exhaust of engine 702 can be extracted by system 725 or 770 after various cooling events such as production of work in turbocharger 710 along with countercurrent heat exchanges through 750 with fuel substances from tank 742.

[00121] Thermochemical regeneration by heat exchanges and reactions are provided by countercurrent heat exchanger 750 as shown in the enlarged cut-away section views of Figs. 7E and 7F. In certain embodiments, heat exchanger 750 is comprised of coaxial tubes or spiral formed sheet stock that is seam welded or brazed along longitudinal sealing seams to form numerous more or less coaxial longitudinal passageways 764P, 652P, 754P etc.

[00122] In a representative embodiment, an oxygen donor such as water, an oxygenated substance such as an alcohol and/or oxygenated water, provided from tank 742 and/or from exhaust stream traveling towards tail pipe 774, condensate separated by exducer system 770-772-776 and collected in tank 778 is pressurized by pump 780, preheated by counter current flow through heat exchanger 750 introduced into the annular space 752P between defining walls 752 and 754. Countercurrent exhaust gases flow through the annular space 754P between defining walls 754 and 756 within insulator jacket 758.

[00123] The oxygen donor fluid such as water is heated as H2 is delivered by conduction and/or radiation from hot gases in space 754P and/or by H3 produced by resistance or inductive heaters 761 and/or 762 to progressively increase the temperature to zone 764R-1 . A fuel or fuel rich fluid is delivered through passageway 764P and is heated by H2 and/or H3 to a controlled temperature below the temperature that would produce any residues adherent to the solid surfaces in passageway 764P. Two or more staged operations of heating are provided whereby (1 ) the fuel is preheated to temperature T-1 without dissociation and (2) the oxygen donor may also be preheated to about T-1 and then sufficiently further heated to T-2 in order to supply the additional heat needed to endothermically reform the fuel into products such as shown in equations 7A, 7C, 8A, 10, 17 or 18.

[00124] In one mode of operation, pump 744 and/or pressure regulator 748 provides suitably pressurized fuel and/or fuel-rich substance flow through passageway 764 to receive sufficient heat to reach T1 from sources such as H1 and/or H2 such as may be supplied by heat transfers through the oxygen donor fluid in 764P. The oxygen donor fluid is further heated by H2 and/or H3 to temperature T- 2. In region 764R-1 the fuel or fuel-rich substance at T1 is injected into the oxygen donor fluid at T2 to substantially react. Illustratively, in instances that the oxygen donor is oxygen or steam and the fuel is a carbon and hydrogen donor including substances such as a carbon donor solution or suspension and water, a hydrocarbon, or an alcohol the temperature required for reactions such as summarized by 8A, 10, 17, and/or 18 is achieved by endothermic heat transfer. Such heat transfer from the oxygen donor to the carbon and hydrogen donor substance substantially prevents fouling of heat exchange surfaces. Surplus inventory of the oxygen donor is favorable in this regard to shift the reaction towards more efficient product production. Such surplus may be further reacted with another suitable reactant such as an ether, alcohol, or various other fluidized selections through extended conduit 764 in reaction zone 764R-2.

[00125] In certain embodiments, controller 625 or 1322 provides control of the flow rates and heat additions T-1 and T-2 to produce supercritical steam for the reactions of oxygen donors such as steam. In some instances controller provides excess oxygen donor for the reactions. Accordingly, such controlled reaction parameters can expedite the reactions and minimize or eliminate fouling of the process system surfaces.

[00126] Pressurized products of or for such reactions flow through conduit 782 and 3-way valve 792 and 784 for injection into engine 702 by injectors 790 and/or to through line 788 for storage in accumulator 786 and/or routed to manifold reactor 714 for further processing such as further reactions and separation by filtration and/or galvanic pressurization and delivery of hot hydrogen from the annular space to passageway 719 to external conduit 719E, insulated accumulator 723, 727, or 792 and/or injection of relatively hot, warm or relatively cool hydrogen by injectors such as embodiment 900 before, at, or after TDC. It is highly advantageous to provide one or more injections of hydrogen after TDC to add pressure to the net BMEP and achieve JT expansive heating and accelerated combustion.

[00127] Separated reaction product constituents such as carbon monoxide and unreacted feed stock such as H x C y (e.g. CH 4 ) delivered through passageway 713 and 3-way valve 795 to accumulator 796 can be injected into combustion chambers of engine 702 such as before TDC to provide J-T expansive cooling and improved BMEP. In some instances such J-T expansive cooling substances are injected through intake manifold or intake port injectors 797 to cool and drag increased air into the combustion chamber during the intake stroke. In other instances some of such J-T expansive cooling substances can be injected directly into each combustion chamber through injectors 790.

[00128] In some embodiments, the sudden delivery of directly injected hydrogen molecules at adaptively adjusted temperature and pressure to produce velocities that exceed the speed of sound in the compressed oxidant such as air present in the combustion chamber produces ignition upon penetration and collision with oxidant particles in the combustion chamber. In other embodiments, such directly injected hydrogen includes chemical plasma agents such as DME, DEE, acetaldehyde and/or ignition ions that are produced by Lorentz and/or corona energy conversion. In other embodiments, such directly injected hydrogen includes molecules and/or ions that are at an elevated temperature in comparison with the ambient temperature that fuel such as hydrogen or a substance that is converted to hydrogen is stored by a suitable container or conduit such as a pipeline.

[00129] In other embodiments, such directly injected hydrogen includes substances such as argon, neon, xenon, krypton, helium, metal organics such as iron or nickel carbonyls or other selections that are derived from the fuel and/or the ambient air that the application uses. This provides relatively reduced ionization energy to improve Lorentz and/or corona ignition efficiency. In certain applications, neon and/or helium further provides J-T expansive heating at or after TDC to improve BMEP and helium can be injected at higher velocity than the speed of sound in air, carbon monoxide, methane etc., to induce shock wave ignition. In certain embodiments, the addition of chemical plasma agents, ionization susceptors, combustion initiators, or accelerators, including agents such as DME or DEE added to hydrogen in suitable reservoir 727 through three-way valve 729, are adaptively provided at the beginning, middle or end of each hydrogen injection period to optimize combustion as a function of piston speed, swirl, oxidant temperature and various transient conditions.

[00130] In some embodiments, injection of one or more of such additives (e.g., helium, hydrogen, argon, neon, krypton, xenon, DME or DEE etc.) during times that oxidant delivered from the combustion chamber to the electrode nozzle is ionized provides improved ionization efficiency for Lorentz and/or corona activation of the oxidant that is directly projected into the combustion chamber. Such stratified charge oxidant accelerates the initiation and/or completion of combustion of subsequent fuel injection. Addition of one or more of such additives to hydrogen and/or other fuel selections provides highly efficient ionization to accelerate production of the ion ignition population in the hydrogen and/or other fuel selection pattern that is directly injected into the combustion chamber. In other embodiments, one or more spark, radiofrequency, microwave, laser radiation or another ionizing impetus may be selected to accelerate such ionization events.

[00131] In some embodiments, hydrogen injection into the combustion chamber is controlled to initially be below the sonic velocity of oxidant in the combustion chamber and after an adaptively adjustable penetration of such hydrogen, additional hydrogen is injected at a temperature, pressure and velocity that provides subsonic penetration within the hydrogen pattern but sonic or supersonic in the oxidant within the combustion chamber. This provides control of the location within the oxidant that stratified heat generation by J-T expansive heating, shock front development, and/or combustion occurs for greatly improved oxidant utilization efficiency.

[00132] One embodiment uses the Lorentz thrust assembly and/or variable voltage control of piezoelectric valve actuator 514 to initially open at an appropriate gap and resulting impedance to produce hydrogen injection velocity below the sonic velocity of oxidant in the combustion chamber. After establishing a desirable penetration pattern of such hydrogen, the Lorentz thrust assembly and/or variable voltage control of piezoelectric valve actuator 514 opens to an appropriate gap and resulting impedance to produce hydrogen injection velocity above the sonic velocity of oxidant in the combustion chamber to accelerate initiation and completion of combustion in an optimized stratified heat generation pattern to maximize oxidant utilization efficiency. This mode of operation helps assure accelerated initiation and completion of combustion along with stratified heat generation away from combustion chamber surfaces for improved thermal efficiency.

[00133] Fig. 8A illustrates a method 830 for initiating combustion in an engine according to a representative embodiment. As shown in Step 831 , a relatively high density substance such as liquid hydrogen, methane, ethane, propane, butane, one or more fuel alcohols, or other selections are delivered and pressurized in Step 832. In Step 833, hydrogen is produced by energy addition such as heat, mechanical work, and/or electricity to provide pressurized gaseous hydrogen that can be directly injected into a combustion chamber filled with oxidant. In Steps 834 or 835, the velocity of hydrogen penetration into the oxidant can be below, at, or above the sonic velocity of the oxidant in the combustion chamber. As shown in Step 835, in instances that the initial hydrogen entry into the oxidant is at or above the sonic velocity of the oxidant an expanding shock wave front is produced to initiate or accelerate combustion. As shown in Steps 834 and 835, in instances that the initial hydrogen entry into the oxidant is below the sonic velocity of the oxidant a subsequent injection of hydrogen at a velocity higher than the sonic velocity of the oxidant produces an expanding shock wave front as the higher velocity hydrogen enters the oxidant to initiate or accelerate combustion. As shown in Step 837 the relative timing of Steps 834 and/or 835 can be adjusted to control the pattern and location of fuel combustion initiation or acceleration to improve engine performance and efficiency during operation throughout a wide variety of conditions including piston speeds, duty cycles, altitudes, and ambient conditions. Embodiment 850 as shown in Fig. 8D illustrates production of the sonic shock wave pattern to stimulate and/or accelerate fuel combustion at an adaptively controlled zone within the oxidant in a combustion chamber. Figs. 8B and 8C illustrate a corresponding system for implementing methods 830 and/or 850. Methods 830 and/or 850 can provide hydrogen injection to produce a shock wave front upon injection into a combustion chamber and/or to produce another adaptively adjusted location of shock wave front in velocity stages. In step 831 , high density fuels are delivered from a suitable source or container 801 . Suitable fuels include, for example and without limitation, metals, carbon, hydrides, adsorbed methane or hydrogen, cold storage substances such as liquid or crystalline methane, hydrogen, clathrates (i.e. methane hydrate), or ambient temperature liquid fuels such as various hydrocarbons, ammonia, fuel alcohols or solid fuels such as urea or a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon such as naphthalene. In step 832 the fuel is energized such as heated in a fixed volume 802 to produce pressure by thermal expansion, phase change, and/or a chemical reaction that produces one or more less-dense products than the feedstock fuel or substance inventory. In step 833, gaseous hydrogen is separated from other constituents that are present such as by filtration and/or thermal and/or electrical impetus i.e., according to Equations 4, 8A, or 10 to provide pressurized hydrogen at a sufficient pressure to produce adequate choked flow through a sufficiently opened metering valve into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. In step 834 the metering actuator and valve assembly 818 is operated sufficiently to provide impedance to the hydrogen flow and produce a velocity of stratified injection into gaseous oxidant 808 within the combustion chamber that is below the sonic velocity of such oxidant. In step 835, the metering valve assembly 818 is operated sufficiently to provide impedance to the hydrogen flow and produce a velocity of stratified hydrogen injection 805 into gaseous hydrogen 804 previously injected into the combustion chamber that is below the sonic velocity of such previously injected hydrogen but that exceeds the sonic velocity of surrounding oxidant 808. In step 836, injected hydrogen penetrates through the injection pattern of injection 804 and impinges such oxidant at a velocity that exceeds the sonic velocity of such oxidant to produce shock waves 806 that serve as ignition and/or combustion accelerators. The pattern of hydrogen penetration into the oxidant is adaptively controlled by variation of the launch temperature, pressure and velocity along with the relative timing of each entry of such hydrogen into oxidant 808 in the combustion chamber. In step 837, instrumentation suitable for detecting temperature and/or pressure and/or combustion pattern reports to a microprocessor 820 that controls injection pressure and/or production of spark, Lorentz and/or corona ignition impetus or addition of a chemical plasma generation agent such as DME, DEE, acetaldehyde and/or another substance to thus control the respective hydrogen penetration patterns and accelerate completion of combustion of fuel with the combustion chamber to produce suitably stratified heat and improved performance of the engine.

[00134] Accordingly such adaptive control of the hydrogen characterized combustion initiation and/or acceleration events enables improved engine operation by: 1 ) utilizing heat rejected by the engine and/or fuel cell to provide increased pressure and/or chemical fuel potential energy compared to feed stock substances; 2) utilizing the hydrogen characterization to expedite initiation and/or completion of combustion to enable satisfactory injection and/or combustion with throttled or unthrottled oxidant at or after top dead center; 3) adding the pressure and/or chemical potential energy at or after top dead center to improve torque, BMEP, and fuel efficiency. Such operation also improves the responsiveness and smoothness of engine operation and extends engine life by reducing or eliminating pre-detonation or knock and reducing heat transfer to the piston, cylinder walls, lubricative or friction reducing films, or head components along with reducing or eliminating particulates such as abrasive carbonaceous substances or acid forming products of combustion.

[00135] Fig. 8D shows another variation of the process by flow algorithm 850 for introducing an oxidant in Step 852 into a combustion chamber. Step 854 introduces a first hydrogen injection into the oxidant in the combustion chamber at a suitable velocity V1 that is below the oxidant sonic velocity. Step 856 introduces a second hydrogen injection at velocity V2 that is suitably above the oxidant sonic velocity to penetrate through the first hydrogen injection and create a shock wave at the intersection interface with the oxidant. Step 858 utilizes the shock wave to initiate and/or accelerate combustion of the hydrogen and/or other fuel constituents in the combustion chamber. Optional Step 860 adjusts the relative timing of Steps 854 and 856 to optimize the pattern and location that the shock wave occurs such as at adaptively controlled positions at or after TDC to reduce heat losses and improve BMEP production. In some embodiments, the second injection of hydrogen may contain combustible agents such as DME and/or DEE to stimulate, further delineate and modulate the combustion pattern and/or to produce emission spectra to enable extremely rapid photo-optic and/or piezoelectric sensors to provide information for adaptive control of relative timing of Steps 834 and 835 or similarly 854 and 856 as a function of piston speed, position and load on the engine.

[00136] In operation such controlled velocity or staged velocity injection of a fluid with an ultimately higher sonic velocity than the oxidant within combustion chamber enables much more rapid delivery, shock induction of initiation and completion of combustion events and such operations can be provided at crank-angles considerably after TDC to improve torque production and/or to reduce the injection pressure required for the expansive pressure gradient. Depending upon piston speed and load conditions, the staged injections can start with the lower speed injection before, at, or after TDC but the higher speed injection can be subsequently after TDC to substantially increase BMEP.

[00137] In certain embodiments, relatively higher temperature hydrogen is delivered through passageway 803 for injection of lower velocity hydrogen 804 to produce an initial penetration into oxidant 808. Subsequently, higher or lower temperature hydrogen delivered through passageway 816 can be utilized to initially warm up or remove heat generated by valve actuator assembly 818 such as the type shown in Figs. 5A-D or 9A-D and delivered by controlled heat exchange, pressure, and/or Lorentz thrust to produce higher velocity injection 805 and shock impingement 806 into oxidant 808 to accelerate completion of combustion operations. The speed of sound is higher in such higher temperature hydrogen and enables the subsequent injection of hydrogen such as higher or lower temperature hydrogen to be at a higher velocity without breaking the local hydrogen sound barrier. In other embodiments, depending upon operating conditions and the speed of piston 822, combustion chamber design, and swirl conditions the lower temperature hydrogen is injected initially to produce a relatively low velocity expanding region of hydrogen characterized velocity and then higher temperature hydrogen is injected to produce shock events upon penetration to the oxidant such as air.

[00138] Figs. 9A and 9B show a fuel injector system 900 that enables the use of widely varying fuel types at selected temperatures. Fuel selections at widely varying temperatures with a broad range of fuel values, densities, viscosities, air-fuel ratios to support combustion may be made. Illustratively, for embodiments that use two fuel selections supplied respectively to ports 902 and 904, rapid switching of fluid selector valve 908 is provided by direct or amplified motion from a suitable actuator assembly 907-909 such as a solenoid or piezoelectric system similar to 914. Selected fluid flow is provided around valve stem 924 to the valve seat near ion- initiator tips 926 to supply flow through associated ports when actuator 914 operates to open valve 924 similarly to operation of the embodiment of Figs. 5A-5F.

[00139] Mechanism 919 provides axial positioning of the valve actuator to minimize the stroke for injection of liquid fuels and to increase the stroke as needed for gaseous fuels and to provide considerably improved turn-down ratio to provide fuel rates commensurate with idle, cruise, full power and acceleration modes. Such provisions may be used to improve turn-down capacities with valve operators 909 such as solenoid, magnetostrictive, and piezoelectric actuation mechanisms.

[00140] The fluid contained in the annular zone including insulator 934 around the stem of valve 924 between injections can be heated or cooled by heat exchangers 950 and 952, according to signals from a suitable adaptive process controller 916. Heat exchanger 950 is a resistive or inductive element to selectively add heat to the fluid. Heat exchanger 952 is a tube circulated with a coolant, or a heat pipe, to selectively remove heat from the fluid. In some embodiments, element 950 is helically wound with clearance around valve stem 924 in the annular space around valve stem 924. Heat exchanger tube 952 can be wound with the same diameter and pitch to serve in a parallel heating or cooling circuit. Such heat exchanges facilitate enhanced J-T expansion cooling and/or J-T expansion heating and/or adjustments of the speed of sound in the fluid fuel selected by the position of valve 908. Illustratively it is advantageous to cool fluids that produce J-T expansive cooling upon injection before TDC to reduce the work of compression and/or to decrease the chemical reactivity to prevent inadvertent ignition detonation. Conversely, under certain other operating conditions it is advantageous to heat hydrogen to increase the J-T expansion heating capacity along with increasing the speed of sound and to decrease the work function for Lorentz and/or corona ionization and to increase the chemical reactivity of hydrogen with oxidant within the combustion chamber. In certain instances the fuel such as hydrogen is sufficiently heated by 950 or cooled by 952 to auto combust upon producing sufficient J-T expansive heating in the initial injection as shown by Step 834 of Fig. 8A. In other instances fuel such as hydrogen is sufficiently heated by 950 or cooled by 952 to auto combust upon sufficient J-T expansive heating as shown by Step 835 of Fig. 8A. In certain instances hot carbon monoxide and/or hydrogen such as can be produced by thermal dissociation or fuel cell reactions is circulated through 950 to heat hydrogen that is subsequently injected to enhance the J-T expansive heating and/or shock front acceleration of ignition and/or completion of combustion with oxidant in the combustion chamber.

[00141] Transformer windings 918A-918N provide high voltage to charge a capacitor such as 922 for rapid discharges to create Lorentz ion thrust from electrodes in the annular nozzle, and/or corona ions. Injection of Lorentz thrust oxidant ions from electrodes such as annular electrodes 926-928 and 940 into combustion chamber 948 and/or subsequent injection of Lorentz thrust fuel ions from such electrodes provides accelerated initiation and/or completion of combustion. Additional adjustment of the subsequent heat release pattern may be provided by corona discharge in an electric field that is projected from suitably shaped antennal such as 928C and/or 929. Adjustment of the pattern of combustion chamber penetration by ions that are launched may be provided by permanent or electromagnets 942A, 942B, and 942C or other such magnets at suitable locations such as in or near electrodes 932, 940, 926, 928 and/or near ports 938. In certain applications one or more additional pathways for fuel delivery may be provided around valve 924 and over magnets such as 942A, 942B, and 942C to provide cooling and to provide fuel injection in a pattern within or toward a pattern of activated oxidant such as oxidant ions launched by electrodes 926-928 and 940.

[00142] Operation of an engine such as a gas turbine, two or four stroke piston, or rotary combustion type with a correspondingly adapted combustion chamber includes the processes of adding to the combustion chamber a suitable oxidant such as oxygen, air, or a halogen and providing direct hydrogen injection at an adaptively controlled speed that exceeds the speed of sound of the oxidant within the combustion chamber. The kinetic energy of the hydrogen and/or shock wave induced heating produced by such high-speed hydrogen direct entry into the oxidant within the combustion chamber produces accelerated ignition and completion of combustion. In cold start and various other conditions this process may be further assured by heating and/or ionization of a certain portion of the hydrogen that is directly injected by spark, Lorentz thrusting, corona discharge, laser or radiofrequency or microwave impetus such as frequencies including but not limited to infrared ultraviolet, visible, and 3 kilohertz to 300 gigahertz.

[00143] In most combustion chamber applications the oxidant is compressed before or during the high-speed hydrogen injection. This includes instances in which the oxidant is heated by the compression event and/or applications in which a fluid that changes phase and/or a positive J-T expansion-cooling event occurs. In certain embodiments, such hydrogen is produced from a hydrogen donor such as CxH y , NH3, urea, or a more complex feed stock compound. In other embodiments, a fuel supply such as natural gas is utilized to supply helium and/or an oxidant such as air is utilized to supply argon, neon, krypton, xenon etc., for serving as an additive to the hydrogen to improve the energy conversion efficiency for producing ions by spark, Lorentz, corona, radiofrequency, microwave or laser radiation or another ionizing impetus.

[00144] An embodiment that is highly desirable for operation of engines with a relatively wide range of speed and torque demands adaptively combines galvanic pressurization along with Lorentz thrusting of hydrogen to provide the desired velocities that hydrogen molecules and/or ions are launched into the oxidant within the combustion chamber. This enables adjustments of the included angles and penetration distances in response to variations in piston speed, oxidant swirl, and the temperatures of oxidant and fuel to accomplish optimized completion combustion events of one or more injections per power cycle of the host engine. Further adaptive control may include electromagnetic lens adjustment of fuel and/or oxidant ion projection angles and patterns along with pressure adjustments of the feed stock fuel prior to substantial pressure increases by galvanic and/or Lorentz thrusting. Lorentz thrusting of hydrogen is further disclosed in U.S. Patent Application No. 13/797,753, filed March 12, 2013, (69545-8331 .US01 ) the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. To the extent the above reference or any other reference incorporated herein conflicts with the present disclosure, the present disclosure controls. [00145] In certain embodiments, the hydrogen is directly injected into the combustion chamber at a desirably elevated temperature and/or increased pressure to produce J-T expansion heating along with achieving higher velocity than the speed of sound of the oxidant within the combustion chamber. Increasing the temperature of such directly injected hydrogen provides an increased speed of sound to enable higher velocity without exceeding the hydrogen speed of sound while substantially exceeding the speed of sound in the oxidant. Increasing the temperature of such directly injected hydrogen also increases the J-T expansion heating benefit.

[00146] In some applications such hydrogen is occasionally mixed with one or more chemical plasma agents such as DME, DEE, CH3CHO to generate expedite initiation and/or completion of combustion. In an embodiment such chemical plasma agents are utilized to generate ion patterns that can improve the effectiveness of shock front ignition and/or to improve the efficiency of RF or DC induced corona ignition and/or acceleration of combustion.

[00147] In other embodiments, hydrogen, neon and/or helium is accelerated through suitable converging-diverging cross sections and/or Lorentz accelerated to achieve sonic or supersonic velocities of such fluid mixtures that are thrust at or after TDC into the oxidant and/or other fluids within the combustion chamber of an engine. This increases the penetration distance and ignition impetus for starting a cold engine and/or accelerating ignition and completion of combustion of fuel constituents added to the combustion chamber before TDC.

[00148] Fig. 10 illustrates a system 1000 for providing chemically activated plasma ignition. Chemically activated plasma ignition can be used interchangeably with various other ignition methods including laser, UV, spark, Lorentz, and corona. Chemically activated plasma ignition can overcome the problem of electronic ignition system failure. A chemical plasma generation substance, such as disclosed in U.S. Patent Application Nos. 13/843,976, filed March 15, 2013 (69545-8323. US01 ) and 14/279,237, filed May 15, 2014 (69545-8323. US02), the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties, is introduced as a mixture with hydrogen in an adaptively proportioned amount. Such chemical plasma generation substances can include DME or DEE and/or other compounds that may in some embodiments be produced by on-board conversion systems. Generation of selected chemical plasma agents is summarized in exemplary Equations 10B and 10C which may be combined with or utilize products of other processes described herein:

[00149] 2CH + H2O -» CH3OCH3 + 2H2 Equation 10B

[00150] CH + CO -» CH3CHO Equation 10C

[00151] Such mixtures may be used with the initial and/or subsequent injection of hydrogen to produce highly activated nucleates and/or components of combustion at the shock-event interface with the oxidant. In addition, such chemical ignition and completion of combustion accelerators can be adaptively heated for presentation in initially heated hydrogen and/or cooled for presentation in sequentially injected hydrogen and/or in visa-versa order to further control and optimize the stratified heat production pattern to optimize oxidant utilization efficiency.

[00152] In operation, hydrogen and/or adaptively proportioned mixtures of hydrogen and one or more suitable chemical plasma generation substances are initially supplied through conduit 1018 for injection into oxidant 1010 within a combustion chamber. This produces an expanding envelope of hydrogen- characterized fuel 1004 which can be advantageously involved with oxidation or partial oxidation processes to further heat the expanding pattern 1004. Higher velocity hydrogen that is subsequently injected traverses pattern 1004 and produces a shock wave front 1008 upon encountering the oxidant in the combustion chamber to accelerate completion of combustion.

[00153] Subsequently, hydrogen and/or adaptively proportioned mixtures of hydrogen and one or more suitable chemical plasma generation substances are supplied through conduit 1016 for injection and penetration through the lower velocity hydrogen-characterized zone of expansion 1004 into oxidant 1010 within a combustion chamber. Such initial and subsequent injection velocities may be suitably controlled and proportioned to range from well below, at, or in excess of the sonic velocity of hydrogen. As an illustrative example, the initial injection may be at 20% of the sonic velocity of hydrogen and the subsequent injection at 80% of the sonic velocity of hydrogen to provide impingement into oxidant 1010 at supersonic shock entry 1008 of hydrogen and proportioned content of chemical plasma combustion accelerant.

[00154] This provides highly accelerated initiation and completion of combustion of fuel values introduced into the combustion chamber. Such chemical plasma ignition and combustion system operation can be used with or without further impetus that may be provided by U.V. radiation, laser, Lorentz, and/or corona ignition systems. In some embodiments, initiation of combustion of the chemical plasma constituents, ionized fuel particles and/or fuel present in the combustion chamber may be accomplished without contacting the combustion chamber contents with an electrical charge (e.g., a spark). In such embodiments, the chemical plasma generator(s) automatically (e.g., spontaneously) ignite the combustion chamber contents. Optionally, hydrogen is included with the chemical plasma generator(s) and fuel to promote ignition of the mixture without requiring an electrically induced pulse (e.g., a spark, Lorentz thrust ions or corona). The hydrogen may be provided as, for example, a gas (e.g., a gas including hydrogen gas), or in the form of a hydrogen donor compound. In other implementations, the combination ignites upon addition of an electrical pulse (e.g., a spark) in the combustion chamber.

[00155] Piezoelectric valve drivers have many attractive characteristics including rapid response time of about 1 x10 "6 second and relatively high production of force per applied unit of electrical work. Difficult problems also characterize piezoelectric drivers including very low productive thrust limits such as 0.05 mm (0.002") per 40 mm stack assembly which requires two or more high aspect ratio columnar stacks to be assembled in a way that prevents column buckling to develop sufficient net thrust displacement to enable gaseous fuels to be metered. Additional problems concern the cancellation of effective driver thrust by differential thermal expansion or contraction of supporting system components that facilitate piezoelectric driver applications. Other problems stem from temperature dependent characteristics including reduced thrust at cold operating temperatures typical to winter conditions and damage that results from operation at higher temperatures that may be typically encountered by diesel type fuel injectors exposed to the combustion chamber.

[00156] Embodiment 1 100 of Figs. 1 1A-F show components and systems that solve the difficult problems associated with piezoelectric drivers including the very small output displacement that varies significantly with operating temperature. Operating temperatures vary from cold starts in winter weather that may dip below - 46°C (-50°F) to components that are exposed to the combustion chamber and reach temperatures of 300°C (570°F) or more. In many instances the dimensional changes in the assembly of components due to thermal expansion and/or contraction rivals or exceeds the piezoelectric actuation displacement. In many configurations this problem is exaggerated by different thermal conduction and/or specific heat values in components that produce relative motion before reaching equilibrium temperature.

[00157] Embodiment 1 100 or 1 170 can be configured with one or more fluid inlets and/or voltage transformer functions as stand-alone fuel injectors and/or ignition systems. Illustratively as a stand-alone system, embodiment 1 100 overcomes these problems by biasing the piezoelectric stack 1 102 within surrounding fuel flow to maintain an operating temperature that is close to the fuel supply temperature that is delivered from one or more fittings such as 1 106A and/or 1 106B and subsequently through the annular space between spring canister 1 104 and case 1 108 both of which can be made of alloys such as Invar 36 or Invar 32-5 which have very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values. Table 4 compares properties of several materials for this purpose.

[00158] TABLE 4: Selected Hydrogen Compatible Alloy Properties

Max; ** ThvssenKrupp VDM GMBH. *** Carpenter MP35N [00159] Further electrical and thermal isolation along with rigidity is provided by plunger 1 1 10 by a low CTE ceramic composed of Si02-Al203-Li20 glass-ceramic that includes a component with a positive coefficient of thermal expansion and a component with a negative coefficient of thermal expansion. Such low CTE materials can also be utilized for dielectric and thermal insulators 1 1 10 and 1 1 18 including the assembly of embodiment 1 170. Thermal isolation is continued by elastomer gasket seal 1 1 14 which may be a suitable silicone composition or foam that serves as an accommodation spring to allow displacement by the spring canister 1 104 assembly with piezoelectric stack 1 102 and protection of adaptive solid state controller 1 1 16 which processes combustion chamber information including pressure, temperature and combustion patterns that are optically signaled through transparent ceramic 1 1 18 and/or from sensors at the interface to combustion chamber 1 150 including sensors that may be located in combustion chamber inserts in locations such as the head gasket, piston, intake or exhaust valves and/or at other locations.

[00160] Low CTE ceramic 1 1 18 can also be biased to the temperature of fuel flow through one or more suitable passageways such as channels or helical grooves 1 120 and one or more passageways to an annulus above valve 1 122 against the valve seat seal in electrode 1 128. Electrode 1 128 can be made of low CTE alloy selections such as Invar 36 or Invar 32-5 to further limit relative motion due to CTE differences. Spring bellows 1 126 may be of any suitable shape and can be bonded such as by laser or electron beam welding or brazing to cap 1 1 12C on the stem of poppet valve 1 122 and to electrode 1 128 to provide a sealed assembly for controlling fluid flow from inlets such as fittings 1 106A and/or 1 106B to combustion chamber 1 150.

[00161] Extended fatigue endurance life of spring bellows 1 126 can be provided by utilization of multiple layer assemblies. Illustratively the inner layer that is exposed to fuels that comprise hydrogen can be made of a hydrogen compatible alloy selections such as Inconel 725 or MP35N and one or more subsequent layers can be made of 4130 martensitic alloy, type 420 and/or 304 stainless steel to provide the synergistic combination of chemical stability along with sufficiently high fatigue endurance strength. [00162] Further thermal isolation of the embodiment 1 100 assembly can be provided by insulating component 1 132 which can be a composite of mica or ceramic fiber mesh and polyimide. Insulating component 1 132 can have windows or mica windows to allow radiative spectra to be transmitted to controller 1 1 16 through transparent ceramic 1 1 18. In some instances component 1 132 centers electrode 1 128 within the bore typically provided for an injector such as a diesel injector that is replaced by embodiment 1 1 10. In certain instances component assembly 1 132 also includes a liner 1 134 that fits within the injector port and serves as a counter electrode to electrodes such as wire bars 1 136A-F extended from electrode 1 128 some of which can be formed as loops and/or hyperbolic parabolic elements that prevent valve 1 126 from over excursion into combustion chamber 1 150 in case of a failure of compression spring 1 126. Features such as one or more projections 1 135 provide centering and suitable spacing of electrode 1 128 and/or wirebars such as 1 136A-F from liner 1 134 or the bore of the injector port.

[00163] Valve 1 122 can be made of low CTE alloy such as Invar 36, Invar 32-5, or other suitable selections including single crystal alloys. Wire bars 1 136A-F that extend from electrode body 1 128 may be made of Haynes 230, Inconel 750, silicon carbide, molybdenum disilicide, tungsten or selected refractory alloys for extended endurance in Lorentz ion launching service. Voltage transformer 1 1 12 may be of any suitable design including successive pulse coils that transform low primary voltage to suitable high voltage to start a small current that is quickly increased upon reduction of impedance by the initiating ion current to produce suitable populations of ions that are launched into combustion chamber 1 150. High dielectric strength tube 1 1 15 can be utilized to contain the high voltage electrical energy from transformer 1 1 12 through case 1 108 to electrode 1 128.

[00164] In instances that a very low temperature start up is desired, the piezoelectric stack 1 102 may be dry cycled to generate a suitable operating temperature and/or it may be warmed by preheating the fuel such as hydrogen, methane, propane, ammonia, etc., that is delivered through fitting 1 106A and/or 1 106B. Similarly at times that it is desirable to limit the operating temperature of stack 1 102 the fuel delivered through fitting 1 106A and/or 1 106B may be precooled by a fluid such as water and/or by partial evaporation of water in heat exchanger 1 160.

[00165] Illustratively heat exchanger 1 160 provides electrical resistance and/or inductive heating of fuel by element 1 168 proximate to tube 1 166 at times it is desired to warm piezoelectric stack 1 102. At times it is desired to maintain the temperature of stack 1 102 by heat removal, a coolant fluid such as water with/or without a phase change is provided through the circuit from fitting 1 162 to 1 164 around fuel in tube 1 166.

[00166] Valve head 1 122H and/or cap 1 122C may formed as one or more cold headed features or valve head 1 122H may be attached by laser welding or brazing and/or by a threaded portion of valve stem 1 122S to facilitate assembly with electrode 1 128. This provides minimal side thrust and low friction centerline guided action of valve 1 122H to and from the valve seat in electrode 1 128.

[00167] Any suitable attachment of embodiment 1 100 to the combustion chamber may be provided. Illustratively embodiment 1 100 may be threaded to fit a spark plug port or it may be held in place against a suitable compression seal 1 132 by one or more clamps such as 1 130. In operation of an exemplary embodiment, valve 1 122H is normally closed against the seal ring seat in electrode 1 128 and is moved outward to allow fluid flow by application of force exerted by piezoelectric stack 1 102 through plunger 1 1 10 to elastically press spring form 1 124 against the dome of valve cap 1 122C and cause deflection of spring bellows 1 126 to the extent controlled by the adaptively controlled voltage applied to stack 1 102. Pressurized flow of fluid such as fuel is then delivered past electrode wire bars 1 136A-F which can serve as spark, Lorentz ion current launch electrodes in conjunction with the counter electrode of the bore of port 1 138 or the liner 1 134 which may be included in certain instances. Wire bars 1 136A-F may also serve as electrodes that project an electric field for one or more suitably short periods such as 10 to 60 nanoseconds to produce corona discharges in the pattern of fluid penetration such as oxidant and/or fuel that is injected into combustion chamber 1 150.

[00168] Embodiment 1 170 of Fig. 1 1 E shows a piezoelectric valve driver 1 102 that is held in compression within spring well 1 104 by a suitable method such as a preload set screw 1 103 that can be prevented from loosening by a suitable adhesive. Spring well 1 104 is suspended within case 1 108. Suitable material selections for spring well 1 104, case 1 108, ceramic 1 1 18, valve 1 122, and electrode assembly 1 128 include Invar 36 and various other alloys with low and/or matching CTE values. Spring well 1 104 can also be formed as a bellows or other suitable shape and can comprise multiple layers of equal or unequal thicknesses of material selections such as Invar, Inconel 725, MP35N, Martensitic types 4130, stainless 410, 420, 440 and/or 347 or other 18-8 alloys.

[00169] Embodiments such as 1 100, 1 170 and /or 1 180 can be assembled from material selections with matched CTE values including selections with low CTE values and may utilize construction adhesives, solder or braze alloys, interference or closely fit components including suitably swaged or otherwise formed and shaped, fit and sealed sub-assemblies and integrated systems. Illustratively, embodiments such as 1 100, 1 170 or 1 180 can be assembled with closely fitting components including application of a suitable adhesive and case 1 108 can be swage formed at zone 1 137 to seal and compressively load ceramic sub-assembly 1 1 18 in place as shown. In some embodiments a seal is provided by one or more coating(s) on mating components to effectively provide one or more cylindrical coatings or cylindrical wedges or thin walled truncated cono-forms of high temperature substances with sufficient elastomeric properties to conform to the respective mating surfaces and thus form seal areas that are increased with the compressive loading produced by the force applied by one or more clamps 1 130 against features of case 1 108. Suitable materials for forming such compression seals include polyimide (e.g. Kapton), chemical vapor deposited poly(p-xylylene) selections such as Parylene D, and/or PTFE that may or may not be applied or assembled with pressure sensitive adhesives.

[00170] Pressurized fluid such as fuel and/or coolant is connected to ports such as 1 106A and/or 1 106B and delivered to one or more heat exchange circuits such as a helical groove within a braze assembled sleeve 1 1 13 that extends from fittings 1 106 to provide flow in helical grooves 1 120. Another exemplary passageway can be provided by groove 1 1 1 1 that is sealed such as within braze assembled sleeve 1 1 13 to one or more passageways such as 1 109A-L to provide fluid such as fuel that can be conditioned by heat exchanger 1 160 to bias the temperature of case 1 108. Case 1 108 thus becomes an effective heat exchanger to heat or cool fluid selections such as selected waxes, paraffins or other multiphase substances; hydrogen or helium and/or to provide dielectric insulation combined with heat transfer properties including sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and/or refrigerants such as R-12, R-1 16, or R- C318 (octafluorocyclobutane C 4 Hs), that can be charged through port 1 107 and thus annular space between spring well 1 104 and case 1 108 as shown in Fig. 1 1 F.

[00171] Utilization of selected refrigerants can provide the benefit of heat pipe or phase change thermal stabilization. Illustratively for more or less upright positions of assembly 1 170, cooled fluid temperature biased case 1 108 is typically coolest near the top and can produce refrigerant condensate near the top of spring well 1 104 which flows toward heat conducted from combustion chamber 1 150. In other instances a suitable capillary wick (not shown) may be utilized to return condensate to the evaporation zone. This provides advantageous heat transfer as evaporated refrigerant vapor then travels toward the top to repeat the process to provide maintenance of the desired component temperatures including piezoelectric stack 1 102 and/or electro-photo-optics on disk 1 127. In some high frequency applications refrigerant is allowed to travel to the space around the outside of spring bellows 1 126 to increase the rate of heat exchange from valve 1 122 and/or ceramic 1 1 18. In other instances a seal is provided by disk 1 127 to prevent refrigerant from passing into the space below disk 1 127.

[00172] Fluids such as fuel or coolant are delivered through passageways 1 109A-L to passageways such as helical groove 1 120 to one or more passageways 1 121 to annulus 1 123 above the valve seal ring against electrode 1 128. Spring bellows 1 126 is sealed to valve cap 1 122C at one end and to electrode 1 128 at the other end to provide assured containment of fluid delivered to annulus 1 123 until valve 1 122 is forced open by plunger 1 1 10 in response to thrust by valve driver 1 102.

[00173] Upon opening of valve 1 122 according to adaptive control of the magnitude of voltage applied to piezoelectric valve driver stack 1 102, fluid is directly injected into combustion chamber 1 150. One or more windows 1 125A-F in the skirt of electrode provide radiant energy transfer to and/or from combustion chamber 1 150 through transparent ceramic 1 1 18 to optical readers and/or electro-photo-optic emission devices attached to or sandwiched against the components of gap (G1 ) such as adjustment disk 1 127 or that may be located within or on the bottom or other surfaces such as the walls or in selected zones of inside or outside diameter grooves such as 1 120.

[00174] In illustrative application on a piston engine such as a converted two or four stroke diesel type, embodiment 1 170 is placed in the same port that was originally provided for the direct injection diesel injector and is held in place and sealed by centering gasket 1 132 that can include a port liner electrode 1 134. One or more clamps 1 130 provide hold down and sealing of the system assembled within case 1 108 to the engine. Fuel such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and/or methane delivered through ports 1 106A-B biases the temperature of case 1 108 and thus through heat transfer fluid such as helium the temperature of stack 1 102 is maintained within a desirable operating range. Pressurized fluid which may be coolant and/or fuel is delivered through passageways 1 109A-L, 1 120, and 1 121 to annulus 1 123.

[00175] Controller 1 172 provides actuation of driver 1 102 at adaptively controlled crankshaft angles along with adaptively controlled voltage applied through suitable cables 1 174A-B to open valve 1 122 for providing controllably metered flow of fuel past wire bar electrodes 1 136A-F some of which can be formed to prevent the possibility of over-excursion of valve 1 122 towards combustion chamber 1 150. In this regard wire bars selected for preventing the possibility of over-excursion by valve can be made of high strength super alloys such as NASA 23, NASA MFS- 31781 -1 , MP35N or Inconel 725. Such alloys are heat and oxidation resistant in addition to being hydrogen compatible and can further serve as incandescent ignition initiators and/or accelerators of fuel combustion in homogeneous and/or stratified charge combustion events.

[00176] Alternatively ignition and/or acceleration of combustion may also be provided by including one or more chemical plasma inducing agents such as dimethylether (DME), diethyl ether (DEE) or other compounds along with fuel selections such as methane, hydrogen or carbon monoxide. This enables operation with or without electrically induced ignition such as spark, Lorentz thrust ions or corona plasma production. It is particularly beneficial to produce such chemical plasma production agents from easily stored liquid fuels such as methanol or ethanol as summarized by Equations 1 1 and 12 which may include removal or reduction of water that is formed for the purpose of operating an engine without electrically induced ignition. Such operation without electrically induced ignition may include normal operation in certain embodiments and/or emergency operation in other embodiments.

2CHsOH CHsOCHs + H 2 0 Equation 1 1

2C2H5OH C2H5OC2H5 + H2O Equation 12

[00177] In other instances chemical agents can be utilized with hot wire bars 1 136 or other suitable electrode zones or configurations to initiate or accelerate combustion including normal operation in certain embodiments and/or emergency operation in other embodiments. Accordingly, engine operation can be provided by any suitable permutation of homogeneous or stratified charge combustion that may be initiated or accelerated by spark, Lorentz ion thrust, corona, hot zone i.e. spot, wire, or filament, and/or by one or more chemical plasma agents including one or multiple bursts that are introduced into the combustion chamber.

[00178] Operation with electrically induced ignition and/or acceleration of combustion events can utilize any suitable voltage transformer including the type depicted as a composited assembly of transformer 1 1 12 on case 1 108. Suitably high voltage such as 20KV to 60KV produced by a suitable transformer such as 1 1 12 can be delivered by conductor 1 1 17 within high dielectric strength and suitably shielded tube 1 1 15 to electrode 1 128. Ceramic 1 1 18 can include assembled portions that serve as one or more capacitors in electrical circuits with transformer 1 1 12 to produce spark, Lorentz thrust ions and/or corona plasma ignition and/or acceleration of combustion events.

[00179] Embodiment 1 180 of Fig. 1 1 G shows another configuration including pressurized fluid inlet fitting 1 106C for various fuel and/or coolant selections. Fitting 1 106C forms a seal with case 1 108 to provide fluid flow to one or more passageways 1 182 above sealed setscrew 1 103. A suitable compressive preload force on piezoelectric stack 1 102 within spring well 1 104 is provided by setscrew 1 103 as shown. Ceramic plunger 1 1 10 is initially assembled to nearly zero gap to valve cap 1 122C at an assembly temperature that provides for the smallest gap. [00180] One or more passageways 1 184 in case 1 108 convey fluid from passageways 1 182 to passageways such as helical grooves 1 120 in ceramic insulator 1 1 18 to bias the temperature of such components toward the temperature of the fuel and/or other fluids introduced through fitting 1 106C. The same or other fluid selections can be utilized as heat transfer fluids in the space between spring well 1 104 and case 1 108. Selected sensors such as combustion chamber temperature, pressure and combustion pattern monitors including photo-optical sensors can be provided on the top, bottom, within and/or at various positions around transparent dielectric ceramic 1 1 18 to enable adaptive control of combustion chamber processes. Similar sensors may be integrated with electrode 1 128 to monitor such combustion chamber events along with the operation of valve 1 122 and can include production of optical or other wireless signals that are transmitted through or relayed by transparent ceramic 1 1 18 to other sensors that provide communication links to controller 1 172, 1322, and/or a controller that is packaged around or with piezoelectric stack 1 102.

[00181] Illustratively a port such as 1 107 shown in Fig. 1 1 F can be utilized to charge a suitable insulator and refrigerant in the zone around spring well 1 104 and plunger 1 1 10. This provides the advantages of heat pipe operation to transfer heat to fuel that is subsequently transferred through one or more passageways 1 121 to annulus 1 186 above the seal ring of valve 1 122 against electrode 1 128 for direct injection into combustion chamber 1 150.

[00182] In certain instances compressive spring bellows 1 126 is joined and sealed on one end to electrode 1 128 and on the other end to valve 1 122 which may or may not have a valve cap to provide containment of the fuel including between injection events when piezoelectric stack 1 102 adaptively extends plunger 1 1 10 against valve 1 122 to provided controllably metered fluid flow into combustion chamber 1 150.

[00183] Ignition and/or acceleration of homogeneous, striated or stratified fuel and oxidant combustion may be by any suitable method including one or more chemical plasma agents, hot wire or hot spots on electrode wire bars 1 136A-F or counter electrode 1 134, spark, Lorentz thrust ions, or corona discharge. Elevated voltage may be provided by any suitable method including by a transformer such as 1 1 12 that delivers and contains elevated voltage by conductor 1 1 17 within insulator 1 1 15 to electrode 1 128.

[00184] Accordingly, embodiment 1 180 of Fig. 1 1 G:

[00185] 1 ) Provides centerline guidance of valve 1 122 by electrode 1 128 to the integral valve seat in electrode 1 128.

[00186] 2) Provides a compression spring and/or spring bellows 1 126 to seal the assembly of electrode tube 1 128 and valve 1 122.

[00187] 3) Provides a multiphase zone and/or heat pipe to control the temperature of the valve driver 1 102 and other critical components.

[00188] 4) Establishes thermal bias of components (such as matched and/or low CTE material selections) to the temperature of the fluid delivered through assembly 1 180.

[00189] 5) Can be initially adjusted to provide a minimal or zero gap G1 between plunger 1 1 10 and valve 1 122 at a selected assembly temperature that simulates the operational service temperature that minimizes the gap G1 .

[00190] 6) Alternatively, gap G-1 can be reduced or increased by the temperature bias provided by heating or cooling fluid such as fuel by system 1 160.

[00191] 7) Provides a selection of methods for ignition and/or acceleration of combustion.

[00192] 8) Can utilize gasket assembly 1 132 to develop thermal isolation of assembly 1 180 from combustion chamber 1 150 along with electrode centering and to establish the proper gap between electrodes 1 136A-F and counter electrode 1 134.

[00193] In certain instances that it is desired to provide a faster valve opening and/or operation with a higher valve closure force or lower pressure drop from the pressure at annulus 1 186 to the combustion chamber 1 150, gap G1 may be increased between plunger 1 1 10 and valve 1 122 at the assembly temperature that simulates the operational service temperature that minimizes the gap G1. Alternatively gap G-1 can be reduced or increased by the materials selected for the assembled components and/or the temperature bias provided by heating or cooling fluid such as fuel by system 1 160. Accordingly, control of gap G1 as a function of temperature can provide a smaller or larger gap to enable production of greater kinetic energy or to compensate or overcome reduced thrust force and/or excursion of valve driver 1 102.

[00194] Controllably increasing gap G-1 provides considerable development of kinetic energy that can be delivered from plunger 1 1 10 upon impact with valve 1 122 to provide quicker opening and/or operation at lower or higher pressure drop across valve 1 122. This enables a wide variation of adaptive timing of combustion chamber events including the crank angle(s) that one or more fuel injections occur along with the timing of spark, Lorentz ion thrusting, and/or corona production and similarly concerning the timing of alternative utilization of chemical plasma agents.

[00195] Fig. 12 shows the synergistic steps of operating a heat engine to produce motive power along with heat. Heat from the engine is utilized to dissociate a hydrogen and carbon donor substance (H x C y ) to produce carbon and hydrogen. Donor compounds include selections such as methane, ethane, propane, butane or heavier hydrocarbons or biomass substances. If needed additional heat can be supplied by renewable, regenerative or off-peak electrical energy, and/or by partial combustion of the donor substance or the hydrogen. The hydrogen is utilized to fuel the heat engine or a fuel cell. The hot carbon is utilized to fuel a hot fuel cell to produce electricity. The oxide of carbon (COx) such as carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide produced by the fuel cell and/or nitrogen provided by the depletion or removal of oxygen from inlet air and/or engine or fuel cell exhaust is utilized with hydrogen to produce liquid carrier fuels such as one or more fuel alcohols, ammonia, urea, DME, DEE, or CH3CHO etc., for densely storing and/or transporting hydrogen and providing specialized tasks such as serving as chemical plasma agents.

[00196] Embodiment 1300 of Figs. 13A and 13B shows a system for operation of an internal combustion engine such as a two or four stroke piston engine 1350 including fluid injector 1316, intake valve 1356, exhaust valve 1357, piston 1351 , and combustion chamber 1358. A repurposed gasoline, diesel or propane fuel tank 1302 can be utilized to transport a liquid fuel that densely stores hydrogen. Pressurization of hydrogen released from such liquid precursor can be by vaporization, dissociation and/or respeciation following passage past check valve and filter 1306 in circuit 1308, 1312 etc., which can include utilization of heat rejected by engine 602 and/or fuel cell 610. In certain applications heat exchanges can be provided or assisted by subsystem 1307 located within 1308 or in circuit 1312 or other locations. Such pressurized hydrogen can be stored in accumulator 1317 and utilized for engine ignition and/or combustion events that are controlled by injector 1316 and or 1352. Equations 13 and 14 illustrate examples of such pressurizing steps.

[00197] In certain applications fuel tank 1302 such as a compressed hydrogen or natural gas (e.g. a CNG) tank that is rated for operation at considerably elevated pressures such as 136 to 680 bar (2000 to 10,000 PSI) can be repurposed for:

[00198] 1 ) Safely storing liquid fuel selections.

[00199] 2) Providing conversion of renewable or waste energy into chemical and/or pressure potential energy.

[00200] 3) Converting liquid fuel selections into vapors or gases.

[00201] 4) Utilizing a pressurized vapor or gas to drive liquid fuel delivery to the engine.

[00202] In operation a liquid fuel such as an alcohol (i.e. methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol etc.) and/or another reactant such as formic acid, water, urea or ammonia is inserted into tank 1302 through filler valve 1305 as a liquid to densely store and/or transport hydrogen. Initial pressurization may be provided by adding a pressurized fuel gas such as hydrogen, methane, and/or carbon monoxide or an inert gas such as nitrogen, helium, or argon through a combination fill port 1390 which can also serve as a pressure relief device (PRD) in case of over pressurization including overheating of the tank contents.

[00203] Occasionally supplemental pressurization of the contents of tank 1302 can be provided by inducing a phase change of liquid substances to gaseous substances by converter 1307. Assembled within a tubular portion of converter 1307 is a heating element such as an electrical resistive or inductive heating element and/or a heated fluid circulation tube 1309A-1309B and/or the condenser or heat exchanger of a heat pipe which is connected to one or more suitable external circuits that are operated by process controller 1322. Illustratively such pressurization of tank 1302 can be provided by such heat addition from sources such as engine coolant (H1 ), exhaust gases (H2), heated fluid such as steam or hydrogen, or regenerative braking or suspension energy (H3) to change of phase from the liquid substance for hydrogen storage to a vapor or gas and/or by to respeciate a substance such as an exemplary alcohol selection as shown by Equation 13 to provide such pressurization of tank 1302.

CHsOH + HEAT (H1 , H2 and/or H3) -» CO + 2H 2 Equation 13

[00204] Pressurized liquid fuel is delivered through filter 1303, pump 1304, filter 1306 to 1388, and through preheating conduit 1308 to cool heated gases 1315 within canister 1310 such as the products that can also be produced by the exemplary process of Equation 13 by an endothermic reaction in conduit 1312 within countercurrent heat exchanger 131 1 within insulated conduit 1314. This provides a supply of gaseous fuel such as hydrogen or hydrogen characterized mixtures through conduit 1315 to an injector such as 1 170 or 1 180 that is pressurized to about the supply pressure of tank 1302. Further adjustment of the temperature of such gaseous fuel delivered to injector 1316 may be provided by conditioner 1 160 as previously disclosed.

[00205] The rates that fluids such as fuel are converted to higher chemical and/or pressure potential energy are adaptively controlled according to the available endothermic heat (H1 , H2, and/or H3) as indicated by temperature sensors such as 1354. It is advantageous to increase the rate of conversion at times that such endothermic energy is available and to store the higher chemical and/or pressure potential energy constituents in accumulator 1317 by controlled flow through valve 1319.

[00206] In certain embodiments, it is advantageous to prioritize collection of condensates such as water by extraction of heat from the exhaust gases in counter current heat exchanger 131 1 . At times that cooling of such exhaust gases is provided by ambient air flow around a moving vehicle and/or upon increased utilization of H2, condensates such as water can be collected by extraction zone 1384 and delivered by gravity or pump 1386 to a receiver for subsequent charging of tank 1302 to enable thermochemically regenerative reactions. Illustratively thermochemical regeneration such as summarized by exemplary Equation 14 includes utilization of carbon and/or hydrogen donor substances "C" that are derived from sewage, garbage, or agricultural wastes and held in solution or suspension by the liquid fuel stored in tank 1302.

CHsOH + "C" + H2O + HEAT (H1 .H2 and/or H3) -» 2CO+3H 2 Equation 14

[00207] Controller 1322 adaptively provides for engine 1350 to be operated in an oxidant throttled mode with fuel injection through injector 1352 and/or 1316 to produce a homogeneous fuel-oxidant mixture ratio according to the impedance to air flow through filter 1328 is provided by variable valve 1326. Alternatively engine 1350 can be adaptively operated in an unthrottled oxidant entry mode if valve 1326 is fully open and can adaptively provide homogeneous or stratified combustion of fuel- oxidant mixtures that result from fuel deliveries in the circuit controlled by valve 1382 for metering through injector 1352 and/or 1316. Adaptively timed fuel injections and ignition events are provided by controller 1322 including operation of circuits that can include transformer 1320 and/or 1 1 12 and connection 1318 according to operator or cruise control demand through the position of the foot-feed or accelerator 1324.

[00208] In other embodiments, a pneumatic, hydraulic, magnetostrictive or electromechanical valve driver can be utilized in zone 1 102. Selection of such drivers can provide larger valve opening travel to provide higher flow rates compared to typical piezoelectric driver values.

[00209] Injectors such as 102, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, or 1000 as shown in representative embodiments can be utilized for injecting and igniting fuel without the use of electrical energy to initiate ignition. Such injector embodiments can provide selection of one or more fuel types including relatively cold fuels such as gases evaporated from cryogenic hydrogen, methane, or other fuels and relatively hot fluids such as gases produced by reactions at elevated temperatures including hydrogen, nitrogen, and/or carbon monoxide from reforming reactions. Such fuel selections and/or fluid types can be conditioned by embodiments 950, 952, 1 160, 1 1 13, 1312, and/or 1392 for use with or without electrical energy imput to initiate ignition of the fuel. Instead, ignition can be accomplished by chemical plasma agents and/or a sonic Shockwave as disclosed herein.

[00210] Presentation of chemical plasma agents that are highly activated by the shock of sonic impingement into oxidant 1010 provides a conducive pattern for improving the efficiency of optional adjunctive combustion acceleration systems such as U.V. radiation, laser, Lorentz and/or corona ignition. Such adjunctive operations can be adaptively provided by controller 1020 in response to suitable instrumentation such as fiber sensor systems similar to fiber bundle 930 that are integrated into assembly 1000 that monitor combustion chamber events and circumstances such as the degree of heat production stratification and thermal expansion pattern along with pressure and temperature. Suitable fiber sensor systems are described in U.S. Patent Application No. 13/841 ,548, filed March 15, 2013 (69545-8337. US00), the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[00211] In another application, conduit 1016 delivers a suitable mixture of relatively cool hydrogen and/or hydrogen mixed with an adaptively adjusted amount of chemical plasma agent to cool valve operator 1026 according to optimization purposes of process operations controller 1020. Hydrogen is advanced into combustion chamber oxidant 1010 during each injection. The dwell time of such intermittent advancements between the first injection of each power cycle of the combustion chamber is much longer than the time to the next injection at a higher velocity. In an illustrative embodiment, the first injection of a power cycle is adaptively adjusted by the impedance adaptively established by valve 1028 and/or Lorentz acceleration to be between about 2% and 40% of the sonic velocity of oxidant 1010 and can be warmed to the extent desired during the longer dwell time by a suitable inductive or resistive heater 1024. Before, during or after the first injection, energy delivered from heater 1024 can be nearly none, less, the same amount, or greater as determined by controller 1020.

[00212] The next or subsequent injection of the same mixture of hydrogen and chemical plasma agent is accomplished with much smaller dwell time for energy transfer from heater 1024 during travel through the zone heated by element 1024. Valve 1028 can be operated with relatively smaller impedance to flow from conduit 1016 to produce adaptively adjusted injection velocity between about 50% and 90% of the sonic velocity of the hydrogen characterized expanding envelope generated by the first injection.

[00213] Suitable selections or combinations of solenoid, piezoelectric, hydraulic, pneumatic and magnetostrictive valve operators may be used. As an illustrative example, a piezoelectric valve driver 1026 can provide an appropriately reduced motion of valve 1028 to produce the impedance required for injection at a suitably lower velocity and subsequently provide for greater opening by valve motion to produce reduced impedance and thus accomplish injection at an adaptively adjusted higher velocity to control the degree and location of stratified heat production within oxidant 1010.

[00214] Adaptive adjustment of each fuel injection penetration pattern including included angle 1034 is provided by control of the hydrogen supply pressure in conduit 1016 and/or 1018, and/or the Lorentz acceleration and/or the magnetic acceleration provided by permanent and/or electromagnets such as windings 1032. Additional pattern shaping may be made by a suitably shaped nozzle 1036 which may include orifices 1038 to provide one or more directional vectors for injected fuel. Nozzle 1036 may serve as an antenna or electrode for corona plasma production in oxidant or fuel such as fuel ions that are launched into the combustion chamber. In some applications, the electrode nozzle assembly shown in Figs. 5C and 5D is used. This provides an adaptively adjusted degree and location of stratified heat generation upon sonic shock 1008 acceleration of combustion to and optimization of fuel economy, torque and BMEP.

[00215] In other applications, it is desired to provide for staged chemical plasma production events by introducing different selections of chemical plasma agents at selected pressures and/or velocities and/or in various operating sequences to further optimize engine efficiency and performance. As an illustrative example, a chemical plasma agent such as DME and/or DEE may be mixed with hydrogen at a suitable concentration for pressure (P1 ) delivery through conduit 1016 and another chemical plasma agent such as DEE may be mixed with hydrogen at a suitable concentration for pressure (P2) delivery through conduit 1018.

[00216] In a representative operation, injection of a suitable hydrogen and DME mixture to produce an initial lower velocity expansion zone 1004 is followed by a higher velocity injection of a suitable hydrogen and DEE mixture to produce shock acceleration 1008 of combustion or vice versa as shown in Fig. 10. Either mixture may be adjusted in temperature by energy addition by element 1024. The velocity of each injection may be effectively adjusted by the frequency of multiple bursts and/or impedance provided by variable opening distance as established operation of valve 1028.

[00217] The systems shown and described with respect to Figs. 6A-10 enable new operating cycles, simplified operational controls, much more rapid optimization adjustments, and many other benefits. For example, as described above, Figs. 7A- 7C show system 700 for producing and storing fuels such as ammonia, urea, formic acid, fuel alcohols, etc., that may be produced by typical processes such as summarized by Equations 4, 7A, 7B, 7C, 9 and/or 10. Liquid fuels stored separately or as mixtures that may include methanol and/or ethanol that are suitably heated by H1 and/or H2 are converted in part by dehydrator 731 -737 to produce suitable amounts of DME and DEE by dehydration reactions with suitable selections of desiccants (D) such as sulfuric acid or silica-alumina as shown in Equations 15 and 16. In other embodiments, catalytic conversion is provided for production of ethanol and/or DEE from various reagents such as acetic acid, ethyl acetate and/or methanol stored in tank 707. This provides an additional margin of safety because storage of acetic acid or various fuel alcohols is safer than gasoline or diesel fuel storage and only small amounts of DME and DEE thus are needed and storage of large volumes of DME and DEE is avoided.

[00218] 2CH30H + D + H1 + H2 + H3→CH 3 OCH3 + H20 Equation 15

[00219] 2C2H5OH + D + H1 + H2 + H3→ C2H5OC2H5O + H2O Equation 16

[00220] Depending upon the process temperature, the water or steam separated by the dehydration reactions of Equations 15 and 16 and delivered through valve 733 can be converted to separated hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis in a suitable system such as reversible electrolyzer with a proton exchange membrane assembly. In some applications, a portion of such water is used to produce hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide by the reaction shown in Equation 18. The rates of DME and/or DEE production are controlled by metering valve 735 for additions to accumulator 727.

[00221] Remaining portions of the methanol and ethanol undergo dissociation reactions including those shown in Equations 17 and 18 on hydrogen separation systems such as that shown in Figs. 7A-7C. [00222] CHsOH + HI + H2 +H3→ CO + 2H2 Equation 17

[00223] C2H5OH + H2O + H1 + H2 +H3→ 2CO + 4H 2 Equation 18

[00224] Thus, various embodiments, combinations and combinational permutations of the present embodiments enable conversion of two and four stroke piston engines along with a wide range of energy conversion systems with combustion chambers to operation on net hydrogen fuels including liquid and gaseous fluids. Several ignition and combustion acceleration systems are provided for assured operational readiness and synergistic outcomes to meet widely varying combustion chamber designs, piston speeds, and duty cycles. Combustion chamber events and conditions are monitored and measured at the speed of light to enable adaptive control optimization of unthrottled stratified heat production for maximum oxidant utilization efficiency. Converted engines provide higher performance, operate more efficiently and have longer lives.

[00225] Accordingly, the capabilities and benefits of the embodiments disclosed enable hydrogen to be combusted at a rate that can exceed the speed of sound of oxidant selections such as oxygen, air or halogens within said combustion chamber. For purposes of optimizing fuel efficiency and performance it is preferred in most application modes to operate such embodiments by control of the hydrogen injection pressure, time duration of each injection, and time between subsequent injections to provide completion of combustion within surplus oxidant.

[00226] Also disclosed herein are methods of initiating combustion in an engine using high-speed hydrogen injection. In an embodiment, the method comprises introducing an oxidant (e.g., oxygen, air, halogens, etc.) into the combustion chamber of an engine. The oxidant has an oxidant speed of sound. Hydrogen is direct injected into the combustion chamber at a velocity less than the hydrogen's speed of sound and greater than the oxidant's speed of sound, thereby causing a Shockwave in the oxidant sufficient to initiate combustion of the oxidant and hydrogen.

[00227] The hydrogen can be heated prior to direct injection into the combustion chamber, thereby increasing the hydrogen's speed of sound. In some embodiments, the oxidant can be compressed in the combustion chamber to a pressure of approximately 1800 psi and the hydrogen can be direct injected at a pressure of approximately 3400 psi. In some embodiments, the oxidant can be compressed in the combustion chamber to a pressure of approximately 1000 psi and the hydrogen can be direct injected at a pressure of approximately 1900 psi.

[00228] In some embodiments, the hydrogen can be direct injected via a metering valve. In other embodiments, the hydrogen can be supplied to the metering valve at conditions causing choked flow across the metering valve. In other aspects of the technology, the hydrogen can be at least partially ionized. In some embodiments, the engine is a reciprocating piston engine and the hydrogen is direct injected prior to top dead center. In other embodiments, the hydrogen is direct injected after top dead center.

[00229] In another embodiment, a method for initiating combustion in an engine includes introducing an oxidant into the combustion chamber and compressing the oxidant in the combustion chamber. A first quantity of hydrogen is direct injected into the combustion chamber at a first velocity less than the first hydrogen's speed of sound and less than the oxidant's speed of sound. A second quantity of hydrogen is direct injected, into the first delivery of hydrogen that is expanding in the combustion chamber at a second velocity less than the second hydrogen's speed of sound and greater than the oxidant's speed of sound, and thereby upon penetration of the second hydrogen injection pattern into the oxidant causing a Shockwave in the oxidant sufficient to initiate and/or accelerate combustion of the oxidant and the first and second quantities of hydrogen along with any other fuel values that may be present.

[00230] In some embodiments, the method further comprises heating the first and/or second quantity of hydrogen such that the selected hydrogen speed of sound is greater than the other hydrogen quantity speed of sound. In some embodiments, the engine is a reciprocating piston engine and the first quantity of hydrogen is direct injected after and/or prior to top dead center. In other embodiments, the engine is a reciprocating piston engine and the second quantity of hydrogen is direct injected after and/or prior to top dead center.

[00231] Some aspects of the technology described herein may take the form of or make use of computer-executable instructions, including routines executed by a

-81 - programmable computer. Those skilled in the relevant art will appreciate that the technology can be practiced on computer systems other than those shown and described herein. The technology can be embodied in a special-purpose computer or data processor, such as an engine control unit (ECU), engine control module (ECM), fuel system controller, or the like, that is specifically programmed, configured or constructed to perform one or more computer-executable instructions consistent with the technology described herein. Accordingly, the term "computer," "processor," or "controller" as generally used herein refers to any suitable data processor and can include ECUs, ECMs, and modules, as well as Internet appliances and hand-held devices (including palm-top computers, wearable computers, cellular or mobile phones, multi-processor systems, processor-based or programmable consumer electronics, network computers, mini computers and the like). Information handled by these computers can be presented at any suitable display medium, including a CRT display, LCD, or dedicated display device or mechanism (e.g., a gauge).

[00232] Accordingly, in a system depicted by Fig. 13, a conventional vehicle such as an automobile, truck, or implement can be converted to improved operation on hydrogen. Existing subsystems including the electronic computer, air filtration system, air-conditioning system and power assist equipment are repurposed to achieve one or more new outcomes. Repurposing the vehicle can include replacement or improvement of the capabilities of the fuel tank.

[00233] The technology can also be practiced in distributed environments, where tasks or modules are performed by remote processing devices that are linked through a communications network. In a distributed computing environment, program modules or subroutines may be located in local and remote memory storage devices. Aspects of the technology described herein may be stored or distributed on computer-readable media, including magnetic or optically readable or removable computer disks, as well as distributed electronically over networks. Such networks may include, for example and without limitation, Controller Area Networks (CAN), Local Interconnect Networks (LIN), and the like. In particular embodiments, data structures and transmissions of data particular to aspects of the technology are also encompassed within the scope of the technology. [00234] From the foregoing it will be appreciated that, although specific embodiments of the technology have been described herein for purposes of illustration, various modifications may be made without deviating from the spirit and scope of the technology. Further, certain aspects of the new technology described in the context of particular embodiments may be combined or eliminated in other embodiments. Moreover, while advantages associated with certain embodiments of the technology have been described in the context of those embodiments, other embodiments may also exhibit such advantages, and not all embodiments need necessarily exhibit such advantages to fall within the scope of the technology. Accordingly, the disclosure and associated technology can encompass other embodiments not expressly shown or described herein. The following examples provide additional embodiments of the present technology.

[00235] Examples:

1 . Operation of a combustion chamber by intake of at least one of an oxidant including oxygen, air, a halogen, and direct hydrogen injection into said combustion chamber at a velocity that at least exceeds the speed of sound of the oxidant within the combustion chamber.

2. Operation as in Example 1 in which said oxidant is compressed.

3. Operation as in Example 1 or 2 in which said hydrogen is at least partially ionized.

4. Operation as in Example 1 or 2 in which said hydrogen is at a temperature that exceeds the ambient temperature of atmospheric air surrounding said operation.

5. Operation as in Example 1 or 2 in which said hydrogen is derived from a hydrogen donor substance.

6. Operation of a combustion chamber as in Examples 1 , 2, 3, 4 or 5 in which said hydrogen is combusted at a rate that exceeds the speed of sound of said oxidant within said combustion chamber.

7. Operation of a combustion chamber as in Examples 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 in which said hydrogen is combusted within surplus oxidant within said combustion chamber. 8. Operation as in Example 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 in which the magnitude of energy released by said operation within said combustion chamber is controlled by pressure of said direct injection of hydrogen.

9. Operation as in Example 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 wherein the velocity of said direct injection of hydrogen is controlled by the pressure of said direct injection of hydrogen.

10. Operation of a combustion chamber by intake of at least one of an oxidant including oxygen, air, a halogen, and direct injection of a fluid into said combustion chamber at a velocity that at least exceeds the speed of sound of the oxidant within the combustion chamber.

1 1 . Operation of a combustion chamber as in Example 10 in which said fluid enters said oxidant in said combustion chamber at a speed that is below the speed of sound of said fluid.

12. Operation as in Example 10 or 1 1 in which said oxidant is compressed.

13. Operation as in Example 10, 1 1 , or 12 in which said fluid is at least partially ionized.

14. Operation as in Example 10, 1 1 , 12, or 13 in which said fluid is at a temperature that exceeds the ambient temperature of atmospheric air surrounding said operation.

15. Operation as in Example 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, or 14, in which said fluid is derived from a substance that includes at least one of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen.

16. Operation of a combustion chamber as in Examples 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14 or 15 in which said substance is combusted at a rate that exceeds the speed of sound of said oxidant within said combustion chamber.

17. Operation of a combustion chamber as in Examples 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15 or 16 in which said fluid is combusted within surplus oxidant within said combustion chamber.

18. Operation of combined cycles that includes an internal combustion engine cycle and a fuel cell that operates on fuel produced as a result of heat transfer from said engine to a feed stock that contains at least one of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen.

19. Operation of combined cycles as in Example 18 in which said engine is fueled by hydrogen that enters one or more combustion chambers of said engine at a velocity exceeding the speed of sound of oxidant in said combustion chamber.

20. Operation of combined cycles as in Example 18 or 19 in which said fuel cell uses a fuel that includes at least one of carbon, an oxide of carbon, a compound that contains hydrogen.

21 . A method for initiating combustion in an engine having a combustion chamber, the method comprising:

introducing an oxidant into the combustion chamber, wherein the oxidant has an oxidant speed of sound;

direct injecting hydrogen, having a hydrogen speed of sound, into the combustion chamber at a velocity less than the hydrogen speed of sound and greater than the oxidant speed of sound, thereby causing a Shockwave in the oxidant sufficient to initiate combustion of the oxidant and hydrogen.

22. The method of example 21 , further comprising heating the hydrogen prior to direct injecting, thereby increasing the hydrogen speed of sound.

23. The method of example 21 , further comprising compressing the oxidant in the combustion chamber to a pressure of approximately 1800 psi.

24. The method of example 23, wherein the hydrogen is direct injected at a pressure of approximately 3400 psi.

25. The method of example 21 , further comprising compressing the oxidant in the combustion chamber to a pressure of approximately 1000 psi.

26. The method of example 25, wherein the hydrogen is direct injected at a pressure of approximately 1900 psi.

27. The method of example 21 , wherein the hydrogen is direct injected via a metering valve.

28. The method of example 27, wherein the hydrogen is supplied to the metering valve at conditions causing choked flow across the metering valve.

29. The method of example 21 , further comprising at least partially ionizing the hydrogen. 30. The method of example 21 , wherein the engine is a reciprocating piston engine and the hydrogen is direct injected prior to top dead center.

31 . A method for accelerating combustion in a combustion chamber, the method comprising:

introducing an oxidant into the combustion chamber, wherein the oxidant has an oxidant speed of sound;

compressing the oxidant in the combustion chamber;

heating a supply of hydrogen, wherein the heated hydrogen has a hydrogen speed of sound;

directing the hydrogen to a metering valve;

direct injecting the hydrogen via the metering valve into the combustion chamber at a velocity less than the hydrogen speed of sound and greater than the oxidant speed of sound, thereby causing a Shockwave in the oxidant sufficient to accelerate combustion of the oxidant and hydrogen.

32. The method of example 31 , wherein the oxidant is selected from the group consisting of oxygen, air, and a halogen.

33. The method of example 31 , wherein the hydrogen is direct injected after top dead center.

34. The method of example 31 , wherein the combustion chamber is in a reciprocating piston engine and the hydrogen is direct injected after top dead center.

35. A method for initiating combustion in an engine having a combustion chamber, the method comprising:

introducing an oxidant into the combustion chamber, wherein the oxidant has an oxidant speed of sound;

compressing the oxidant in the combustion chamber;

direct injecting a first quantity of hydrogen, having a first hydrogen speed of sound, into the combustion chamber at a first velocity less than the first hydrogen speed of sound and less than the oxidant speed of sound,

direct injecting a second quantity of hydrogen, having a second hydrogen speed of sound, into the combustion chamber at a second velocity less than the second hydrogen speed of sound and greater than the oxidant speed of sound, thereby causing a Shockwave in the oxidant sufficient to initiate combustion of the oxidant and the first and second quantities of hydrogen. 36. The method of example 35, further comprising heating the second quantity of hydrogen such that the second hydrogen speed of sound is greater than the first hydrogen speed of sound.

37. The method of example 35, wherein the engine is a reciprocating piston engine and the first quantity of hydrogen is direct injected prior to top dead center.

38. The method of example 37, wherein the engine is a reciprocating piston engine and the second quantity of hydrogen is direct injected prior to top dead center.

39. A method for initiating combustion without electrical energy in an engine having a combustion chamber, the method comprising:

introducing an oxidant into the combustion chamber, wherein the oxidant has an oxidant speed of sound;

direct injecting hydrogen, having a hydrogen speed of sound, into the combustion chamber at a velocity less than the hydrogen speed of sound and greater than the oxidant speed of sound, thereby causing a Shockwave in the oxidant sufficient to initiate combustion of the oxidant and hydrogen.

40. The method of example 39, wherein direct injecting hydrogen comprises actuating a valve without electrical energy.

41 . The method of example 40, wherein the valve is actuated by a cam.