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Title:
MICROWAVE ATTENUATORS ON HIGH-THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY SUBSTRATES FOR QUANTUM APPLICATIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/154638
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Techniques related to microwave attenuator son high-thermal conductivity substrates for quantum applications are provided. A device can comprise a substrate that provides a thermal conductivity level that is more than a defined thermal conductivity level. The device can also comprise one or more thin film lines, on a top surface of the substrate, comprising an evaporated alloy. Further, the device can comprise one or more vias within the substrate. Respective first ends of the one or more vias are can be connected to respective thin film connectors. Further, respective second ends of the one or more vias can be connected to an electrical ground.

Inventors:
OLIVADESE, Salvatore, Bernardo (IBM Corporation, PO Box 218, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights New York, 10598, US)
GUMANN, Patryk (IBM Corporation, PO Box 218, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights New York, 10598, US)
GAMBETTA, Jay (IBM Corporation, PO Box 218, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights New York, 10598, US)
CHOW, Jerry (IBM Corporation, PO Box 218, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights New York, 10598, US)
Application Number:
EP2019/051899
Publication Date:
August 15, 2019
Filing Date:
January 25, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION (New Orchard Road, Armonk, New York, 10504, US)
IBM UNITED KINGDOM LIMITED (PO Box 41, North Harbour, Portsmouth Hampshire PO6 3AU, PO6 3AU, GB)
International Classes:
H01P5/02; H05K1/00; H05K3/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO1998000881A11998-01-08
WO2018004636A12018-01-04
Foreign References:
EP3217336A12017-09-13
US20150325900A12015-11-12
US20090267201A12009-10-29
EP3109575A12016-12-28
US20170257074A12017-09-07
Other References:
YEH ET AL., A DISSIPATIVE DEVICE FUNCTIONING AS AN ATTENUATOR CAN BE FORMED OF MULTIPLE INDIVIDUAL ATTENUATOR CELLS
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GRAHAM, Timothy (IBM United Kingdom Limited, Intellectual Property LawHursley Park, Winchester Hampshire SO21 2JN, SO21 2JN, GB)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A device, comprising:

a substrate that provides a thermal conductivity level that is more than a defined thermal conductivity level; one or more thin film lines, on a top surface of the substrate, comprising an evaporated alloy; and one or more vias within the substrate, wherein respective first ends of the one or more vias are connected to respective thin film connectors and respective second ends of the one or more vias are connected to an electrical ground.

2. The device of claim 1 , wherein the substrate comprises a material selected from a group consisting of sapphire, fused silica, quartz, Magnesium Oxide (MgO), and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs).

3. The device of either of the preceding claims, wherein the one or more thin film lines comprise an alloy selected from a group consisting of copper and Nichrome (NiCr).

4. The device of any of claims 1 to 3, wherein the one or more thin film lines comprise an alloy that comprises seventy percent nickel and thirty percent chromium.

5 The device of any of the preceding claims, wherein the one or more vias comprise copper.

6. The device of any of the preceding claims, wherein the device comprises one or more resistors, and wherein the respective thin film connections and the one or more vias remove hot electrons from the one or more resistors.

7. The device of any of the preceding claims, wherein the thermal conductivity level of the substrate is in a range of around 100 to 200 watts per meter per Kelvin (W/m/K).

8. The device of any of the preceding claims, further comprising a ground plane, wherein the substrate is over the ground plane.

9. The device of any of the preceding claims, wherein the device is a microwave attenuator device that is employed in cryogenic environments.

10. A method, comprising:

evaporating an alloy on a top surface of a substrate to form one or more thin film lines, wherein the substrate provides a thermal conductivity level that is more than a defined thermal conductivity level;

forming one or more vias within the substrate; connecting respective first ends of the one or more vias to respective thin film connectors; and electrically grounding respective second ends of the one or more vias.

11. The method of claim 10, wherein the substrate comprises a material selected from a group consisting of sapphire, fused silica, quartz, Magnesium Oxide (MgO), and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs).

12. The method of either of claims 10 or 11 , wherein the evaporating the alloy on the top surface of the substrate comprises evaporating a material selected from a group consisting of copper and Nichrome (NiCr) to form the one or more thin film lines.

13. The method of either of claims 10 or 11 , wherein the evaporating the alloy on the top surface of the substrate comprises evaporating the alloy that comprises seventy percent nickel and thirty percent chromium.

14. The method of any of claim 10 to 13, further comprises evaporating copper within the one or more vias.

15. The method of any of claims 10 to 14, further comprises forming one or more resistors on the substrate, and wherein the respective thin film connectors and the one or more vias remove hot electrons from the one or more resistors.

16. The method of any of claims 10 to 15, wherein the thermal conductivity level of the substrate is in a range of around 100 to 200 watts per meter per Kelvin (W/m/K).

17. The method of any of claims 10 to 16, further comprising:

providing a ground plane, wherein the substrate is located over the ground plane.

18. A microwave attenuator device, comprising:

a substrate that provides a thermal conductivity level that is more than a defined thermal conductivity level; one or more thin film lines, on a top surface of the substrate, comprising an evaporated alloy; and one or more vias within the substrate, wherein respective first ends of the one or more vias are connected to respective thin film connectors and respective second ends of the one or more vias are connected to an electrical ground.

19. The microwave attenuator device of claim 18, wherein the substrate comprises a material selected from a group consisting of sapphire, fused silica, quartz, Magnesium Oxide (MgO), and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs).

20. The microwave attenuator device of either of claims 18 or 19, wherein the one or more thin film lines comprise an alloy selected from a group consisting of copper and Nichrome (NiCr), and wherein the one or more vias comprise the copper.

Description:
MICROWAVE ATTENUATORS ON HIGH-THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY SUBSTRATES FOR

QUANTUM APPLICATIONS

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The subject disclosure relates to dissipative devices and, more specifically, to dissipative devices for use in quantum applications.

BACKGROUND

[0002] The performance of a superconducting based quantum architecture can be heavily dependent on the quality state of superconducting qubits, which can be directly characterized by the measuring coherence times and qubit errors. These times and errors can strongly depend on the performance of microwave hardware at low temperatures (e.g., cryogenic temperatures). To increase coherence times the microwave components and associated control lines should be thermalized to mitigate and/or reduce the amount of thermal noise produced from room temperature electronics.

[0003] For example, Yeh et al. (U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2017/0257074) discusses an ultra- low temperature dissipative device that“is configured as a coplanar waveguide microwave attenuator with a central conductor between a pair of ground planes.” See paragraph [0064], As discussed in Yeh et al,“a dissipative device functioning as an attenuator can be formed of multiple individual attenuator cells.” See paragraph [0071], “A coupling region can be provided with capacitors (e.g., interdigitated comb fingers) can couple input/output between adjacent cells. See id. (reference characters removed for clarity). Yeh et al., however, lacks in efficiency from both microwave and thermalization perspectives and can be difficult to implement. Further, Yeh et al. does not have a good trade-off between thermal and microwave performance

[0004] Therefore, there is a need in the art to address the aforementioned problem.

SUMMARY

[0005] Viewed from a first aspect, the present invention provides a device, comprising: a substrate that provides a thermal conductivity level that is more than a defined thermal conductivity level; one or more thin film lines, on a top surface of the substrate, comprising an evaporated alloy; and one or more vias within the substrate, wherein respective first ends of the one or more vias are connected to respective thin film connectors and respective second ends of the one or more vias are connected to an electrical ground. [0006] Viewed from a first aspect, the present invention provides a method, comprising: evaporating an alloy on a top surface of a substrate to form one or more thin film lines, wherein the substrate provides a thermal conductivity level that is more than a defined thermal conductivity level; forming one or more vias within the substrate; connecting respective first ends of the one or more vias to respective thin film connectors; and electrically grounding respective second ends of the one or more vias.

[0007] Viewed from a first aspect, the present invention provides a microwave attenuator device, comprising: a substrate that provides a thermal conductivity level that is more than a defined thermal conductivity level; one or more thin film lines, on a top surface of the substrate, comprising an evaporated alloy; and one or more vias within the substrate, wherein respective first ends of the one or more vias are connected to respective thin film connectors and respective second ends of the one or more vias are connected to an electrical ground.

[0008] The following presents a summary to provide a basic understanding of one or more embodiments of the invention. This summary is not intended to identify key or critical elements, or delineate any scope of the particular embodiments or any scope of the claims. Its sole purpose is to present concepts in a simplified form as a prelude to the more detailed description that is presented later. In one or more embodiments described herein, systems, computer-implemented methods, methods, apparatuses, devices, and/or computer program products that relate to microwave attenuators on high-thermal conductivity substrates for quantum applications are provided.

[0009] According to an embodiment, provided is a device that can comprise a substrate that provides a thermal conductivity level that is more than a defined thermal conductivity level. The device can also comprise one or more thin film lines, on a top surface of the substrate, comprising an evaporated alloy. Further, the device can comprise one or more vias within the substrate. Respective first ends of the one or more vias can be connected to respective thin film connectors. Respective second ends of the one or more vias can be connected to an electrical ground. According to an implementation, the device can be a microwave attenuator device that can be employed in cryogenic environments.

[0010] In an example, the substrate can comprise a material selected from a group comprising sapphire, fused silica, quartz, Magnesium Oxide (MgO), and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs). In another example, the thermal conductivity level of the substrate can be in a range of around 100 to around 200 watts per meter per Kelvin (W/m/K). Further, the device can comprise a ground plane, wherein the substrate is over the ground plane.

[0011] In accordance with an implementation, the one or more thin film lines can comprise an alloy selected from a group comprising copper and Nichrome (NiCr). In an example, the one or more thin film lines can comprise an alloy that can comprise seventy percent nickel and thirty percent chromium. [0012] According to an implementation, the one or more vias can comprise copper. In an example, the device can comprise one or more resistors. Further to this example, the respective thin film connections and the one or more vias remove hot electrons from the one or more resistors. Further, the device can comprise a ground plane, wherein the substrate is over the ground plane.

[0013] Another embodiment relates to a method comprising evaporating an alloy on a top surface of a substrate to form one or more thin film lines. The substrate can provide a thermal conductivity level that is more than a defined thermal conductivity level. The method can also comprise forming one or more vias within the substrate. Further, the method can comprise connecting respective first ends of the one or more vias to respective thin film connectors. The method can also comprise electrically grounding respective second ends of the one or more vias.

[0014] In an implementation, the substrate can comprise a material selected from a group comprising sapphire, fused silica, quartz, Magnesium Oxide (MgO), and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs).

[0015] In an example, the thermal conductivity level of the substrate can be in a range of around 100 to around 200 watts per meter per Kelvin (W/m/K). According to another example, the method can comprise providing a ground plane, wherein the substrate is located over the ground plane.

[0016] According to an example, evaporating the alloy on the top surface of the substrate can comprise evaporating a material selected from a group comprising copper and Nichrome (NiCr) to form the one or more thin film lines. In another example, evaporating the alloy on the top surface of the substrate can comprise evaporating an alloy that comprises around seventy percent nickel and around thirty percent chromium. In another example, the method can comprise evaporating copper within the one or more vias.

[0017] In accordance with an example, the method can comprise forming one or more resistors on the substrate. Further to this example, the one or more thin film connectors and the one or more vias can remove hot electrons from the one or more resistors. According to some examples, the method can comprise providing a ground plane, wherein the substrate is located over the ground plane.

[0018] Still another embodiment relates to a microwave attenuator device that can comprise a substrate that can provide a thermal conductivity level that is more than a defined thermal conductivity level. The microwave attenuator device can also comprise one or more thin film lines, on a top surface of the substrate, comprising an evaporated alloy. Further, the microwave attenuator device can comprise one or more vias within the substrate. Respective first ends of the one or more vias can be connected to respective thin film connectors. Further, respective second ends of the one or more vias can be connected to an electrical ground. [0019] In an implementation, the substrate can comprise a material selected from a group comprising sapphire, fused silica, quartz, Magnesium Oxide (MgO), and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs). Alternatively, or additionally, the one or more thin film lines can comprise an alloy selected from a group comprising copper and Nichrome (NiCr). The one or more vias can comprise copper.

[0020] Advantages of the various aspects provided herein include, for example, improved thermal ization due to the higher thermal conductivity of the substrate. Another advantage includes higher thermal conductivity in the substrate. Still another advantage can be reduced Joule heating from the resistance due to the presence of heat sinks.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0021] The present invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to preferred embodiments, as illustrated in the following figures:

FIG. 1 illustrates a schematic representation of a side cutaway view of a cryostat that can be utilized for quantum computing applications in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

FIG. 2 illustrates an example, non-limiting, microwave design for an attenuator in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

FIG. 3 illustrates an example, non-limiting, microwave design for another attenuator in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

FIG. 4 illustrates an expanded view of a portion of the attenuator of FIG. 3 in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

FIG. 5 illustrates an example, non-limiting plot of a microwave simulation for the attenuator design of FIG. 2 in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

FIG. 6 illustrates an example, non-limiting plot of a microwave simulation for time domain reflectometry parameters for the attenuator design of FIG. 2 in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

FIG. 7 illustrates an example, non-limiting plot of a microwave simulation for the attenuator design of FIG. 3 in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

FIG. 8 illustrates an example, non-limiting plot of a microwave simulation for time domain reflectometry parameters for the attenuator design of FIG. 3 in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein

FIG. 9 illustrates a flow diagram of an example, non-limiting, method for fabricating a microwave attenuator on a high-thermal conductivity substrate for quantum applications in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein.

FIG. 10 illustrates a block diagram of an example, non-limiting operating environment in which one or more embodiments described herein can be facilitated. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0022] The following detailed description is merely illustrative and is not intended to limit embodiments and/or application or uses of embodiments. Furthermore, there is no intention to be bound by any expressed or implied information presented in the preceding Background or Summary sections, or in the Detailed Description section.

[0023] One or more embodiments are now described with reference to the drawings, wherein like referenced numerals are used to refer to like elements throughout. In the following description, for purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a more thorough understanding of the one or more embodiments. It is evident, however, in various cases, that the one or more embodiments can be practiced without these specific details.

[0024] Quantum computing employs quantum physics to encode information rather than binary digital techniques based on transistors. For example, a quantum computer can employ quantum bits (e.g., qubits) that operate according to a superposition principle of quantum physics and an entanglement principle of quantum physics. The superposition principle of quantum physics allows respective qubits to represent both a value of Ί" and a value of "0" at the same time. The entanglement principle of quantum physics states allows qubits in a superposition to be correlated with one other. For instance, a state of a first value (e.g., a value of "1 " or a value of "0") can depend on a state of a second value. As such, a quantum computer can employ qubits to encode information rather than binary digital techniques that are based on the use of transistors.

[0025] Embodiments described herein comprise devices, systems, methods, computer-implemented methods, computer program products, and products that can allow for better and faster thermalization of the microwave components and cleaner microwave signals through utilization of an attenuator design that comprises high thermal conductivity materials. Specifically, one or more of the various aspects can facilitate better thermalization of microwave control lines (e.g., coax cables), as compared to conventional techniques. The better thermalization can provide longer coherence times, which can lead to overall improved performance of quantum computers and quantum processors. Further, one or more of the various aspects can facilitate cleaner microwave control pulses by mitigating and/or reducing the amount of reflection points in a form of minimizing and/or reducing unnecessary microwave connections (which are not always 50 Ohm impedance matched). In addition, more efficient removal of hot electrons from the control lines through large copper lines and copper via holes incorporated into the attenuator design, are provided herein. Thus, as will be discussed in further detail below, compared with conventional techniques, the one or more aspects provided herein can perform better, both in terms of thermalization and microwave response, due, in part, to the use of materials with a high thermal conductivity and an accurate design. [0026] In further detail, for quantum processors, information can be entered into the qubits to perform a computing function, which can be performed provided the qubits are in a superposition state. Although the superposition state is fragile, it should last as long as possible. However, due to thermal fluctuations traveling down the coax cables, the superposition state decoheres and disappears, which will be discussed in further detail below.

[0027] FIG. 1 illustrates a schematic representation of a side cutaway view of a cryostat 100 that can be utilized for quantum computing applications in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein. A “cryostat” is a device used to maintain low cryogenic temperatures and, more specifically to maintain a quantum computing processor at a low cryogenic temperature. Although discussed with respect to quantum applications, the disclosed aspects can be utilized with other cryogenic applications.

[0028] As illustrated, the cryostat 100 can comprise an outer container 102 that can house one or more plates (e.g., refrigerators) that can be nested in order to gradually reduce a temperature from room temperature to an operating temperature. For example, there can be a number of different plates that can be utilized to thermal ize the environment (e.g., gradually reduce the temperature from room temperature to the operating temperature). Accordingly, radiated heat, which can be introduced into respective environments of the different plates through a coax cable, can be mitigated and/or reduced.

[0029] The outer container 102 can be referred to as an outer vacuum. Further, the outer container 102 can be at room temperature (e.g., around 300 degrees Kelvin (300° K), around 80 degrees Fahrenheit (80° F), or around 27 degrees Celsius (27° C)) and, thus, can be referred to as a 300 Kelvin plate. The plates, nested within the outer container 102, can be in the form of cylinders, which can be approximately two feet in diameter, although other shapes and/or diameters can also be utilized. Illustrated are five plates, namely, a first plate 104, a second plate 106, a third plate 108, a fourth plate 110, and a fifth plate, referred to as a mixing chamber plate 112. The one or more plates can be made from copper, according to an implementation. Although five plates are illustrated and described, various embodiments can utilize less than five plates, or more than five plates, depending on the implementation.

[0030] The first plate 104 can be utilized to reduce the temperature from room temperature (e.g., the temperature of the outer container 102) to about 50° K. Thus, the first plate 104 can have a temperature of 50° K and can also be referred to as a 50 Kelvin plate. The second plate 106 can be utilized to reduce the temperature from 50° K to around 3° K (referred to as a 3 Kelvin plate). The third plate 108 can be utilized to reduce the temperature from 3° K to approximately K (or about 0.7 K) and can also be referred to as a still plate. Further, the fourth plate 110 can be utilized to reduce the temperature from K to about 0. K (100 millikelvin) and can also be referred to as a cold plate. At the mixing chamber plate 112, the temperature can be reduced from about 0. K to about 0.0 K (10 millikelvin), which roughly corresponds to -273° C or -480° F. Quantum processors and devices can be installed in, or can be operatively attached to the mixing chamber plate 112. For example, there can be a piece of metal (e.g., copper) onto which (silicon) superconducting qubits can be attached. The piece of metal can be attached to the mixing chamber plate 112.

[0031] To transfer a code/program (e.g., a quantum algorithm) for processing at one or more qubits 114, located in the mixing chamber plate 112, a cable 116 (or multiple cables or multiple sections of cable) can be utilized. The cable 116 can be, for example, a microwave cable, a coax cable, or another type of cable. An input signal 118 of the code/program can be input at a first end of the cable 116, processing can be performed by the one or more qubits 114, and an output signal 120 can be output at a second end of the cable 116.

[0032] For example, the input signal 118 can be provided by one or more devices (e.g., a computer, a processor, and so on) that are external to the cryostat 100. Accordingly, the one or more qubits 114, which can be attached to one or more pieces of silicon, can be wire bound in order to be operatively connected to the one or more external devices. The connection(s) between the one or more external devices can be facilitated by the cable 116, which can be passed through the respective plates (e.g., the first plate 104, the second plate 106, the third plate 108, the fourth plate 110, and the mixing chamber plate 112).

[0033] In further detail, the cable 116 can be inserted in the outer container 102 (e.g., at the first end of the cable) through an opening formed in the outer container 102 and attached with a connector. The cable 116 can be passed through the nested layers (e.g., the first plate 104, the second plate 106, the third plate 108, the fourth plate 110, and the mixing chamber plate 112) through respective holes cut in the layers. The cable 116 can also be connected at different devices, such as a first attenuator device 122i, a second attenuator device 1222, a third attenuator device 1223, one or more other attenuator devices, and/or the one or more qubits 114. Further, the cable 116 can be routed back through the nested layers (e.g., the mixing chamber plate 112, the fourth plate 110, the third plate 108, the second plate 106, and the first plate 104) and output through another opening formed in the outer container 102 (e.g., at the second end of the cable).

[0034] According to some implementations, the cable 116 can be divided into sections. For example, a first section of cable, having connectors on both ends, can be placed between the outer container 102 (e.g., the 300 Kelvin plate) and the first plate 104 (e.g., the 50 Kelvin plate). A second section of cable, having connectors on both ends, can be placed between the first plate 104 and the second plate 106 (e.g., the 3 Kelvin plate). A third section of cable, having connectors on both ends, can be placed between the second plate 106 and the third plate 108 (e.g., the still plate). A fourth section of cable, having connectors on both ends, can be placed between the third plate 108 and the fourth plate 110 (e.g., the cold plate). Further, a fifth section of cable can be place between the fourth plate 110 and the mixing chamber plate 112.

[0035] The attenuators (e.g., the first attenuator device 122i, the second attenuator device 1222, the third attenuator device 1223, and/or other attenuator devices) can be operatively attached (e.g., robustly anchored) within (or directly to) the one or more plates in order for the sections of the cable 116 to be attached. Accordingly, the entire chain of the cable 116 can be connected through the plates to the one or more qubits 114.

[0036] To facilitate connections of the cable between the plates, respective microwave connectors can be utilized at the one or more connection points. The microwave connectors can be SMA (Subminiature A) connectors according to an aspect; however, other types of connectors can be utilized with the one or more aspects discussed herein. Since the cable 116 passes through the one or more plates, the connectors should be properly thermal ized, such that thermal heat is not transferred from the outer container 102 to the one or more qubits 114.

[0037] For example, a problem associated with conventional techniques is that the connection points and/or attenuators, which can be cryo-attenuators, perform at only around 77° K due to poor thermal conductivity of the substrate, housing, different connector end types (e.g., A type and B type) of microwave connectors (increases the number of reflection points in the microwave lines). In order to use the conventional techniques for control lines of a quantum processor, the attenuators should be embedded in a specially designed copper housing, which is turn thermally anchored to various parts of a dilution refrigerator. This increases the cost and labor, in addition to already poor thermal performance of the conventional techniques. As such, the attenuators are not properly thermalized and, therefore, thermal noise from the room temperature external devices can be transferred to the one or more qubits 114 through the cable 116.

[0038] Accordingly, the various aspects discussed herein provide attenuators that can be thermalized in order to minimize and/or reduce thermal noise coming from the room temperature electronics and down through the various plates of the cryostat 100. The one or more attenuators provided herein have an improved thermal performance can better microwave hygiene. Further details related to the attenuators provided herein will be discussed in further detail with reference to the following figures.

[0039] Although discussed with respect to a single cable (e.g., the cable 116), it is noted that there can be more than one cable. For example, different sections of cable can be utilized between the different layers and/or devices (e.g., attenuators, qubits, and so on). Further, the different sections of cable can be formed of different materials (e.g., copper nickel (CuNi), Niobium (Nb)). It is also noted that other devices (e.g., one or more low pass filters, one or more isolators, one or more amplifiers, one or more metal shields surrounding the one or more qubits, and so on) can be included in the cryostat 100 but are not illustrated for purposes of simplicity.

[0040] FIG. 2 illustrates an example, non-limiting, microwave design for an attenuator 200 in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein. Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. [0041] The attenuator 200 can be a 10 decibel (dB) value attenuator. It is noted that although various aspects discussed herein relate to a 10 dB value and/or a 20 dB value attenuator, the disclosed aspects are not limited to these implementations. Instead other values (e.g., 30 dB, 40 dB, 50 dB, and so on) of attenuators can be fabricated utilizing the disclosed aspects. For example, the disclosed aspects can be scaled linearly (e.g., by increasing the cross-type design accordingly) for the higher dB amounts. The various aspects can facilitate proper thermalization of the microwave components and associated control lines in order to increase the coherence times and thus improve the functionality of the quantum processors.

[0042] The attenuators discussed herein can be microwave attenuator devices that can be employed in cryogenic environments. As it relates to quantum applications, in some cases, thermal noise can increase due to Joule heating in resistors. Further, a substrate made of Alumina can have poor thermal conductivity at low temperatures (e.g., cryogenic temperatures). The various aspects provided herein relate to a cross-type design microwave attenuator that comprises a substrate with a high thermal conductivity. In addition, heat sinks can provide thermal efficiency.

[0043] The attenuator 200 can comprise a substrate 202 that can provide a thermal conductivity level that is more than a defined thermal conductivity level. For example, the thermal conductivity level of an Alumina Tc (technetium) substrate, which has been conventionally utilized for cryogenic (e.g., quantum) environments, has a thermal conductivity level of around 50 to 80 W/m/K. However, according to an implementation, the thermal conductivity level of the substrate 202 can be in a range of around 100 to around 200 W/m/K. According to another example, the thermal conductivity level can have a lower bound of around 50 to 80 W/m/K (e.g., Alumina). In accordance with another example, an upper bound for the thermal conductivity level can be dependent on the material utilized, which can be sapphire or can be another material that has a higher thermal conductivity level. Thus, the substrate can comprise a thermal conductivity of around 50 W/m/K or more.

[0044] The substrate 202 can comprise a material selected from a group of materials that comprise sapphire, silicon, fused silica, quartz, Magnesium Oxide (MgO), and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), or a combination thereof. In an example, the substrate can have a thickness of 1.0 millimeter or less. However, the disclosed aspects are not limited to this implementation and other dimensions, including dimensions more than 1.0 mm can be utilized.

[0045] In an implementation, the substrate 202 can be a sapphire substrate. A thermal conductivity level of the sapphire substrate can be approximately 200 W/m/K. According to another implementation, the substrate 202 can be a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) substrate. A thermal conductivity level of the Gallium Arsenide substrate can be approximately 100 W/m/K.

[0046] The attenuator 200 can also comprise one or more thin film lines, on a top surface of the substrate 202. As illustrated, the attenuator 200 can comprise a thin film line 204. According to some implementations, the thin film line 204 can comprise an evaporated alloy. The alloy for the thin film line 204 can be deposited (e.g., evaporated) on respective portions of the top surface of the substrate 202.

[0047] Evaporation is a technique for thin-film deposition. The source material can be evaporated in a vacuum that allows vapor particles to move directly to the target object (e.g., the substrate 202). Upon reaching the target object, the vapor particles can condense and return to a solid state.

[0048] In an example, the thin film line 204 can comprise an alloy selected from a group comprising copper and Nichrome (NiCr). In accordance with one or more aspects, the thin film line 204 can comprise an alloy that comprises around seventy percent nickel and around thirty percent chromium (e.g., 70/30 NiCr). It is noted that the disclosed aspects are not limited to NiCr, instead various metal alloys with a relatively high resistivity (e.g., in the range of 100 microhm centimeter (100 uOhm cm)) can be utilized.

[0049] In addition, the attenuator 200 can comprise one or more vias (e.g., holes) within the substrate 202. The one or more vias can be holes that can be formed by drilling into the substrate 202. In another example, the one or more vias can be holes that can be formed by chemically etching the substrate 202. However, other manners of forming the vias or holes can be utilized with the disclosed aspects.

[0050] The one or more vias can comprise a metal, which can be evaporated inside the holes. According to an implementation, the metal can be copper and, thus, the copper can be evaporated inside the holes. The copper- filled vias can be heat sinks. The heat sinks (e.g., large copper pads and holes (e.g., the vias)) are electrically connected to ground and can remove electrons efficiently. In addition, a copper ground plane can be present underneath the substrate 202. The amount of copper evaporated in the vias can be a same amount of copper, a similar amount of copper, or a different amount of copper.

[0051] The one or more vias can comprise respective first ends that can be substantially level with a top surface of the substrate 202. Further, the one or more vias can comprise respective second ends that are electrically grounded.

[0052] For example, as illustrated, the attenuator 200 can comprise a first via 206i and a second via 2062. It is noted that although the one or more vias are illustrated as cylindrical shapes, according to other implementations, other geometric shapes can be utilized for the vias. In addition, the vias on a substrate can be different shapes (e.g., a first via can be circular and a second via, on the same substrate, can be square).

[0053] The first via 206i can comprise a first end 208i and a second end 210i. The second via 2O62 can also comprise a first end 2O82 and a second end 2102. As indicated, the first end 208i of the first via 206i and the first end 2O82 of the second via 2062 can be substantially level with a top surface of the substrate. The second end 210i of the first via 206i and the second end 2102 of the second via 2062 can be located within the substrate 202.

Further, the second end 2101 of the first via 206i and the second end 2102 of the second via 2062 are electrically grounded.

[0054] A first thin film connection 214i can be located at the first end 208i of the first via 206i and a second thin film connection 2142 can be located at the first end 2082 of the second via 2062. Thus, the first ends of the one or more vias can be connected to the respective thin film connections and respective second ends of the one or more vias can be connected to an electrical ground. For example, the first thin film connection 214i at the first end 208i of the first via 206i can be a first connection to ground (e.g., the second end 2101 of the first via 206i is electrically grounded). In a similar manner, the second thin film connection 2142 at the first end 2O82 of the second via 2O62 can be a second connection to ground (e.g., the second end 2102 of the second via 2062 is electrically ground). The thin film connections (e.g., the first thin film connection 214i, the second thin film connection 2 M2) can be pure copper thin films, according to an implementation

[0055] The attenuator 200 can comprise one or more resistors, illustrated as a first resistor 212i, a second resistor 2122, a third resistor 2123, and a fourth resistor 212 4 . According to an implementation, the first resistor 212i, the second resistor 2122, the third resistor 2123, and the fourth resistor 2124 can comprise an alloy. For example, the first resistor 212i, the second resistor 2122, the third resistor 2123, and the fourth resistor 212 4 can comprise Nichrome (NiCr). It is noted that the disclosed aspects are not limited to NiCr, instead various metal alloys with a relatively high resistivity (e.g., in the range of 100 microhm centimeter (100 uOhm cm)) can be utilized. The respective thin film connections (e.g., the first thin film connection 214i, the second thin film connection 214å) can be utilized to remove hot electrons from the resistors.

[0056] Further, the one or more heat sinks formed in the first via 206i and the second via 2O62 can absorb heat from the first resistor 212i, the second resistor 2122, the third resistor 2123, and the fourth resistor 212 4 . In an implementation, the attenuator 200 can be a microwave attenuator device that can be employed in cryogenic environments. According to some implementations, the attenuator 200 can comprise one or more control lines. Further to these implementations, the one or more thin film connections and the one or more vias can remove hot electrons from the one or more resistors.

[0057] According to some implementations, the attenuator 200 can be placed in a housing. For example, the housing can have a high thermal conductivity. In an example, the housing can be an oxygen-free and/or an electrolytic copper attenuator housing for improved thermalization to refrigerator plates.

[0058] Microwave signals can travel in the direction of arrows 216. In an example, a connector having a same end-type (e.g., an SMA first end type-SMA first end type microwave connectors) can be utilized with the disclosed aspects. [0059] The following will provide specific information related to an example implementation of a 10 dB attenuator (e.g., the attenuator 200). It is noted that the disclosed aspects are not limited to these specific details. Instead, these details are provided to facilitate an understanding of the disclosed subject matter. In accordance with the example implementation, a distance for a first portion of the thin film line 204 (between the edge of the substrate 202 (e.g., near a first location 218) and the fourth resistor 212 4 can be between around 1 centimeter (cm) and around 2 cms. Similarly, the distance for a second portion of the thin film line 204 between the opposite edge of the substrate 202 (e.g., near a second location 220) and the third resistor 2123 can be between about 1 cm and about 2 cm. Further, respective diameters of the first via 206i and the second via 2062 can be around 0.55 millimeters (mms). Respective dimensions of the first resistor 212i and the second resistor 2122 can be approximately 0.79 mm and can be respective resistances of around 70 Ohms. Further, respective dimensions of the third resistor 2123 and the fourth resistor 212 4 can be approximately 0.29 mm and can be respective resistances of about 26 Ohms.

[0060] In an example, the substrate 202 can be over a ground plane. A ground plane can be utilized because the transmission line(s) used is a microstrip type of transmission line.

[0061] FIG. 3 illustrates an example, non-limiting, microwave design for another attenuator 300 in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein. Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity.

[0062] The attenuator 300 can be a 20 dB value attenuator. As indicated, although a 10 dB value attenuator and/or a 20 dB value attenuator have been illustrated and described herein, the disclosed aspects are not limited to these implementations. Instead other attenuator values (e.g., 30 dB, 40 dB, 50 dB, and so on) can be fabricated utilizing the disclosed aspects. For example, the disclosed aspects can be scaled linearly (e.g., by increasing the cross-type design accordingly) for the higher dB amounts. Further, as mentioned, the various aspects can facilitate proper thermalization of the microwave components and associated control lines in order to increase the coherence times and thus improve the functionality of the quantum processors.

[0063] The attenuator 300 can comprise a substrate 302 that can provide a thermal conductivity level that is more than a defined thermal conductivity level. For example, the thermal conductivity level of an Alumina Tc (technetium) substrate, which has been conventionally utilized for cryogenic (e.g., quantum) environments, has a thermal conductivity level of around 50 to 80 W/m/K. However, according to an implementation, the thermal conductivity level of the substrate 302 can be in a range of around 100 to around 200 W/m/K. According to another example, the thermal conductivity level can have a lower bound of around 50 to 80 W/m/K (e.g., Alumina). In accordance with another example, an upper bound for the thermal conductivity level can be dependent on the material utilized, which can be sapphire or can be another material that has a higher thermal conductivity level. Thus, the substrate can comprise a thermal conductivity of around 50 W/m/K or more. The substrate 302 can comprise a material selected from a group of materials that comprise sapphire, silicon, fused silica, quartz, Magnesium Oxide (MgO), and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), or a combination thereof.

[0064] The attenuator 300 can also comprise one or more thin film lines, on a top surface of the substrate 302. As illustrated, the attenuator 300 can comprise thin film line 304. According to some implementations, the thin film line 304 can comprise an evaporated alloy. The alloy for the thin film line 304 can be deposited on (e.g., evaporated on) a top surface of the substrate 302.

[0065] In an example, the thin film line 304 can comprise an alloy selected from a group comprising copper and Nichrome (NiCr). In a specific example, the thin film line 304 can comprise an alloy that comprises approximately seventy percent nickel and approximately thirty percent chromium (e.g., 70/30 NiCr).

[0066] One or more vias can be formed in the substrate 302. For example, the one or more vias can be etched, mechanically milled, or formed in another manner in the substrate 302. As illustrated in FIG. 3, the attenuator 300 can comprise a first via 306i and a second via 3062. Although the vias are illustrated as rectangular shapes, according to some implementations, other geometric shapes can be utilized for the vias.

[0067] According to an implementation, the first via 306i and the second via 3062 can comprise a metal, such as copper, that can be evaporated within the respective vias (e.g., the first via 306i and the second via 3O62). The copper-filled vias can be heat sinks. The heat sinks (e.g., large copper pads and holes (e.g., the vias), electrically connected to ground) can remove electrons efficiently. Further, the respective amount of copper evaporated in the vias can be a same amount of copper, a similar amount of copper, or a different amount of copper.

[0068] The one or more vias can comprise respective first ends that can be substantially level with a top surface of the substrate. Further, the one or more vias can comprise respective second ends that are electrically grounded. Further, there can be a copper ground plane present underneath the substrate 302.

[0069] For example, the first via 306i can comprise a first end 308i and a second end 310i. The first end

3081 can be located at a top plane of the substrate 302 and the second end 310i can be located within the substrate 302. Further, the second via 3062 can comprise a first end 3082 and a second end 3102. The first end

3082 can be located at a top plane of the substrate 302 and the second end 3102 can be located within the substrate 302.

[0070] With reference also to FIG. 4, which illustrates an expanded view of a portion of the attenuator of FIG. 3 in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein. Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. Different portions of the respective first portions of the vias (e.g., the copper-filled heat sinks) can be operatively connected to respective areas of the thin film lines.

[0071] A first thin film connection 402i at a first portion of the first end 308i of the first via 306i can be connected to ground (e.g., ground via). A second thin film connection 4022 at a second portion of the first end 308i of the first via 306i can be connected to ground. In addition, a third thin film connection 404i at a first portion the first end 3082 of the second via 3062 can be connected to ground (e.g., ground via). A fourth thin film connection 4042 at a second portion of the first end 3082 of the second via 3062 can be connected to ground.

[0072] The attenuator can also comprise one or more resistors, illustrated as resistors 312i, 3122, 3123, 3124. 312d, 312b, 3127, and 312s, which can comprise Nichrome (NiCr). Further, the one or more heat sinks formed in the first via 306i and the second via 3062 can absorb heat from the resistors 312i, 3122, 3123, 312 4 . 312s, 312e, 3127, and 312b. In an implementation, the attenuator 300 can be a microwave attenuator device that can be employed in cryogenic environments. According to some implementations, the attenuator 300 can comprise one or more control lines. The thin film connections (e.g., the first thin film connection 402i, the second thin film connection 4022, the third thin film connection 404i, the fourth thin film connection 4042) can be utilized to remove hot electrons from the resistors.

[0073] According to some implementations, the attenuator 300 can be placed in a housing. For example, the housing can have a high thermal conductivity. In an example, the housing can be an oxygen-free or electrolytic copper attenuator housing for improved thermalization to refrigerator plates

[0074] Microwave signals can travel in the direction of arrows 316. In an example, a connector having a same end-type (e.g., an SMA first end type -SMA first end type microwave connectors) can be utilized with the disclosed aspects.

[0075] The following will provide specific information related to an example implementation of a 20 dB attenuator. It is noted that the disclosed aspects are not limited to these specific details. Instead, these details are provided to facilitate an understanding of the disclosed subject matter. In accordance with the example implementation, a distance for a first portion of the thin film line 304 between the edge of the substrate 302 (e.g., near a first location 406) and the resistor 312s can be between around 1 centimeter (cm) and around 2 cms.

Similarly, the distance for a second portion of the thin film line 314 between the opposite edge of the substrate 302 (e.g., near a second location 408) and the resistor 312s can be between about 1 cm and about 2 cm. Further, a width of the thin film line 314 can be around 0.55 millimeters (mms). Further, respective dimensions of the resistors 312i, 3122, 3123, and 312 4 can be approximately 0.79mm. Further, respective dimensions of the resistors 312s, 3126, 3127, and 312s can be approximately 0.29 mm. Respective distances of portions of the paths between the resistors (e.g., between resistor 312s and resistor 3126, between resistor 3126 and resistor 3127, and between resistor 3127 and resistor 312s) can be around 0.55 mm.

[0076] In an example, the substrate 302 can be over a ground plane. A ground plane can be utilized because the transmission line(s) used is a microstrip type of transmission line.

[0077] FIG. 5 illustrates an example, non-limiting plot 500 of a microwave simulation for the attenuator design of FIG. 2 in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein. Frequency 502, expressed in GHz, is illustrated on the horizontal axis (X axis) and attenuation 504, expressed in dB, is illustrated on the vertical axis (Y axis).

[0078] As illustrated by the first label box 506, a first curve 508 (e.g., the bottom line) represents a microwave simulation transmission measurement (S(1 ,1)) and a second curve 510 (e.g., the top curve) represents a microwave simulation reflection measurement (S(1 ,2)). For the microwave simulation transmission measurement (S(1 ,1)), a signal can be input on a first end (e.g., input connector) of the attenuator and measured at a second end (e.g., output connector) of the attenuator. For the microwave simulation reflection measurement (S(1 ,2)), a signal can be input on a first end of the attenuator, bounces back, and returns to the first end.

[0079] As illustrated in the second label box 512, marker 1 (ml), associated with the second curve 510, indicates that when the frequency is 1.0 GHz (X axis), then the attenuation is negative 10.0182 dB (Y axis).

Further, as illustrated by marker 2 (m2), associated with the second curve 510, when frequency is 10.0 GHz (X axis), the attenuation is negative 9.4422 dB (Y axis). Further, as illustrated by the microwave simulation reflection measurement (S(1 ,2)) (e.g., the second curve 510), the illustrated design can be for a 1 GHz to 10 GHz frequency.

[0080] FIG. 6 illustrates an example, non-limiting plot 600 of a microwave simulation for time domain reflectometry parameters for the attenuator design of FIG. 2 in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein. Time 602, expressed in nanoseconds (ns) is illustrated on the horizonal axis (X axis) and attenuation 604, expressed in dB, is illustrated on the vertical axis (Y axis).

[0081] As illustrated by the label box 606, a first line 608 represents a first simulated time domain reflectometry (TDR) parameter and the second line 610 represents a second simulated TDR parameter. TRD relates to testing the impedance provided by various sections of the device being tested (e.g., the attenuator 200 of FIG. 2).

[0082] The lines (e.g., the first line 608 and the second line 610) illustrate the characteristic impedance of the transmission line (in this case the attenuator) as a function of time (assuming that a signal propagates back and forth on the attenuator in that amount of time). TDR is a standard measurement/simulation to estimate the characteristic impedance for microwave applications. As illustrated in FIG. 6, the 10 dB attenuator design provided herein can have a stable characteristic impedance that is close to the desired 50 Ohm level.

[0083] FIG. 7 illustrates an example, non-limiting plot 700 of a microwave simulation for the attenuator design of FIG. 3 in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein. Frequency 702, expressed in GHz, is illustrated on the horizonal axis (X axis) and attenuation 704, expressed in dB, is illustrated on the vertical axis (Y axis).

[0084] The first label box 706 indicates that a first curve 708 (e.g., the bottom curve) represents a microwave simulation transmission measurement (S(1 ,1)) and a second curve 710 (e.g., the top curve) represents a microwave simulation reflection measurement (S(1 ,2)).

[0085] As illustrated in the second label box 712, marker 1 (ml), associated with the second curve 710, indicates that when the frequency is 1.0 GHz (X axis), then the attenuation is negative 20.0344 dB (Y axis).

Further, as illustrated by marker 2 (m2), associated with the second curve 710, when frequency is 10.0 GHz (X axis), the attenuation is negative 19.2340 dB (Y axis). Further, as illustrated by the microwave simulation reflection measurement (S(1 ,2)) (e.g., the second curve 710), the illustrated design can be for a 1 GHz to 10 GHz frequency.

[0086] FIG. 8 illustrates an example, non-limiting plot 800 of a microwave simulation for time domain reflectometry parameters for the attenuator design of FIG. 3 in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein. Time 802, expressed in nanoseconds (ns) is illustrated on the horizonal axis (X axis) and attenuation 804, expressed in dB, is illustrated on the vertical axis (Y axis).

[0087] As illustrated by the label box 806, a first line 808 represents a first simulated time domain reflectometry (TDR) parameter and the second line 810 represents a second simulated TDR parameter. TRD relates to testing the impedance provided by various sections of the device being tested (e.g., the attenuator 300 of FIG. 3).

[0088] The lines (e.g., the first line 808 and the second line 810) illustrate the characteristic impedance of the transmission line (in this case the attenuator) as a function of time (assuming that a signal propagates back and forth on the attenuator in that amount of time). TDR is a standard measurement/simulation to estimate the characteristic impedance for microwave applications. As illustrated in FIG. 8, the 20 dB attenuator design provided herein can have a stable characteristic impedance that is close to the desired 50 Ohm level.

[0089] FIG. 9 illustrates a flow diagram of an example, non-limiting, method 900 for fabricating a microwave attenuator on a high-thermal conductivity substrate for quantum applications in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein. Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity.

[0090] The method 900 starts, at 902, when an alloy can be evaporated on a top surface of a substrate (e.g., the substrate 202, the substrate 302) to form one or more thin film lines (e.g., the thin film line 204, the thin film line 304). According to some implementations, evaporating the alloy on the top surface of the substrate can comprise evaporating a material selected from a group comprising copper and Nichrome (NiCr) to form the one or more thin film lines. In an example, evaporating the alloy on the top surface of the substrate can comprise evaporating an alloy that comprises around seventy percent nickel and around thirty percent chromium.

[0091] The substrate can provide a thermal conductivity level that can be more than a defined thermal conductivity level. In an example, the thermal conductivity level of the substrate can be in a range of around 100 to 200 W/m/K. However, in some implementations, the substrate can have a thermal conductivity level of 50 W/m/K or more. In another example, the substrate can have a thickness of 1.0 millimeter or less. However, the disclosed aspects are not limited to this implementation and other dimensions, including dimensions more than 1.0 mm can be utilized. In yet another example, the substrate can comprise a material selected from a group comprising sapphire, fused silica, quartz, Magnesium Oxide (MgO), and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs).

[0092] At 904, one or more vias (e.g., the first via 206i, the second via 2062, the first via 306i, the second via 3O62) can be formed within the substrate. Respective first ends (e.g., the first end 208i, the first end 2082, the first end 308i, the first end 3O82) of the one or more vias can be connected to respective thin film connectors, at 906. Further, respective second ends (e.g., the second end 210i, the second end 2102, the second end 310i, the second end 3102) of the one or more vias are electrically grounded, at 908. According to some implementations, copper can be evaporated within the one or more vias.

[0093] As discussed herein, provided is a dissipative device in the form of a microwave attenuator that can reduce and/or mitigate signal magnitude, reduce and/or mitigate thermal noise, and thermalize conductors at the one or more stages (e.g., plates) in the dilution refrigerator (e.g., the cryostat 100). The disclosed aspects provide a thermally aware microwave attenuator for quantum applications. The microwave attenuator design can reduce and/or mitigate thermal noise and optimize thermalization in dilution refrigerators for quantum applications while retaining a state of the art microwave response for the attenuator.

[0094] The various aspects include a standalone microwave attenuator for cryogenic applications on a high thermal conductivity substrate. Further, microstrip lines can be utilized as well as thick (e.g., around 0.5 mm to about 1 mm) conductors, which can apply both to transmission lines and heat sinks. In addition, provided is an improved design both from a microwave and thermal perspective. Microstrip lines can improve microwave signals and/or avoid slotline modes. The heat sinks can rely on thermal conduction other than electron-phono coupling. Further, the attenuator design can be utilized in temperatures ranging from about K to around 100° K, for example.

[0095] For simplicity of explanation, the methods or computer-implemented methodologies are depicted and described as a series of acts. It is to be understood and appreciated that the subject innovation is not limited by the acts illustrated and/or by the order of acts, for example acts can occur in various orders and/or concurrently, and with other acts not presented and described herein. Furthermore, not all illustrated acts can be required to implement the computer-implemented methodologies in accordance with the disclosed subject matter. In addition, those skilled in the art will understand and appreciate that the computer-implemented methodologies could alternatively be represented as a series of interrelated states via a state diagram or events. Additionally, it should be further appreciated that the computer-implemented methodologies disclosed hereinafter and throughout this specification are capable of being stored on an article of manufacture to facilitate transporting and transferring such computer-implemented methodologies to computers. The term article of manufacture, as used herein, is intended to encompass a computer program accessible from any computer-readable device or storage media.

[0096] In order to provide a context for the various aspects of the disclosed subject matter, FIG. 10 as well as the following discussion are intended to provide a general description of a suitable environment in which the various aspects of the disclosed subject matter can be implemented. FIG. 10 illustrates a block diagram of an example, non-limiting operating environment in which one or more embodiments described herein can be facilitated.

Repetitive description of like elements employed in other embodiments described herein is omitted for sake of brevity. With reference to FIG. 10, a suitable operating environment 1000 for implementing various aspects of this disclosure can also include a computer 1012. The computer 1012 can also include a processing unit 1014, a system memory 1016, and a system bus 1018. The system bus 1018 couples system components including, but not limited to, the system memory 1016 to the processing unit 1014. The processing unit 1014 can be any of various available processors. Dual microprocessors and other multiprocessor architectures also can be employed as the processing unit 1014. The system bus 1018 can be any of several types of bus structure(s) including the memory bus or memory controller, a peripheral bus or external bus, and/or a local bus using any variety of available bus architectures including, but not limited to, Industrial Standard Architecture (ISA), Micro-Channel Architecture (MSA), Extended ISA (EISA), Intelligent Drive Electronics (IDE), VESA Local Bus (VLB), Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI), Card Bus, Universal Serial Bus (USB), Advanced Graphics Port (AGP), Firewire (IEEE 1394), and Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI). The system memory 1016 can also include volatile memory 1020 and nonvolatile memory 1022. The basic input/output system (BIOS), containing the basic routines to transfer information between elements within the computer 1012, such as during start-up, is stored in nonvolatile memory 1022. By way of illustration, and not limitation, nonvolatile memory 1022 can include read only memory (ROM), programmable ROM (PROM), electrically programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM), flash memory, or nonvolatile random access memory (RAM) (e.g., ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM)).

Volatile memory 1020 can also include random access memory (RAM), which acts as external cache memory. By way of illustration and not limitation, RAM is available in many forms such as static RAM (SRAM), dynamic RAM (DRAM), synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), double data rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM), enhanced SDRAM (ESDRAM), Synchlink DRAM (SLDRAM), direct Rambus RAM (DRRAM), direct Rambus dynamic RAM (DRDRAM), and Rambus dynamic RAM.

[0097] Computer 1012 can also include removable/non-removable, volatile/non-volatile computer storage media. FIG. 10 illustrates, for example, a disk storage 1024. Disk storage 1024 can also include, but is not limited to, devices like a magnetic disk drive, floppy disk drive, tape drive, Jaz drive, Zip drive, LS-100 drive, flash memory card, or memory stick. The disk storage 1024 also can include storage media separately or in combination with other storage media including, but not limited to, an optical disk drive such as a compact disk ROM device (CD- ROM), CD recordable drive (CD-R Drive), CD rewritable drive (CD-RW Drive) or a digital versatile disk ROM drive (DVD-ROM). To facilitate connection of the disk storage 1024 to the system bus 1018, a removable or nonremovable interface is typically used, such as interface 1026. FIG. 10 also depicts software that acts as an intermediary between users and the basic computer resources described in the suitable operating environment 1000. Such software can also include, for example, an operating system 1028. Operating system 1028, which can be stored on disk storage 1024, acts to control and allocate resources of the computer 1012. System applications 1030 take advantage of the management of resources by operating system 1028 through program modules 1032 and program data 1034, e.g., stored either in system memory 1016 or on disk storage 1024. It is to be appreciated that this disclosure can be implemented with various operating systems or combinations of operating systems. A user enters commands or information into the computer 1012 through input device(s) 1036. Input devices 1036 include, but are not limited to, a pointing device such as a mouse, trackball, stylus, touch pad, keyboard, microphone, joystick, game pad, satellite dish, scanner, TV tuner card, digital camera, digital video camera, web camera, and the like. These and other input devices connect to the processing unit 1014 through the system bus 1018 via interface port(s) 1038. Interface port(s) 1038 include, for example, a serial port, a parallel port, a game port, and a universal serial bus (USB). Output device(s) 1040 use some of the same type of ports as input device(s) 1036. Thus, for example, a USB port can be used to provide input to computer 1012, and to output information from computer 1012 to an output device 1040. Output adapter 1042 is provided to illustrate that there are some output devices 1040 like monitors, speakers, and printers, among other output devices 1040, which require special adapters. The output adapters 1042 include, by way of illustration and not limitation, video and sound cards that provide a method of connection between the output device 1040 and the system bus 1018. It should be noted that other devices and/or systems of devices provide both input and output capabilities such as remote computer(s) 1044.

[0098] Computer 1012 can operate in a networked environment using logical connections to one or more remote computers, such as remote computer(s) 1044. The remote computer(s) 1044 can be a computer, a server, a router, a network PC, a workstation, a microprocessor based appliance, a peer device or other common network node and the like, and typically can also include many or all of the elements described relative to computer 1012. For purposes of brevity, only a memory storage device 1046 is illustrated with remote computer(s) 1044. Remote computer(s) 1044 is logically connected to computer 1012 through a network interface 1048 and then physically connected via communication connection 1050. Network interface 1048 encompasses wire and/or wireless communication networks such as local-area networks (LAN), wide-area networks (WAN), cellular networks, etc.

LAN technologies include Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Copper Distributed Data Interface (CDDI), Ethernet, Token Ring and the like. WAN technologies include, but are not limited to, point-to-point links, circuit switching networks like Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN) and variations thereon, packet switching networks, and Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL). Communication connection(s) 1050 refers to the hardware/software employed to connect the network interface 1048 to the system bus 1018. While communication connection 1050 is shown for illustrative clarity inside computer 1012, it can also be external to computer 1012. The hardware/software for connection to the network interface 1048 can also include, for exemplary purposes only, internal and external technologies such as, modems including regular telephone grade modems, cable modems and DSL modems,

ISDN adapters, and Ethernet cards.

[0099] The present invention may be a system, a method, an apparatus and/or a computer program product at any possible technical detail level of integration. The computer program product can include a computer readable storage medium (or media) having computer readable program instructions thereon for causing a processor to carry out aspects of the present invention. The computer readable storage medium can be a tangible device that can retain and store instructions for use by an instruction execution device. The computer readable storage medium can be, for example, but is not limited to, an electronic storage device, a magnetic storage device, an optical storage device, an electromagnetic storage device, a semiconductor storage device, or any suitable combination of the foregoing. A non-exhaustive list of more specific examples of the computer readable storage medium can also include the following: a portable computer diskette, a hard disk, a random access memory (RAM), a read-only memory (ROM), an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM or Flash memory), a static random access memory (SRAM), a portable compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM), a digital versatile disk (DVD), a memory stick, a floppy disk, a mechanically encoded device such as punch-cards or raised structures in a groove having instructions recorded thereon, and any suitable combination of the foregoing. A computer readable storage medium, as used herein, is not to be construed as being transitory signals per se, such as radio waves or other freely propagating electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic waves propagating through a waveguide or other transmission media (e.g., light pulses passing through a fiber-optic cable), or electrical signals transmitted through a wire.

[00100] Computer readable program instructions described herein can be downloaded to respective computing/processing devices from a computer readable storage medium or to an external computer or external storage device via a network, for example, the Internet, a local area network, a wide area network and/or a wireless network. The network can comprise copper transmission cables, optical transmission fibers, wireless transmission, routers, firewalls, switches, gateway computers and/or edge servers. A network adapter card or network interface in each computing/processing device receives computer readable program instructions from the network and forwards the computer readable program instructions for storage in a computer readable storage medium within the respective computing/processing device. Computer readable program instructions for carrying out operations of the present invention can be assembler instructions, instruction-set-architecture (ISA) instructions, machine instructions, machine dependent instructions, microcode, firmware instructions, state-setting data, configuration data for integrated circuitry, or either source code or object code written in any combination of one or more programming languages, including an object oriented programming language such as Smalltalk, C++, or the like, and procedural programming languages, such as the "C" programming language or similar programming languages. The computer readable program instructions can execute entirely on the user's computer, partly on the user's computer, as a stand-alone software package, partly on the user's computer and partly on a remote computer or entirely on the remote computer or server. In the latter scenario, the remote computer can be connected to the user's computer through any type of network, including a local area network (LAN) or a wide area network (WAN), or the connection can be made to an external computer (for example, through the Internet using an Internet Service Provider). In some embodiments, electronic circuitry including, for example, programmable logic circuitry, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), or programmable logic arrays (PL A) can execute the computer readable program instructions by utilizing state information of the computer readable program instructions to personalize the electronic circuitry, in order to perform aspects of the present invention.

[00101] Aspects of the present invention are described herein with reference to flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams of methods, apparatus (systems), and computer program products according to embodiments of the invention. It will be understood that each block of the flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams, and combinations of blocks in the flowchart illustrations and/or block diagrams, can be implemented by computer readable program instructions. These computer readable program instructions can be provided to a processor of a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, or other programmable data processing apparatus to produce a machine, such that the instructions, which execute via the processor of the computer or other programmable data processing apparatus, create method for implementing the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks. These computer readable program instructions can also be stored in a computer readable storage medium that can direct a computer, a programmable data processing apparatus, and/or other devices to function in a particular manner, such that the computer readable storage medium having instructions stored therein comprises an article of manufacture including instructions which implement aspects of the function/act specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks. The computer readable program instructions can also be loaded onto a computer, other programmable data processing apparatus, or other device to cause a series of operational acts to be performed on the computer, other programmable apparatus or other device to produce a computer implemented process, such that the instructions which execute on the computer, other programmable apparatus, or other device implement the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks. [00102] The flowchart and block diagrams in the Figures illustrate the architecture, functionality, and operation of possible implementations of systems, methods, and computer program products according to various embodiments of the present invention. In this regard, each block in the flowchart or block diagrams can represent a module, segment, or portion of instructions, which comprises one or more executable instructions for implementing the specified logical function(s). In some alternative implementations, the functions noted in the blocks can occur out of the order noted in the Figures. For example, two blocks shown in succession can, in fact, be executed substantially concurrently, or the blocks can sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending upon the functionality involved. It will also be noted that each block of the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, and combinations of blocks in the block diagrams and/or flowchart illustration, can be implemented by special purpose hardware-based systems that perform the specified functions or acts or carry out combinations of special purpose hardware and computer instructions.

[00103] While the subject matter has been described above in the general context of computer-executable instructions of a computer program product that runs on a computer and/or computers, those skilled in the art will recognize that this disclosure also can be implemented in combination with other program modules. Generally, program modules include routines, programs, components, data structures, etc. that perform particular tasks and/or implement particular abstract data types. Moreover, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the inventive computer-implemented methods can be practiced with other computer system configurations, including singleprocessor or multiprocessor computer systems, mini-computing devices, mainframe computers, as well as computers, hand-held computing devices (e.g., PDA, phone), microprocessor-based or programmable consumer or industrial electronics, and the like. The illustrated aspects can also be practiced in distributed computing environments where tasks are performed by remote processing devices that are linked through a communications network. However, some, if not all aspects of this disclosure can be practiced on stand-alone computers. In a distributed computing environment, program modules can be located in both local and remote memory storage devices.

[00104] As used in this application, the terms“component,”“system,”“platform,”“interfac e,” and the like, can refer to and/or can include a computer-related entity or an entity related to an operational machine with one or more specific functionalities. The entities disclosed herein can be either hardware, a combination of hardware and software, software, or software in execution. For example, a component can be, but is not limited to being, a process running on a processor, a processor, an object, an executable, a thread of execution, a program, and/or a computer. By way of illustration, both an application running on a server and the server can be a component. One or more components can reside within a process and/or thread of execution and a component can be localized on one computer and/or distributed between two or more computers. In another example, respective components can execute from various computer readable media having various data structures stored thereon. The components can communicate via local and/or remote processes such as in accordance with a signal having one or more data packets (e.g., data from one component interacting with another component in a local system, distributed system, and/or across a network such as the Internet with other systems via the signal). As another example, a component can be an apparatus with specific functionality provided by mechanical parts operated by electric or electronic circuitry, which is operated by a software or firmware application executed by a processor. In such a case, the processor can be internal or external to the apparatus and can execute at least a part of the software or firmware application. As yet another example, a component can be an apparatus that provides specific functionality through electronic components without mechanical parts, wherein the electronic components can include a processor or other method to execute software or firmware that confers at least in part the functionality of the electronic components. In an aspect, a component can emulate an electronic component via a virtual machine, e.g., within a cloud computing system.

[00105] In addition, the term“or” is intended to mean an inclusive“or” rather than an exclusive“or.” That is, unless specified otherwise, or clear from context,“X employs A or B” is intended to mean any of the natural inclusive permutations. That is, if X employs A; X employs B; or X employs both A and B, then“X employs A or B” is satisfied under any of the foregoing instances. Moreover, articles“a” and“an” as used in the subject specification and annexed drawings should generally be construed to mean“one or more” unless specified otherwise or clear from context to be directed to a singular form. As used herein, the terms“example” and/or“exemplary” are utilized to mean serving as an example, instance, or illustration. For the avoidance of doubt, the subject matter disclosed herein is not limited by such examples. In addition, any aspect or design described herein as an“example” and/or “exemplary” is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other aspects or designs, nor is it meant to preclude equivalent exemplary structures and techniques known to those of ordinary skill in the art.

[00106] As it is employed in the subject specification, the term“processor” can refer to substantially any computing processing unit or device comprising, but not limited to, single-core processors; single-processors with software multithread execution capability; multi-core processors; multi-core processors with software multithread execution capability; multi-core processors with hardware multithread technology; parallel platforms; and parallel platforms with distributed shared memory. Additionally, a processor can refer to an integrated circuit, an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), a digital signal processor (DSP), a field programmable gate array (FPGA), a programmable logic controller (PLC), a complex programmable logic device (CPLD), a discrete gate or transistor logic, discrete hardware components, or any combination thereof designed to perform the functions described herein. Further, processors can exploit nano-scale architectures such as, but not limited to, molecular and quantum-dot based transistors, switches and gates, in order to optimize space usage or enhance performance of user equipment. A processor can also be implemented as a combination of computing processing units. In this disclosure, terms such as“store,”“storage,”“data store,” data storage,”“database,” and substantially any other information storage component relevant to operation and functionality of a component are utilized to refer to “memory components,” entities embodied in a“memory,” or components comprising a memory. It is to be appreciated that memory and/or memory components described herein can be either volatile memory or nonvolatile memory, or can include both volatile and nonvolatile memory. By way of illustration, and not limitation, nonvolatile memory can include read only memory (ROM), programmable ROM (PROM), electrically programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically erasable ROM (EEPROM), flash memory, or nonvolatile random access memory (RAM)

(e.g., ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM). Volatile memory can include RAM, which can act as external cache memory, for example. By way of illustration and not limitation, RAM is available in many forms such as synchronous RAM (SRAM), dynamic RAM (DRAM), synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), double data rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM), enhanced SDRAM (ESDRAM), Synchlink DRAM (SLDRAM), direct Rambus RAM (DRRAM), direct Rambus dynamic RAM (DRDRAM), and Rambus dynamic RAM (RDRAM). Additionally, the disclosed memory components of systems or computer-implemented methods herein are intended to include, without being limited to including, these and any other suitable types of memory.

[00107] What has been described above include mere examples of systems and computer-implemented methods. It is, of course, not possible to describe every conceivable combination of components or computer- implemented methods for purposes of describing this disclosure, but one of ordinary skill in the art can recognize that many further combinations and permutations of this disclosure are possible. Furthermore, to the extent that the terms“includes,”“has,”“possesses,” and the like are used in the detailed description, claims, appendices and drawings such terms are intended to be inclusive in a manner similar to the term“comprising” as“comprising” is interpreted when employed as a transitional word in a claim. The descriptions of the various embodiments have been presented for purposes of illustration, but are not intended to be exhaustive or limited to the embodiments disclosed. Many modifications and variations will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art without departing from the scope of the described embodiments. The terminology used herein was chosen to best explain the principles of the embodiments, the practical application or technical improvement over technologies found in the marketplace, or to enable others of ordinary skill in the art to understand the embodiments disclosed herein.