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Title:
METHODS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF FLUCONAZOLE AND FORMS THEREOF, INTERMEDIATES USEFUL IN THE MANUFACTURE THEREOF, AND COMBINATIONS COMPRISING FLUCONAZOLE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1995/007895
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A process for making fluconazole comprising the steps shown above.

Inventors:
Murthy
Keshava, Weeratunga
Gamini, Norris
Derek, Karimian
Khashayar
Application Number:
PCT/CA1994/000495
Publication Date:
March 23, 1995
Filing Date:
September 13, 1994
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
ACIC (CANADA) INC
Murthy, Keshava Weeratunga Gamini Norris Derek Karimian Khashayar
International Classes:
C07C17/14; C07C17/25; C07C17/26; C07C25/13; C07C25/24; C07C69/63; C07D249/08; C07D521/00; (IPC1-7): C07D249/08; C07C25/13; C07C25/24; C07C69/63
Foreign References:
EP0069442A11983-01-12
EP0096569A21983-12-21
EP0044605A11982-01-27
Other References:
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, vol. 114, no. 3, 21 January 1991, Columbus, Ohio, US; abstract no. 23883b, LI YONGFU ET AL 'Improved synthesis of fluconazole and its analogs.' & ZHONGGUO YIYAO GONGYE ZAZHI, vol.21, no.4, 1990, CHINA pages 152 - 154
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Claims:
2. The process of Claim
1. 1 wherein the step of manufacture of IX from VIII comprises heat in the order of between about 80°C to about 100°C; CHgCOOH and NaOAC (sodium acetate) The process of Claim 1 wherein the source of bromine is selected from NBS, Br„ and 1,3 dibromo5,5dimethylhydantoin.
2. The process of Claim 2 wherein the acid compound is selected from an inorganic acid and a Lewis acid.
3. The process of claim 4 wherien the inorganic acid is HSO . and the Lewis acid is anhydrous AICL.
4. A process for making Fluconazole comprising the steps of: and wherein the source of halogen X is dependent upon the halogen (Cl, Br and I) used.
5. The process of Claim 6 wherein the source of halogen (X) is selected from NCS (NChloro succinimide), NBS (Nbromosuccinimide), NIS (Niodosuccinimide), and l,3dibromo5,5 dimethylhydantoin.
6. The process of Claim 6 wherein the step of producing IX from VIII comprises reacting VIII with heat in the order of about 80°C about 100°C; sodium acetate and acetic acid.
7. A process for making Fluconazole comprising the steps of:.
8. The process of Claim 9 wherein the source of bromine is selected from NBS, and 1,3 dibromo5,5dimethylhydantoin.
9. The process of Claim 9 wherein the acid compound is selected from an inorganic acid and a Lewis acid.
10. The process of Claim 9 wherein the base of K2C03.
11. The process of Claim 9 wherein the appropriate solvent is selected from DMF (Dimethyl Formamide) and DMSO (Dimethyl Sulfoxide) and acetone.
12. The process of manufacture comprising the steps of: XXI Mixture of E & Z Isomers .
13. The process of Claim 14 wherein the source of bromine is selected from NBS, Br„ and 1,3 dibromo5,5dimethylhydantoin.
14. The process of Claim 14 wherein the acid is selected from an inorganic acid and a Lewis acid.
15. The process of Claim 14 wherein the chlorinated solvent is CC .
16. The process of Claim 14 wherein the base is selected from K2C03, Na2C03, and KOtBu.
17. The process of manufacture comprising the steps of: wherein X is selected from Br, Cl, and I, and the source of halogen* is dependent upon the halogen used.
18. The process of Claim 19 wherein the source of halogen is selected from (dependent on the specific halogen used) NCS (Nchlorosuccinimide), NBS (Nbromosuccinimide) and NIS (Niodosuccinimide), and l,3dibromo5,5dimethylhydantoin.
19. The process of Claim 19 wherein the acid is selected from an inorganic acid and a Lewis acid.
20. The process of Claim 19 wherein the base is KCO,.
21. The process of manufacture comprising the steps of: Mixture of E & Z Isomers as depicted below Z Isomer E Isomer wherein X is selected from Br, Cl, and I, and the source of halogen (X) is dependent upon the halogen used.
22. The processs of Claim 23 wherein the source of halogen is selected from NCS, NBS, NIS, Br. and l,3dibromo5,5dimethylhydantoin, dependent upon the halogen selected.
23. The process of Claim 23 wherein the acid is selected from an inorganic acid and a Lewis acid.
24. The process of Claim 23 wherein the base is selected from KCO,, NaCO and KOtBu.
25. The process of manufacture comprising the step of:.
26. The process of manufacture comprising the step of:.
27. The process of manufacture comprising the step of: wherein the source of halogen X is dependent upon the halogen used.
28. The process of manufacture comprising the step of:.
29. The process of Claim 30 wherein the heat is in the order of 80°C 100°C and further comprises CHgCOONa and CHCOOH.
30. The process of manufacture comprising the step of: wherein X is selected from Br, Cl, and I.
31. The process of Claim 32 wherein the heat is in the order of 80°C 100°C and further comprises CHjCOONa and CH3COOH.
32. The process of manufacture comprising the step of: source of bromine RCH2COOH wherein R is selected from H and CH3(CH2)n where n = 0 to 4 inclusive .
33. The process of Claim 34 wherein the source of bromine is selected from, NBS and 1,3 dibromo5,5dimethylhydantoin.
34. The process of manufacture comprising the step of: source of halogen X where X is selected from Cl, Br, I RCH2COOH wherein R is selected from H and CH3(CH2)n where n = 0 to 4 inclusive wherein X is selected from Br, Cl, and I, and the source of halogen X is dependent upon the halogen used.
35. The process of Claim 36 wherein the source of halogen is selected from NCS, NBS, NIS, and l,3dibromo5,5dimethylhydantoin.
36. The process of manufacture comprising the step of: wherein R is selected from H and CH3(CH2)n where n = 0 to 4 inclusive.
37. The process of manufacture comprising the step of: wherein R is selected from H and CH3(CH2)n where n = 0 to 4 inclusive and X is halogen selected from Cl, Br and I. *& 40.
38. l) XVII *& 41.
39. Diethyl24(2,4difluorophenyl) malonate XVIII XVII *& 42.
40. XVIII source of leaving group Y *& 43.
41. < N " vent wherein Y is a leaving group XIII .
42. The process of Claim 40 wherein the base is KOtBu, the solvent is selected from DMF, DMSO and acetone and the Cuprous Halide is selected from Cuprous Bromide, Cuprous Iodide, and Cuprous Chloride.
43. The process of claim 41 wherein the reducing agent is Lithium Aluminum Hydride (LAH).
44. The process of Claim 42 wherein the source of the leaving group Y is tosyl chloride.
45. The process of Claim 43 wherein the base is selected from K_CO, and Y is OTs wherein Ts is Tosyl.
46. The process of manufacture comprising the step of:.
47. The process of manufacture comprising the step of: wherein X is selected from the halogen Cl, Br and I .
48. The process of manufacture comprising the step of: source of bromine RCH2COOH wherein R is selected from H and CH3(CH2)n where n = 0 to 4 inclusive .
49. The process of manufacture comprising the step of: wherein X is selected form Br, Cl, and I, and the source of halogen X is dependent upon the halogen used.
50. The process of manufacture comprising the step of: wherein R is selected from H and CH3(CH2) n where n = 0 to 4 inclusive .
51. The process of manufacture comprising the step of: wherein X is selected from Br, Cl, and I and wherein R is selected from H and CH3 (CH2) n where n = 0 to 4 inclusive.
52. The process of Claim 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52 or 53 inclusive, further comprising reacting the product of the claim to produce FLUCONAZOLE.
53. The process of manufacture comprising the step of:.
54. The process of manufacture comprising the step of: wherein X is selected from Br, Cl, and I, and the source of halogen X is dependent upon the halogen used.
55. The process of manufacture comprising the step of: Mixture of E & Z Isomers .
56. The process of manufacture comprising the step of: X X XXI Mixture of E & Z Isomers wherein X is selected from Br, Cl, and I. *& 59.
57. VII*& 60.
58. 61. selected *& 62.
59. 63. selected 6465.*& 66.
60. 67.
61. 68 A process for making Fluconazole comprising the steps of: FLUCONAZOLE wherein R is selected from H and CH,(CH2) n where n = 0 to 4 inclusive.
62. 69 The process of Claim 68 wherein the base is selected from KOtBu and K„CO,, the reducing agent is selected from Lithium Aluminum Hydride, and the source of the leaving group is tosyl chloride wherein Y is Tosyl.*& 70.
63. XVIII*& 71.
64. XIX*& 72.
65. 73.
66. 7475. Fluconazole and at least one compound selected from XXII and XXIII: XXII 76 A process for the preparation of Form I Fluconazole, characterized by a IR spectrum in KBr and showing the following main peaks: cm1 % cm1 % cm1 % cm1 % 34231 51.22 3121.3 25.42 3013.7 32.26 2961.9 40.54 27933 50.58 2228.2 74.16 1917.0 73.98 1775.1 70.12 16203 24.55 1598.2 38.96 1514.0 16.02 1502.6 11.21 14636 52.19 1452.1 47.36 1417.6 27.03 1367.4 56.29 13534 55.37 1317.6 60.25 1299.8 54.14 1272.3 11.93 12538 44.12 1209.9 34.57 1137.1 10.71 1116.4 17.97 10905 40.65 1074.5 33.63 1026.1 54.81 1011.2 42.79 9676 25.66 960.3 32.35 910.7 52.84 888.0 50.71 8696 42.38 846.4 21.84 806.5 49.33 768.7 54.40 7338 56.94 711.1 60.69 691.3 60.01 674.3 19.51 6520 25.95 615.8 46.00 576.0 49.12 525.3 31.05 5140 56.87 472.2 67.95 46 peaks found which comprises crystallizing Fluconazole from a solution thereof in a solvent under conditions which yield Form I Fluconazole.
67. 77 A process as claimed in Claim 76, carried out in isopropanol.
68. 78 A process as claimed in Claim 76, which comprises treating a solution of Fluconazole with isopropanol (hot), and crystallizing Form 1 Fluconazole from the solution.
69. 79 Form 1 Fluconazole, characterized by a IR spectrum in KBr, showing the following main peaks: cm1 % cm1 % cm1 % cm1 % 34231 51.22 3121.3 25.42 3013.7 32.26 2961.9 40.54 27933 50.58 2228.2 74.16 1917.0 73.98 1775.1 70.12 16203 24.55 1598.2 38.96 1514.0 16.02 1502.6 11.21 14636 52.19 1452.1 47.36 1417.6 27.03 1367.4 56.29 13534 55.37 1317.6 60.25 1299.8 54.14 1272.3 11.93 12538 44.12 1209.9 34.57 1137.1 10.71 1116.4 17.97 10905 40.65 1074.5 33.63 1026.1 54.81 1011.2 42.79 9676 25.66 960.3 32.35 910.7 52.84 888.0 50.71 8696 42.38 846.4 21.84 806.5 49.33 768.7 54.40 7338 56.94 711.1 60.69 691.3 60.01 674.3 19.51 6520 25.95 615.8 46.00 576.0 49.12 525.3 31.05 5140 56.87 472.2 67.95 46 peaks found 80 A process for the preparation of Form 2 Fluconazole, characterized by a IR spectrum in KBr showing the following main peaks: cm1 % cm1 % cm1 % cm1 % 31830 25.05 3117.1 14.52 3070.9 13.81 3009.7 34.57 29680 39.73 1898.9 60.83 1846.2 59.90 1765.4 57.71 16194 12.30 1600.5 34.64 1561.4 57.11 1506.2 3.17 14490 39.25 1419.9 16.41 1386.4 28.20 1343.3 34.57 13173 47.99 1278.8 5.57 1260.2 33.09 1211.1 28.31 11440 5.92 1104.2 9.69 1085.0 19.33 1017.6 32.23 10112 35.83 1002.0 48.31 966.0 10.99 929.6 56.26 9094 33.77 895.9 41.55 885.7 30.29 851.0 10.91 8180 42.80 794.0 50.00 761.3 43.19 738.6 47.08 6802 10.16 658.0 29.48 646.2 36.02 609.5 33.06 5865 51.70 568.7 36.05 523.9 21.41 516.0 41.15 4642 59.52 45 peaks found which comprises crystallizing Fluconazole from a solution thereof in a solvent under conditions which yield Form 2 Fluconazole. 81. A process as claimed in Claim 80, carried out in isopropanol and methanol (MeOH).
70. 82 A process as claimed in Claim 80, which comprises treating a solution of Fluconazole with isopropanol and methanol, and crystallizing Form 2 Fluconazole from the solution. 83. Form 2 Fluconazole, characterized by a IR spectrum in KBr, showing the following main peaks: cm1 % cm1 % cm1 % cm1 % 31830 25.05 3117.1 14.52 3070.9 13.81 3009.7 34.57 29680 39.73 1898.9 60.83 1846.2 59.90 1765.4 57.71 16194 12.30 1600.5 34.64 1561.4 57.11 1506.2 3.17 14490 39.25 1419.9 16.41 1386.4 28.20 1343.3 34.57 13173 47.99 1278.8 5.57 1260.2 33.09 1211.1 28.31 11440 5.92 1104.2 9.69 1085.0 19.33 1017.6 32.23 10112 35.83 1002.0 48.31 966.0 10.99 929.6 56.26 9094 33.77 895.9 41.55 885.7 30.29 851.0 10.91 8180 42.80 794.0 50.00 761.3 43.19 738.6 47.08 6802 10.16 658.0 29.48 646.2 36.02 609.5 33.06 5865 51.70 568.7 36.05 523.9 21.41 516.0 41.15 4642 59.52 45 peaks found.
Description:
TITLE OF INVENTION

Methods for the Manufacture of Fluconazole and Forms Thereof, Intermediates Useful in the Manufacture Thereof, and Combinations Comprising Fluconazole FIELD OF INVENTION

This invention relates to novel processes for the manufacture of Fluconazole, novel forms of Fluconazole and processes for the manufacture thereof, novel intermediates useful in the manufacture of Fluconazole, and novel processes for the manufacture of the intermediates. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Fluconazole, α-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-α-(lH-l,2,4,-triazol-l-ylmethyl)-lH - 1,2,4-triazole-l -ethanol; 2,4-difluoro-α,α-bis(lH-l,2,4-triazol-l-ylmethyl)benzyl alcohol; 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-l,3-bis(lH-l,2,4-triazol-l-yl)-propan -2-ol, is an antifungal agent and presents the following structure:

Canadian Letters Patent No. 1,170,263 (corresponding to U.S. Patent No. 4,416,682 and European Patent Application Serial No. 0044605 (published January 27, 1982)) purports to teach compounds having the following structure:

wherein Y 1 and Y 2 may be = N-, and R 1 may be aryl (page 1, line 16) wherein aryl may be substituted by "halogen (e.g. fluorine, chlorine or bromine)" (page 2, lines 17-18) and processes for the manufacture thereof (see for example page 7, line 1 to page 9, line 21). One of the molecules

1,3 bis-(l,2,4-triazol-l-yl)-2-2,4-dichloro-phenyl)-propan-2-ol is alleged to be teratogenic (alleged at page 3, line 17 of Canadian Letters Patent No. 1,181,076):

. . . foetuses from animals treated with the compound in which R=2,4- dichlorophenyl at 20 mg/kg body weight showed malformations, in particular cleft palates. Examination of visceral and skeletal features revealed that this compound was teratogenic at doses as low as 1 mg/kg, e.g. presence of microphthalmia, increased incidence of dilatation of the ureters and renal pelves, delay in ossification of some bones, and increased incidence of a 14th pair of ribs.

Also, the compound in which R=4-chlorophenyl was extremely embryotoxic at 20 mg/kg, whilst the compound in which R= 2-chlorophenyl produced external abnormalities (cleft palate) at this dose. These compounds are specifically disclosed as "Compounds 1 and 9," respectively, in Table 1 of the ICI applications. In addition, the compounds in which R=3,chloroρhenyl and R=4-bromophenyl, which are claimed but not specifically disclosed in the ICI applications, also produced the same external abnormalities at 20 mg/kg. The latter compounds was also embryotoxic at this dose, (page 4, line 16 - page 5, line 9) It is clear that, if true, this useless compound is claimed to be one of the compounds of the purported invention of Canadian Letters Patent No. 1,170,263.

The said Canadian Letters Patent No. 1,170,263 and corresponding U.S. patent and European application referred to above disclose processes for the manufacture of Fluconazole, wherein Ri is aryl substituted by the halogen (fluorine) and Y and Y 2 is = N-. Canadian Letters Patent No. 1,181,076 discloses only Fluconazole and was actually filed in Canada on June 4, 1982. European Patent Application Serial No. 0044605 (corresponding to Canadian Letters Patent No. 1,170,263) was published 27.01.82. Canadian Letters Patent No. 1,181,076 discloses the same processes as Canadian Letters Patent No. 1,170,263 and European Patent Application Serial No. 0044605. Canadian Letters Patent No. 1,182,822 relates to an intermediate for making

Fluconazole.

Several methods for the synthesis of Fluconazole are reported in the literature (EP 0096569; ES 9002961; CA 1,191,076; CA 1,182,822; CA 1,170,263; ES 9502961; GB 2099818; US 4,404,216; ES 549020; ES 549684; ES 549022; ES 549021; EP 83-303244) and some prominent ones are listed below:

(a) The reaction of 1,2,4 triazole with compound of formula II gives Fluconazole. Compound II was prepared according to the following scheme (Canadian Letters Patent No. 1,181,076):

II

This method involves conversion of epoxide (II) to Fluconazole (44% yield).

Epoxide (II) was prepared from commercially available 1,3-difluorobenzene over three steps. Although the chemistry involved is not too difficult, the yields obtained in Steps 2-4 are very low. The overall yield in this process is difluorobenzene — > fluconazole is about 4-8%. (b) Fluconazole is also obtained by reacting 1,2,4-triazole with a compound of formula III, which in turn is prepared according to the following scheme. Alternatively, Compound I can be obtained by the reaction of 1,3-ditriazole acetone with the corresponding Grignard of difluorobenzene (CA 1,182,822; CA 1,181,076; ES 549020).

In this process, l-bromo-2,4-difluorobenzene is converted to its corresponding 1- lithiated derivative or a Grignard. This intermediate is reacted with highly toxic and corrosive dihaloacetone to obtain the dihalo alcohol which is in turn converted to Fluconazole.

Lithiation of l-bromo-2,4-difluorobenzene involves the use of the highly sensitive (to moisture, air), highly flammable, and corrosive compound n-butyl lithium. Also, the solvents used in both lithiation and Grignard reactions are diethyl ether or tetrahydrofuran. These solvents are extremely flammable and hazardous. The above- mentioned reagents and solvents are dangerous to handle in large quantities, and hence this method is not very attractive for large scale commercial production. Compared to these two methods, Applicant's synthesis involves reaction conditions and reagents (raw materials) that are suitable for synthesis on a large scale. Better yields are obtained. The method achieves a total yield far greater than those percentages

referred to previously (from the starting materials through the intermediates to the final product).

It is therefore an object of this invention to provide new processes for the manufacture of Fluconazole and new processes for the manufacture of intermediates useful in the manufacture of Fluconazole from starting materials which are readily available commercially, easily handled, relatively inexpensive, and relatively safe to use. The use of these starting materials produces such intermediates in high yields. Fluconazole is also produced in high yields. Thus, Fluconazole is produced by simple reactions in high yields, using commercially available inexpensive agents which are not hazardous. It is a further object of the invention to provide such processes which are more environmentally and user acceptable.

It is a further object of the invention to provide new forms of Fluconazole and processes for the manufacture thereof.

Further and other objects of the invention will be realized by those skilled in the art from the following summary of the invention and detailed description of embodiments thereof. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

According to one aspect of the invention, a process for making Fluconazole is provided comprising the steps of:

An Acid (for example, an inorganic acid eg. H S0 or Lewis Acid for example anhydrous A1C1 3 ) and

1.3-DIBROMO-2-ACETOXY-2-

(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL)

l,3-BIS-(lH-l,2,4-TRIAZOL-l-YL)-2-(2,4- DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPAN-2-0L III

* While sodium acetate, acetic acid and heat in the order of about 80° - 100° C are preferred in the reaction, heat may be used by itself. The temperature in that event may be in the order of about 140° - 160°C.

While the use of [Br] is preferred, other halogen substituted materials may be used. Thus, the processes may be depicted as follows, wherein X is selected from Bromine (Br), Chlorine (Cl), and Iodine (I):

III

*The sources of halogen may be l,3-dibromo-5,5 dimethylhydantoin, N-chlorosuccinimide (NCS), N-Bromosuccinimide (NBS), N-Iodosuccinimide (NIS) ,depending on the halogen used or any other suitable source as would be understood by a person skilled in the art.

According to another aspect of the invention, a process for making Fluconazole

provided comprising the steps of:

Acid for example H 2 SO 4 or Lewis acid for example anhydrous A1C1 3

l,2-DIBROMO-2-

If excess brominating agent is used, the tribromide of VII is produced which with heat, DMF (Dimethyl Formamide), and, K-2CO3 yields (in good yields) the mixture of XXII and XXIII found at page 24.

Thus, source of excess

1 ,3-BIS-( 1 H- 1 ,2,4-TRIAZOL- 1 -YL)-2- (2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL)- 1 -PROPENE XXI Mixture of E & Z Isomers

The above scheme describes the synthesis of isomers of Fluconazole olefins (E & Z). It is made from the tribromide XX which in turn is made from the cumene (VIP. Where it is desirable to produce only Fluconazole, Compounds XXII and XXIII (found at page 24), if present, would be considered an impurity. However, Applicants believe that these Compoimds XXII and XXIII (see page 24) and the isomeric mixture XXI have therapeutic importance because of their similarities to Fluconazole, including anti-fungal activity. Therefore, Applicant believes that the presence of Compounds XXII and XXIII with Fluconazole enhances the effectiveness of the Fluconazole.

Once again the [Br] may be substituted by other halogens. The processes may thus be illustrated as follows:

an acid for exam le

Source of halogen*

3( 1 H- 1 ,2,4-TRIAZOL-l -YL)-2- 3-(lH-l,3,4-TRIAZOL-l-YL)-2-

XXI

Mixture of E & Z Isomers

According to another aspect of the invention there is provided the following process for making Fluconazole through intermediates for making the Fluconazole.

FLUCONAZOLE

According to another aspect of the invention, processes for the manufacture of intermediates and the intermediates suitable for use to make Fluconazole are provided, such as:

Acid for example H 2 SO or a Lewis

OH acid for example anhydrous A1C1 3

2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPANE VII

2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) 1,2-DIBROMO-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPANE PROPANE

VII VIII

2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) 1,2-DIHALO-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPANE PROPANE VII VIII

IX

1 ,2-DffiROMO-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPANE

VIII

1 ,2-DIHALO-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) IX PROPANE VIII where X is a halogen selected from Br, Cl and I

l,3-DIBROMO-2-ACETOXY-2-(2,4-DIFLURO- PHENYL) PROPANE

II

1 ,3-DIBROMO-2-ACETOXY-2- l,3-BIS-(lH-l,2,4-TRIAZOL-l-YL)- (2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPANE 2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPAN-2-0L

II III

l,3-BIS-(lH-l,3,4-TRIAZOL-l-YL)-2- (2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPAN-2-0L

III wherein X is a halogen selected from Cl, Br and I

1 ,2-DIBROMO-2-(2,4-DIFLUORO- 3-( 1 H- 1 ,2,4-TRIAZOL- 1 -YL)-2-(2,4- PHENYL) PROPANE DIFLUOROPHENYL)- 1 -PROPENE VIII XIII

1 ,2-DfflALO-2-(2,4-DIFLUORO- 3-( 1 H- 1 ,2,4,-TRIAZOL- 1 - YL)-2- PHENYL) PROPANE (2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL)- 1 -PROPENE

VIII XIII

wherein X is selected from the halogen Cl, Br and I

source of bromine for example NBS, and l,3-dibromo-5,5- dimethylhydantoin

R-CH 2 COOH wherein R is selected from H and CH 3 (CH 2 )n where n = 0 to 4 inclusive

3-(lH-l ,2,4-TRIAZOL-l-YL)-2- 3-(lH-l,2,4-TRIAZOL-l-YL)-2-ACEYLOXY- (2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL)-l-PROPENE 2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL)- 1 -BROMOPROPANE

XIII XIV

1 H- 1 ,2,4-TRIAZOL- 1 -YL)-2- (2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL)- 1 -PROPENE

XIII

wherein R is selected from H and CH 3 (CH 2 ), where n = 0 to 4 inclusive

wherein X is selected from a halogen Cl, Br and I

i h fl F

reflux

1 ,2,3-TRIBROMO-2-(2,4- 1 ,3-BIS-( 1 H- 1 ,2,4-TRIAZOL- 1 - YL)-2- DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPANE (2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL)-l -PROPENE

XX XXI Mixture of E & Z Isomers

(these Isomers are shown at Page 24 as XXII and XXIII)

PHENYL) PROPANE Mixture of E & Z Isomers

X X

(wherein X is selected from a (these Isomers are shown at page 24 halogen Cl, Br and I) as XXII and XXIII)

(CuBr) Cuprous a base for a solvent Bromide, example for example other

EtO 2 C. .

appropriate reducing agent for example LAH (Lithium Aluminum Hydride

DIETHYL-2-4-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) MALONATE XVIII

XVII

TsCl (tosyl * * Chloride) py (pyridine)

2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL)-l ,3- PROPANEDIOL DI-P-TOSYLATE

XIX

** Instead of tosylate, one can use any leaving group e.g. Br, I, Cl

,

3- 2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENY (2 1 ,3-PROPANEDIOL DI- P-TOSYLATE

XIII XIX

Intermediates which are new and which are suitable for making Fluconazole include:

2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPANE VII

1 ,2-DIBROMO-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPANE VIII

wherein X is halogen- for example: Br, Cl, and I

1 ,2-DIHALO-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPANE

VIII

wherein X is halogen - for example Br, Cl, and I

1 ,3-DIBROMO-2-ACETOXY-2- (2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPANE II

;

3- l-YL)-2- (2,4-DEFLUOROPHENYL)- 1 - PROPENE XIII

3-(l H- 1 ,2,4-TRIAZOL- 1 -YL)-2-ACEYLOXY-2- (2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL)- 1-BROMOPROPANE

XIV

;

3-(lH-l,2,4-TRIAZOL-l-YL)-2-ACEYLOXY-2- (2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL)-l HALOPROPANE

XIV

XVII

XVIII

XIX

Since the tribromide (XX) or trihalide (XX) may be present as an impurity in the dibromide or dihalide intermediate (VIII), the following Z and E isomers (XXII and XXIII) could be produced along with fluconazole in the final reaction.

Applicants believe that these products have therapeutic importance similar to Fluconazole because of the structural similarities. Therefore, Applicant believes that the presence of these compounds with Fluconazole enhances the effectiveness of Fluconazole and have anti¬ fungal activity of their own.

Thus, according to various aspects of the invention, the processes are easy to carry out, comprising nucleophilic displacement of halogens by triazoles and hydrolysis of the

esters to give Fluconazole.

Applicant has also developed two forms of Fluconazole and processes for the manufacture thereof described hereafter. Form I of Fluconazole may be formed by precipitation of Fluconazole from isopropanol. Form II of Fluconazole may be formed by precipitation of Fluconazole from isopropanol and methanol. Form I and Form II can be produced at will and they can be converted to one another. Both forms seem to have similar properties except that Form I has more uniform crystal packing.

The following process schemes are provided as exemplary of aspects of the invention: PROCESS I

1,3-Difluorobenzene is converted to its corresponding cumene VII by the Friedal-Crafts reaction, in the presence of isopropanol and sulfuric acid. The product is obtained in 75-85% yield (based on the recovered starting material). Bromination of the cumene derivative is carried out by using bromine or NBS or l,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethyl hydantoin to the corresponding dibromocumene. This bromination occurs selectively and it is possible to get mono-(2-bromo), di-(l,2-dibromo), and tri-(l,2,3-tribromo) brominated compounds by using required amounts of brominating reagents. The 1,2-dibromocumene is then converted to the corresponding bromo olefin IX by heating the compound in glacial acetic acid in the presence of sodium acetate (70%). The double bond functionali-zation of bromo olefin IX by using NBS/acetic acid/ CHsCOONa yields dibromoacetate X (85%). This compound is then converted to Fluconazole by reacting with 1,2,4-triazole in refluxing acetone in the presence of potassium carbonate.

PROCESS II This process involves a small variation in Process I. The dibromide (VHI) is reacted with triazole to obtain the triazole olefin XIII in good yields. The double bond in XIII is then functionalized using NBS and acetic acid to obtain the bromo acetate (XIV). The reaction of XIV with triazole yields Fluconazole.

PROCESS III This process makes use of a different chemistry to assemble the triazole olefin XIII. Reaction of l-iodo-2,4-difluoro-benzene with diethyl malonate in the presence of potassium tert-butoxide and cuprous bromide gives compound XVII in 80% yields. Reduction of this ester using Lithium Aluminum Hydride gives the diol XVIII which is tosylated using tosyl chloride. Reaction of this ditosylate XIX with triazole and potassium carbonate yields the triazole olefin XIII which is transformed to Fluconazole as in Process II. The following examples are provided:

EXAMPLE 1 2-(l,3-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPANE VII

To a rapidly stirred mixture of 1,3-difluorobenzene (31.5 mL, 320 mmol) and 80% H2SO4 (150 mL), iso-propanol (25 mL, 320 mmol) was added at room temperature. The mixture was heated to 65°C and stirred for four hours. The resulting light brown mixture was cooled to room temperature. The organic layer was separated from the H2SO4 and washed twice with 50 mL saturated NaCl (aqueous). The organic layer was subjected to fractional distillation to give 55.2% (27.6 g, 177 mmol) of the title compound and 27.1% (9.9 g, 86.8 mmol) recovered 1,3-difluorobenzene. bp: 147-148° C

!H NMR (CDCI3, 60 MHz), 1.25 (6H, d, J = 7Hz), 3.19 (IH, septet, J = 7Hz), 6.50-6.90 (2H, m), 6.90-7.30 (IH, m).

EXAMPLE 2 l,2-DIBROMO-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPANE VIII To a solution of 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl) propane (100 g, 0.64 mol) in 500 mL of CCI4, NBS was added (243 g, 1.35 mol). The mixture was heated to reflux under illumination with a 200 W light bulb for two hours and cooled to room temperature. Alternately, the mixture can be heated in the presence of catalytic amounts (0.25 mol%) of benzoyl peroxide, instead of using light. The mixture was filtered with 50 mL CCI4 rinse. The CCI4 was removed in vacuo to yield essentially pure title compound (200 g, 0.64 mol). !H NMR (CDC13, 250 MHz), δ 2.33 (3H, s), 4.00 (IH, dd, J = 1.5 Hz, 10 Hz), 4.68 (IH, d, J = 10 Hz), 6.81-6.93 (2H, m), 7.40-7.45 (IH, m).

EXAMPLE 3 l,3-DIBROMO-2-ACETOXY-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPANE X

A mixture of 1.2-dibromo-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl) propane VIII (94.5 g, 0.3 mol) and sodium acetate (24.6 g, 0.3 mol) in 300 mL of acetic acid, was heated on a steam bath for 0.5 hours. Hexane (450 mL) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred at 0° C for one hour. After stirring, the mixture was filtered through celite. The hexane was evaporated from the filtrate, treated with NBS (42.7 g, 0.24 mol) and NaOAc (19.68 g, 0.24 mol). The mixture was warmed to 60° C for 0.5 hours. After evaporating CH3COOH in vacuo, water (100 mL) was added and the product was extracted with 3 X 150 mL of toluene. The toluene phase was dried (Na 2 Sθ4) and evaporated to dryness which provided the crude product (95 g). A small sample of this crude product was subjected to column chromatography on silica using EtOAc:Hexane(5:95) as eluent to obtain the title compound in pure form. IH NMR (CDCI3, 60 MHz), δ 2.2 (3 H, s), 4.24 (4H, q), 6.63-7.00 (2 H, m), 7.15-7.50 (1 H, m).

EXAMPLE 4 l,3-BIS-(lH-l,2,4-TRIAZOL-l-YL)-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPAN-2-OL I

To a solution of l,3-dibromo-2-acetoxy-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl) propane X (crude, 85 g, 0.23 mol) in 500 mL of acetone, 1,2,4-triazole (40 g, 0.58 mol) and K 2 C0 3 (63 g, 0.46

mol) were added. The mixture was heated to reflux for 20 hours, cooled to room temperature, and filtered. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the crude material was subjected to column chromatography on silica gel and eluted with EtOH:EtOAc (9:1) to yield 25 g (35%, 0.082 mol) of the title compound. The NMR (DMSO, dg) was consistent with the authentic sample.

EXAMPLE 5 3-(lH-l,2,4-TRIAZOL-l-YL)-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL)-l-PROPENE XIII

To a solution of ditosylate (XIX) 350 mg, 0.7 mmol in 6 mL acetone, K2CO3 (390 mg, 2.8 mmol) and triazole (110 mg, 1.5 mmol) were added. The reaction was refluxed for 18 h and then cooled to room temperature and filtered. The solvent was removed, the crude material subjected to column chromatography on silica gel, and eluted with EtOAc to give 125 mg (81%) of the title compound.

!H NMR (CDCI3, 250 MHz), δ 5.18 (2H, s), 5.35 (IH, s), 5.46 (IH, s), 6.7-6.88 (2H, m), 7.12-7.25 (IH, m), 7.89 (IH, s), 8.70 (IH, s). EXAMPLE 6

3-(lH-l,2,4-TRIAZOL-l-YL)-2-ACETOXY-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL )-l-

BROMOPROPANE XIV

To a solution of olefin XIII (lg, 4.5 mmol) in 5 mL glacial acetic acid, 800 mg

(4.50 mmol) of NBS was added. After two hours at room temperature, the HO Ac was removed in vacuo and the residue was dissolved in EtOAc. The EtOAc was washed with saturated aqueous NaHCθ3, water, brine, and chromatographed on silica gel using EtOAc as eluent to give 1.14 g (70%) of the title compound. H NMR (CDCI3, 250 MHz), δ 2.22 (3H, s), 4.25 (IH, A of ABq, J = 11 Hz), 4.4 (IH, B of ABq, J = 11 Hz), 5.0 (IH, A of ABq, J = 13 Hz), 5.18 (IH, B of ABq, J = 13 Hz), 6.8-7.2 (3H, m), 7.8 (2H, bs).

EXAMPLE 7 l,3-BIS-(lH-l,2,4-TRIAZOL-l-YL)-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPAN-2-OL I

To a solution of bromo compound XIV (900 mg, 2.5 mmol) in 20 mL acetone, triazole (172 mg, 2.5 mmol) and K2CO3 (414 mg, 3 mmol) were added. The mixture was refluxed for 16 hours, cooled to room temperature, and filtered. The solvent was removed, the crude material was columned on silica gel and eluted with EtOH/EtOAc (1:9) to give 345 mg

(45%) of the title compound. The H NMR was consistent with the authentic sample.

EXAMPLE 8

3-(lH-l,2,4-TRIAZOL-l-YL)-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL)-l-PROPEN E XIII 5 g (15.9 mmol) of l,2-dibromo-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl) propane VIII and 3.3 g

(48 mmol) of 1,2,4-triazole in DMF was refluxed for 15 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled down to room temperature, water (40 mL) was added and product was extracted with EtOAc (3

X 50 mL). The EtOAc phase was washed with water and dried (Na2Sθ4). Evaporation of the solvent under reduced pressure and purificaiton of the residue ona silica gel column with ethyl acetate as the eluent, furnished the title compound (1.05 g, 30%).

!H NMR (CDC1 3 , 250 MHz), δ 5.18 (2H, s), 5.35 (IH, s), 5.46 (IH, s), 6.7-6.88 (2H, M), 7.12-7.25 (IH, m), 7.89 (IH, s), 8.70 (IH, s).

EXAMPLE 9 l,2-DIBROMO-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPANE

213.5 g (1.368 mol) of 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl) propane in 1.5 L of CCI4 was heated to reflux. Br2 (437.5 g, 2.737 mol) in 500 mL of CCI4 was added slowly under illumination with a 200 W light bulb. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, washed with 1.5 L of 10% NaHSθ3 and water (1L X 2). The organic phase was dried

(Na2Sθ4) and evaporated in vacuo to yield the title compound (431 g, 1.368 mol).

EXAMPLE 10

DIETHYL-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) MALONATE XVII To a solution of t-BuO " K + (5.7g, 50.4 mmol) in 40 mL DMF, diethylmalonate (6.4 mL, 42 mmol) was added. After stirring for ten minutes, CuBr (6 g, 42 mmol) was added, stirred for an additional five minutes, and 2.5 mL (21 mmol) of 2,4-difluoro-l-iodobenzene was added. The reaction was diluted to 400 mL with toluene and filtered through celite. Brine

(100 mL) and 3M HCI (100 mL) were added and the toluene layer was separted. The organic layer was washed with 100 mL water, 10% Na2S 2 θ3 (2 x 100 mL), brine (2 x 100 mL), and dried over MgS04- The solvent was removed in vacuo, the crude material was subjected to column chromatography on silica gel, and was eluted with EtOAc/hexane (3:97) to give 4.5 g

(71 mmol, 80%) of the title compound. α H NMR (CDC1 3 , 200MHz), δ 1.28 (6H, t, J-6.9 Hz), 4.25 (4H,q, J = 6.9 Hz), 4.96 (IH, s), 6.77 - 7.00 (2H, m), 7.42-7.58 (lH,m).

EXAMPLE 11 2-(2,4 DIFLUOROPHENYL)-l,3-PROPANEDIOL XVIII To a stirred suspension of LiAIH 4 (4.5g 118 mmol) in 200 mL THF, 8g (29 mmol) of the malonate XVII was added at 5°C over 0.5 hours. The reaction was colled to 0°C and quenched with water (55 mL) followed by the addition of 90mL of 3M HCI. The solvent was evaporated in vacuo and 60 mL brine was added. The water was removed and the solid residue was dried under vacuum. The solid was then extracted with hot CHCL, the solvent was removed, and the crude mixture was columned on silica gel (1:1 EtOAc/hexane) to give 4.1 g (22 mmol, 75%) of the title compound. 1H NMR (CDCI 3 , 60 MHz) δ 3.3 (IH, d, J - 11 Hz), 3.6 (IH, bs, with D 2 0 exchanges), 3.8 (4H, d,

11 Hz), 6.5-7.4 (3H,m).

EXAMPLE 12

2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL)-l,3-PROPANEDIOL DI-P-TOSYLATE XIX

To a solution of the diol XVIII (1.1 g, 5.8 mmol), 2.8 mL (34.8 mmol) pyridine and catalytic DMAP in 30 mL CH 2 CI 2 , TsCI (4.5 g. 23.4 mmol) was added portion wise at 5°C.

The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 16 hours, then washed with 1M HCI, water, brine and dried over MgSO.. The solvent was removed in vacuo, the crude material passed through a silica gel column, and eluted with EtOAc /Hexane 1:3 to give 2 g (70%) of the title compound. l H NMR (CDCI 3 , 60 MHz), δ 2.4 (3H, s), 3.52 (IH, d, J = 9.5 Hz), 4.19 (4H, d, J = 9.5 Hz), 6.5-

7..2 (3H, m), 6.5-7.2 (3H, m), 7.2-7.7 (8H, AA'BB'). EXAMPLE 13 l,2,3-TRIBROMO-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL) PROPANE XX

To a solution of 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl) propane VII (39 g, 0.25 mol) in 200 mL of CO ., NBS (155 g, 0.875 mol) was added. The mixture was heated to reflux under illumination with a 200 W light bulb. The mixture was refluxed for 18 hours, colled to room temperature and filtered. The filtrate was washed with water (3 x 50 mL), dried (Na 2 S0 4 ) and the CCI 4 was evaporated in vacuo to yield esstentially pure title compound (79 g, 0.2 mol). 1H MNR (CDCI 3 , 60 MHz), δ 4.36 (4H, s), 6.60-7.10 (2H, m), 7.20-7.25 (IH, m).

EXAMPLE 14 l,3-BIS-(lH-l,2,4,-TRIAZOL-l-YL)-2-(2,4-DIFLUOROPHENYL)-lPRO PENE XXI To a solution of l,2,3-tribromo-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl) propane XX (2 g, 5.1 mmol) in 20 mL DMF, 1,2,4-triazole (0.7 g, 10.2 mmol) and K-C0 3 (1.4 g, 10.2 mmol) were added. The mixture was heated to reflux and after two hours, the mixture was cooled to room temperature and filtered. The filtrate was poured into water (25 mLO and the product was extracted with thyl acetate (3 x 10 mL). The ethyl acetate phase was dried (Na 2 SO .) and evaporated in vacuo. The crude material was subjected to column chromatography, eluted with ethyl acetate to yield 0.54 g of cis isomer of the title compound (36.7%) and 0.51 g of trans isomer of the title compound (34.6%). NMR (CDCI 3 , 250 MHz), E isomer, δ 5.78 (2H, s), 6.81-6.88 (2H, m), 7.11 (IH, s), 7.13-7.26

(IH, m), 7.81 (IH, s), 8.23 (IH, s), 8.44 (IH, s), Z isomer, δ 5.15 (2H, s), 6.80-6.93 (3H, m), 7.3 (IH, s), 7.71 (IH, s), 7,87 (IH, s), 7.93 (IH, s), 7.97 (IH, s).

Applicant has also discovered forms of Fluconazole which Applicant identifies as Forms I and II.

Form I has an Infrared (IR) Spectrum in potassium bromide (KBr) shown in Figure I showing the following enumerated main peaks.

Threshold 2.00% band

cm-1 % cm-1 % cm-1 % cm-1 %

3423.1 51.22 3121.3 25.42 3013.7 32.26 2961.9 40.54

2793.3 50.58 2228.2 74.16 1917.0 73.98 1775.1 70.12

1620.3 24.55 1598.2 38.96 1514.0 16.02 1502.6 11.21 1463.6 52.19 1452.1 47.36 1417.6 27.03 1367.4 56.29

1353.4 55.37 1317.6 60.25 1299.8 54.14 1272.3 11.93 1253.8 44.12 1209.9 34.57 1137.1 10.71 1116.4 17.97

1090.5 40.65 1074.5 33.63 1026.1 54.81 1011.2 42.79 967.6 25.66 960.3 32.35 910.7 52.84 888.0 50.71 869.6 42.38 846.4 21.84 806.5 49.33 768.7 54.40 733.8 56.94 711.1 60.69 691.3 60.01 674.3 19.51 652.0 25.95 615.8 46.00 576.0 49.12 525.3 31.05 514.0 56.87 472.2 67.95

46 peaks found

X: 4400.00,450.00 cm-1; 10.710,77.150 %T (2627) l%KBr (G.V)

4 scans; mode ratio; resol 4.00 cm-1; apod strong

Form II has an Infrared (IR) Spectrum in potassium bromide (KBr) shown in Figure 2 showing the following enumerated main peaks.

Threshold 2.00%; band

cm-1 % cm-1 % cm-1 % cm-1 %

3183.0 25.05 3117.1 14.52 3070.9 13.81 3009.7 34.57

2968.0 39.73 1898.9 60.83 1846.2 59.90 1765.4 57.71

1619.4 12.30 1600.5 34.64 1561.4 57.11 1506.2 3.17

1449.0 39.25 1419.9 16.41 1386.4 28.20 1343.3 34.57

1317.3 47.99 1278.8 5.57 1260.2 33.09 1211.1 28.31

1144.0 5.92 1104.2 9.69 1085.0 19.33 1017.6 32.23

1011.2 35.83 1002.0 48.31 966.0 10.99 929.6 56.26

909.4 33.77 895.9 41.55 885.7 30.29 851.0 10.91

818.0 42.80 794.0 50.00 761.3 43.19 738.6 47.08

680.2 10.16 658.0 29.48 646.2 36.02 609.5 33.06

586.5 51.70 568.7 36.05 523.9 21.41 516.0 41.15

464.2 59.52

45 peaks found

X: 4400.00,450.00 cm-1; 3.17,67.220 %T l%KBr (G.V)

4 scans; mode ratio; resol 4.00 cm-1; apod strong The processes for making Forms I and II are as follows:

FORM I 1 g of Fluconazole was dissolved in 10 mL of iso-propanol (hot). The mixture was cooled down to room temperature and stirred for one hour. White crystals were filtered and dried under vacuo to give Form I (90% yield). FORM II

1 g of Fluconazole was dissolved in 20 mL of iso-propanol (hot) and 2 mL of MeOH. The mixture was cooled down to 0° C and stirred for one hour. Filtration of the crystals provided Form II (80% yield).

As many changes can be made to the embodiments of the invention without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all material contained herein be interpreted as illustrative of the invention and not in a limiting sense.

THE EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENΗON IN WHICH AN EXCLUSIVE PROPERTY OR PRIVILEGE IS CLAIMED ARE AS FOLLOWS: 1. A process for making Fluconazole comprising the steps of:

VIII

heat in the order of about 140 - 160 degrees C

Source of Bromine

R-CH 2 COOH wherein R is selected from H and CH 3 (CH 2 )n where n = 0 to 4 inclusive

N-N H appropriate solvent appropriate base