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Title:
METHODS FOR INHIBITING VIRUSES BY TARGETING CATHEPSIN-L CLEAVAGE SITES IN THE VIRUSES' GLYCOPROTEINS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2013/152223
Kind Code:
A2
Inventors:
PRABHAKAR, Bellur, S. (511 St. John's Court, Oak Brook, IL, 60523, US)
ELSHABRAWY, Hatem, A. (29 Madinat Al Mabouseen Apt. 20, Cairo University Giza, 12351, EG)
Application Number:
US2013/035319
Publication Date:
October 10, 2013
Filing Date:
April 04, 2013
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS (352 Henry Administration Building, 506 South Wright StreetUrbana, IL, 61801, US)
PRABHAKAR, Bellur, S. (511 St. John's Court, Oak Brook, IL, 60523, US)
ELSHABRAWY, Hatem, A. (29 Madinat Al Mabouseen Apt. 20, Cairo University Giza, 12351, EG)
International Classes:
A61K31/53; A61K31/166; C07C275/28; C07D251/54
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
FENDRICK, Sarah, E. (McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff LLP, 300 South Wacker DriveChicago, IL, 60606, US)
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Claims:
We claim:

1. A method of inhibiting a viral infection in a mammal in need thereof, the viral infection being caused by a virus which requires membrane fusion for viral entry , the method comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound having the structural formula (I):

(I)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein

each R1 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C6 alkyl;

R2 is Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, C3-C8 cycloalkyl-, heterocyclyl-, aryl-, heteroaryl- or -Ci- C6 alkyl-R6, each optionally substituted by one or more groups that are each independently halogen, cyano, nitro, hydroxy, Ci-C6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci-C6 alkyl)amino, or di(Ci-C6 alkyl)amino;

R3 is Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, C3-C8 cycloalkyl-, heterocyclyl-, aryl-, heteroaryl- or -Ci- C6 alkyl-R6, each optionally substituted by one or more groups that are each independently halogen, cyano, nitro, hydroxy, Ci-C6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci-C6 alkyl)amino, or di(Ci-C6 alkyl)amino;

R4 is Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, -CN, -C(0)Ci-C6 alkyl, -C(0)Ci-C6 alkoxy, -C(0)NR9R9, or -S(0)2Ci-C6 alkyl; and

R5 is hydroxy, Ci-C6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci-C6 alkyl)amino, di(Ci-C6 alkyl)amino, -C(0)Ci-C6 alkyl, -C(0)Ci-C6 haloalkyl,-C(0)0-CrC6 alkyl, -C(0)0-C C6 haloalkyl, or -C(0)NR9R9;

wherein each R6 is independently selected from the group consisting of: -OR7, -SR7, -NR8R8, -C(0)R7, -C(0)OR7, -C(0)NR8R8, -S(0)2NR8R8, -OC(0)R7, -N(R7)C (O)R7, -OC(0)OR7, -OC(0)NR8R8, -N(R7)C(0)OR7, -N(R7)C(0)NR8R8, and -N(R7)S(0)2R7;

and each R7 is independently hydrogen, Ci-C6 alkyl, or Ci-C6 haloalkyl;

each R8 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C6 alkyl; and

each R9 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C6 alkyl.

2. A method of claim 1 , wherein each R is hydrogen.

3. A method of claim 1 or 2, wherein R2 is Ci-C6 alkyl or -Ci-C6 alkyl-R6, wherein R6

-OR', -SR , or -NR

4. A method of any one of claims 1-3, wherein R3 is Ci-C6 alkyl or -Ci-C6 alkyl-R6, wherein R6 is -OR7, -SR7, or -NR8R8.

5. A method of any one of claims 1-4, wherein R2 and R3 are independently selected from ethyl, /-propyl, and /-butyl.

6. A method of any one of claims 1-5, wherein R4 is -CN.

7. A method of any one of claims 1-6, wherein R5 is -C(0)C C6 alkyl, -C(0)C C6 haloalkyl,-C(0)Ci-C6 alkoxy, or -C(0)Ci-C6 haloalkoxy.

8. A method of claim 7, wherein R5 is -C(0)2CH3.

9. A method according to claim 1, wherein the compound is:

methyl 2-(N-(4,6-bis(isopropylamino)-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl)cyanamido)acetate; or

methyl 2-(N-(4-(/er/-butylamino)-6-(ethylamino)-l,3,5-triazin-2-yl)cyanamido)acetate.

10. The method according to any one of claims 1-9 wherein the virus is selected from the group consisting of: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus, Hendra virus, and Nipah Virus.

11. A method of inhibiting a viral infection in a mammal in need thereof, the viral infection being caused by a virus which requires membrane fusion for viral entry , the method comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound having structural formula (II):

(Π)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein

m is an integer 0, 1, 2, or 3;

n is an integer 0, 1, 2, or 3; each R1 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C6 alkyl;

each R2 is independently halogen, -CN, -N02, -N3, Ci-C6 alkyl, -Ci-C6 haloalkyl, -R4, or -Ci- C6 alkyl-R4; and

each R3 is independently halogen, -CN, -N02, -N3, Ci-C6 alkyl, -Ci-C6 haloalkyl, -R4, or -Ci- C6 alkyl-R4,

wherein each R4 is independently selected from the group consisting of: -

OR5, -SR5, -S(0)R5, -S(0)2R5,-NR6R6, -C(0)R5, -C(0)OR5, -C(0)NR6R6, -S(0)2NR6R6, -OC(0)R5, -N(R5)C(0)R5, and -N(R5)S(0)2R5, in which each R5 is independently hydrogen, Ci-C6 alkyl, or Ci-C6 haloalkyl, and each R6 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C6 alkyl.

12. A method of claim 1 1 , wherein each R1 is hydrogen.

13. A method of claim 1 1 or 12, wherein m is integer 2.

14. A method of any one of claims 1 1-13, wherein n is an integer 1.

15. A method according to any one of claims 1 1-14, wherein each R2 and each R3 are independently halogen, -CN, or Ci-C6 haloalkyl.

16. A method according to claim 15, wherein each R2 is independently halogen, and each R3 is Ci-C6 haloalkyl.

17. A method according to claim 15, wherein each R2 is independently halogen, and each R3 is -CN.

18. A method according to claim 1 1 , wherein the compound is:

1 -(3 ,4-dichloropheny l)-3 -(3 -(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)urea; or

l-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(4-cyanophenyl)urea.

19. The method according to any one of claims 1 1-18 wherein the virus is selected from the group consisting of: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus, Hendra virus, and Nipah Virus.

20. A method of inhibiting viral infection in a mammal in need thereof, the viral infection being caused by a virus which requires membrane fusion for viral entry, the method comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound having structural formula (III):

(III)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein

X is -CH-, -NR7-, -0-, or -S-, where R7 is hydrogen or Ci-C6 alkyl;

Y is -CH-, -NR8-, -0-, or -S-, where R8 is hydrogen or Ci-C6 alkyl;

Z is -S(0)2- or -C(O)-;

m is an integer 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

n is an integer 0, 1, 2, or 3;

each R1 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C6 alkyl;

each R2 is independently halogen, -CN, -N02, -N3, Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, -R4, or -Ci- C6 alkyl-R4; and

each R3 is independently halogen, -CN, -N02, -N3, Ci-C6 alkyl, Ci-C6 haloalkyl, -R4, or -Ci- C6 alkyl-R4,

wherein each R4 is independently selected from the group consisting of: -

OR5, -SR5, -S(0)R5, -S(0)2R5, -NR6R6, -C(0)R5, -C(0)OR5, -C(0)NR6R6, -S(0)2NR6R6, -OC(0)R5, -N(R5)C(0)R5, -OC(0)OR5, -OC(0)NR6R6, -N(R5)C(0)OR5, -N(R5)C(0)NR6R6, and -N(R5)S(0)2R5, in which each R5 is independently hydrogen, Ci-C6 alkyl, or Ci-C6 haloalkyl, and each R6 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C6 alkyl.

21. A method of claim 20, wherein each R1 is independently hydrogen, m is an integer 2, and each R2 is independently halogen, -CN, or Ci-C6 haloalkyl.

22. A method according to claim 21, wherein each R2 is independently halogen.

23. A method of any one of claims 20-22, wherein Z is -S(0)2-.

24. A method of any one of claims 20-23, wherein one of X or Y is -NR1 -, and the other is -0-.

25. A method according to claim 20, wherein the compound is: N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-oxo-2,3-dihydrobenzo[d]oxazole-6-sulfonamide.

26. The method according to any one of claims 20-25, wherein the virus is selected from the group consisting of: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus, Hendra virus, and Nipah Virus.

27. A method according to any of claims 1-26, wherein the virus is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

28. A method according to any of claims 1-26, wherein the virus is Ebola virus.

29. A method according to any of claims 1-26, wherein the virus is Hendra virus.

30. A method according to any of claims 1-26, wherein the virus is Nipah Virus.

31. A method for inhibiting cathepsin L-mediated cleavage of viral glycoprotein-derived peptide in a virus, the method comprising contacting the virus with an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt as described in any of claims 1-26.

32. A method according to claim 31 , wherein the virus is selected from the group consisting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus, Hendra virus and Nipah Virus.

33. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt according to any of claims 1-26, and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable diluents, preservatives, solubilizers, emulsifiers, adjuvants, excipients, or carriers.

Description:
METHODS FOR INHIBITING VIRUSES BY TARGETING CATHEPSIN-L CLEAVAGE SITES IN THE VIRUSES' GLYCOPROTEINS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Patent

Application Serial No. 61/620,054, filed April 4, 2012, the disclosure of which is

incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST

[0002] The invention was made with government support under grant numbers UOl Al 082206 awarded by the National Institutes of Health. The government has certain rights in the invention.

BACKGROUND

Field of the Disclosure

[0003] The disclosure relates to the field of virology. In particular, the disclosure relates to methods and compositions useful for inhibition of viruses that require membrane fusion for viral entry, specifically for inhibiting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS- CoV), Ebola virus (EBOV), Hendra (HeV), and Nipah (NIV) viruses by targeting Cathepsin- L (CatL) cleavages sites in the viruses' glycoproteins.

Description of Related Art

[0004] Enveloped viruses enter the target cells by fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane followed by the delivery of the viral genome to the cytoplasm. SARS- CoV, EBOV, HeV and NiV are highly infectious zoonotic viruses of this type. SARS-CoV belongs to family Coronaviridae and causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) that initially originated in the Guangdong province of China in late 2002, spread rapidly around the world along international air-travel routes, and resulted in a mortality of 10% over different parts of the world (Peiris et al, 2004, Nat Med 10: S88-97). EBOV belongs to family Filoviridae and has been identified as the causative agent of severe hemorrhagic fever with human case fatality rate exceeding 90%> in large outbreaks (Seah, 1978, Can Med Assoc J 118: 347-8, 50). NiV and HeV are closely related and belong to the genus Henipaviruses within the Paramyxoviridae family and were first identified as the etiologic agents responsible for an outbreak of fatal encephalitis among pig farmers in Malaysia and

Singapore in 1999 with a case fatality of 40% (Chua et al, 1999, Lancet 354: 1257-9; Chua et al, 2000, Science 288: 1432-5; Selvey & Sheridan, 1995, J Travel Med 2: 275; Selvey et al, 1995, Med J Aust 162: 642-5).

[0005] SARS-CoV, EBOV, HeV and NiV viruses are enveloped viruses that critically require cathepsin L (CatL), a host intracellular lysosomal protease, for their glycoprotein processing and cleavage allowing for virus fusion and entry into the host cells (Simmons et al, 2005, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102: 11876-81; Kaletsky et al, 2007, J Virol 81 :13378-84; Pager & Dutch, 2005, J Virol 79:12714-20; Pager et al, 2006, Virology 346: 251-7). SARS and Ebola viruses infect target cells after cleavage of their fusion glycoproteins by CathL in the endocytic vesicles. The Hendra and Nipah viruses fusion (F 0 ) protein is translocated to the membrane and then internalized, permitting CatL mediated cleavage into Fi and F 2 subunits, required for fusion. The processed F protein is then incorporated into the viral particle (Pager & Dutch, 2005, J Virol 79: 12714-20; Pager et al, 2006, Virology 346: 251-7).

[0006] The high virulence of these viruses and the absence of effective therapeutic modalities and vaccines pose an ongoing threat to the public health. There are no effective therapies for the above fatal viruses to date. Accordingly, identifying a broad spectrum small molecule antiviral drug would be an advantageous and novel approach for inhibiting those fatal viruses.

[0007] Antiviral drugs can be broadly divided into 4 major classes. The earliest group of antiviral drugs to be defined consisted of nucleoside analogs that interfere with replication of the viral genome. This group includes the first successful antiviral, Acyclovir, which is effective against herpes virus infections and can delay HIV-1 progression (De Clercq & Field, 2006, Br J Pharmacol 147: 1-11; Broder, 2010, Antiviral Res 85: 1-18). The first antiviral drug to be approved for treating HIV, Zidovudine (AZT), is also a nucleoside analogue that blocks reverse transcriptase (De Clercq & Field, 2006, Br J Pharmacol 147: 1- 11; Broder , 2010, Antiviral Res 85: 1-18). However, these nucleoside analogs, which have low affinities to cellular DNA polymerase can only target viruses like HIV and Herpes viruses that use their own polymerases for genome replication.

[0008] The second class of antivirals includes inhibitors of viral proteases, which are involved in the processing of viral protein chains for the final viral assembly and release. Since HIV viral assembly within the host requires a similar protease, considerable research has been performed to discover "protease inhibitors" to attack HIV at that phase of its life cycle. Although protease inhibitors became available in the 1990s and have proven effective, they have exhibited dramatic side effects (Flint et al, 2009, Toxicol Pathol 37: 65-77). The limitation of protease inhibitors use includes inability to target a wide range of viruses as they are highly specific in action and are encoded by only certain viruses.

[0009] A third-class of antivirals that have been investigated includes inhibitors of virus uncoating (Bishop, 1998, Intervirology 41 : 261-71; Almela et al, 1991, J Virol 65: 2572-7). These agents act on virus penetration/uncoating and include Amantadine and Rimantadine which have been introduced to combat influenza. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 100% of seasonal H3N2 and 2009 pandemic flu samples tested have shown resistance to Amantadine which is no longer recommended for treatment of influenza (Salter et al, 2011, Intervirology 54: 305-15).

[0010] The final stage in the life cycle of a virus is the release of matured viruses from the host cell, and this step has also been targeted by a fourth class of antivirals. Two drugs named Zanamivir (Relenza) and Oseltamivir (Tamiflu), which have been recently introduced to treat influenza, prevent the release of viral particles by blocking neuraminidase found on the surface of flu viruses (Collins et al, 2008, Nature 453: 1258-61; Garcia-Sosa et al, 2008, J Chem Inf Model 48: 2074-80). However, the use of these neuraminidase inhibitors is restricted to neuraminidase-containing viruses.

[0011] Each of the above-mentioned antivirals is specific to a particular virus and can, thus, not be termed "broad spectrum". In fact, some of these anti-virals are only effective against a narrow range within the target virus strains. For example, the CDC does not consider Tamiflu as an effective drug in treating H1N1 Seasonal Flu due to His274Tyr mutation which is currently widespread in 99.6% of all tested seasonal H1N1 strains. In fact, tests showed that 99.6% of the tested strains of seasonal H1N1 flu and 0.5% of 2009 pandemic flu were resistant to Tamiflu (Collins et al., 2008, Nature 453: 1258-61; Garcia- Sosa et al, 2008, J Chem Inf Model 48: 2074-80).

[0012] There have been several attempts to discover more effective inhibitors of SARS- CoV, EBOV, HeV and NiV. For example, some inhibitors of papain-like protease were described which inhibit live SARS CoV infection of VeroE6 cells (Ghosh et al, 2010, J Med Chem 53: 4968-79). Even if these inhibitors are proven to be effective in clinical trials, they are still directed against a specific virus. One group has described a small molecule named oxocarbazate which blocks human CatL thus inhibiting SARS-CoV and EBOV pseudotyped virus infection into human embryonic kidney 293T cells (Shah et al., 2010, Mol Pharmacol 78: 319-24). In another study, highly potent inhibitors of human CatL were identified by screening combinatorial pentapeptide amide collections (Brinker et al., 2000, Eur J Biochem 267: 5085-92). However, inhibitors of host proteases can be potentially harmful to host physiology.

[0013] Thus there exists a necessity of defining safe and effective broad spectrum small molecule antiviral drugs against these fatal viral infections.

SUMMARY

[0014] Provided herein are methods for inhibiting a viral infection caused by a virus which requires membrane fusion for viral entry.

[0015] In a first aspect, the disclosure provides methods of inhibiting a viral infection in a mammal in need thereof, the viral infection being caused by a virus which requires membrane fusion for viral entry , the method comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound having structural formula (I):

R 5 N

N^N

R .R 3

N N N

R 1 R 1

(I)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein

each R 1 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

R 2 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl-, heterocyclyl-, aryl-, heteroaryl-, or -Ci- C 6 alkyl-R 6 , each optionally substituted by one or more groups that are each independently halogen, cyano, nitro, hydroxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci-C 6

alkyl)amino, or di(Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino;

R 3 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl-, heterocyclyl-, aryl-, heteroaryl-, or -Ci- C 6 alkyl-R 6 , each optionally substituted by one or more groups that are each independently halogen, cyano, nitro, hydroxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci-C 6

alkyl)amino, or di(Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino;

R 4 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, -CN, -C(0)Ci-C 6 alkyl, -C(0)OCi-C 6 alkyl, -C(0)NR 9 R 9 , or -S(0) 2 Ci-C 6 alkyl; and

R 5 is hydroxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino, di(Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino, -C(0)Ci-C 6 alkyl, -C(0)Ci-C 6 haloalkyl,-C(0)OCi-C 6 alkyl, -C(0)OCi-C 6 haloalkyl,

or -C(0)NR 9 R 9 ; wherein each R 6 is independently selected from the group consisting of: -OR 7 , -SR 7 , -NR 8 R 8 , -C(0)R 7 , -C(0)OR 7 , -C(0)NR 8 R 8 , -S(0) 2 NR 8 R 8 , -OC(0)R 7 , -N(R 7 )C (O)R 7 , -OC(0)OR 7 , -OC(0)NR 8 R 8 , -N(R 7 )C(0)OR 7 , -N(R 7 )C(0)NR 8 R 8 , and -N(R 7 )S(0) 2 R 7 ;

and each R 7 is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl;

each R 8 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl; and

each R 9 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl.

[0016] In a second aspect, the disclosure provides methods of inhibiting a viral infection in a mammal in need thereof, the viral infection being caused by a virus which requires membrane fusion for viral entry, the method comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound having the structural formula (II):

(Π)

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein

m is an integer 0, 1, 2, or 3;

n is an integer 0, 1, 2, or 3;

each R 1 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

each R 2 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, -Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, -R 4 , or -Ci- C 6 alkyl-R 4 ; and

each R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, -Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, -R 4 , or -Ci- C 6 alkyl-R 4 ,

wherein each R 4 is independently selected from the group consisting of: -OR 5 , -SR 5 , -S(0)R 5 , -S(0) 2 R 5 , -NR 6 R 6 , -C(0)R 5 , -C(0)OR 5 , -C(0)NR 6 R 6 , -S(0) 2 NR 6 R 6 , -OC(0)R 5 , -N(R 5 )C(0)R 5 , and -N(R 5 )S(0) 2 R 5 , in which each R 5 is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, and each R 6 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl.

[0017] In a third aspect, the disclosure provides methods of inhibiting a viral infection a mammal in need thereof, the viral infection being caused by a virus which requires membrane fusion for viral entry, the method comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound having structural formula (III): or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein

X is -CH-, -NR 7 -, -0-, or -S-, where R 7 is hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

Y is -CH-, -NR 8 -, -0-, or -S-, where R 8 is hydrogen or C C 6 alkyl;

Z is -S(0) 2 - or -C(O)-;

m is an integer 0, 1 , 2, 3, or 4;

n is an integer 0, 1 , 2, or 3;

each R 1 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

each R 2 is independently halogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, -R 4 , or -Ci-C 6 alkyl-R 4 ; and each R 3 is independently halogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, -R 4 , or -Ci-C 6 alkyl-R 4 , wherein each R 4 is independently selected from the group consisting

of: -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , -OR 5 , -SR 5 , -S(0)R 5 , -

S(0) 2 R 5 , -NR 6 R 6 , -C(0)R 5 , -C(0)OR 5 , -C(0)NR 6 R 6 , -S(0) 2 NR 6 R 6 , - OC(0)R 5 , -N(R 5 )C(0)R 5 , -OC(0)OR 5 , -OC(0)NR 6 R 6 ,

-N(R 5 )C(0)OR 5 , -N(R 5 )C(0)NR 6 R 6 , and -N(R 5 )S(0) 2 R 5 , in which each R 5 is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, and each R 6 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl.

[0018] In a fourth aspect, the disclosure provides methods of for inhibiting cathepsin L mediated cleavage of viral glycoprotein derived peptide in a virus, the method comprising contacting the virus with an effective amount of a compound having structural formula (I), structural formula (II), or structural formula (III), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, as described herein. In certain embodiments, the virus is requires membrane fusion for viral entry. In other certain embodiments, the virus is selected from the group consisting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus, Hendra virus and Nipah Virus.

[0019] In other aspects, the disclosure provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a compound having structural formula (I), (II) or (III) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof as described herein, and one or more

pharmaceutically acceptable diluents, preservatives, solubilizers, emulsifiers, adjuvants, excipients, or carriers. The pharmaceutical composition can be used, for example, for inhibiting a viral infection in a mammal in need thereof, the viral infection being caused by a virus which requires membrane fusion for viral entry. In certain embodiments, the virus is selected from the group consisting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus, Hendra virus and Nipah Virus.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0020] Figure 1 illustrates peptides (10 amino acids long), derived from the

glycoproteins of (A) SARS-CoV, (B) Ebola GP protein derived peptide., (C) Nipah fusion protein (F 0 ) derived peptide, (D) Hendra fusion protein (F 0 ) derived peptide (E) the host pro- neuropeptide Y (pro-NPY) and (F) the host peptide F (Pep F) that contain the naturally conserved CatL cleavage sites. Arrows indicate the Cathepsin L cleavage sites in the corresponding peptides.

[0021] Figure 2 is a MALDI-TOF mass spectrum confirming the cleavage of the synthesized SARS peptide with Cathepsin-L.

[0022] Figure 3 is a MALDI-TOF mass spectrum confirming the cleavage of the synthesized Ebola virus peptide with Cathepsin-L.

[0023] Figure 4 is a MALDI-TOF mass spectrum confirming the cleavage of the synthesized Nipah virus peptide with Cathepsin-L.

[0024] Figure 5 is a MALDI-TOF mass spectrum confirming the cleavage of the synthesized Hendara virus peptide with Cathepsin-L.

[0025] Figure 6 is a schematic of the Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) based assay. In the FRET assay, if the peptide is not cleaved, no fluorescence emission is detected at 520nm when FAM is excited at 485nm due to the quenching effect of Tamra. In contrast, if the peptide gets cleaved, an emission of 520 nm is detected on excitation of FAM at 485nm.

[0026] Figure 7 is a MALDI-TOF mass spectrum confirming the cleavage of the SARS peptide labeled on the N-terminus with 5-Carboxytetramethylrhodamine (Tamra) as a quencher and on the C terminus by 5-Carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM).

[0027] Figure 8 is a MALDI-TOF mass spectrum confirming the cleavage of the Host peptide (NPY) peptide labeled on the N-terminus with 5-Carboxytetramethylrhodamine (Tamra) as a quencher and on the C terminus by 5-Carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM). [0028] Figure 9 is a MALDI-TOF mass spectrum confirming the cleavage of the Ebola virus peptide labeled on the N-terminus with 5-Carboxytetramethylrhodamine (Tamra) as a quencher and on the C terminus by 5-Carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM).

[0029] Figure 10 is a MALDI-TOF mass spectrum confirming the cleavage of the Nipah virus peptide labeled on the N-terminus with 5-Carboxytetramethylrhodamine (Tamra) as a quencher and on the C terminus by 5-Carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM).

[0030] Figure 11 is a MALDI-TOF mass spectrum confirming the cleavage of the Hendra virus peptide labeled on the N-terminus with 5-Carboxytetramethylrhodamine (Tamra) as a quencher and on the C terminus by 5-Carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM).

[0031] Figure 12A is a graph showing that the labeled SARS-CoV derived peptide was cleaved by CatL and the cleavage was measured in the form of increased fluorescence over time with no increase in fluorescence in CatL untreated peptide. Figure 12B is a graph showing the cleavage rate of different viral peptides, human pro-neuropeptide Y (Pro-NPY) and peptide F (Pep F) shown as fluorescence units/min calculated from the slope of the curve at different enzyme concentrations. The bars are the average of an experiment done in triplicates and repeated twice with similar results and error bars represent SD.

[0032] Figures 13A-13D show the HTS screening assay statistics. Figure 13A is a Cathepin-L replicate plot for the 5000 compounds screened against SARS peptide. Figure 13B is a graph showing the Z-factor calculated based on the positive and negative signal obtained in the absence of the tested compounds (Z=.061). Figure 13C is a graph showing the positive and negative signal means per plate. Figure 18D is a graph showing the positive and negative Standard Deviation per plate.

[0033] Figures 14A-14E show HTS screening assay optimization. Figures 14A and 14B are graphs illustrating the fluorescence emitted from a labeled viral peptide (A) SARS peptide (3μΜ) + ^g/ml Cathepsin-L enzyme (B) SARS peptide (ΙμΜ) + 0^g/ml

Cathepsin-L enzyme. Figure 14C is a graph showing the fluorescence in the presence or absence of the Cathepsin-L enzyme for SARS peptide after stopping the reaction by 0.5M acetic acid (Z factor = 0.69). Figures 14D and 14E are graphs showing the cleavage rate of different viral peptides and human peptide respectively shown as average fluorescence units/min at different enzyme concentrations.

[0034] Figure 15 is a graph showing that the labeled SARS -Co V derived peptide (3μΜ) was cleaved by CatL (50ng) and the cleavage was measured in the form of increased fluorescence over time with no increase in fluorescence in CatL untreated peptide (3μΜ). [0035] Figure 16 is a graph showing that the labeled SARS-CoV derived peptide (Ι μΜ) was cleaved by CatL (100 ng and 25 ng) and the cleavage was measured in the form of increased fluorescence over time with no increase in fluorescence in CatL untreated peptide (Ι μΜ).

[0036] Figure 17 is a graph showing the CatL activity against labeled SARS peptide at different enzyme concentrations.

[0037] Figure 18 is a graph illustrating the cleavage profile of SARS peptide with CatL at varying enzyme concentrations.

[0038] Figure 19 is a graph showing the entry inhibition of EBOV, and SARS-CoV pseudotyped viruses using selected compounds. Luciferase expression was determined 72hrs post-transduction and percentage inhibitions were calculated. VSVG pseudotyped virus and DMSO treated viruses were used as negative controls and cathepsin L (Cat L) inhibitor treated cells as a positive control. Error bars represent SD of a representative experiment performed in triplicates.

[0039] Figures 20A-20D are compounds that inhibit the cleavage of the SARS, Nipah, Hendra and Ebola derived peptides with significantly lower inhibition of NPY derived peptide.

[0040] Figure 21A shows the dose dependent cleavage of recombinant SARS-CoV S- flag protein by CatL. The SARS-CoV S-flag protein was incubated with increasing concentrations of CatL (0.5, 1 , and 2 μg/ml) for 4hrs and the cleavage of the protein was detected by western blot using antiflag mouse monoclonal antibody. Figures 21B and 21C show the inhibition of the cat L mediated leavage of SARS-CoV S-flag protein by the compounds 5705213 and 7402683 respectively. The SARS-CoV S-flag protein was incubated with 2 μg/ml of CatL for 4hrs at room temperature in absence or in presence of increasing concentration of the inhibitors (10-320 μΜ). The control (Ctrl) lane represents the S-flag protein in absence of the enzyme and inhibitor. Cat L inhibitor cat L inh.) was used as a positive control of inhibition. Asterisks represent non-specific bands.

[0041] Figures 22 A and 22B show endogenous processing of Nipah and Hendra F 0 protein respectively in the presence and in the absence of the inhibitor 5705213 and the derivative 7402683. 293FT cells were transfected with Nipah or Hendra F 0 plasmid then treated with the inhibitors at ΙΟΟμΜ concentration 4 hrs post-transfection. The cathepsin L inhibitor (CatL inh.) was used as a control. The cells were lysed 48hrs later and Fo processing was determined by western blot using cross reactive anti-Nipah and Hendra F protein monoclonal antibody. F 0 represents uncleaved fusion protein while Fi is the fusion subunit of the F 0 protein. Figure 22C shows the percentage entry inhibition using various inhibitors. Nipah and Hendra pseudotyped viruses were prepared in presence of ΙΟΟμΜ of each inhibitor and entry into 293FT cells in presence of the inhibitors (ΙΟΟμΜ) was quantified by measuring luciferase expression 72hrs post-transduction. VSVG pseudotyped virus was used as a negative control and cathepsin L inhibitor (Cat L inh.) as a positive control. Error bars are SD of a representative experiment performed in triplicates.

[0042] Figures 23A-23D are Lineweaver-Burk plots. Different concentrations (2-64μΜ) of labeled SARS-CoV derived peptide (A), labeled Ebola derived peptide (B), labeled Hendra derived peptide (C), and labeled Nipah derived peptide (D) were incubated with 0^g/ml of CatL for 40 min. in the presence and in the absence of the inhibitor 5705213. The reaction was stopped with 0.5M acetic acid after which the fluorescence was measured at 535nm after excitation at 485nm. The velocity of the reaction was calculated as fluorescence units/min. The reciprocal of substrate concentration was plotted against the reciprocal of velocity to get the Lineweaver-Burk plot. The K m was calculated from the y intercept (Vmax) and slope (K m I Vmax) in absence and in presence of the inhibitor.

[0043] Figures 24A-24E show the chemical structures of the inhibitory compounds identified by pseudovirus inhibition assay. Four compounds (A) Compound 5182554, (B) Compound 7910528, (C) Compound 7914021, (D) Compound 5705213, and (E) 5705213 derivative (7402683) showed inhibition of both EBOV and SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus entry.

[0044] Figures 25A-25B demonstrate that compound 5705213 and its derivative are not cytotoxic and their actions are specific. Figure 25(A) is a graph showing that the four compounds identified in the pseudovirus entry inhibition assay, with the highest inhibitory effect on both EBOV and SARS-CoV pseudotyped viruses, were tested for their cytotoxic effect on 293FT cells. MTT assay was performed over 3 days using different concentrations of each compound to assess cell viability. Error bars are SD of a representative experiment performed in triplicates. Figure 25(B) is a graph showing that different concentrations of the selected non cytotoxic compound and its derivative were tested against VSVG pseudotyped virus and the infection normalized to untreated virus was calculated. Error bars represent SD of a representative experiment performed in triplicates.

[0045] Figures 26A-26B are graph showing SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus entry was more inhibited by a combination of 5705213 and protease inhibitor in cells expressing TMPRSS2 protease. For Figure 26A, entry of pseudotyped SARS-CoV was measured into 293FT cells transfected with either the human SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 plasmid only or the receptor plus increasing amounts of TMPRSS2 protease plasmid. HIV/ΔΕ virus which does not express the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein was used as a negative control of entry. Entry was quantified by measuring the luciferase expression in cell lysates 72 hrs post- transduction in terms of Relative Light Units (RLU). Error bars are SD of a representative experiment performed in triplicates. For Figure 26B, entry of pseudotyped SARS-CoV into 293FT cells, transfected with either the receptor only (ACE2 plasmid) or receptor plus lOng of TMPRSS2 plasmid, in the presence or absence (mock) of different inhibitors. Error bars are SD of a representative experiment performed in triplicates.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DISCLOSURE

[0046] The disclosure provides methods for inhibiting viral replication. In particular, the methods are directed to inhibiting viral replication in viruses that utilize cathepsin L (CatL) as part of their infectious process.

[0047] In particular aspects, the methods for inhibiting viral replication are directed to viruses wherein CatL is implicated in the viral process. For example, SARS-CoV, EBOV, HeV and Niv are enveloped viruses that require CatL for glycoprotein processing and cleavage for virus fusion and entry into a host cell.

[0048] CatL is an important host protease involved in processing and biosynthesis of neuropeptides like proenkephalin, proneuropeptide Y (Pro-NPY), prodynorphin and proganalin. Thus, broadly and indiscriminately blocking CatL enzymatic activity could have dramatic side effects on human health. However, the compounds described herein inhibit the cleavage of a viral glycoprotein derived peptide with minimal inhibition to the host pro- neuropetide Y derived peptide.

[0049] One aspect of the disclosure provides methods of inhibiting a viral infection in a mammal in need thereof, the viral infection being caused by a virus which requires membrane fusion for viral entry, the method comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound having structural formula (I) as described above. In certain embodiments, the virus is selected from the group consisting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus, Hendra virus and Nipah Virus.

[0050] In one embodiment, the disclosure provides methods wherein each R 1 in formula (I) is hydrogen.

[0051] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where R 2 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, C3-C8 cycloalkyl-, heterocyclyl-, aryl- or heteroaryl-, each optionally substituted by one or more groups that are each independently halogen, cyano, nitro, hydroxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci- C 6 alkyl)amino, or di(Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino.

[0052] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where R 2 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl-, heterocyclyl-, or -Ci-C 6 alkyl-R 6 , each optionally substituted by one or more groups that are each independently halogen, cyano, nitro, hydroxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci- C 6 alkyl)amino, or di(Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino. In certain such embodiments, the cycloalkyl and heterocyclyl are saturated.

[0053] In certain embodiments, R 2 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -Ci-C 6 alkyl-R 6 . In other embodiments, R 2 is Ci-C 6 alkyl or -Ci-C 6 alkyl-R 6 , wherein R 6 is -OR 7 , -SR 7 , or -NR 8 R 8 .

[0054] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where R 2 is Ci-C 6 alkyl. In other embodiments, R 2 is C 2 -C 6 alkyl. In other embodiments, R 2 is C 2 -C5 alkyl. In other embodiments, R 2 is C 2 -C 4 alkyl. In other embodiments, R 2 is C 3 -C 4 alkyl.

[0055] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where R 2 is ethyl, /-propyl, or /-butyl.

[0056] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where R 3 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl-, heterocyclyl-, aryl-, heteroaryl-, C 3 -C 8 cycloalkyl(Ci-C 6 alkyl)-, heterocyclyl(Ci- C 6 alkyl)-, aryl(Ci-C 6 alkyl)-, or heteroaryl(Ci-C 6 alkyl)-, each optionally substituted by one or more groups that are each independently halogen, cyano, nitro, hydroxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino, or di(Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino.

[0057] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where R 3 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, C3-C 8 cycloalkyl-, heterocyclyl-, or -Ci-C 6 alkyl-R 6 , each optionally substituted by one or more groups that are each independently halogen, cyano, nitro, hydroxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci- C 6 alkyl)amino, or di(Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino. In certain such embodiments, the cycloalkyl and heterocyclyl are saturated.

[0058] In other embodiments, R 3 is C r C 6 alkyl, C C 6 haloalkyl, or -C C 6 alkyl-R 6 . In yet other embodiments, R 3 is Ci-C 6 alkyl or -Ci-C 6 alkyl-R 6 , wherein R 6 is -OR 7 , -SR 7 , or -NR 8 R 8 .

[0059] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where R 3 is Ci-C 6 alkyl. In other embodiments, R 3 is C 2 -C6 alkyl. In other embodiments, R 3 is C 2 -C5 alkyl. In other embodiments, R 3 is C 2 -C4 alkyl. In other embodiments, R 3 is C 3 -C 3 alkyl.

[0060] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where R 3 is ethyl, /-propyl, or /-butyl.

[0061] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where both R 2 and R 3 are ethyl.

[0062] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where both R 2 and R 3 are /-propyl.

[0063] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where both R 2 and R 3 are /-butyl.

[0064] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where R 2 is /-propyl or /-butyl, and R 3 is ethyl. In some embodiments, R 2 is /-butyl, and R 3 is ethyl.

[0065] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where R 2 is /-propyl, and R 3 are /-butyl.

[0066] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where R 4 is hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6

haloalkyl, -CN,

-C(0)Ci-C 6 alkyl, or -C(0)OCi-C 6 alkyl. In one embodiment, R 4 is hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -CN. In another embodiment, R 4 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or - CN.

[0067] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where R 4 is -CN.

[0068] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where R 5 is hydrogen, -CN, -C(0)Ci-C 6

alkyl, -C(0)Ci-C 6 haloalkyl,-C(0)OCi-C 6 alkyl, -C(0)OC C 6 haloalkyl, -C(0)NR 9 R 9 , or -S(0) 2 Ci-C 6 alkyl. In one embodiment, R 5 is hydrogen or -CN.

[0069] In another embodiment, R 5 is -C(0)Ci-C 6 alkyl, -C(0)Ci-C 6 haloalkyl,-C(0)OCi- C 6 alkyl, -C(0)OCi-C 6 haloalkyl, -C(0)NR 9 R 9 , or -S(0) 2 Ci-C 6 alkyl. In yet another embodiment, R 5 is -C(0)C C 6 alkyl, -C(0)C C 6 haloalkyl,-C(0)OCi-C 6 alkyl,

or -C(0)OCi-C 6 haloalkyl.

[0070] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) wherein R 5 is -C(0)OCi-C 6 alkyl or -C(0)OCi-C 6 haloalkyl. [0071] In one embodiment, R 5 is -C(0)OCi-C 6 alkyl. In another embodiment, R 5 is -C(0) 2 CH 3 , -C(0) 2 CH 2 CH 3 , -C(0) 2 (CH 2 ) 2 ,CH 3 , -C(0) 2 CH(CH 3 ) 2 , or -C(0) 2 C(CH 3 ) 3 .

[0072] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) wherein R 5 is -C(0) 2 CH 3 .

[0073] One exemplary embodiment according to the second aspect described herein includes methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) wherein: each R 1 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

R 2 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, C 3 -Cg cycloalkyl-, heterocyclyl-, aryl-, heteroaryl-, or -Ci- C 6 alkyl-R 6 , each optionally substituted by one or more groups that are each independently halogen, cyano, nitro, hydroxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino, or di(Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino;

R 3 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, C 3 -Cg cycloalkyl-, heterocyclyl-, aryl-, heteroaryl-, or -Ci- C 6 alkyl-R 7 , each optionally substituted by one or more groups that are each independently halogen, cyano, nitro, hydroxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino, or di(Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino;

R 4 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -CN; and

R 5 is hydroxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino, di(Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino, -C(0)Ci-C 6 alkyl, -C(0)Ci-C 6 haloalkyl,-C(0)OCi-C 6 alkyl, -C(0)OCi-C 6 haloalkyl,

or -C(0)NR 9 R 9 .

[0074] Another exemplary embodiment according to the second aspect described herein includes methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) wherein: each R 1 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

R 2 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -Ci-C 6 alkyl-R 6 , each optionally substituted by one or more groups that are each independently halogen, cyano, nitro, hydroxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino, or di(Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino;

R 3 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -Ci-C 6 alkyl-R 7 , each optionally substituted by one or more groups that are each independently halogen, cyano, nitro, hydroxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino, or di(Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino;

R 4 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -CN; and

R 5 is hydroxy, Ci-C 6 alkoxy, amino, (Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino, di(Ci-C 6 alkyl)amino, -C(0)Ci-C 6 alkyl, -C(0)Ci-C 6 haloalkyl,-C(0)OCi-C 6 alkyl, -C(0)OCi-C 6 haloalkyl,

or -C(0)NR 9 R 9 .

[0075] Another exemplary embodiment according to the second aspect described herein includes methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) wherein: each R 1 is independently hydrogen;

R 2 is Ci-C 6 alkyl or -Ci-C 6 alkyl-R 6 ;

R 3 is Ci-C 6 alkyl or -Ci-C 6 alkyl-R 6 ;

R 4 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -CN; and

R 5 is -C(0)Ci-C 6 alkyl, -C(0)C C 6 haloalkyl,-C(0)OCi-C 6 alkyl, or -C(0)OC C 6 haloalkyl.

[0076] Another exemplary embodiment according to the second aspect described herein includes methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) wherein: each R 1 is independently hydrogen;

R 2 is C 2 -C 6 alkyl;

R 3 is C 2 -C 6 alkyl;

R 4 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -CN; and

R 5 is -C(0)Ci-C 6 alkyl, -C(0)Ci-C 6 haloalkyl,-C(0)OCi-C 6 alkyl, or -C(0)Ci-C 6 haloalkyl.

[0077] Another exemplary embodiment according to the second aspect described herein includes methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) wherein: each R 1 is independently hydrogen;

R 2 is C 2 -C 4 alkyl;

R 3 is C 2 -C 4 alkyl;

R 4 is Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -CN; and

R 5 is -C(0)Ci-C 6 alkyl, -C(0)Ci-C 6 haloalkyl,-C(0)OCi-C 6 alkyl, or -C(0)OCi-C 6 haloalkyl.

[0078] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where each Ci-C 6 alkyl is a Ci-C 4 alkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where each Ci-C 6 alkyl is a C 1 -C 2 alkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where each Ci-C 6 haloalkyl is a Ci-C 4 haloalkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where each Ci-C 6 haloalkyl is a C 1 -C 2 haloalkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where each Ci-C 6 haloalkyl is a Ci-C 4 fluoroalkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where each Ci-C 6 haloalkyl is a Ci-C 2 fluoroalkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (I) where each aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl and heterocycloalkyl is monocyclic and is not fused to another ring.

[0079] Certain exemplary compounds having structural formula (I) include:

methyl 2-(N-(4,6-bis(isopropylamino)-l,3,5-triazin-2- yl)cyanamido)acetate; and

methyl 2-(N-(4-(tert-butylamino)-6-(ethylamino)-l,3,5-triazin-2- yl)cyanamido)acetate.

These compounds can be purchased, for example, from ChemBridge Corporation.

[0080] A second aspect of the disclosure provides methods of inhibiting a viral infection in a mammal in need thereof, the viral infection being caused by a virus which requires membrane fusion for viral entry, the method comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound having the structural formula (II) as described above. In certain embodiments, the virus is selected from the group consisting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus, Hendra virus and Nipah Virus.

[0081] In one embodiment, the disclosure provides methods wherein each R 1 in structural formula (II) is hydrogen.

[0082] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where m is an integer 1, 2, or 3. In certain

embodiments, m is an integer 2 or 3. In other embodiments, m is an integer 2.

[0083] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where n is an integer 1 , 2, or 3. In certain

embodiments, n is an integer 1 or 2. In other embodiments, n is an integer 1. In still other embodiments, n is 0.

[0084] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where each R 2 and each R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -R 4 . In one embodiment, each R 2 and each R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl. In certain embodiments, each R 2 and each R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl.

[0085] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where each R 2 independently

halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -R 4 , and each R 3

independently -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -R 4 . In one embodiment, each R 2 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, and each each R 3 is independently -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl. In certain embodiments, each R 2 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, and each R 3 is independently -CN, -N0 2 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl.

[0086] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where each R 4 is independently selected from the group consisting of: -OR 5 , -SR 5 , -S(0)R 5 , - S(0) 2 R 5 , -NR 6 R 6 , -C(0)R 5 , -C(0)OR 5 , -C(0)NR 6 R 6 ,

-S(0) 2 NR 6 R 6 , -OC(0)R 5 , -N(R 5 )C(0)R 5 and -N(R 5 )S(0) 2 R 5 . In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where each R 4 is independently selected from the group consisting of -OR 5 , -SR 5 , -S(0)R 5 , -S(0) 2 R 5 , -NR 6 R 6 and -C(0)R 5 .

[0087] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where each R 2 and each R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -R 4 , where R 4 is independently selected from the group consisting of: -C(0)R 5 , -C(0)OR 5 , -C(0)NR 6 R 6 , and -S(0) 2 NR 6 R 6 .

[0088] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where each R 2 and each R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl.

[0089] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where each R 2 is independently halogen, and each R 3 is Ci-C 6 haloalkyl. Optionally, in this embodiment m may be an integer 2 and n may be an integer 1.

[0090] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where two R 2 moieties represent 3,4-dihalo- substitution on the phenyl ring. Such substitution includes, but is not limited to 3,4-dichloro-; 3-chloro-4-fluoro-; 3-fluoro-4-chloro-; and 3,4-difluoro-substitutuion. [0091] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where one R 3 moiety represents 3-haloalkyl- substituted phenyl ring. Exemplary 3 -haloalkyl- substitution includes 3-trifluoromethyl (e.g., one R 1 is present at 3 -position)

[0092] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where each R 2 is independently halogen, and each R 3 is -CN. Optionally, in this embodiment m may be an integer 1 and n may be an integer 1.

[0093] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where m is an integer 1, 2, or 3, and n is an integer 0 (e.g., there is no R 3 substitution).

[0094] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where m is an integer 0 (e.g., there is no R 2 substitution), and n is an integer 1, 2, or 3.

[0095] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where m is an integer 0 (e.g., there is no R 2 substitution).

[0096] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where n is an integer 0 (e.g., there is no R 3 substitution).

[0097] One exemplary embodiment according to the first aspect described herein also includes methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) wherein: m is an integer 0, 1, 2, or 3;

n is an integer 0, 1, 2, or 3;

each R 1 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

each R 2 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -R 4 ; and each R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -R 4 , wherein each R 4 is independently selected from the group consisting of: -OR 5 , -SR 5 , and -NR 6 R 6 , in which each R 5 is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci- C 6 haloalkyl, and each R 6 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl.

[0098] Another exemplary embodiment according to the first aspect described herein also includes methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) wherein: m is an integer 0, 1, 2, or 3;

n is an integer 0, 1, 2, or 3;

each R 1 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl; each R 2 is independently halogen, -CN, Ci-C 6 alkyl, or -R 4 ; and

each R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, Ci-C 6 alkyl, or -R 4 ,

wherein each R 4 is independently selected from the group consisting of: -OR 5 , -SR 5 , and -NR 6 R 6 , in which each R 5 is independently hydrogen, Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci- C 6 haloalkyl, and each R 6 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl.

[0099] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where each Ci-C 6 alkyl is a C 1 -C 4 alkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where each Ci-C 6 alkyl is a Ci-C 2 alkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where each Ci-C 6 haloalkyl is a C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where each Ci-C 6 haloalkyl is a Ci-C 2 haloalkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where each Ci-C 6 haloalkyl is a C 1 -C 4 fluoroalkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (II) where each Ci-C 6 haloalkyl is a Ci-C 2 fluoroalkyl.

[0100] Exemplary compounds having structural formula (II) include:

1 -(3 ,4-dichloro henyl)-3 -(3 -(trifluoromethy l)pheny l)urea; and

l-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(4-cyanophenyl)urea.

Such compounds can be purchased, for example, from ChemBridge Corporation.

[0101] A third aspect of the disclosure provides methods of inhibiting a viral infection in a mammal in need thereof, the viral infection being caused by a virus which requires membrane fusion for viral entry, the method comprising administering to the mammal an effective amount of a compound having the structural formula (III) as described above. In certain embodiments, the virus is selected from the group consisting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus, Hendra virus and Nipah Virus. [0102] In one embodiment, the disclosure provides methods wherein R 1 is hydrogen.

[0103] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where m is an integer 1, 2, or 3. In other

embodiments, m is an integer 2 or 3. In certain embodiments, m is an integer 2.

[0104] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where each R 2 is independently

halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -R 4 . In certain embodiments, each

R 2 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl. In particular embodiments, each R 2 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl.

[0105] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where wherein each R 2 is independently

halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -R 4 , where R 4 is independently selected from the group consisting of: -C(0)R 5 , -C(0)OR 5 , -C(0)NR 6 R 6 , and -S(0) 2 NR 6 R 6 .

[0106] In other particular embodiments of the disclosure, the compounds with any reference to structural formula (III) are those wherein each R 2 is independently halogen, -CN, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl.

[0107] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where each R 2 moiety is independently halogen. In certain embodiments, two R 2 moieties represent 3,4-dihalo-substitution on the phenyl ring. Such substitution includes, but is not limited to 3,4-dichloro-; 3-chloro-4-fluoro-; 3-fluoro-4- chloro-; and 3,4-difluoro-substitutuion.

[0108] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where n is an integer 1 or 2. In certain embodiments, n is an integer 1. In certain embodiments, n is an integer 2.

[0109] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) wherein each R 3 is independently

halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -R 4 . In particular embodiments, each R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl. In other embodiments, R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, Ci-C 6 alkyl, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl. In particular embodiments, each R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, or Ci-C 6 haloalkyl.

[0110] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where n is an integer 0 (e.g., there is no R 3

substitution). [0111] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where Z is -S(0) 2 -.

[0112] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where X is -NR 1 -, -0-, or -S-. In particular embodiments, X is -NR 1 - or -0-.

[0113] In other embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where Y is -NR 1 -, -0-, or -S-. In particular embodiments, Y is -NR 1 - or -0-.

[0114] In particular embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where one of X or Y is -NR 1 -, and the other is -O -. In certain embodiments, X is -NR 1 -, and Y is -0-.

[0115] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III), having structural formula (Ill-a):

(Ill-a).

[0116] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III), having structural formula (Ill-b):

(Ill-b).

[0117] In certain embodiments, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III), having structural formula (III-c):

(III-c).

[0118] One exemplary embodiment according to the second aspect described herein includes methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) wherein: X is -NR -, -0-, or -S-, where R is hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

Y is -NR 8 -, -0-, or -S-, where R 8 is hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

Z is -S(0) 2 - or -C(O)-;

m is an integer 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

n is an integer 0, 1, 2, or 3;

each R 1 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

each R 2 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, -R 4 , or -Ci- C 6 alkyl-R 4 ; and

each R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, -R 4 , or -Ci- C 6 alkyl-R 4 ,

[0119] Another exemplary embodiment according to the second aspect described herein includes methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) wherein: X is -NR 7 -, -0-, or -S-, where R 7 is hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

Y is -NR 8 -, -0-, or -S-, where R 8 is hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

Z is -S(0) 2 - or -C(O)-;

m is an integer 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

n is an integer 0, 1, 2, or 3;

each R 1 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

each R 2 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, -R 4 , or -Ci- C 6 alkyl-R 4 ; and

each R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, -R 4 , or -Ci- C 6 alkyl-R 4 .

wherein each R 4 is independently selected from the group consisting of: -OR 5 , -SR 5 , -NR 6 R 6 .

[0120] Another exemplary embodiment according to the second aspect described herein includes methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) wherein: X is -NR 7 -, -0-, or -S-, where R 7 is hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

Y is -NR 8 -, -0-, or -S-, where R 8 is hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

Z is -S(0) 2 - or -C(O)-;

m is an integer 0, 1, 2, or 3;

n is an integer 0, 1, or 2;

each R 1 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

each R 2 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -R 4 ; and each R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -R 4 ; wherein each R 4 is independently selected from the group consisting of: -OR 5 , -SR 5 , -NR 6 R 6 .

[0121] Another exemplary embodiment according to the second aspect described herein includes methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) wherein: X is -NR 7 - or -0-, where R 7 is hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

Y is -NR 8 - or -0-, where R 8 is hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

Z is -S(0) 2 - or -C(O)-;

m is an integer 0, 1, 2, or 3;

n is an integer 0, 1, or 2;

each R 1 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

each R 2 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , or -R 4 ; and

each R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , or -R 4 ,

wherein each R 4 is independently selected from the group consisting of: -OR 5 , -SR 5 , and -NR 6 R 6 .

[0122] Another exemplary embodiment according to the second aspect described herein includes methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) wherein: X is -NR 7 - or -0-, where R 7 is hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

Y is -NR 8 - or -0-, where R 8 is hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

Z is -S(0) 2 -;

m is an integer 0, 1, 2, or 3;

n is an integer 0, 1, or 2;

each R 1 is independently hydrogen or Ci-C 6 alkyl;

each R 2 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -R 4 ; and each R 3 is independently halogen, -CN, -N0 2 , -N 3 , Ci-C 6 alkyl, Ci-C 6 haloalkyl, or -R 4 , wherein each R 4 is independently selected from the group consisting of: -OR 5 , -SR 5 , and -NR 6 R 6 .

[0123] In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where each Ci-C 6 alkyl is a C 1 -C 4 alkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where each Ci-C 6 alkyl is a Ci-C 2 alkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where each Ci-C 6 haloalkyl is a C 1 -C 4 haloalkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where each Ci-C 6 haloalkyl is a Ci-C 2 haloalkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where each Ci-C 6 haloalkyl is a C 1 -C4 fluoroalkyl. In another embodiment, the disclosure provides methods as described above with any reference to structural formula (III) where each Ci-C 6 haloalkyl is a C 1 -C 2 fluoroalkyl.

[0124] One exemplary compound having structural formula (III) is:

N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-oxo-2,3-dihydrobenzo[d]oxazole-6-su lfonamide.

This compound can, for example, be purchased from ChemBridge Corporation.

[0125] In a fourth aspect, the disclosure provides methods for inhibiting cathepsin L- mediated cleavage of viral glycoprotein-derived peptide in a virus, the method comprising contacting the virus with an effective amount of a compound having structural formula (I), structural formula (II), or structural formula (III) as described herein. As noted above and as described in more detail below, the compounds described herein can inhibit the cleavage of viral glycoprotein-derived peptide, with minimal inhibition to the host pro-neuropeptide Y- derived peptide. In certain embodiments, the virus is selected from the group consisting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus, Hendra virus and Nipah Virus. But as the person of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate, the methods can be useful with any virus that utilizes cathepsin L (CatL) as part of its infectious process.

[0126] In other aspects, the disclosure provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a compound having structural formula (I), (II) or (III) as described herein, and one or more pharmaceutically acceptable diluents, preservatives, solubilizers, emulsifiers, adjuvants, excipients, or carriers. The pharmaceutical composition can be used, for example, for inhibiting a viral infection in a mammal in need thereof, the viral infection being caused by a virus selected from the group consisting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus, Hendra virus and Nipah Virus.

[0127] In certain aspects, the disclosure provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising the compounds of the disclosure together with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable excipients or vehicles, and optionally other therapeutic and/or prophylactic ingredients. Such excipients include liquids such as water, saline, glycerol, polyethylene glycol, hyaluronic acid, ethanol, and the like. [0128] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable vehicle" refers to a diluent, adjuvant, excipient or carrier with which a compound of the disclosure is administered. The terms "effective amount" or "pharmaceutically effective amount" refer to a nontoxic but sufficient amount of the agent to provide the desired biological result. That result can be reduction and/or alleviation of the signs, symptoms, or causes of a disease, or any other desired alteration of a biological system. An appropriate "effective" amount in any individual case can be determined by one of ordinary skill in the art using routine experimentation.

[0129] "Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers" for therapeutic use are well known in the pharmaceutical art, and are described, for example, in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th Edition (Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing Company, 1990). For example, sterile saline and phosphate-buffered saline at physiological pH can be used. Preservatives, stabilizers, dyes and even flavoring agents can be provided in the pharmaceutical

composition. For example, sodium benzoate, sorbic acid and esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid can be added as preservatives. Id. at 1449. In addition, antioxidants and suspending agents can be used. Id.

[0130] Suitable excipients for non-liquid formulations are also known to those of skill in the art. A thorough discussion of pharmaceutically acceptable excipients and salts is available in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th Edition (Easton, Pennsylvania: Mack

Publishing Company, 1990).

[0131] Additionally, auxiliary substances, such as wetting or emulsifying agents, biological buffering substances, surfactants, and the like, can be present in such vehicles. A biological buffer can be any solution which is pharmacologically acceptable and which provides the formulation with the desired pH, i.e., a pH in the physiologically acceptable range. Examples of buffer solutions include saline, phosphate buffered saline, Tris buffered saline, Hank's buffered saline, and the like.

[0132] Depending on the intended mode of administration, the pharmaceutical compositions can be in the form of solid, semi-solid or liquid dosage forms, such as, for example, tablets, suppositories, pills, capsules, powders, liquids, suspensions, creams, ointments, lotions or the like, preferably in unit dosage form suitable for single administration of a precise dosage. The compositions will include an effective amount of the selected drug in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier and, in addition, can include other pharmaceutical agents, adjuvants, diluents, buffers, and the like.

[0133] In general, the compositions of the disclosure will be administered in a therapeutically effective amount by any of the accepted modes of administration. Suitable dosage ranges depend upon numerous factors such as the severity of the disease to be treated, the age and relative health of the subject, the potency of the compound used, the route and form of administration, the indication towards which the administration is directed, and the preferences and experience of the medical practitioner involved. One of ordinary skill in the art of treating such diseases will be able, without undue experimentation and in reliance upon personal knowledge and the disclosure of this application, to ascertain a therapeutically effective amount of the compositions of the disclosure for a given disease.

[0134] Thus, the compositions of the disclosure can be administered as pharmaceutical formulations including those suitable for oral (including buccal and sub-lingual), rectal, nasal, topical, pulmonary, vaginal or parenteral (including intramuscular, intra-arterial, intrathecal, subcutaneous and intravenous) administration or in a form suitable for administration by inhalation or insufflation. The preferred manner of administration is intravenous or oral using a convenient daily dosage regimen which can be adjusted according to the degree of affliction.

[0135] For solid compositions, conventional nontoxic solid carriers include, for example, pharmaceutical grades of mannitol, lactose, starch, magnesium stearate, sodium saccharin, talc, cellulose, glucose, sucrose, magnesium carbonate, and the like. Liquid pharmaceutically administrable compositions can, for example, be prepared by dissolving, dispersing, and the like, an active compound as described herein and optional pharmaceutical adjuvants in an excipient, such as, for example, water, saline, aqueous dextrose, glycerol, ethanol, and the like, to thereby form a solution or suspension. If desired, the pharmaceutical composition to be administered can also contain minor amounts of nontoxic auxiliary substances such as wetting or emulsifying agents, pH buffering agents and the like, for example, sodium acetate, sorbitan monolaurate, triethanolamine sodium acetate, triethanolamine oleate, and the like. Actual methods of preparing such dosage forms are known, or will be apparent, to those skilled in this art; for example, see Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, referenced above.

[0136] In yet another embodiment is the use of permeation enhancer excipients including polymers such as: poly cations (chitosan and its quaternary ammonium derivatives, poly-L- arginine, aminated gelatin); polyanions (N-carboxymethyl chitosan, poly-acrylic acid); and, thiolated polymers (carboxymethyl cellulose-cysteine, polycarbophil-cysteine, chitosan- thiobutylamidine, chitosan-thiogly colic acid, chitosan-glutathione conjugates).

[0137] For oral administration, the composition will generally take the form of a tablet, capsule, a softgel capsule or can be an aqueous or nonaqueous solution, suspension or syrup. Tablets and capsules are preferred oral administration forms. Tablets and capsules for oral use can include one or more commonly used carriers such as lactose and corn starch.

Lubricating agents, such as magnesium stearate, are also typically added. Typically, the compositions of the disclosure can be combined with an oral, non-toxic, pharmaceutically acceptable, inert carrier such as lactose, starch, sucrose, glucose, methyl callulose, magnesium stearate, dicalcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, mannitol, sorbitol and the like. Moreover, when desired or necessary, suitable binders, lubricants, disintegrating agents, and coloring agents can also be incorporated into the mixture. Suitable binders include starch, gelatin, natural sugars such as glucose or beta-lactose, corn sweeteners, natural and synthetic gums such as acacia, tragacanth, or sodium alginate, carboxymethylcellulose, polyethylene glycol, waxes, and the like. Lubricants used in these dosage forms include sodium oleate, sodium stearate, magnesium stearate, sodium benzoate, sodium acetate, sodium chloride, and the like. Disintegrators include, without limitation, starch, methyl cellulose, agar, bentonite, xanthan gum, and the like.

[0138] When liquid suspensions are used, the active agent can be combined with any oral, non-toxic, pharmaceutically acceptable inert carrier such as ethanol, glycerol, water, and the like and with emulsifying and suspending agents. If desired, flavoring, coloring and/or sweetening agents can be added as well. Other optional components for incorporation into an oral formulation herein include, but are not limited to, preservatives, suspending agents, thickening agents, and the like.

[0139] Parenteral formulations can be prepared in conventional forms, either as liquid solutions or suspensions, solid forms suitable for solubilization or suspension in liquid prior to injection, or as emulsions. Preferably, sterile injectable suspensions are formulated according to techniques known in the art using suitable carriers, dispersing or wetting agents and suspending agents. The sterile injectable formulation can also be a sterile injectable solution or a suspension in a nontoxic parenterally acceptable diluent or solvent. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that can be employed are water, Ringer's solution and isotonic sodium chloride solution. In addition, sterile, fixed oils, fatty esters or polyols are conventionally employed as solvents or suspending media. In addition, parenteral administration can involve the use of a slow release or sustained release system such that a constant level of dosage is maintained.

[0140] Parenteral administration includes intraarticular, intravenous, intramuscular, intradermal, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes, and include aqueous and non-aqueous, isotonic sterile injection solutions, which can contain antioxidants, buffers, bacteriostats, and solutes that render the formulation isotonic with the blood of the intended recipient, and aqueous and non-aqueous sterile suspensions that can include suspending agents, solubilizers, thickening agents, stabilizers, and preservatives. Administration via certain parenteral routes can involve introducing the formulations of the disclosure into the body of a patient through a needle or a catheter, propelled by a sterile syringe or some other mechanical device such as an continuous infusion system. A formulation provided by the disclosure can be administered using a syringe, injector, pump, or any other device recognized in the art for parenteral administration.

[0141] Preferably, sterile injectable suspensions are formulated according to techniques known in the art using suitable carriers, dispersing or wetting agents and suspending agents. The sterile injectable formulation can also be a sterile injectable solution or a suspension in a nontoxic parenterally acceptable diluent or solvent. Among the acceptable vehicles and solvents that can be employed are water, Ringer's solution and isotonic sodium chloride solution. In addition, sterile, fixed oils, fatty esters or polyols are conventionally employed as solvents or suspending media. In addition, parenteral administration can involve the use of a slow release or sustained release system such that a constant level of dosage is maintained.

[0142] Preparations according to the disclosure for parenteral administration include sterile aqueous or non-aqueous solutions, suspensions, or emulsions. Examples of nonaqueous solvents or vehicles are propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, vegetable oils, such as olive oil and corn oil, gelatin, and injectable organic esters such as ethyl oleate. Such dosage forms can also contain adjuvants such as preserving, wetting, emulsifying, and dispersing agents. They can be sterilized by, for example, filtration through a bacteria retaining filter, by incorporating sterilizing agents into the compositions, by irradiating the compositions, or by heating the compositions. They can also be manufactured using sterile water, or some other sterile injectable medium, immediately before use.

[0143] Sterile injectable solutions are prepared by incorporating one or more of the compounds of the disclosure in the required amount in the appropriate solvent with various of the other ingredients enumerated above, as required, followed by filtered sterilization.

Generally, dispersions are prepared by incorporating the various sterilized active ingredients into a sterile vehicle which contains the basic dispersion medium and the required other ingredients from those enumerated above. In the case of sterile powders for the preparation of sterile injectable solutions, the preferred methods of preparation are vacuum-drying and freeze-drying techniques which yield a powder of the active ingredient plus any additional desired ingredient from a previously sterile-filtered solution thereof. Thus, for example, a parenteral composition suitable for administration by injection is prepared by stirring 1.5% by weight of active ingredient in 10% by volume propylene glycol and water. The solution is made isotonic with sodium chloride and sterilized.

[0144] Alternatively, the pharmaceutical compositions of the disclosure can be administered in the form of suppositories for rectal administration. These can be prepared by mixing the agent with a suitable nonirritating excipient which is solid at room temperature but liquid at the rectal temperature and therefore will melt in the rectum to release the drug. Such materials include cocoa butter, beeswax and polyethylene glycols.

[0145] The pharmaceutical compositions of the disclosure can also be administered by nasal aerosol or inhalation. Such compositions are prepared according to techniques well- known in the art of pharmaceutical formulation and can be prepared as solutions in saline, employing benzyl alcohol or other suitable preservatives, absorption promoters to enhance bioavailability, propellants such as fluorocarbons or nitrogen, and/or other conventional solubilizing or dispersing agents.

[0146] Preferred formulations for topical drug delivery are ointments and creams.

Ointments are semisolid preparations which are typically based on petrolatum or other petroleum derivatives. Creams containing the selected active agent, are, as known in the art, viscous liquid or semisolid emulsions, either oil-in-water or water-in-oil. Cream bases are water-washable, and contain an oil phase, an emulsifier and an aqueous phase. The oil phase, also sometimes called the "internal" phase, is generally comprised of petrolatum and a fatty alcohol such as cetyl or stearyl alcohol; the aqueous phase usually, although not necessarily, exceeds the oil phase in volume, and generally contains a humectant. The emulsifier in a cream formulation is generally a nonionic, anionic, cationic or amphoteric surfactant. The specific ointment or cream base to be used, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, is one that will provide for optimum drug delivery. As with other carriers or vehicles, an ointment base should be inert, stable, nonirritating and nonsensitizing.

[0147] Formulations for buccal administration include tablets, lozenges, gels and the like. Alternatively, buccal administration can be effected using a transmucosal delivery system as known to those skilled in the art. The compounds of the disclosure can also be delivered through the skin or muscosal tissue using conventional transdermal drug delivery systems, i.e., transdermal "patches" wherein the agent is typically contained within a laminated structure that serves as a drug delivery device to be affixed to the body surface. In such a structure, the drug composition is typically contained in a layer, or "reservoir," underlying an upper backing layer. The laminated device can contain a single reservoir, or it can contain multiple reservoirs. In one embodiment, the reservoir comprises a polymeric matrix of a pharmaceutically acceptable contact adhesive material that serves to affix the system to the skin during drug delivery. Examples of suitable skin contact adhesive materials include, but are not limited to, polyethylenes, polysiloxanes, polyisobutylenes, polyacrylates,

polyurethanes, and the like. Alternatively, the drug-containing reservoir and skin contact adhesive are present as separate and distinct layers, with the adhesive underlying the reservoir which, in this case, can be either a polymeric matrix as described above, or it can be a liquid or gel reservoir, or can take some other form. The backing layer in these laminates, which serves as the upper surface of the device, functions as the primary structural element of the laminated structure and provides the device with much of its flexibility. The material selected for the backing layer should be substantially impermeable to the active agent and any other materials that are present.

[0148] The compositions of the disclosure can be formulated for aerosol administration, particularly to the respiratory tract and including intranasal administration. The compound will generally have a small particle size for example of the order of 5 microns or less. Such a particle size can be obtained by means known in the art, for example by micronization. The active ingredient is provided in a pressurized pack with a suitable propellant such as a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) for example dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorof uoromethane, or dichlorotetrafluoroethane, carbon dioxide or other suitable gas. The aerosol can conveniently also contain a surfactant such as lecithin. The dose of drug can be controlled by a metered valve. Alternatively the active ingredients can be provided in a form of a dry powder, for example a powder mix of the compound in a suitable powder base such as lactose, starch, starch derivatives such as hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidine (PVP). The powder carrier will form a gel in the nasal cavity. The powder composition can be presented in unit dose form for example in capsules or cartridges of e.g., gelatin or blister packs from which the powder can be administered by means of an inhaler.

[0149] A pharmaceutically or therapeutically effective amount of the composition will be delivered to the subject. The precise effective amount will vary from subject to subject and will depend upon the species, age, the subject's size and health, the nature and extent of the condition being treated, recommendations of the treating physician, and the therapeutics or combination of therapeutics selected for administration. Thus, the effective amount for a given situation can be determined by routine experimentation. For purposes of the disclosure, generally a therapeutic amount will be in the range of about 0.01 mg/kg to about 250 mg/kg body weight, more preferably about 0.1 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg, in at least one dose. In larger mammals the indicated daily dosage can be from about 1 mg to 300 mg, one or more times per day, more preferably in the range of about 10 mg to 200 mg. The subject can be administered as many doses as is required to reduce and/or alleviate the signs, symptoms, or causes of the disorder in question, or bring about any other desired alteration of a biological system. When desired, formulations can be prepared with enteric coatings adapted for sustained or controlled release administration of the active ingredient.

[0150] The pharmaceutical preparations are preferably in unit dosage forms. In such form, the preparation is subdivided into unit doses containing appropriate quantities of the active component. The unit dosage form can be a packaged preparation, the package containing discrete quantities of preparation, such as packeted tablets, capsules, and powders in vials or ampoules. Also, the unit dosage form can be a capsule, tablet, cachet, or lozenge itself, or it can be the appropriate number of any of these in packaged form.

Definitions

[0151] The following terms and expressions used herein have the indicated meanings.

[0152] Terms used herein may be preceded and/or followed by a single dash, or a double dash, "=", to indicate the bond order of the bond between the named substituent and its parent moiety; a single dash indicates a single bond and a double dash indicates a double bond. In the absence of a single or double dash it is understood that a single bond is formed between the substituent and its parent moiety; further, substituents are intended to be read "left to right" unless a dash indicates otherwise. For example, Ci-Cealkoxycarbonyloxy and -OC(0)Ci-C 6 alkyl indicate the same functionality; similarly arylalkyl and -alkylaryl indicate the same functionality.

[0153] The term "alkenyl" as used herein, means a straight or branched chain

hydrocarbon containing from 2 to 10 carbons, unless otherwise specified, and containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond. Representative examples of alkenyl include, but are not limited to, ethenyl, 2-propenyl, 2-methyl-2-propenyl, 3-butenyl, 4-pentenyl, 5-hexenyl, 2- heptenyl, 2-methyl-l-heptenyl, 3-decenyl, and 3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienyl.

[0154] The term "alkoxy" as used herein, means an alkyl group, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an oxygen atom. Representative examples of alkoxy include, but are not limited to, methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, 2-propoxy, butoxy, tert- butoxy, pentyloxy, and hexyloxy.

[0155] The term "alkyl" as used herein, means a straight or branched chain hydrocarbon containing from 1 to 10 carbon atoms unless otherwise specified. Representative examples of alkyl include, but are not limited to, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, iso-butyl, tert-butyl, n-pentyl, isopentyl, neopentyl, n-hexyl, 3-methylhexyl, 2,2- dimethylpentyl, 2,3-dimethylpentyl, n-heptyl, n-octyl, n-nonyl, and n-decyl. When an "alkyl" group is a linking group between two other moieties, then it may also be a straight or branched chain; examples include, but are not limited

to -CH 2 -, -CH 2 CH 2 -, -CH 2 CH 2 CHC(CH 3 )-, and -CH 2 CH(CH 2 CH 3 )CH 2 -.

[0156] The term "alkynyl" as used herein, means a straight or branched chain

hydrocarbon group containing from 2 to 10 carbon atoms and containing at least one carbon- carbon triple bond. Representative examples of alkynyl include, but are not limited, to acetylenyl, 1-propynyl, 2-propynyl, 3-butynyl, 2-pentynyl, and 1-butynyl.

[0157] The term "aryl," as used herein, means a phenyl (i.e., monocyclic aryl), or a bicyclic ring system containing at least one phenyl ring or an aromatic bicyclic ring containing only carbon atoms in the aromatic bicyclic ring system. The bicyclic aryl can be azulenyl, naphthyl, or a phenyl fused to a monocyclic cycloalkyl, a monocyclic cycloalkenyl, or a monocyclic heterocyclyl. The bicyclic aryl is attached to the parent molecular moiety through any carbon atom contained within the phenyl portion of the bicyclic system, or any carbon atom with the napthyl or azulenyl ring. The fused monocyclic cycloalkyl or monocyclic heterocyclyl portions of the bicyclic aryl are optionally substituted with one or two oxo and/or thia groups. Representative examples of the bicyclic aryls include, but are not limited to, azulenyl, naphthyl, dihydroinden-l-yl, dihydroinden-2-yl, dihydroinden-3-yl, dihydroinden-4-yl, 2,3-dihydroindol-4-yl, 2,3-dihydroindol-5-yl, 2,3-dihydroindol-6-yl, 2,3- dihydroindol-7-yl, inden-l-yl, inden-2-yl, inden-3-yl, inden-4-yl, dihydronaphthalen-2-yl, dihydronaphthalen-3-yl, dihydronaphthalen-4-yl, dihydronaphthalen-l-yl, 5,6,7,8- tetrahydronaphthalen-l-yl, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-yl, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-6-yl, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-7-yl, benzo[d][l,3]dioxol-4-yl, benzo[d][l,3]dioxol-5-yl, 2H-chromen-2-on-5-yl, 2H-chromen-2- on-6-yl, 2H-chromen-2-on-7-yl, 2H-chromen-2-on-8-yl, isoindoline-l,3-dion-4-yl, isoindoline-l,3-dion-5-yl, inden-l-on-4-yl, inden-l-on-5-yl, inden-l-on-6-yl, inden-l-on-7- yl, 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][l,4]dioxan-5-yl, 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][l,4]dioxan-6-yl, 2H- benzo[b][l,4]oxazin3(4H)-on-5-yl, 2H-benzo[b][l,4]oxazin3(4H)-on-6-yl, 2H- benzo[b][l,4]oxazin3(4H)-on-7-yl, 2H-benzo[b][l,4]oxazin3(4H)-on-8-yl, benzo[d]oxazin- 2(3H)-on-5-yl, benzo[d]oxazin-2(3H)-on-6-yl, benzo[d]oxazin-2(3H)-on-7-yl,

benzo[d]oxazin-2(3H)-on-8-yl, quinazolin-4(3H)-on-5-yl, quinazolin-4(3H)-on-6-yl, quinazolin-4(3H)-on-7-yl, quinazolin-4(3H)-on-8-yl, quinoxalin-2(lH)-on-5-yl, quinoxalin- 2(lH)-on-6-yl, quinoxalin-2(lH)-on-7-yl, quinoxalin-2(lH)-on-8-yl, benzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)- on-4-yl, benzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-on-5-yl, benzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-on-6-yl, and, benzo[d]thiazol- 2(3H)-on-7-yl. In certain embodiments, the bicyclic aryl is (i) naphthyl or (ii) a phenyl ring fused to either a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic cycloalkyl, a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic cycloalkenyl, or a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic heterocyclyl, wherein the fused cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, and heterocyclyl groups are optionally substituted with one or two groups which are independently oxo or thia. In certain embodiments of the disclosure, the aryl group is phenyl or naphthyl. In certain other embodiments, the aryl group is phenyl.

[0158] The terms "cyano" and "nitrile" as used herein, mean a -CN group.

[0159] The term "cycloalkyl" as used herein, means a monocyclic or a bicyclic cycloalkyl ring system. Monocyclic ring systems are cyclic hydrocarbon groups containing from 3 to 8 carbon atoms, where such groups can be saturated or unsaturated, but not aromatic. In certain embodiments, cycloalkyl groups are fully saturated. Examples of monocyclic cycloalkyls include cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexyl, cyclohexenyl, cycloheptyl, and cyclooctyl. Bicyclic cycloalkyl ring systems are bridged monocyclic rings or fused bicyclic rings. Bridged monocyclic rings contain a monocyclic cycloalkyl ring where two non-adjacent carbon atoms of the monocyclic ring are linked by an alkylene bridge of between one and three additional carbon atoms (i.e., a bridging group of the form -(CH 2 ) W -, where w is 1, 2, or 3). Representative examples of bicyclic ring systems include, but are not limited to, bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane,

bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane, bicyclo[2.2.2]octane, bicyclo[3.2.2]nonane, bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, and bicyclo[4.2.1]nonane. Fused bicyclic cycloalkyl ring systems contain a monocyclic cycloalkyl ring fused to either a phenyl, a monocyclic cycloalkyl, a monocyclic cycloalkenyl, a monocyclic heterocyclyl, or a monocyclic heteroaryl. The bridged or fused bicyclic cycloalkyl is attached to the parent molecular moiety through any carbon atom contained within the monocyclic cycloalkyl ring. Cycloalkyl groups are optionally substituted with one or two groups which are independently oxo or thia. In certain embodiments, the fused bicyclic cycloalkyl is a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic cycloalkyl ring fused to either a phenyl ring, a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic cycloalkyl, a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic cycloalkenyl, a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic heterocyclyl, or a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic heteroaryl, wherein the fused bicyclic cycloalkyl is optionally substituted by one or two groups which are independently oxo or thia. In certain embodiments of the disclosure, the cycloalkyl is cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, or cycloheptyl,

[0160] The term "halo" or "halogen" as used herein, means -CI, -Br, -I or -F. In certain embodiments, "halo" or "halogen" refers to -CI or -F. [0161] The term "haloalkyl" as used herein, means at least one halogen, as defined herein, appended to the parent molecular moiety through an alkyl group, as defined herein. Representative examples of haloalkyl include, but are not limited to, chloromethyl, 2- fluoroethyl, trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl, and 2-chloro-3-fluoropentyl. In certain embodiments, each "haloalkyl" is a fluoroalkyl, for example, a polyfluoroalkyl such as a substantially perfluorinated alkyl.

[0162] The term "heteroaryl," as used herein, means a monocyclic heteroaryl or a bicyclic ring system containing at least one heteroaromatic ring. The monocyclic heteroaryl can be a 5 or 6 membered ring. The 5 membered ring consists of two double bonds and one, two, three or four nitrogen atoms and optionally one oxygen or sulfur atom. The 6 membered ring consists of three double bonds and one, two, three or four nitrogen atoms. The 5 or 6 membered heteroaryl is connected to the parent molecular moiety through any carbon atom or any nitrogen atom contained within the heteroaryl. Representative examples of monocyclic heteroaryl include, but are not limited to, furyl, imidazolyl, isoxazolyl, isothiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, oxazolyl, pyridinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyrrolyl, tetrazolyl, thiadiazolyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, triazolyl, and triazinyl. The bicyclic heteroaryl consists of a monocyclic heteroaryl fused to a phenyl, a monocyclic cycloalkyl, a monocyclic cycloalkenyl, a monocyclic heterocyclyl, or a monocyclic heteroaryl. The fused cycloalkyl or heterocyclyl portion of the bicyclic heteroaryl group is optionally substituted with one or two groups which are independently oxo or thia. When the bicyclic heteroaryl contains a fused cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, or heterocyclyl ring, then the bicyclic heteroaryl group is connected to the parent molecular moiety through any carbon or nitrogen atom contained within the monocyclic heteroaryl portion of the bicyclic ring system. When the bicyclic heteroaryl is a monocyclic heteroaryl fused to a phenyl ring, then the bicyclic heteroaryl group is connected to the parent molecular moiety through any carbon atom or nitrogen atom within the bicyclic ring system. Representative examples of bicyclic heteroaryl include, but are not limited to, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, benzothienyl, benzoxadiazolyl, benzoxathiadiazolyl, benzothiazolyl, cinnolinyl, 5,6-dihydroquinolin-2-yl, 5,6-dihydroisoquinolin-l-yl, furopyridinyl, indazolyl, indolyl, isoquinolinyl, naphthyridinyl, quinolinyl, purinyl, 5,6,7,8- tetrahydroquinolin-2-yl, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolin-3-yl, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolin-4-yl, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroisoquinolin-l-yl, thienopyridinyl, 4,5,6,7- tetrahydrobenzo[c][l,2,5]oxadiazolyl, and 6,7-dihydrobenzo[c][l,2,5]oxadiazol-4(5H)-onyl. In certain embodiments, the fused bicyclic heteroaryl is a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic heteroaryl ring fused to either a phenyl ring, a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic cycloalkyl, a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic cycloalkenyl, a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic heterocyclyl, or a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic heteroaryl, wherein the fused cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, and heterocyclyl groups are optionally substituted with one or two groups which are

independently oxo or thia. In certain embodiments of the disclosure, the heteroaryl group is furyl, imidazolyl, pyridinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyrrolyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, triazolyl, benzimidazolyl, benzofuranyl, indazolyl, indolyl, or quinolinyl.

[0163] The term "heterocyclyl" as used herein, means a monocyclic heterocycle or a bicyclic heterocycle. The monocyclic heterocycle is a 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 membered ring containing at least one heteroatom independently selected from the group consisting of O, N, and S where the ring is saturated or unsaturated, but not aromatic. The 3 or 4 membered ring contains 1 heteroatom selected from the group consisting of O, N and S. The 5 membered ring can contain zero or one double bond and one, two or three heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of O, N and S. The 6 or 7 membered ring contains zero, one or two double bonds and one, two or three heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of O, N and S. The monocyclic heterocycle is connected to the parent molecular moiety through any carbon atom or any nitrogen atom contained within the monocyclic heterocycle. Representative examples of monocyclic heterocycle include, but are not limited to, azetidinyl, azepanyl, aziridinyl, diazepanyl, 1,3-dioxanyl, 1,3-dioxolanyl, 1,3-dithiolanyl, 1,3-dithianyl, imidazolinyl, imidazolidinyl, isothiazolinyl, isothiazolidinyl, isoxazolinyl, isoxazolidinyl, morpholinyl, oxadiazolinyl, oxadiazolidinyl, oxazolinyl, oxazolidinyl, piperazinyl, piperidinyl, pyranyl, pyrazolinyl, pyrazolidinyl, pyrrolinyl, pyrrolidinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydrothienyl, thiadiazolinyl, thiadiazolidinyl, thiazolinyl, thiazolidinyl,

thiomorpholinyl,l,l-dioxidothiomorpholinyl (thiomorpholine sulfone), thiopyranyl, and trithianyl. The bicyclic heterocycle is a monocyclic heterocycle fused to either a phenyl, a monocyclic cycloalkyl, a monocyclic cycloalkenyl, a monocyclic heterocycle, or a monocyclic heteroaryl. The bicyclic heterocycle is connected to the parent molecular moiety through any carbon atom or any nitrogen atom contained within the monocyclic heterocycle portion of the bicyclic ring system. Representative examples of bicyclic heterocyclyls include, but are not limited to, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-2-yl, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-3-yl, indolin-l-yl, indolin-2-yl, indolin-3-yl, 2,3-dihydrobenzothien-2-yl, decahydroquinolinyl, decahydroisoquinolinyl, octahydro-lH-indolyl, and octahydrobenzofuranyl. Heterocyclyl groups are optionally substituted with one or two groups which are independently oxo or thia. In certain embodiments, the bicyclic heterocyclyl is a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic heterocyclyl ring fused to phenyl ring, a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic cycloalkyl, a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic cycloalkenyl, a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic heterocyclyl, or a 5 or 6 membered monocyclic heteroaryl, wherein the bicyclic heterocyclyl is optionally substituted by one or two groups which are independently oxo or thia. In certain embodiments of the disclosure, the heterocyclyl is pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, or morpholinyl.

[0164] The term "saturated" as used herein means the referenced chemical structure does not contain any multiple carbon-carbon bonds. For example, a saturated cycloalkyl group as defined herein includes cyclohexyl, cyclopropyl, and the like.

[0165] The term "unsaturated" as used herein means the referenced chemical structure contains at least one multiple carbon-carbon bond, but is not aromatic. For example, a unsaturated cycloalkyl group as defined herein includes cyclohexenyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclohexadienyl, and the like.

[0166] "Pharmaceutically acceptable salt" refers to both acid and base addition salts.

[0167] "Modulating" or "modulate" refers to the treating, prevention, suppression, enhancement or induction of a function, condition or disorder. For example, it is believed that the compounds of the present disclosure can modulate atherosclerosis by stimulating the removal of cholesterol from atherosclerotic lesions in a human.

[0168] "Treating" or "treatment" as used herein covers the treatment of a disease or disorder described herein, in a subject, preferably a human, and includes:

i. inhibiting a disease or disorder, i.e., arresting its development;

ii. relieving a disease or disorder, i.e., causing regression of the disorder;

iii. slowing progression of the disorder; and/or

iv. inhibiting, relieving, or slowing progression of one or more symptoms of the disease or disorder

[0169] "Subject" refers to a warm blooded animal such as a mammal, preferably a human, or a human child, which is afflicted with, or has the potential to be afflicted with one or more diseases and disorders described herein.

EXAMPLES

[0170] The following Examples are illustrative of specific embodiments of the disclosure, and various uses thereof. They set forth for explanatory purposes only, and are not to be taken as limiting the disclosure.

[0171] Compounds as described herein can be prepared by chemical synthesis procedures known in the art. The person of ordinary skill will adapt known processes for making substituted urea, substituted triazines, substituted carboxamides and substituted sulfonamides to arrive at the compounds described herein. Many general references providing commonly known chemical synthetic schemes and conditions are available (see, e.g., Smith and March, March's Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure, Fifth Edition, Wiley-Interscience, 2001; or Vogel, A Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, Including Qualitative Organic Analysis, Fourth Edition, New York: Longman, 1978). The prepared compounds can be purified by any of the means known in the art, including chromatographic means, such as HPLC, preparative thin layer chromatography, flash column chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. During any of the processes for preparation of the subject compounds, it may be necessary and/or desirable to protect sensitive or reactive groups on any of the molecules concerned. This may be achieved by means of conventional protecting groups as described in standard works, such as J. F. W. McOmie, "Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry", Plenum Press, London and New York 1973, in T. W. Greene and P. G. M. Wuts, "Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis", Third edition, Wiley, New York 1999, in "The Peptides"; Volume 3 (editors: E. Gross and J. Meienhofer), Academic Press, London and New York 1981, in "Methoden der organischen Chemie", Houben-Weyl, 4.sup.th edition, Vol. 15/1, Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart 1974, in H.-D. Jakubke and H. Jescheit, "Aminosauren, Peptide, Proteine", Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, Deerfield Beach, and Basel 1982, and/or in Jochen Lehmann, "Chemie der Kohlenhydrate: Monosaccharide and

Derivate", Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart 1974. The protecting groups may be removed at a convenient subsequent stage using methods known from the art.

Example 1-Cells

[0172] 293FT cells were grown in Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM, Cell gro) supplemented with L-Glutamine (Invitrogen), Sodium Pyruvate (Invitrogen), Nonessential amino acids (Invitrogen), and 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS). The cells were used for preparation of SARS-CoV, Ebola, Hendra, Nipah, and VSVG pseudotyped viruses and for the Ebola, Hendra, Nipah, VSVG pseudotyped viruses entry inhibition experiments discussed below. The 293FT transiently transfected with the human ACE2 expression plasmid were used for the SARS-CoV pseudotyped viruses entry inhibition experiments discussed below. Example 2- Synthesis of viral and host proteins derived peptides that contain the natural cathepsin L cleavage sites

[0173] The cathepsin L (CatL) cleavage sites in the glycoproteins of SARS-CoV, EBOV, NiV and HeV zoonotic viruses were identified as conserved elements. Peptides (10 amino acids long), derived from the glycoproteins of SARS-CoV, EBOV, HeV, NiV, the host pro- neuropeptide Y (pro-NPY) and the host peptide F (Pep F) that contain the naturally conserved CatL cleavage sites, were synthesized in the protein research laboratory at UIC (Fig.l). The peptides contained the natural cathepsin L cleavage sites in the viral proteins and host pro- NPY. The viral and host pro-NPY derived peptides were labeled on the N-terminus with 5- Carboxytetramethylrhodamine (Tamra) as a quencher and on the C terminus by 5- Carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM) as an emitter in the protein research laboratory at UIC. The labeled peptides were purified using reversed phase High performance Liquid

Chromatography (HPLC) in the UIC protein research laboratory.

[0174] The cleavage products for the labeled and unlabeled peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry in the UIC protein research laboratory. The SARS-CoV- S, EBOV-GP, HeV-Fo, NiV-F 0 , the host pro-NPY, and Pep F derived labeled and unlabeled peptides (ΙμΜ) were incubated with ^g/ml of human cathepsin L purified from human liver (Sigma Aldrich) for 1 hour at room temperature in ammonium acetate buffer pH 5.5 containing 4mM EDTA and 8mM dithiothreitol (DTT).

[0175] If the peptide was not cleaved, no fluorescence emission was detected at 535nm when FAM was excited at 485nm due to the quenching effect of Tamra. In contrast, if the peptide was cleaved by CatL, an emission of light at 535nm was detected. See Fig. 6. The four viral derived peptides and the host derived peptides were found to be cleaved at the expected sites by Mass Spectrometry ((Figs. 2-5). All the labeled peptides were similarly cleaved by CatL confirming that the fluorophores did not affect the CatL mediated cleavage (Figs. 7-11).

Example 3-Optimization of the High Throughput Screening Assay (HTSA)

[0176] The HTSA is a Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) based assay. The labeled SARS-CoV S protein derived peptide was used as a substrate in the primary screen. The assay was optimized in black 384 well plates (Thermoscientific) using 3μΜ SARS-CoV-S derived labeled peptide incubated with ^g/ml human cathepsin L (Sigma Aldrich) and further optimized with ΙμΜ SARS-CoV-S derived labeled peptide incubated at room temperature with 0.25, 0.5, and ^g/ml catL in 50μ1 total volume of NH 4 Ac buffer pH 5.5 supplemented with 4mM EDTA and 8mM DTT. The fluorescence was measured over time, at 535nm after excitation at 485nm, using fluorescence reader at the UIC HTS facility. The EBOV GP, HeV and NiV F 0 derived labeled peptides as well as the host pro-NPY and Pep F derived peptide were tested for cleavage concentration by incubation 1 μΜ of each peptide with different concentrations of cathepsin L (0.25, 0.5, and ^g/ml). The rate of the reaction was measured based on the slope. The quality of the screening assay (Z factor) was determined using the following formula: Z-factor = 1 - (3(σ ρ + σ η ) / |μ ρ - μ η |), where σ ρ = standard deviation of the positive signal, σ η = standard deviation of the negative signal, μ ρ = mean of the positive signal, and μ η = mean of the negative signal. Z-Factor between 0.5 and 1 means an excellent screening assay.

[0177] The labeled SARS-CoV derived peptide was cleaved by CatL and the cleavage was measured in the form of increased fluorescence over time with no increase in

fluorescence in CatL untreated peptide (Fig. l2A). The different viral peptides showed different rates of cleavage in a dose dependent manner with the host peptides, particularly the host pro-NPY derived peptide, cleaved at a higher rate than the viral derived peptides (Fig.l2B). The validity of the assay was determined based on the Z-factor calculation.

Accordingly, the Z-factor was calculated for the different peptides incubated with 0^g/ml CatL after stopping the reaction with 0.5M acetic acid. The Z-factor was found to be between 0.5 and 1 which supports the validity of the HTS A of small molecules that can inhibit the CatL mediated cleavage of the peptide substrates.

Example 4- HTS of small molecules library identifies potential inhibitors of CatL mediated cleavage

[0178] Primarily, a library of 5000 small molecules, at 40 μΜ concentration, from ChemBridge Corporation was tested in duplicates (in black 384 well plates) for inhibition of cathepsin L mediated cleavage of labeled SARS-CoV-S derived peptide in 50μ1 total reaction volume using the same buffer as mentioned above. The assay was performed with ΙμΜ of the peptide incubated with 0.25μg/ml catL at pH 5.5 for 45 minutes at room temperature after which the reaction was stopped by ΙΟμΙ of 0.5M acetic acid. The fluorescence was read using fluorescence reader at the UIC HTS facility. The percentage inhibition of the cathepsin L mediated cleavage by the screened compounds was calculated using the following formula: positive fluorescence signal in absence of compounds - fluorescence signal in presence of compounds x 100 1 positive fluorescence signal in absence of compounds - negative fluorescence signal in absence of the enzyme. The top 50 hits that inhibited the cathepsin L cleavage of SARS-CoV peptide at a cutoff of 60% inhibition were screened in duplicates for the inhibition of cleavage of EBOV-GP, HeV, and NiV-Fo as well as cleavage of pro-NPY derived labeled peptides as mentioned before.

[0179] Fifty compounds, out of the 5000 compounds screened, were identified to inhibit the CatL cleavage of SARS peptide at a cutoff of 60% inhibition calculated based on the fluorescence signal obtained in the absence of the inhibitors (0% inhibition) (Table 1). The validity of the HTSA was further confirmed by calculating the Z-factor using the positive and negative means as well as positive and negative standard deviations. The Z-factor value was found to be 0.61 which confirms our previously calculated Z-factor and ensures that the assay is excellent for HTS of inhibitors of CatL cleavage of the peptide substrates (Table 2).

Table 1: Compounds that Inhibit the Cleavage of SARS peptides by Cathepsin-L

J21 90047 E1 1 1578 1640 74.20 70.91 72.55 2974.61 1092.41 clear

G08 90062 D04 1444 21 18 86.1 1 57.49 71.80 3472.27 1 1 16.78 brown

C06 90014 B03 1900 2100 75.27 68.27 71.77 4051 .00 1 193.13 clear

H22 90064 D1 1 1827 1765 69.85 72.48 71.16 3472.27 1 1 16.78 clear clear-light

P10 90040 H05 2150 2466 74.72 65.13 69.93 4612.1 1 1317.1 1

yellow

P20 90064 H10 1670 2002 76.51 62.42 69.47 3472.27 1 1 16.78 clear

L06 90044 F03 1659 1535 64.92 72.06 68.49 2787.31 1049.34 clear

115 90045 E08 161 1 1778 72.45 63.57 68.01 2974.61 1092.41 yellow yellow

E16 90026 C08 1991 2561 76.40 59.33 67.86 4541.59 1203.19

brown

B21 90055 A1 1 1663 2024 74.91 58.42 66.67 3303.42 1 1 13.48 clear

G07 90057 D04 1905 1808 63.75 68.10 65.92 3326.52 1096.63 clear pale

N17 90059 G09 1836 1885 66.84 64.65 65.74 3326.52 1096.63

yellow

P16 90064 H08 2009 1842 62.12 69.21 65.67 3472.27 1 1 16.78 clear

P17 90063 H09 1836 2026 69.47 61.40 65.43 3472.27 1 1 16.78 clear

B18 90056 A09 2052 1693 57.14 73.54 65.34 3303.42 1 1 13.48 clear

J12 90048 E06 1826 1674 61.02 69.10 65.06 2974.61 1092.41 clear

L05 90015 F03 1918 2466 74.64 55.46 65.05 4051.00 1 193.13 clear dark

O10 90022 H05 1967 2123 67.17 62.24 64.70 4093.80 927.38

brown

K13 90021 F07 2204 1889 59.68 69.63 64.66 4093.80 927.38 yellow

B17 90031 A09 2532 2359 61.76 66.74 64.25 4677.05 1203.84 clear

M14 90046 G07 1844 1691 60.07 68.20 64.13 2974.61 1092.41 clear

C17 90057 B09 1437 2361 84.74 43.30 64.02 3326.52 1096.63 clear

K17 90029 F09 2496 2422 62.80 64.93 63.86 4677.05 1203.84 clear

I08 90042 E04 1700 1688 62.56 63.25 62.91 2787.31 1049.34 clear dark

N13 90031 G07 2469 2594 63.57 59.97 61.77 4677.05 1203.84

orange

F18 90040 C09 2809 2360 54.72 68.35 61.54 4612.1 1 1317.1 1 clear

J06 90048 E03 1871 1765 58.63 64.27 61.45 2974.61 1092.41 clear

H14 90060 D07 1812 2103 67.92 54.87 61.39 3326.52 1096.63 clear

D18 90044 B09 1640 1801 66.01 56.75 61.38 2787.31 1049.34 clear

G20 90022 D10 1738 2563 74.40 48.34 61.37 4093.80 927.38 clear

J18 90052 E09 1762 2032 67.89 54.84 61.36 3166.19 1097.92 clear

L14 90044 F07 1673 1787 64.12 57.56 60.84 2787.31 1049.34 clear

D03 90063 B02 1921 2173 65.86 55.16 60.51 3472.27 1 1 16.78 clear

M18 90038 G09 2545 271 1 62.73 57.70 60.22 4612.1 1 1317.1 1 clear Table 2: Assay Statistics

Example 5-Preparation of pseudotyped viruses

[0180] Pseudotyped viruses (EBOV-GP, SARS-CoV-S, HeV, NiV, and VSV-G) were generated by co-transfection of 2 χ 10 6 cells of 293FT (grown in DMEM with 10% FBS) with pHIV-GFP-luc expression vector (18μg), pgagpol HIV vector (l ^g) , pHIV-Rev (360ng) and pHIV-TAT (360ng) (217), along with the pcDNA3.1-S plasmid (l(^g) coding for the SARS-CoV-S glycoprotein or pcDNA3.1-GP plasmid (10μ ) coding for the EBOV- GP glycoprotein, or pcDNA3.1-VSVG plasmid (^g) coding for the VSV-G glycoprotein using calcium phosphate transfection according to the previously described protocol (Coughlin MM et al, 2009, Virology, 10:394 (1): 39-46). For the production of HIV/ΔΕ, only HIV vectors were used for transfection. For HeV and NiV pseudotyped viruses, pCAGGs expression plasmids coding for G (15 μg) and F protein ^g) of HeV or NiV were transfected along with HIV vectors as described above. The media were changed the following morning and the supematants were collected 24 and 48hrs later and pooled. The virus stocks were frozen at -80°C until used. Example 6- HTSA selected inhibitors showed differential inhibition to pseudotyped virus entry

[0181] The top 50 hits, which showed inhibition of catL cleavage of SARS-CoV derived peptide, were then tested for inhibiting the cleavage of the other viral derived peptides (EBOV, HeV, NiV) and the host pro-NPY derived peptide. (Table 3) Twelve compounds out of 50 showed inhibition to the cleavage of all viral peptides with minimal inhibition of 10% while showing lower inhibition of the pro-NPY derived peptide cleavage (Table 4).

Table 3: Assay of Compounds that Inhibit the Cleavage of SARS, Ebola, Nipah, Hendra and NPY peptides by Cathepsin-L

A

B05 7946204 -24.6 12.33 -7.50 39.61 9.6

B06 5169083 13.1 49.78 35.73 44.31 29.9

B07 5175089 6.4 2.06 -2.85 38.88 10.0

B08 7948109 6.2 46.1 1 37.33 38.54 14.3

B09 7931205 -0.7 66.6 34.8 36.8 19.5

B10 7786009 2.1 58.07 37.22 51.28 10.5

B1 1 7945999 -0.6 55.23 33.41 39.55 4.9

B12 7948190 -2.6 45.06 7.38 33.84 1 1.8

B13 7928214 -6.1 12.87 -0.01 23.55 0.9

B14 5705213 42 76.3 84.3 79.8 18

B15 7910528 33.4 57.8 12.1 56.5 6.5

B16 7976237 25.4 31.98 21.93 47.55 15.1

B17 7927434 10.5 -8.16 -8.72 -3.09 1.3

B18 7948346 25.2 49.3 17.7 72.4 10.2

B19 7914488 17.4 30.96 23.22 47.94 2.2

B20 7557708 26.8 39.35 23.55 53.23 2.1

B21 7927879 -6.6 30.39 3.55 28.07 7.9

B22 7947992 20 61.4 31.1 37.7 18.6

C03 7905966 -12.1 9.77 3.23 37.16 6.4

C04 7940158 -12.3 34 26.2 55.8 4

C05 7790059 1.8 44.1 12.4 49.3 6.4

C06 7760561 1.1 27.20 5.70 32.44 15.2

C07 7945787 -0.3 -1 1.74 -10.47 30.53 -2.5

C08 7963087 -1.5 46.45 -2.95 47.39 4.5

C09 5728323 -15.9 13.74 -9.09 49.81 -0.7

C10 7946700 -1 1.5 15.09 -0.72 51.17 1 1.5

C1 1 7924129 -1 1.7 -0.50 -10.37 41.66 -1.2

C12 7944514 8.05 12.40 3.26 40.85 8.1 Table 4: Compounds with high percentage inhibition against viral peptides and low inhibition against human peptide

[0182] Specifically, different pseudotyped viruses (EBOV-GP, SARS-CoV-S, and VSV- G as a negative control), normalized for equal infectivity using HIV-1 p24 Elisa kit (Express Biotech International, MD), were mixed with 10μΜ of the candidate inhibitory compounds, identified in the screening assay. The virus or virus/compounds mixtures were added to 2 χ 10 5 293FT/well seeded in 6 well plates. For the SARS-CoV-S pseudotyped viruses inhibition assays, the 293FT were transiently transfected with human ACE2 expression plasmid (O^g/well), using Effectene transfection reagent (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Twenty four hours later, the cells were transduced with the SARS-CoV-S pseudotyped virus treated or untreated with the candidate compounds. Seventy two hours later, the cells were lysed and the luciferase expression was determined using luciferase assay kit (Promega) according to the manufacturer's instructions.

[0183] For HeV and NiV, the compound 5705213 and its derivative 7402683 were used at final concentration of ΙΟΟμΜ during both pseudotyped viruses preparation and

transduction. The cathepsin L inhibitor, Z-Phe-Tyr-CHO (Calbiochem, Cat. No. 219402) at 10μΜ concentration, was used as a positive control and DMSO treated viruses as a negative control. [0184] The percentage entry inhibition of the candidate compounds on different pseudotyped viruses was calculated using the following formula:

(L(mock treated virus)— L(compound treated virus )) x 100%

L(mock treated virus)— L(HIV Evirus)

[0185] Nine compounds out of 12 identified from the HTSA, that showed higher inhibitions of viral peptide cleavage while minimally inhibiting the pro-NPY derived peptide cleavage, were tested for inhibiting the SARS-CoV-S and EBOV pseudotyped viral entry.

Four compounds out of the 9 uncolored compounds were found to inhibit EBOV, and SARS-

CoV pseudotyped viruses simultaneously (Fig.19). These compounds were assigned I.D. numbers by Chembridge Corporation (7910528, 7914021, 5705213, and 5182554) (Fig.24).

The compound 7910528 showed 23.3% and 30.3% inhibitions to EBOV and SARS-CoV pseudotyped viruses respectively. Compound 7914021 showed 51.5%> and 27.1% inhibitions to EBOV and SARS-CoV pseudotyped viruses respectively. Compound 5705213 showed

39.8%) and 64.7%> inhibitions to EBOV and SARS-CoV pseudotyped viruses respectively while compound 5182554 showed 60.45% and 49.3% inhibitions to EBOV and SARS-CoV pseudotyped viruses respectively. Other compounds surprisingly enhanced SARS-CoV-S pseudotyped viral entry. Derivatives of different compounds were tested of which only compound 7402683 showed higher inhibition than its parent compound 5705213 (53.3% and

68.3%) inhibitions to EBOV and SARS-CoV-S pseudotyped viruses respectively) (Fig.19).

The DMSO treated cells did not show inhibition of the pseudovirus entry. Similarly, the entry of VSV-G pseudotyped viruses was not affected by any of the compounds. These results show the specificity of the compounds at the indicated concentration towards viruses that utilize the CatL for entry into the target cells.

Example 7- HTSA selected inhibitors showed differential inhibition to pseudotyped virus entry

[0186] MTT based cell cytotoxicity assay was performed at different time points to test whether the EBOV and SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus entry inhibition was due to specific effects of the tested compounds or due to an undesirable effect on cell viability and proliferation.

[0187] 293FT cells were seeded at density of 10 4 cells/well in 96 well plates. The following day, the cells were treated with different concentrations (10, 30, 50, and ΙΟΟμΜ) of the selected compounds and the cytotoxicity effect of the compounds was assessed using MTT reagent (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (Roche) for 3 days according to the manufacturer's instructions. Briefly at 24, 48, and 72 hrs following addition of each compound, the cells were washed once with Phosphate buffered Saline (PBS) and fresh DMEM medium without phenol red was added (ΙΟΟμΙ/well) after which ΙΟμΙ of MTT reagent was added to each well and incubated for 4hrs at 37°C. ΙΟΟμΙ of 10% SDS solubilized in 0.01M HC1 was added to each well with vigorous mixing and further incubated for 4hrs at 37°C. The OD was measured at 595nm and the percentage viability was calculated relative to the control after subtracting the background.

[0188] Compounds 7914021 and 5182554 were found to be toxic to the cells at concentrations of ΙΟμΜ and above over 3 days of incubation with 293FT cells. The cytotoxic effect was dramatic for the 2 compounds at concentrations above ΙΟμΜ after 1 day of incubation with 293FT cells (20-100% cytotoxicity). This cytotoxicity increased over the next 2 days even at 10 μΜ concentration (Fig.25A). In contrast, the compound 5705213 did not show a significant cytotoxic effect (cell viability over 80%) on the 293FT cells at 10- ΙΟΟμΜ concentration range over 3 days of incubation with 293FT cells (Fig.25 A). Similarly, the derivative 7402683 showed similar pattern with no significant cytotoxicity over 3 days. This confirms the specific inhibitory effect of the compound 5705213 and its derivative on EBOV and SARS-CoV pseudotyped viruses.

[0189] To further ensure the specific inhibitory effect of the compounds on the viruses that utilize CatL for entry, the VSV-G pseudotyped virus was treated with different concentrations of the 5705213 compound and its derivative and the luciferase activity was measured 72hrs post-transduction. Ebola-GP and SARS-CoV-S pseudotyped viruses were mixed with the compounds 5705213 and 7402683 at different concentrations (1-160μΜ). The mixture was added to 293FT cells seeded at density of 2 χ 10 5 cells/well in 6 well plates (In case of SARS-CoV-S pseudotyped viruses, cells were transiently transfected with human ACE2 expression plasmid (pcDNA3.1) 24 hrs prior to transduction). Seventy two hours later, the cells were lysed and the luciferase expression was determined using luciferase assay kit (Promega) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The concentration of each compound was plotted against the percentage inhibition of viral entry and the concentration of the compound that inhibits the viral entry by 50% (IC50) was determined from the curve.

[0190] The compounds did not show any significant inhibitory effect on the entry of VSV-G pseudotyped virus even at concentrations up to ΙΟΟμΜ (Fig. 25B). The 5705213 showed an IC50 of 15μΜ and 9μΜ against EBOV and SARS-CoV-S pseudotyped virus respectively. The derivative showed higher potencies with IC50 of 10μΜ and 6μΜ against EBOV and SARS-CoV-S pseudotyped virus respectively. Example 8-Compound 5705213 and its derivative 7402683 inhibit the in vitro CatL mediated cleavage of SARS-CoV-S-flag recombinant protein

[0191] To further test the inhibitory effect of the compounds 5705213 and 7402683, SARS-CoV-S-flag recombinant protein was expressed and purified in E. coli BL21 cells.

[0192] SARS-CoV-S ectodomain (amino acids 12-1184) was amplified using pcDNA3.1- S expression plasmid expressing full length SARS-CoV-S protein as a template. The forward primer with 5' 6x His tag-Nhe-I and a reverse primer with 5' Flag- BamHI were used in the PCR reaction. The PCR product was digested with Nhel and BamHI (New England Biolabs) independently and cloned into petl lb bacterial expression vector. The recombinant plasmid with His-S-Flag DNA was transformed into DE3 BL21 cells. The transformed cells were induced with ImM IPTG at OD= 0.8 for 2 hrs after which the cells were lysed with lysis buffer (80 mM Tris-HCl, pH 6.8, 0.006% bromophenol blue, and 15% glycerol). The protein expression was detected by coomassie staining following separation on 4-15% SDS/PAGE gel and confirmed by western blot using monoclonal anti-flag mouse antibody (Sigma Aldrich) and secondary anti-mouse HRP conjugated antibody (Promega). The His-S-Flag inclusion bodies was purified, dissolved in lOOmM Tris-HCl buffer with 8M urea pH= 8.8. The protein was further refolded by dilution in refolding buffer (0.1M Tris pH8, 0.4M

Arginine, O. lmM PMSF, ImM EDTA, 5mM GSH, and 0.5mM GSSG).

[0193] Purified recombinant SARS-CoV-S protein was incubated with 2μg/ml cathepsin L in NH4 acetate buffer pH=5.5, containing 4mM EDTA and 8mM DTT, for 4 hrs in absence and in presence of increasing concentrations of the compound 5705213 and its derivative 7402683. The cleavage of the protein was detected by western blot using anti-flag mouse monoclonal antibody (SigMA Aldrich).

[0194] There was a dose dependent cleavage of the recombinant SARS-CoV S-flag protein by Cat L (Fig.21 A). There was a dose dependent inhibition of the Cat L mediated cleavage of SARS-CoV-S-flag protein by the compounds 5705213 (Fig.21B) and 7402683 (Fig.21 C) with the concentrations tested (10 to 320 μΜ).

Example 9-Compound 5705213 and its derivative 7402683 inhibit the endogenous processing of Nipah and Hendra fusion proteins and the entry of pseudotyped viruses

[0195] Next, the inhibitory effect of the compound 5705213 and its derivative 7402683 was tested on the endogenous processing of NiV and HeV F 0 proteins in 293FT cells transiently expressing the fusion proteins. [0196] 293FT cells were plated at a density of 200,000 cells/well in 6 well plates. The cells were transfected with Nipah or Hendra virus F 0 expression plasmid (2μg) using polyfect transfection reagent (Qiagen) then treated with the inhibitors (5705213 and its derivative 7402683) at ΙΟΟμΜ concentration 4 hrs post-transfection. The cathepsin L inhibitor was used as a control at 10μΜ concentration. The cells were lysed 48hrs later and F 0 processing was determined by western blot using cross reactive anti-Nipah and Hendra F protein monoclonal antibody. F 0 represents uncleaved fusion protein while Fi is the fusion subunit of the F 0 protein.

[0197] Both compounds were able to efficiently inhibit the endogenous cleavage by CatL when compared to the inhibition seen with the commercial cathepsin L inhibitor (Fig.22A & 22B). The two compounds as well as the control (cathepsin L inhibitor) inhibited the entry of HeV and NiV pseudotyped viruses into 293FT cells with entry inhibitions of 80 to 100% (Fig.22C). As expected, the VSV-G pseudotyped virus entry was unaffected by the compounds (Fig.22C).

Example 10- SARS-CoV-S pseudotyped virus entry inhibition is more dramatic by a combination of the compound 5705213 and the protease inhibitor in cells expressing TMPRSS2 protease

[0198] SARS-CoV natural infection of pneumocytes can be activated by transmembrane protease! 'serine subfamily member 2 (TMPRSS2) expressed on the cell surface or CatL in the late endosomes (Simmons G, et al, 2005, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102: 1 1876-81 ; Shulla A, et al, 201 1 , J Virol. 85(2):873-82; Matsuyama S, et al, 2010, J Virol. 84(24): 12658-64). Therefore, the inhibition of SARS-CoV infection would be optimum when using a

combination of protease inhibitor and CatL inhibitor. Thus, the entry of the SARS-CoV-S pseudotyped virus into 293FT expressing either the receptor (ACE2) or the receptor plus different amounts of the TMPRSS2 was tested.

[0199] 293FT cells were plated at a density of 200,000 cells/well in 6 well plates. The 293FT cells were transfected with the human SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 plasmid only (^g) or the receptor plus increasing amounts of TMPRSS2 protease plasmid (10-800ng) using polyfect transfection reagent (Qiagen). The cells were transduced with the SARS-CoV pseudotyped virus, quantified using HIV-1 p24 Elisa kit (Express Biotech International, MD), 24 hrs post-transfection. HIV/ΔΕ virus which does not express the SARS-CoV S protein was used as a negative control of entry. The entry was quantified by measuring the luciferase expression in cell lysates 72 hrs post-transduction in terms of Relative Light Units (RLU). The entry of pseudotyped SARS-CoV into 293FT cells, transfected with either the receptor only (ACE2 plasmid) or receptor plus lOng of TMPRSS2 plasmid, was measured in presence or absence (mock) of different inhibitors. Camostat mesylate was used as protease inhibitor (Tocris Bioscience) and Z-Phe-Tyr-CHO as a Cathepsin L inhibitor (Calbiochem, Cat.No. 219402). All the inhibitors were used at ΙΟμΜ concentration.

[0200] There was a significant increase in pseudotyped virus entry in cells transfected with lOng of the TMPRSS2 plasmid, relative to the entry in cells with no TMPRSS2 expression, which decreases upon increasing the amount of the TMPRSS2 plasmid transfected (Fig.26A). This may be due to unspecific proteolytic effects of the high concentration of the TMPRSS2 protease.

[0201] Next, the inhibitory effect of the compound 5705213, the protease inhibitor (Camostat) and a combination of both in 293FT cells expressing the SARS-CoV receptor, human ACE2, with or without the expression of the membrane protease TMPRSS2 (lOng) was tested. The compound 5705213 and the commercial CatL inhibitor unlike the protease inhibitor were able to inhibit the entry by 50 and 60% respectively in absence of the

TMPRSS2. The inhibition was found to be 60%, 58%, 70%, 95%, and 90% for 5705213, CatL inhibitor, the protease inhibitor, the combination of 5705213 + protease inhibitor, and the combination of CatL inhibitor + protease inhibitor respectively (Fig.26B). This suggests that the identified inhibitor 5705213 may be used in combination with the commercial protease inhibitor to completely block SARS-CoV natural lung infection.

Example 11- Compound 5705213 is a mixed inhibitor for cathepsin L

[0202] In order to determine the mechanism of action of the identified inhibitor, an enzyme kinetics assay based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics was performed.

[0203] Different concentrations of the SARS-CoV-S, EBOV-GP, HeV-F 0 , and NiV-F 0 derived labeled peptide (2-64μΜ) were incubated with fixed concentration of cathepsin L (0^g/ml) in absence or presence of 5705213 compound for 40 minutes at room temperature. The reaction was stopped with ΙΟμΙ of 0.5M acetic acid after which the fluorescence was read, at 535nm after excitation at 485nm, with the fluorescence reader at UIC HTS facility. The reaction was performed in 50μ1 total volume in 384 well plates using NH 4 acetate buffer pH5.5 supplemented with 4mM EDTA and 8mM DTT. The Velocity of the reaction at different substrate concentrations was calculated (Fluorescence units/minute) and plotted versus substrate concentration. The inverse velocity was further plotted versus inverse substrate concentration (Lineweaver-Burk plot) from which the K m and V max were calculated.

[0204] Lineweaver-Burk plot provides a graphical way for analysis of the Michaelis- Menten equation: V= V max [S] I K m + [S], taking the reciprocal gives 1/V= K m + [S] / V max [S]= K m I V max · 1 / [S] + 1 / V max which is the equation for the Lineweaver-Burk plot, where V\& the reaction velocity (the reaction rate), K m is the Michaelis-Menten

constant, V max is the maximum reaction velocity, [5] is the substrate concentration, and K m I V max is the slope. From the Lineweaver-Burk plot, it was found that there was an increase of K m and a decrease in V max in presence of the inhibitor compound 5705213 whicICh is dose dependent (Figure 23). This suggested that the identified compound is a mixed inhibitor based on currently established kinetics.

[0205] Although certain presently preferred embodiments of the disclosure have been described herein, it will be apparent to those of skill in the art to which the disclousre pertains that variations and modifications of the described embodiment may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the disclosure. Accordingly, it is intended that the disclosure be limited only to the extent required by the following claims and the applicable rules of law.