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Title:
MITOCHONDRIALLY TARGETED PARP INHIBITOR, AND USES THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/071761
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A mitochondrial-targeted PARP inhibitor is provided herein, as well as methods of making and using the mitochondrial-targeted PARP inhibitor.

Inventors:
BAYIR, Hulya (100 Denniston Street, Apartment 6Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15206, US)
CLARK, Robert (7 Widgeon Drive, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15238, US)
KRAINZ, Tanja (331 S. Negley Avenue, Apt. 1Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15232, US)
WIPF, Peter (128 N. Craig Street, Apt. 807Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15213, US)
Application Number:
US2017/056503
Publication Date:
April 19, 2018
Filing Date:
October 13, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH - OF THE COMMONWEALTH SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION (1st Floor Gardner Steel Conference Center, 130 Thackeray AvenuePittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15260, US)
International Classes:
C07D209/00; A61K31/454; A61K47/64; A61P19/08; A61P31/00; A61P35/00; C07K5/08
Domestic Patent References:
WO2010009405A22010-01-21
Other References:
VALERIAN E. KAGAN: "Mitochondrial targeting of electron scavenging antioxidants: Regulation of selectiveoxidation vs random chain reactions", ADVANCED DRUG DELIVERY REVIEWS, vol. 61, 30 November 2009 (2009-11-30), pages 1375 - 1385, XP026761117, Retrieved from the Internet
NICOLA CURTIN: "PARP inhibitors for anticancer therapy", BIOCHEMICAL SOCIETY TRANSACTIONS, vol. 42, no. 1, 1 February 2014 (2014-02-01), pages 82 - 88, XP055478572, Retrieved from the Internet
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HIRSHMAN, Jesse, A. et al. (The Webb Law Firm, One Gateway Center420 Ft. Duquesne Blvd., Suite 120, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, 15222, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
We claim:

1 . A compound comprising a mitochondria-targeting gramicidin S peptide isostere moiety covalently linked to a PARP inhibitor, or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof.

2. The compound of claim 1 , having the structure:

wherein R8 is -NH-Rg, -O-Rg, -CH2-Rg, -L-Rg, -NH-L-Rg, or -O-L-Rg, where Rg is a PARP inhibitor, such as, olaparib, veliparib, CEP-8983 (ll-methoxy-4,5,6,7- tetrahydro- IH-cyclopenta[a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole-l,3(2H)-dione) or a prodrug thereof (e.g. CEP- 9722), rucaparib, E7016 (10-((4-hydroxypiperidin-l-yl)methyl)chromeno-[4,3,2- de]phthalazin-3(2H)- one), INO-1001 (4-phenoxy-3-pyrrolidin-l-yl-5-sulfamoyl-benzoic acid), niraparib, talazoparib (BMN673), NU1025 (8-hydroxy-2-methylquinazolin- 4(3H)-one), 1 ,5-dihydroiso quinoline, 4-amino-1 ,8-naphthalimide, 2-nitro-6[5H] phenanthridinone, PD128763, and L is a C1-5 alkyl linker, optionally comprising an ester or amide linkage;

R15 and R16, independently, are an amine protecting group;

R21 is H or C1-3 alkyl aryl, such as methylphenyl ;

R22 and R23 are, independently, H, Ci-4alkyl or hetero-substituted lkyl, such as a

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof.

3. The compound of claim 2, having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof.

4. The compound of claim 2, having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof.

5. The compound of claim 2, wherein R22 and R23 are, independently, chosen from

6. The compound of claim 2, having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof.

7. The compound of claim 2, wherein R15 is Boc and R16 is Cbz.

8. The compound of claim 2, having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof.

9. The compound of claim 2, wherein F¾ is:

, or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof.

10. The compound of claim 1 , having the structure:

wherein R8 is -NH-Rg, -O-R9, -CH2-R9, -L-R9, -NH-L-R9, or -O-L-R9, R9 is a PARP inhibitor, and L is a C1-5 alkyl linker, optionally comprising an ester or amide linkage.

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof.

12. The compound of claim 1 , wherein the PARP inhibitor is veliparib.

13. A composition comprising a first compound according to any one of claims 1 -12, and a pharmaceutically-acceptable excipient.

14. The composition of claim 13, further comprising a chemotherapeutic agent that is different from the first compound.

15. The composition of claim 14, wherein the chemotherapeutic agent is selected from: abiraterone acetate, altretamine, amsacrine, anhydro vinblastine, auristatin, bafetinib, bexarotene, bicalutamide, BMS 184476, 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-N-(3-fluoro- 4-methoxyphenyl)benzene sulfonamide, bleomycin, bosutinib, busulfan, cachectin, cemadotin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, 3',4'-didehydro-4'-deoxy-8'-norvin- caleukoblastine, docetaxol, doxetaxel, carboplatin, carmustine (BCNU), chlorambucil, cisplatin, cryptophycin, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, dacarbazine (DTIC), dactinomycin, daunorubicin, decitabine dolastatin, doxorubicin (adriamycin), etoposide, etoposide phosphate, 5-fluorouracil, finasteride, flutamide, hydroxyurea, hydroxyureataxanes, ifosfamide, imatinib, irinotecan, liarozole, lonidamine, lomustine (CCNU), MDV3100, mechlorethamine (nitrogen mustard), melphalan, mitoxantrone, mivobulin isethionate, rhizoxin, sertenef, streptozocin, mitomycin, methotrexate, nilotinib, nilutamide, onapristone, oxaliplatin, paclitaxel, ponatinib, prednimustine, procarbazine, RPRI 09881 , stramustine phosphate, tamoxifen, tasonermin, taxol, teniposide, topotecan, tretinoin, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine sulfate, vinflunine, and combinations thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts or esters thereof.

16. A method of treating a cancer in a patient, comprising administering to a patient an amount of a first compound according to any one of claims 1 -13 effective to sensitize malignant, but not non-malignant, cells of a patient to anti-cancer drugs.

17. The method of claim 16, further comprising administering a radiation therapy to the patient while the first compound is present in the patient.

18. The method of claim 16, further comprising administering a chemotherapeutic agent that differs from the first compound.

19. The method of claim 18, wherein the chemotherapeutic agent is selected from: abiraterone acetate, altretamine, amsacrine, anhydro vinblastine, auristatin, bafetinib, bexarotene, bicalutamide, BMS 184476, 2,3,4,5, 6-pentafluoro-N-(3-fluoro-4- methoxyphenyl)benzene sulfonamide, bleomycin, bosutinib, busulfan, cachectin, cemadotin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, 3',4'-didehydro-4'-deoxy-8'-norvin- caleukoblastine, docetaxol, doxetaxel, carboplatin, carmustine (BCNU), chlorambucil, cisplatin, cryptophycin, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, dacarbazine (DTIC), dactinomycin, daunorubicin, decitabine dolastatin, doxorubicin (adriamycin), etoposide, etoposide phosphate, 5-fluorouracil, finasteride, flutamide, hydroxyurea, hydroxyureataxanes, ifosfamide, imatinib, irinotecan, liarozole, lonidamine, lomustine (CCNU), MDV3100, mechlorethamine (nitrogen mustard), melphalan, mitoxantrone, mivobulin isethionate, rhizoxin, sertenef, streptozocin, mitomycin, methotrexate, nilotinib, nilutamide, onapristone, oxaliplatin, paclitaxel, ponatinib, prednimustine, procarbazine, RPRI 09881 , stramustine phosphate, tamoxifen, tasonermin, taxol, teniposide, topotecan, tretinoin, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine sulfate, vinflunine, and combinations thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts or esters thereof.

20. A method of reducing NAD+ depletion and cell death induced by oxidative stress in a cell or a patient, comprising administering to a cell or a patient an amount of a compound according to any one of claims 1 -12 effective to decrease NAD+ depletion in mitochondria of a cell or of a patient.

21 . A method of reducing cell death induced by mitochondrial dysfunction and/or damage in a cell or a patient, comprising administering to a cell or a patient an amount of a compound according to any one of claims 1 -12 effective to improve mitochondrial function and reduce mitochondrial damage in a cell or in a patient.

22. A method of reducing energy failure induced by ischemia-reperfusion in a cell or a patient, comprising administering to a cell or a patient an amount of a compound according to any one of claims 1 -12 effective to prevent or reduce ischemia- reperfusion injury in a cell or in a patient.

23. A method of reducing irradiation (IR)-induced cell death and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage from exposure to ionizing radiation in a patient, comprising administering to a patient an amount of a compound according to any one of claims 1 -12 effective to reduce irradiation (IR)-induced cell death and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in a patient.

Description:
MITOCHONDRIALLY TARGETED PARP INHIBITOR, AND USES THEREOF

STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERAL FUNDING

[0001] This invention was made with government support under Grant Nos. NS084604 and AI068021 awarded by the National Institutes of Health. The government has certain rights in the invention.

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

[0002] This application claims the benefit of United States Patent Application No. 62/407,639 filed October 13, 2016, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0003] Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) is a family of enzymes involved in DNA repair, genome stability, cellular energy metabolism and cell division. Poly(ADP- ribose) polymerases (PARP) are abundant cellular enzymes, with PARP-1 being the most well characterized PARP family member. PARP enzymes build poly(ADP- ribose) polymers (PADPRp) onto target proteins including histones and PARP-1 itself, converting NAD+ to ADP-ribose and nicotinamide while consuming cellular NAD+ stores in the process. PARP-1 is activated by DNA damage and plays a key role in genomic DNA repair, reflected by the fact that it is the second most abundant protein in the cell's nucleus. However, over-activation of PARP-1 can result in critical depletion of cellular NAD+ and initiation of mitochondrial-triggered cell death cascades, leading the scientific field to coin the phrase "suicide theory of PARP activation" (Szabo et al. Trends Pharmacol Sci 1998;19:287-98) and the term "PARthanatosis" (Andrabi et al. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008;1 147:233-41 ), respectively, to characterize PARP-mediated mechanisms of cell death.

[0004] Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) plays a central role in cellular and molecular processes including DNA damage detection and repair, transcription, and the maintenance of genomic integrity. The currently-identified 1 7 members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family induce the cleavage of NAD + into nicotinamide and ADP-ribose moieties and mediate their polymerization on target proteins, with links to cellular redox homeostasis, inflammatory, and metabolic networks. While there are broader therapeutic implications for synthetic PARP modulators, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1 ) inhibitors have become a hot topic in cancer research since the regulatory approval of olaparib for patients with BRCA 112 mutant ovarian cancer. PARP-1 binds to nuclear DNA single-strand break (SSBs) sites and recruits repair proteins to the DNA, subsequently dissociating itself from the SSB. The most potent small-molecule inhibitors, rather than just off-setting PARP-1 "s enzymatic activity, trap it at the SSB site and stabilize PARP-DNA complexes, ultimately causing DNA double-strand breaks that require more complex repair mechanisms.

[0005] DNA damage induced by irradiation or oxidative stress leads to over- activation of PARP-1 and induces depletion of cellular NAD + and ATP levels, leading to cell dysfunction and necrotic cell death. A primary location of NAD + is in mitochondria, where it is utilized for oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is constantly being exposed to damaging species such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and is efficiently repaired through at least a subset of the species involved in nuclear DNA repair, including PARP-1 . In addition to some cancers being exquisitely susceptible to NAD + depletion over-activation of PARP-1 and NAD + depletion has been linked to the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including ischemia, traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which have a pronounced mitochondrial component.

[0006] It is a widely held belief that PARP activation within cell nuclei accounts for the entirety of PARP-mediated cell death. As such, all PARP inhibitors developed to date target nuclear PARP activation. Disappointingly, despite numerous promising pre-clinical studies dating back to the 1990's targeting nuclear PARP overactivation to prevent cell death, there are no successful clinical applications using PARP inhibitors as mitigators of cell death. Not only that, but PARP inhibitors are being evaluated in cancer trials to enhance tumoricidal activity of DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents by preventing DNA repair in cancer cells.

[0007] Inhibition of PARP-1 , a well-characterized member of this family, has been explored as a strategy for enhancing anti-cancer activity of existing drugs and for developing new drugs. Recently unique enzymatic properties and biological functions of PARP-2 and PARP-3 have been discovered, further expanding the utility of PARP as a target for cancer pharmacotherapy. PARP inhibitors in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials, used alone or in combination with known anticancer agents include Olaparib (Ola), Veliparib (Veli) and Rucaparib (Ruca). Prolonged exposure to Ola and Veli leads to resistant cancer cells, primarily through restoration of the homologous recombination (HR) pathway, overexpression of the P-glycoprotein efflux pump or modulation of PARP expression. Some resistant cancer cells continue to respond to platinum based drugs, encouraging further development of PARP inhibitors for cancer treatment. Furthermore, inhibition of mitochondrial PARP has been shown to sensitize malignant, but not non-malignant, cells to anti-cancer drugs. Thus, it is possible but has not yet been shown in humans that the tumoricidal activity of clinically used PARP inhibitors may be related in part to PARP inhibition in the mitochondria. Veliparib (1 ,2- [(S)-2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]-1 H-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide, also, ABT-888) is a promising PARP-1 inhibitor that has entered clinical phase l/ll trials for several forms of cancer including breast cancer and solid tumor neoplasm, either as a single agent or as a combination with other chemotherapeutics.

[0008] It is therefore desirable to develop PARP inhibitors, and especially those with high specific activity and mitochondria-targeting ability.

SUMMARY

[0009] If suitable PARP inhibitors could be targeted exclusively to the mitochondria, it is feasible that they might prevent potentially lethal NAD + depletion-associated energy failure and cell death without undesirable effects on genomic DNA repair; and potentially used in tandem with DNA damage-targeting cancer therapies, such as radiation therapy. The present application suggests that mitochondrially-targeted PARP inhibitors may have unique and important advantages over PARP inhibitors that are non-selectively distributed over cellular compartments, including directly preserving NAD+ stores within mitochondria (a primary depot of NAD+ within cells); preventing initiation of MPT pore opening by a mechanism involving PARP-mediated post-translational modification of MPT pore components; and not impacting facilitation of DNA repair by PARP-1 in cell nuclei. Mitochondria-targeting PARP inhibitors could have widespread clinical efficacy in diseases where the pathophysiology includes mitochondrial dysfunction and/or energy failure, and maintaining efficient nuclear DNA repair and genomic integrity is desirable; including but not limited to ischemia reperfusion injury, trauma, sub-lethal radiation injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and overwhelming infection.

[0010] Provided herein are mitochondria-targeted PARP inhibitors, such as mitochondria-targeted PARP-1 inhibitors. Based on the data presented below, the disclosed mitochondria-targeted PARP-inhibitors are expected to be therapeutically effective to treat neurodegeneration and other CNS and non-CNS conditions associated with oxidative stress, tissue damage, and cellular energy failure in a patient, as well as in combination with oncolytics. Further, the disclosed mitochondria- targeted PARP-inhibitors are expected to be therapeutically effective to protect a patient against oxidative damage caused by ionizing radiation or tumoricidal agents, for example caused by chemotherapeutics or radiation therapies, a clinical need that has not yet been addressed.

[0011] Provided herein according to one aspect is a composition comprising a mitochondria-targeting group covalently linked to a PARP inhibitor, or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof.

[0012] According to a further aspect, a method of reducing NAD+ depletion and cell death induced by oxidative stress in a cell or a patient is provided, comprising administering to a cell or a patient an amount of a compound comprising a mitochondria-targeting group covalently linked to a PARP inhibitor, or pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof, effective to decrease NAD+ depletion in mitochondria of a cell or of a patient.

[0013] According to a further aspect, a method of reducing cell death induced by mitochondrial dysfunction and/or damage in a cell or a patient, comprising administering to a cell or a patient an amount of a compound comprising a mitochondria-targeting group covalently linked to a PARP inhibitor, or pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof, effective to improve mitochondrial function and reduce mitochondrial damage in a cell or in a patient.

[0014] According to a further aspect, a method of reducing energy failure induced by ischemia-reperfusion in a cell or a patient, comprising administering to a cell or a patient an amount of a compound comprising a mitochondria-targeting group covalently linked to a PARP inhibitor, or pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof, effective to prevent or reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in a cell or in a patient.

[0015] According to a further aspect, a method of reducing cell death caused by exposure to ionizing radiation in a patient, comprising administering to a patient an amount of a compound comprising a mitochondria-targeting group covalently linked to a PARP inhibitor, or pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof, effective to decrease mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage and improve DNA repair in cells of a patient.

[0016] Also provided herein according to another aspect is a method of treating a cancer in a patient, comprising administering to a patient an amount of a first compound comprising a mitochondria-targeting group covalently linked to a PARP inhibitor, or pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof, effective to sensitize malignant, but not non-malignant, cells of a patient to anti-cancer drugs. Additional chemotherapeutic (anticancer) drugs or treatments can be administered to the patient with the first compound.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0017] The patent or application file contains at least one drawing executed in color. Copies of this patent or patent application publication with color drawings will be provided by the Office upon request and payment of the necessary fee.

[0018] Figure 1 A. PARP inhibitors in clinical use or in current trials. Figure 1 B. In Figure 1 B: 5-hydroxyisoquinolin-1 (2H)-one; 6-amino-1 H-benzo[de]isoquinoline- 1 ,3(2H)-dione; 2-nitrophenanthridin-6(5H)-one; PD128763; E701 6; and NU1025.

[0019] Figure 2. Mitochondrial^ targeted 4-amino-TEMPO (XJB-5-1 31 ), lapachone (XJB-lapachone) and veliparib (XJB-veliparib). The therapeutically active payload, the linker region, and the XJB mitochondrial targeting moiety are shown in the mitochondria diagram.

[0020] Figure 3. Synthesis of XJB-Veliparib (15).

[0021] Figure 4. Capacity of 15 to inhibit PARP-1 enzyme. Performed in triplicate.

[0022] Figure 5. Cytotoxicity studies in rat primary cortical neurons. LDH release was measured at 24 h (n = 6/group).

[0023] Figures 6A-6C. Mitochondrial enrichment of XJB-veliparib.

[0024] Figure 7A-7C. (Figure 7A) OGD in rat primary cortical neurons treated with 1 -100 μΜ of veliparib or XJB-Veliparib (top panel). Bottom panel showing 1 -200 nM concentration range. * P < 0.05 vs. naked veliparib; n = 6/group. (Figure 7B) Glutamate-glycine excitotoxicity in primary cortical neurons. Neurons were exposed to 10 μΜ L-glutamate and 10 μΜ glycine, with 1 -100 μΜ of XJB-veliparib or nontargeting veliparib for 24 h; * P < 0.05 vs. naked veliparib, n = 6/group. (Figure 7C) Glutamate excitotoxicity in an immortalized hippocampal neuronal HT22 cell line. XJB-veliparib and nontargeting veliparib were both effective at inhibiting excitotoxic cell death, with XJB-veliparib slightly more effective at higher doses ( * P < 0.05 vs. naked veliparib; n = 5/group).

[0025] Figure 8. Mitochondrial and cytosolic NAD + concentration in primary cortical neurons after OGD. Veliparib and XJB-Veliparib administered at 10 nM dose before OGD. NAD+ concentration measured 24 h after OGD. Assay performed in duplicate.

[0026] Figure 9. Mitochondria were labelled with anti-TOMM20 antibody (green), PADPRp were labelled with anti-PAR antibody (red in original), and nuclei were labelled with (DAPI; blue in original). Both mitochondrial (arrowheads) and nuclear (arrows) PADPRp staining were observed. PARP inhibitors were administered at 10 nM doses before OGD and immunohistochemistry was performed 24 h after OGD.

[0027] Figure 10. Mitochondria were labelled with anti-TOMM20 antibody (green), PADPRp were labelled with anti-PAR antibody (red in original), and nuclei were labelled with DRAQ5 (blue in original). Both mitochondrial (arrowheads) and nuclear (arrows) PADPRp staining were observed. PARP inhibitors were administered at 10 nM doses before OGD and immunohistochemistry was performed 24 h after OGD.

[0028] Figure 1 1 . Graph illustrating that XJB-Veliparib reduces MEF IR-induced cell death.

[0029] Figure 12. Graphs showing that XJB-veliparib reduces γ-irradiation-induced mitochondrial DNA damage.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0030] The use of numerical values in the various ranges specified in this application, unless expressly indicated otherwise, are stated as approximations as though the minimum and maximum values within the stated ranges are both preceded by the word "about". In this manner, slight variations above and below the stated ranges can be used to achieve substantially the same results as values within the ranges. Also, unless indicated otherwise, the disclosure of these ranges is intended as a continuous range including every value between the minimum and maximum values. For definitions provided herein, those definitions also refer to word forms, cognates and grammatical variants of those words or phrases.

[0031] As used herein, the terms "comprising," "comprise" or "comprised," and variations thereof, in reference to elements of an item, composition, apparatus, method, process, system, claim etc. are intended to be open-ended, meaning that the item, composition, apparatus, method, process, system, claim etc. includes those elements and other elements can be included and still fall within the scope/definition of the described item, composition, apparatus, method, process, system, claim etc. As used herein, "a" or "an" means one or more. As used herein "another" may mean at least a second or more.

[0032] As used herein, the terms "patient" or "subject" refer to members of the animal kingdom, including, but not limited to human beings.

[0033] As used herein, "alkyl" refers to straight, branched chain, or cyclic hydrocarbyl groups including from 1 to about 20 carbon atoms, for example and without limitation C1-3, C1-6, C1-10 groups, for example and without limitation, straight, branched chain alkyl groups such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, undecyl, dodecyl, and the like. "Substituted alkyl" refers to alkyl substituted at 1 or more, e.g., 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, or even 6 positions, which substituents are attached at any available atom to produce a stable compound, with substitution as described herein. "Optionally substituted alkyl" refers to alkyl or substituted alkyl. "Halogen," "halide," and "halo" refers to -F, -CI, -Br, and/or -I. "Alkylene" and "substituted alkylene" refer to divalent alkyl and divalent substituted alkyl, respectively, including, without limitation, ethylene (-CH2-CH2-). "Optionally substituted alkylene" refers to alkylene or substituted alkylene. "CycloalkyI" refer to monocyclic, bicyclic, tricyclic, or polycyclic, 3- to 14-membered ring systems, which are either saturated, unsaturated or aromatic. The cycloalkyi group may be attached via any atom. CycloalkyI also contemplates fused rings wherein the cycloalkyi is fused to an aryl or hetroaryl ring.

[0034] "Alkene or alkenyl" refers to straight, branched chain, or cyclic hydrocarbyl groups including from 2 to about 20 carbon atoms, such as, without limitation C1-3, Ci- 6, C1-10 groups having one or more, e.g., 1 , 2, 3, 4, or 5, carbon-to-carbon double bonds. "Alkyne or "alkynyl" refers to a straight or branched chain unsaturated hydrocarbon having the indicated number of carbon atoms and at least one triple bond.

[0035] The term "alkoxy" refers to an -O-alkyl group having the indicated number of carbon atoms. For example, a (Ci-C6)alkoxy group includes -O-methyl (methoxy), -O- ethyl (ethoxy), -O-propyl (propoxy), -O-isopropyl (isopropoxy), -O-butyl (butoxy), -O- sec -butyl (sec-butoxy), -O-tert-butyl (tert-butoxy), -O-pentyl (pentoxy), -O-isopentyl (isopentoxy), -O-neopentyl (neopentoxy), -O-hexyl (hexyloxy), -O-isohexyl (isohexyloxy), and -O-neohexyl (neohexyloxy). [0036] "Aryl," alone or in combination refers to an aromatic monocyclic or bicyclic ring system such as phenyl or naphthyl. "Aryl" also includes aromatic ring systems that are optionally fused with a cycloalkyl ring.

[0037] "Heteroatom" refers to N, O, P and S. Compounds that contain N or S atoms can be optionally oxidized to the corresponding N-oxide, sulfoxide or sulfone compounds. "Hetero-substituted" refers to an organic compound in any embodiment described herein in which one or more carbon atoms are substituted with N, O, P or S.

[0038] "Substituted" or "substitution" refer to replacement of a hydrogen atom of a molecule or an R-group with one or more additional R-groups such as halogen, alkyl, alkoxy, alkylthio, trifluoromethyl, acyloxy, hydroxy, mercapto, carboxy, aryloxy, aryl, arylalkyl, heteroaryl, amino, alkylamino, dialkylamino, morpholino, piperidino, pyrrolidin-1 -yl, piperazin-1 -yl, nitro, sulfato or other R-groups.

[0039] Provided herein are mitochondrial-targeted PARP inhibitors and methods of use for those PARP inhibitors. PARP inhibitors that target preferentially to the mitochondria are expected to prevent the potentially lethal side effects of NAD + depletion-associated energy failure. As described herein, mitochondrially-targeted PARP inhibitors have unique and important advantages over PARP inhibitors that are non-selectively distributed over cellular compartments, including directly preserving NAD+ stores within mitochondria (a primary depot of NAD+ within cells); preventing initiation of MPT pore opening by a mechanism involving PARP-mediated post- translational modification of MPT pore components; and not impacting facilitation of DNA repair by PARP-1 in cell nuclei.

[0040] Conditions potentially treatable by the mitochondria-targeting PARP inhibitors described herein include, without limitation ischemia reperfusion injury, trauma including chronic traumatic encephalopathy, sub-lethal radiation injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and overwhelming infection (e.g., sepsis). The data presented below support this. The disclosed mitochondria-targeted PARP-inhibitors are expected to be therapeutically effective to treat neurodegeneration and other CNS and non-CNS conditions associated with oxidative stress, oxidative tissue damage, and cellular energy failure in a patient, and may be superior to non-targeting PARP inhibitors used in combination with oncolytics. Further, the disclosed mitochondria- targeted PARP-inhibitors are expected to be therapeutically effective to protect a patient against oxidative damage caused by ionizing radiation, for example caused by chemotherapeutics or radiation therapies, a clinical need that has not yet been addressed.

[0041] Provided herein according to one aspect is a composition comprising a mitochondria-targeting group covalently linked to a PARP inhibitor or a derivative, isostere, or pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof.

[0042] Also provided herein according to another aspect is a method of treating a cancer in a patient, comprising administering to a patient an amount of a first compound comprising a mitochondria-targeting group covalently linked to a PARP inhibitor, or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof, effective to treat cancer in a patient, e.g., to sensitize malignant, but not non-malignant (normal) cells in a patient to anti-cancer drugs. Additional chemotherapeutic drugs or treatments may be administered to the patient with the first compound.

[0043] According to a further aspect, a method of reducing NAD+ depletion and cell death induced by oxidative stress in a cell or a patient is provided, comprising administering to a cell or a patient an amount of a compound comprising a mitochondria-targeting group covalently linked to a PARP inhibitor, or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof, effective to decrease NAD+ depletion in mitochondria of a cell or of a patient.

[0044] According to a further aspect, a method of reducing cell death induced by mitochondrial dysfunction and/or damage in a cell or a patient, comprising administering to a cell or a patient an amount of a compound comprising a mitochondria-targeting group covalently linked to a PARP inhibitor or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof effective to improve mitochondrial function and reduce mitochondrial damage in a cell or in a patient.

[0045] According to a further aspect, a method of reducing energy failure induced by ischemia-reperfusion in a cell or a patient, comprising administering to a cell or a patient an amount of a compound comprising a mitochondria-targeting group covalently linked to a PARP inhibitor or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof effective to prevent or reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in a cell or in a patient.

[0046] According to a further aspect, a method of reducing irradiation (IR)-induced cell death and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage from exposure to ionizing radiation in a patient, comprising administering to a patient an amount of a compound comprising a mitochondria-targeting group covalently linked to a PARP inhibitor, or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof, effective to reduce irradiation (IR)- induced cell death and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in a patient.

[0047] A "mitochondrial targeting moiety" is a moiety (that is, a part of a molecule) that partitions specifically to mitochondria, including their inner compartments and/or membranes. In one aspect, the mitochondria targeting group is a peptide fragment derived from gramicidin, such as a mitochondria-targeting gramicidin peptide isostere, examples of which follow, e.g., Leu- D Phe-Pro-Val-Orn and D Phe-Pro-Val-Orn-Leu hemigramicidin fragments and isosteres thereof. Because gramicidin is cyclic, any hemigramicidin 5-mer is expected to be useful as a membrane active peptide fragment, including Leu- D Phe-Pro-Val-Orn, D Phe-Pro-Val-Orn-Leu, Pro-Val-Orn-Leu- D Phe, Val-Orn-Leu- D Phe-Pro, and Orn-Leu- D Phe-Pro-Val (from gramicidin S). Any larger or smaller fragment of gramicidin, or even larger fragments containing repeated gramicidin sequences (e.g., Leu- D Phe-Pro-Val-Orn-Leu- D Phe-Pro-Val-Orn-Leu- D Phe- Pro) are expected to be useful for membrane targeting, and can readily be tested for such activity. In one aspect, the gramicidin S-derived peptide comprises a β-turn, which appears to confer to the peptide a high affinity for mitochondria. Derivatives of gramicidin, or other antibiotic fragments, include isosteres, such as (E)-alkene isosteres (see, United States Patent Publication Nos. 2007/01 61573 and 2007/0161544, incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, for exemplary synthesis methods).

[0048] In one aspect, an alkene peptide isostere segment of the antibiotic gramicidin S (GS), the XJB mitochondria-targeting moiety described herein, acts as an effective mitochondrial targeting vector. The presence of a type ΙΓ β-turn in this pentapeptide sequence facilitates membrane permeability since the polar functionality of the backbone is less solvent-exposed and intramolecular hydrogen bonding is favored.

[0049] In one aspect, for example as illustrated by the Examples below, the XJB hemigramicidin S pentapeptide isostere is selected as the targeting unit (Figure 2). The alkene peptide isostere segment in XJB is a surrogate of the leucyl-d- phenylalanine dipeptide in the bacterial membrane-associated antibiotic gramicidin S (GS), and its side chain-protected ornithylvalylproline tripeptide subunit is taken directly from GS. The D-Phe-Pro sequence is based on the reverse turn inducing sequence of GS that activates a type ΙΓ β-turn structure that buries several polar amide groups inside the molecule and thus may facilitate membrane transport. This moiety has previously been used in combination with a nitroxide payload to generate XJB-5- 131 , a reactive oxygen scavenger that validated the targeting design and was found to be ca. 600-fold enriched in mitochondria over the cytosol. XJB-5-131 has shown in vivo efficacy in rodent models of Huntington's disease (HD), traumatic brain injury (TBI), ischemia-reperfusion injury, and hemorrhagic shock. In the radiation protector XJB-AMT, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) antagonist (AMT) is conjugated to the targeting sequence, with the goal to counteract the activation of mitochondrial NOS by ionizing radiation, which can lead to inhibition of the respiratory chain, a burst of superoxide and peroxynitrite, and cellular damage. XJB-Lapachone introduces a derivative of the natural product β-lapachone into mitochondria and causes extensive cellular vacuolization and autophagy, as well as stimulating ROS generation in mitochondria.

[0050] In one aspect, th mpound has the structure:

wherein Ri , R2, R5, and R6 are independently hydrogen, hydroxyl, halo, a C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl, or a C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl further comprising a phenyl group, wherein the C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl group or the C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl group comprising a phenyl group is unsubstituted or is methyl-, hydroxyl- or halo-substituted, for example, and without limitation, Ri , R2, R5, and R6 are independently methyl-, hydroxyl- or f luoro-substituted, including: methyl, ethyl, propyl, 2-propyl, butyl, t-butyl, pentyl, hexyl, benzyl, hydroxybenzyl (e.g., 4-hydroxybenzyl), phenyl, or hydroxyphenyl;

R 4 is hydrogen, a halo, a C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl, or a C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl further comprising a phenyl (C6H5) group, wherein the C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl group or the C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl group comprising a phenyl group is unsubstituted or is methyl-, hydroxyl- or halo- substituted;

R7 is -C(0)-Ri3, -C(0)0-Ri3, or -P(0)-(Ri3)2, wherein R13 is C1 -G3 straight or branched- chain alkyl or a C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl optionally comprising one or more (C6H5) groups that are independently unsubstituted, or methyl-, ethyl-, hydroxyl-, halo-substituted or fluoro-substituted, for example and without limitation, R7 is Ac (Acetyl, R =-C(O)-CH 3 ), Boc (R=-C(O)O-tert-butyl), Cbz (R=-C(O)O-benzyl (Bn)), or a diphenylphosphate group;

R 8 is -NH-Rg, -O-R9, -CH2-R9, -L-R9, -NH-L-Rg, or -O-L-R9, where Rg is a PARP inhibitor or a derivative thereof, such as such as, olaparib, veliparib, CEP-8983 (II- methoxy-4,5,6,7- tetrahydro-IH-cyclopenta[a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole-l,3(2H)-d ione) or a prodrug thereof (e.g. CEP- 9722), rucaparib, E701 6 (10-((4-hydroxypiperidin-l- yl)methyl)chromeno-[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(2H)- one), INO-1001 (4-phenoxy-3- pyrrolidin-l-yl-5-sulfamoyl-benzoic acid), niraparib, talazoparib (BMN673), NU1025 (8- hydroxy-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one), 1 ,5-dihydroiso quinoline, 4-amino-1 ,8- naphthalimide, 2-nitro-6[5H] phenanthridinone, PD1 28763, and analogues, isosteres, and derivatives thereof, and where L is a C1-5 alkyl linker, optionally comprising an ester or amide linkage;

R3 is a halo, a C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl or a C1 -C6 straight or branched- chain alkyl further comprising one or more (C6H5) groups that are independently unsubstituted, or methyl-, ethyl-, hydroxyl- or halo-substituted; and R10, R11 , and R12 are independently H or halogens {See, e.g., International Patent Publication Nos. WO 2010/009405 and WO 201 2/1 12851 , incorporated herein by reference in their entirety).

[0051] In another aspect, the compound has the structure:

wherein X is

Ri , R2, R5, R6, and Ri 4 are each independently hydrogen, halo, a Ci -C6 straight or branched-chain alkyi, or a C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyi further comprising a phenyl (C6H5) group, wherein the C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyi group or the C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyi group comprising a phenyl group is unsubstituted or is methyl-, hydroxyl- or halo-substituted;

R 8 is -NH-Rg, -O-R9, -CH2-R9, -L-R9, -NH-L-Rg, or -O-L-R9, where Rg is a PARP inhibitor or a derivative thereof, such as, olaparib, veliparib, CEP-8983 (ll-methoxy- 4,5,6,7- tetrahydro-IH-cyclopenta[a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole-l,3(2H)-d ione) or a prodrug thereof (e.g. CEP- 9722), rucaparib, E701 6 (10-((4-hydroxypiperidin-l- yl)methyl)chromeno-[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(2H)- one), INO-1001 (4-phenoxy-3- pyrrolidin-l-yl-5-sulfamoyl-benzoic acid), niraparib, talazoparib (BMN673), NU1025 (8- hydroxy-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one), 1 ,5-dihydroiso quinoline, 4-amino-1 ,8- naphthalimide, 2-nitro-6[5H] phenanthridinone, PD1 28763, and analogues, isosteres, and derivatives thereof, and where L is a C1-5 alkyi linker, optionally comprising an ester or amide linkage; and

R7 is -C(0)-Ri3, -C(0)0-Ri3, or -P(0)-(Ri3)2, wherein R13 is C1-G3 straight or branched- chain alkyi or a C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyi optionally comprising one or more (C6H5) groups that are independently unsubstituted, or methyl-, ethyl-, hydroxyl-, halo-substituted or fluoro-substituted, for example and without limitation, R7 is Ac (Acetyl, R =-C(0)-CH 3 ), Boc (R=-C(0)0-tert-butyl), Cbz (R=-C(0)0-benzyl (Bn)), or a diphenylphosphate group.

[0052] Non-limiting examples of compounds according to (V) include: wherein Rg is a PARP inhibitor or a derivative thereof, such as, olaparib, veliparib, CEP-8983 (ll-methoxy-4,5,6,7- tetrahydro-IH-cyclopenta[a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole- l,3(2H)-dione) or a prodrug thereof (e.g. CEP- 9722), rucaparib, E7016 (1 0-((4- hydroxypiperidin-l-yl)methyl)chromeno-[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3 (2H)- one), INO-1001 (4-phenoxy-3-pyrrolidin-l-yl-5-sulfamoyl-benzoic acid), niraparib, talazoparib (BMN673), NU1025 (8-hydroxy-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one), 1 ,5-dihydroiso quinoline, 4-amino-1 ,8-naphthalimide, 2-nitro-6[5H] phenanthridinone, PD1 28763, and analogues, isosteres, and derivatives thereof.

[0053] In one aspect, the compound has a structure chosen from:

wherein R 8 is -NH-Rg, -O-R9, -CH2-R9, -L-Rg, -NH-L-Rg, or -O-L-Rg, where Rg is a PARP inhibitor, such as, olaparib, veliparib, CEP-8983 (ll-methoxy-4,5,6,7- tetrahydro- IH-cyclopenta[a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole-l,3(2H)-dione) or a prodrug thereof (e.g. CEP- 9722), rucaparib, E7016 (10-((4-hydroxypiperidin-l-yl)methyl)chromeno-[4,3,2- de]phthalazin-3(2H)- one), INO-1001 (4-phenoxy-3-pyrrolidin-l-yl-5-sulfamoyl-benzoic acid), niraparib, talazoparib (BMN673), NU1025 (8-hydroxy-2-methylquinazolin- 4(3H)-one), 1 ,5-dihydroiso quinoline, 4-amino-1 ,8-naphthalimide, 2-nitro-6[5H] phenanthridinone, PD1 28763, and analogues, isosteres, and derivatives thereof, and where L is a C1-5 alkyl linker, optionally comprising an ester or amide linkage; R15 and R16, independently are an amine protecting group or acylated (the N is acylated). R21 is H or C1-3 alkyl aryl, such as methylphenyl (-Ch -Ph). R22 and R23 are, independently, H, Ci- 4 alkyl or hetero-substituted alkyl, such as a thio her, for exam le and without

limitation, an aliphatic amino acid side chain, such as aspects, In one aspect, R15 and R16 are protecting groups independently selected from the group consisting of: 9- fluorenylmethyloxy carbonyl (Fmoc), t-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc), benzhydryloxycarbonyl (Bhoc), benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz), O-nitroveratryloxycarbonyl (Nvoc), benzyl (Bn), allyloxycarbonyl (alloc), trityl (Trt), l-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxacyclohexylidene)ethyl (Dde), diathiasuccinoyi (Dts), benzothiazole-2-sulfonyl (Bts), dimethoxytrityl (DMT) and monomethoxytrityl (MMT), and R17 is H or methyl. In one aspect, R15 is Boc and R16 is Cbz. Ph is phenyl.

[0054] In another aspect, the compound has the structure:

wherein R 8 is -NH-Rg, -O-R9, -CH2-R9, -L-Rg, -NH-L-Rg, or -O-L-R9, where Rg is a PARP inhibitor or a derivative thereof, such as, olaparib, veliparib, CEP-8983 (II- methoxy-4,5,6,7- tetrahydro-IH-cyclopenta[a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole-l,3(2H)-d ione) or a prodrug thereof (e.g. CEP- 9722), rucaparib, E701 6 (10-((4-hydroxypiperidin-l- yl)methyl)chromeno-[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(2H)- one), INO-1001 (4-phenoxy-3- pyrrolidin-l-yl-5-sulfamoyl-benzoic acid), niraparib, talazoparib (BMN673), NU1025 (8- hydroxy-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one), 1 ,5-dihydroiso quinoline, 4-amino-1 ,8- naphthalimide, 2-nitro-6[5H] phenanthridinone, PD1 28763, and analogues, isosteres, and derivatives thereof, R17 is H or methyl, and where L is a C1-5 alkyl linker, optionally comprising an ester or amide linkage. In one aspect, in any of the compounds described herein, Rs is:

[0055] In another aspect, the compound has the structure:

[0056] In another aspect, the compound has the structure:

wherein R 8 is -NH-Rg, -O-Rg, -CH 2 -Rg, -L-Rg, -NH-L-Rg, or -O-L-Rg, where R20 is a PARP inhibitor or a derivative thereof, such as, olaparib, veliparib, CEP-8983 (II- methoxy-4,5,6,7- tetrahydro-IH-cyclopenta[a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole-l,3(2H)-d ione) or a prodrug thereof (e.g. CEP- 9722), rucaparib, E701 6 (10-((4-hydroxypiperidin-l- yl)methyl)chromeno-[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(2H)- one), INO-1001 (4-phenoxy-3- pyrrolidin-l-yl-5-sulfamoyl-benzoic acid), niraparib, talazoparib (BMN673), NU1025 (8- hydroxy-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one), 1 ,5-dihydroiso quinoline, 4-amino-1 ,8- naphthalimide, 2-nitro-6[5H] phenanthridinone, PD1 28763, and analogues, isosteres, and derivatives thereof, and where L is a C1 -5 alkyl linker, optionally comprising an ester or amide linkage, and F½ is an amine protecting group or acylated (the N is acylated).

[0057] As used herein, unless indicated otherwise, for instance in a structure, all compounds and/or structures described herein comprise all possible stereoisomers, individually or mixtures thereof, including any pharmaceutically-acceptable salts thereof.

[0058] A "PARP inhibitor" is an inhibitor of PARP-1 , PARP-2, or PARP-3, though at this time, they are predominantly PARP-1 inhibitors. Non-limiting example of PARP inhibitors, that also can be classified as PARP-1 inhibitors, include olaparib, veliparib, CEP-8983 (ll-methoxy-4,5,6,7- tetrahydro-IH-cyclopenta[a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole- l,3(2H)-dione) or a prodrug thereof (e.g. CEP- 9722), rucaparib, E7016 (1 0-((4- hydroxypiperidin-l-yl)methyl)chromeno-[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3 (2H)- one), INO-1001 (4-phenoxy-3-pyrrolidin-l-yl-5-sulfamoyl-benzoic acid), niraparib, talazoparib (BMN673), NU1025 (8-hydroxy-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one), 1 ,5-dihydroiso quinoline, 4-amino-1 ,8-naphthalimide, 2-nitro-6[5H] phenanthridinone, PD1 28763, and analogues, isosteres, and derivatives thereof (See, e.g., Figures 1 A and 1 B and Curtin NJ, et al. Therapeutic applications of PARP inhibitors: anticancer therapy and beyond. Molecular aspects of medicine 2013;34:121 7-56). As an example, veliparib has the structure:

[0059] Attachment (covalent linking) of the PARP inhibitor to the mitochondria- targeting group (see, e.g., Figure 2) can be achieved by any useful chemistry, so long as the composition substantially retains its pharmacological effect. For example, as in the examples below, veliparib is linked to a mitochondria-targeting group through its amide (carboxamide) group as in the following structure:

where R is a mitochondria-targeting moiety according to any aspect described herein, and optionally comprises a linker between the mitochondria-targeting group and the

veliparib moiety, e.g.,

[0060] For therapeutic use, salts of the compounds are those wherein the counter- ion is pharmaceutically acceptable. However, salts of acids and bases which are non- pharmaceutically acceptable may also find use, for example, in the preparation or purification of a pharmaceutically acceptable compound.

[0061] The pharmaceutically acceptable acid and base addition salts as mentioned herein are meant to comprise the therapeutically active non-toxic acid and base addition salt forms which the compounds are able to form. The pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts can conveniently be obtained by treating the base form with such appropriate acid. Appropriate acids comprise, for example, inorganic acids such as hydrohalic acids, e.g. hydrochloric or hydrobromic acid, sulfuric, nitric, phosphoric and the like acids; or organic acids such as, for example, acetic, propanoic, hydroxyacetic, lactic, pyruvic, oxalic (i.e. ethanedioic), malonic, succinic (i.e. butanedioic acid), maleic, fumaric, malic (i.e. hydroxybutanedioic acid), tartaric, citric, methanesulfonic, ethanesulfonic, benzenesulfonic, p-toluenesulfonic, cyclamic, salicylic, p-aminosalicylic, pamoic and the like acids. Conversely the salt forms can be converted by treatment with an appropriate base into the free base form.

[0062] The compounds containing an acidic proton may also be converted into their non-toxic metal or amine addition salt forms by treatment with appropriate organic and inorganic bases. Appropriate base salt forms comprise, for example, the ammonium salts, the alkali and earth alkaline metal salts, e.g. the lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium salts and the like, salts with organic bases, e.g. the benzathine, N-methyl-D-glucamine, hydrabamine salts, and salts with amino acids such as, for example, arginine, lysine and the like. The term "addition salt" as used hereinabove also comprises the solvates which the compounds described herein are able to form. Such solvates are for example hydrates, alcoholates and the like.

[0063] The term "quaternary amine" as used hereinbefore defines the quaternary ammonium salts which the compounds are able to form by reaction between a basic nitrogen of a compound and an appropriate quaternizing agent, such as, for example, an optionally substituted alkylhalide, arylhalide or arylalkylhalide, e.g. methyliodide or benzyliodide. Other reactants with good leaving groups may also be used, such as alkyl trifluoromethanesulfonates, alkyl methanesulfonates, and alkyl p- toluenesulfonates. A quaternary amine has a positively charged nitrogen.

[0064] Pharmaceutically acceptable counterions include chloro, bromo, iodo, trifluoroacetate and acetate. The counterion of choice can be introduced using ion exchange resins.

[0065] "Pharmaceutically acceptable esters" includes those derived from compounds described herein that are modified to include a carboxyl group. An in vivo hydrolysable ester is an ester, which is hydrolysed in the human or animal body to produce the parent acid or alcohol. Representative esters thus include carboxylic acid esters in which the non-carbonyl moiety of the carboxylic acid portion of the ester grouping is selected from straight or branched chain alkyl (for example, methyl, n- propyl, t-butyl, or n-butyl), cycloalkyi, alkoxyalkyl (for example, methoxymethyl), aralkyl (for example benzyl), aryloxyalkyl (for example, phenoxymethyl), aryl (for example, phenyl, optionally substituted by, for example, halogen, Ci- 4 alkyl, or Ci- 4 alkoxy) or amino); sulphonate esters, such as alkyl- or aralkylsulphonyl (for example, methanesulphonyl); or amino acid esters (for example, L-valyl or L-isoleucyl). A "pharmaceutically acceptable ester" also includes inorganic esters such as mono-, di-, or tri-phosphate esters. In such esters, unless otherwise specified, any alkyl moiety present advantageously contains from 1 to 18 carbon atoms, particularly from 1 to 6 carbon atoms, more particularly from 1 to 4 carbon atoms. Any cycloalkyi moiety present in such esters advantageously contains from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. Any aryl moiety present in such esters advantageously comprises a phenyl group, optionally substituted as shown in the definition of carbocycylyl above. Pharmaceutically acceptable esters thus include C1-C22 fatty acid esters, such as acetyl, t-butyl or long chain straight or branched unsaturated or omega-6 monounsaturated fatty acids such as palmoyl, stearoyl and the like. Alternative aryl or heteroaryl esters include benzoyl, pyridylmethyloyl and the like any of which may be substituted, as defined in carbocyclyl above. Additional pharmaceutically acceptable esters include aliphatic L-amino acid esters such as leucyl, isoleucyl and valyl.

[0066] Prodrugs of the disclosed compounds also are contemplated herein. A prodrug is an active or inactive compound that is modified chemically through in vivo physiological action, such as hydrolysis, metabolism and the like, into an active compound following administration of the prodrug to a subject. The term "prodrug" as used throughout this text means the pharmacologically acceptable derivatives such as esters, amides and phosphates, such that the resulting in vivo biotransformation product of the derivative is the active drug as defined in the compounds described herein. Prodrugs preferably have excellent aqueous solubility, increased bioavailability and are readily metabolized into the active inhibitors in vivo. Prodrugs of compounds described herein may be prepared by modifying functional groups present in the compound in such a way that the modifications are cleaved, either by routine manipulation or in vivo, to the parent compound. The suitability and techniques involved in making and using prodrugs are well known by those skilled in the art.

[0067] The term "prodrug" also is intended to include any covalently bonded carriers that release an active parent drug of the present invention in vivo when the prodrug is administered to a subject. Since prodrugs often have enhanced properties relative to the active agent pharmaceutical, such as, solubility and bioavailability, the compounds disclosed herein can be delivered in prodrug form. Thus, also contemplated are prodrugs of the presently disclosed compounds, methods of delivering prodrugs and compositions containing such prodrugs. Prodrugs of the disclosed compounds typically are prepared by modifying one or more functional groups present in the compound in such a way that the modifications are cleaved, either in routine manipulation or in vivo, to yield the parent compound. Prodrugs include compounds having a phosphonate and/or amino group functionalized with any group that is cleaved in vivo to yield the corresponding amino and/or phosphonate group, respectively. Examples of prodrugs include, without limitation, compounds having an acylated amino group and/or a phosphonate ester or phosphonate amide group. In particular examples, a prodrug is a lower alkyl phosphonate ester, such as an isopropyl phosphonate ester. [0068] As used herein, unless indicated otherwise, for instance in a structure, all compounds and/or structures described herein comprise all possible stereoisomers, individually or mixtures thereof. The compound and/or structure may be an enantiopure preparation consisting essentially of an (-) or (+) enantiomer of the compound, or may be a mixture of enantiomers in either equal (racemic) or unequal proportions.

[0069] As used herein, a ring structure showing a bond/group that is not attached to any single carbon atom, for example and without limitation, depicted as can be substituted at any position with one or more groups designated "R", and, unless indicated otherwise, each instance of R on the ring can be (independently) the same or different from other R moieties on the ring. Thus, if R is H, the group contains nothing but H groups. If R is "halo", it is a single halo (e.g., F, CI, Br and I) group. If R is one or more independently of halo and CN, the ring may comprise one, two, three, four, halo or CN groups, such as, for example and without limitation: 2, 3, 4, or 5 chloro; 2, 3, 4, or 5 bromo; 2, 3- or 3,4- or 4,5- or 2,4-dichloro; 3-bromo-4-chloro; 3- bromo-4-cyano, and any other possible permutation of the listed groups.

[0070] Protected derivatives of the disclosed compounds also are contemplated. Many suitable protecting groups for use with the disclosed compounds are broadly- known in the art. In general, protecting groups are removed under conditions which will not affect the remaining portion of the molecule. These methods are well known in the art and include acid hydrolysis, hydrogenolysis and the like. One method involves the removal of an ester, such as cleavage of a phosphonate ester using Lewis acidic conditions, such as in TMS-Br mediated ester cleavage to yield the free phosphonate. A second method involves removal of a protecting group, such as removal of a benzyl group by hydrogenolysis utilizing palladium on carbon in a suitable solvent system such as an alcohol, acetic acid, and the like or mixtures thereof. A t-butoxy-based group, including t-butoxy carbonyl protecting groups can be removed utilizing an inorganic or organic acid, such as HCI or trifluoroacetic acid, in a suitable solvent system, such as water, dioxane and/or methylene chloride. Another exemplary protecting group, suitable for protecting amino and hydroxy functions amino is trityl. Other conventional protecting groups are known and suitable protecting groups can be selected by those of skill in the art in consultation with any of the large number of broadly-available publications. When an amine is deprotected, the resulting salt can readily be neutralized to yield the free amine. Similarly, when an acid moiety, such as a phosphonic acid moiety is unveiled, the compound may be isolated as the acid compound or as a salt thereof.

[0071] According to one aspect, amine side chains are protected using protective groups, for example and without limitation by acylation (See, e.g., U.S. Patent Nos. 7,528,174; 7,718,603; and 9,006, 186, and International Patent Publication Nos. WO 2010/009405 and WO 201 2/1 12851 , incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). Protecting groups are known in the art and include, without limitation: 9- fluorenylmethyloxy carbonyl (Fmoc), t-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc), benzhydryloxycarbonyl (Bhoc), benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz), O-nitroveratryloxycarbonyl (Nvoc), benzyl (Bn), allyloxycarbonyl (alloc), trityl (Trt), l-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxacyclohexylidene)ethyl (Dde), diathiasuccinoyl (Dts), benzothiazole-2-sulfonyl (Bts), dimethoxytrityl (DMT) and monomethoxytrityl (MMT) groups. A protecting group also includes acyl groups, such as acetyl groups, for example, as described.

[0072] A linker is a group that covalently attaches, in the context of the compositions described herein, the mitochondrial-targeting moiety and the PARP inhibitor moiety. The linker does not interfere with the pharmacological effects of the composition as a whole. Examples of linkers include aliphatic hydrocarbons, or aliphatic hydrocarbons having one or more aromatic groups in their structure, such as saturated or unsaturated C1-10 hydrocarbon moieties, e.g., a linear or branched saturated C1 -C10 alkyl. A linker, prior to incorporation into a compound comprises active groups, e.g., carboxyl, alkoxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, amide, etc., and a non-reactive moiety that remains once the linker is incorporated into a compound. The non-reactive moiety (such as saturated alkyl or phenyl) does not interfere, sterically or by any other physical or chemical attribute, such as polarity or hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, in a negative (loss of function) capacity with respect to the pharmacological activity of the overall compound. Linker and linking chemistry is broadly-known, and in one example, is carbodiimide chemistry using EDC (1 -Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide) or DCC (Ν',Ν'-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide) chemistry as used in the Examples below (see, Figure 3) to couple amines and carboxyl groups. Listing all linking chemistries are broadly-known and thus are beyond the scope of this disclosure (see, e.g. Thermo Scientific Crosslinkinq Technical Handbook, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. 2012.). [0073] The compounds typically are administered in an amount and dosage regimen to treat (a) a cancer (e.g., a malignancy), which includes, without limitation, any abnormal cells that divide without control and can invade nearby tissues, or (b) a hyperplasia, which is an increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, where the cells appear normal, and are not a cancer, but may become cancer. The compounds also are useful in mitigating radiation damage. For example, at concentrations of 5μΜ or more XJB-veliparib decreased radiation damage, as described in the examples below. The compounds also are expected to be useful in treatment of neurodegeneration includes treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Multiple Sclerosis (MS) chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The compounds may be administered in any manner that is effective to treat, mitigate or prevent any of the above conditions, including cancer, hyperplasia, neurodegeneration, PD, AD, MS, CTE, and ALS. Examples of delivery routes include, without limitation: topical, for example, epicutaneous, inhalational, enema, ocular, otic and intranasal delivery; enteral, for example, orally, by gastric feeding tube and rectally; and parenteral, such as, intravenous, intraarterial, intramuscular, intracardiac, subcutaneous, intraosseous, intradermal, intrathecal, intraperitoneal, transdermal, iontophoretic, transmucosal, epidural and intravitreal, with oral, intravenous, intramuscular and transdermal approaches being preferred in many instances.

[0074] As indicated above, and in the examples, the compounds exhibit PARP- inhibiting, e.g. PARP-1 -inhibiting, activities, at dosages of >0 μΜ, e.g., > 1 nM, with the upper limit being dictated by toxicity, for example direct cellular exposure of up to 10 μΜ) of the compound, e.g., as described in the examples below. Therefore, an "effective amount" of the compound or composition described herein is an amount effective in a dosage regimen (amount of the compound and timing of delivery), to achieve a desired end-point, such as maintaining concentrations at a site of treatment within a range effective to achieve an outcome. Suitable outcomes include killing of cancer cells, improvement or maintenance of neurological function, cellular protection including neuroprotection, shrinking a tumor, reducing NAD + depletion, or mitigating radiation damage to ionizing radiation.

[0075] The compounds may be compounded or otherwise manufactured into a suitable composition for use, such as a pharmaceutical dosage form or drug product in which the compound is an active ingredient. Compositions may comprise a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, or excipient. An excipient is an inactive substance used as a carrier for the active ingredients of a medication. Although "inactive," excipients may facilitate and aid in increasing the delivery or bioavailability of an active ingredient in a drug product. Non-limiting examples of useful excipients include: antiadherents, binders, rheology modifiers, coatings, disintegrants, emulsifiers, oils, buffers, salts, acids, bases, fillers, diluents, solvents, flavors, colorants, glidants, lubricants, preservatives, antioxidants, sorbents, vitamins, sweeteners, etc., as are available in the pharmaceutical/compounding arts.

[0076] Useful dosage forms include: intravenous, intramuscular, or intraperitoneal solutions, oral tablets or liquids, topical ointments or creams and transdermal devices (e.g., patches). In one embodiment, the compound is a sterile solution comprising the active ingredient (drug, or compound), and a solvent, such as water, saline, lactated Ringer's solution, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Additional excipients, such as polyethylene glycol, emulsifiers, salts and buffers may be included in the solution.

[0077] In one aspect, the dosage form is a transdermal device, or "patch". The general structure of a transdermal patch is broadly known in the pharmaceutical arts. A typical patch includes, without limitation: a delivery reservoir for containing and delivering a drug product to a subject, an occlusive backing to which the reservoir is attached on a proximal side (toward the intended subject's skin) of the backing and extending beyond, typically completely surrounding the reservoir, and an adhesive on the proximal side of the backing, surrounding the reservoir, typically completely, for adhering the patch to the skin of a patient. The reservoir typically comprises a matrix formed from a non-woven (e.g., a gauze) or a hydrogel, such as a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or polyvinyl acetate (PVA), as are broadly known. The reservoir typically comprises the active ingredient absorbed into or adsorbed onto the reservoir matrix, and skin permeation enhancers. The choice of permeation enhancers typically depends on empirical studies. Certain formulations that may be useful as permeation enhancers include, without limitation: DMSO; 95% Propylene Glycol + 5% Linoleic Acid; and 50% EtOH +40% HSO + 5% Propylene Glycol + 5% Brij30.

[0078] Therapeutic/pharmaceutical compositions are prepared in accordance with acceptable pharmaceutical procedures.

[0079] In one aspect, the compositions as described a combined with other drugs or therapies, such as anticancer therapies, such as chemotherapeutic or radiation therapies, as are known in the art. Therefore in one aspect, a method of treatment of a cancer is provided, comprising treating the cancer with a composition comprising a compound comprising a mitochondria-targeting moiety covalently linked to a PARP inhibitor or a derivative thereof, such as, olaparib, veliparib, CEP-8983 (ll-methoxy- 4,5,6,7- tetrahydro-IH-cyclopenta[a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole-l,3(2H)-d ione) or a prodrug thereof (e.g. CEP- 9722), rucaparib, E701 6 (10-((4-hydroxypiperidin-l- yl)methyl)chromeno-[4,3,2-de]phthalazin-3(2H)- one), INO-1001 (4-phenoxy-3- pyrrolidin-l-yl-5-sulfamoyl-benzoic acid), niraparib, talazoparib (BMN673), NU1025 (8- hydroxy-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one), 1 ,5-dihydroiso quinoline, 4-amino-1 ,8- naphthalimide, 2-nitro-6[5H] phenanthridinone, PD1 28763, and analogues, isosteres, and derivatives thereof according to any aspect described herein and either coadministering a second chemotherapeutic agent, or applying a radiation therapy to the patient while the compound is present in the patient.

[0080] Chemotherapeutic agents are compounds or compositions used to treat cancer, including, for example and without limitation: abiraterone acetate, altretamine, amsacrine, anhydro vinblastine, auristatin, bafetinib, bexarotene, bicalutamide, BMS 184476, 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-N-(3-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl)benzene sulfonamide, bleomycin, bosutinib, busulfan, cachectin, cemadotin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, 3',4'-didehydro-4'-deoxy-8'-norvin-caleukoblastine, docetaxol, doxetaxel, carboplatin, carmustine (BCNU), chlorambucil, cisplatin, cryptophycin, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, dacarbazine (DTIC), dactinomycin, daunorubicin, decitabine dolastatin, doxorubicin (adriamycin), etoposide, etoposide phosphate, 5- fluorouracil, finasteride, flutamide, hydroxyurea, hydroxyureataxanes, ifosfamide, imatinib, irinotecan, liarozole, lonidamine, lomustine (CCNU), MDV31 00, mechlorethamine (nitrogen mustard), melphalan, mitoxantrone, mivobulin isethionate, rhizoxin, sertenef, streptozocin, mitomycin, methotrexate, nilotinib, nilutamide, onapristone, oxaliplatin, paclitaxel, ponatinib, prednimustine, procarbazine, RPRI 09881 , stramustine phosphate, tamoxifen, tasonermin, taxol, teniposide, topotecan, tretinoin, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine sulfate, and vinflunine, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

Example 1

[0081] Synthesis of XJB-veliparib: The chemical synthesis of the mitochondria- targeting XJB-veliparib hybrid molecule is shown in Figure 3. The XJB pentapeptide isostere was chosen as the targeting unit (Figure 2). For the synthesis of mitochondrially targeted veliparib, XJB-Veliparib, /V-Cbc-L-proline methyl ester (7) was treated with NaHMDS and Mel followed by hydrolysis to give the acid 9 in 98% yield over 2 steps (Scheme 1 ). One-pot EDCI coupling to methyl 2,3-diaminobenzoate (10) and acid-catalyzed cyclization provided the benzimidazole 11 in good overall yield. Hydrolysis of the methyl ester followed by acylation with the /V-Boc-1 ,3- diaminopropane spacer group afforded 12. Removal of the Cbz-group via hydrogenation followed by Boc-deprotection provided 13, which was coupled to the Boc-Leu-D-Phe-Pro-Val-Orn(Cbz)-OH targeting sequence 14 to afford the desired XJB-Veliparib conjugate 15.

[0082] In further detail, all moisture- and air-sensitive reactions were performed in oven dried glassware under a positive pressure of argon. All reagents and solvents were used as received unless otherwise specified. THF and Et2O were distilled over sodium/benzophenone ketyl; CH2CI2 was distilled over CaH2, MeCN and DMF were dried over molecular sieves. Reactions were monitored by TLC analysis (pre-coated silica gel 60 F254 plates, 250 μιη layer thickness) and visualization was accomplished with a 254/280 nm UV light and/or by staining with KMnO 4 solution (1 .5 g KMnO 4 and 1 .5 g K2CO3 in 100 mL of a 0.1 % NaOH solution), a ninhydrin solution (2 g ninhydrin in 100 mL EtOH), a PMA solution (5 g phosphomolybdic acid in 1 00 mL EtOH), or a p-anisaldehyde solution (2.5 mL p-anisaldehyde, 2 mL AcOH and 3.5 mL cone. H2SO4 in 100 mL EtOH). Flash chromatography was performed on silica gel (40-63 μιη). Melting points were determined on a Mel-Temp I I capillary melting point apparatus fitted with a Fluke 51 II digital thermometer. Infrared spectra were recorded on an ATR spectrometer. NMR spectra were recorded on 300, 400, 500 or 700 MHz instruments. Chemical shifts were reported in parts per million (ppm) and referenced to residual solvent. 1 H NMR spectra are tabulated as follows: chemical shift, multiplicity (br = broad, s = singlet, d = doublet, t = triplet, q = quartet, m = multiplet), coupling constant(s), number of protons. 13 C NMR spectra were obtained using a proton- decoupled pulse sequence and are tabulated by observed peak. LC-MS analyses were performed on a Shimadzu UFLC instrument equipped with an Applied Biosystem MDS SCIEX API 2000 mass spectrometer (ESI), under the following conditions: column: Varian Polaris C18-A (100 x 4.6 mm, 5μιτι) equilibrated at 40 °C; buffer A: 0.1 % aqueous AcOH, buffer B: 0.1 % AcOH in MeCN; 30 min gradient: 5% buffer B in buffer A for 1 min, then 5 to 95% buffer B in buffer A over 13 min, then 95% buffer B in buffer A for 4 min, then 95-5% buffer B in buffer A over 7 min, then 5% buffer B in buffer A for 5 min; flow rate: 0.2 mL/min; detection: TIC and/or UV λ = 254/280 nm. [0083] 1 -benzyl 2-methyl (S)-2-methylpyrrolidine-1 ,2-dicarboxylate (8). To a -

78 °C solution of A/-Z-/.-proline methyl ester 7 (0.43 ml_, 1 .9 mmol) and iodomethane (0.24 ml_, 3.8 mmol) in THF (3.5 ml_) was added NaHMDS (1 M in THF, 3.8 ml_, 3.8 mmol) dropwise. The resulting mixture was warmed to -20 °C and stirred at this temperature for 3 h. The mixture was quenched with H2O, acidified with 2N HCI and extracted with EtOAc (3 x). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (1 x), dried over MgS0 4 , filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by chromatography on S1O2 (30% EtOAc/hexanes) to give 8 as a pale yellow oil (0.52 g, 99%). Spectral data are in accordance with literature values (Penning, T. D., et al., Discovery of the Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP) Inhibitor 2-[(R)-2- methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]-1 /-/-benzimidazole-4-carboxamide (ABT-888) for the Treatment of Cancer. J. Med. Chem. 2009, 52, 514-523). 1 H NMR (300 MHz, CDCIs) δ 1 .54 (s, 1 .5 H), 1 .61 (s, 1 .5 H), 1 .86-1 .99 (m, 3 H), 2.13-2.24 (m, 1 H), 3.46 (s, 1 .5 H), 3.56- 3.69 (m, 2 H), 3.71 (s, 1 .5 H), 4.99-5.23 (m, 2 H), 7.24-7.40 (m, 5 H) (as a mixture of two rotamers).

[0084] (S)-1 -((benzyloxy)carbonyl)-2-methylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (9).

Methyl ester 8 (1 .53 g, 5.52 mmol) was dissolved in THF (10.5 ml_) and H2O (5.4 ml_) and treated with a solution of LiOH (265 mg, 1 1 .0 mmol) in H2O (5.4 ml_). MeOH (1 .5 ml_) was then added and the resulting homogenous solution heated to 60 °C overnight. The organic solvents were removed and the aq. layer acidified to pH 2 using 2N HCI and extracted with EtOAc (3 x). The combined organic layers were washed with water (1 x), dried (MgSC ) filtered and concentrated to dryness to give 9 as a white solid (1 .42 g, 98%): Spectral data are in accordance with literature values (Penning, T. D., et al., J. Med. Chem. 2009, 52, 514-523). Ή NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-afe) δ 1 .44 (s, 1 .5 H), 1 .45 (s, 1 .5 H), 1 .80-1 .96 (m, 3 H), 2.02-2.19 (m, 1 H), 3.43-3.53 (m, 2 H), 4.94- 5.1 1 (m, 2 H), 7.24-7.41 (m, 5 H), 12.51 (br s, 1 H) (as a mixture of two rotamers).

[0085] Methyl (S)-2-(1 -((benzyloxy)carbonyl)-2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-1 H- benzo-[(/]imidazole-4-carboxylate (11). To a solution of 9 (200 mg, 0.760 mmol) and Methyldiaminobenzoate 10 (189 mg, 1 .14 mmol) in CH2CI2 (15 ml_) was added DIPEA (0.1 3 ml_, 0.76 mmol) followed by addition of EDCI (218 mg, 1 .14 mmol), HOAt (155 mg, 1 .14 mmol) and DMAP (9.3 mg, 0.076 mmol) and the resulting solution was stirred at rt overnight. The reaction mixture was quenched with sat. aq. NH 4 CI solution and extracted with portions of CH2CI2 (2x). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (1 x), dried (MgS0 4 ), filtered and evaporated to give the coupled product as a brown oil. The crude residue was redissolved in AcOH (5 ml_) and heated at reflux for 2 h. The solvent was evaporated, the crude poured onto sat. aq. NaHC03 and extracted with EtOAc (3x). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (1 x), dried (MgS0 4 ) and the solvent evaporated. The crude residue was purified via chromatography on S1O2 (30-90% EtOAc/hexanes) to give 11 as a pale yellow oil (1 98 mg, 65% over 2 steps): HRMS (ESI + ) m/z calcd for C 2 2H 24 N 3 0 4 [M+H] 394.1761 , found 394.1758.

[0086] (S)-2-(1 -((benzyloxy)carbonyl)-2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-1 H- benzo[d]imidazole-4-carboxylic acid. Methyl ester 11 (280 mg, 0.71 2 mmol) was dissolved in THF/H2O (14:1 , 21 ml_) and cooled to -5 °C. A 40% A?-BU 4 NOH (aq.) solution (4.6 ml_, 7.1 mmol) was added slowly and the reaction mixture stirred for 30 min at -5 °C and at rt over night. The solution was acidified with aq. AcOH and extracted with portions of EtOAc (3x). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and the solvent removed under reduced pressure. The crude was purified via column chromatography on S1O2 (0-10% MeOH/CH2Cl2) to give (S)-2-(1 -((benzyloxy)carbonyl)-2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-1 /-/-benzo[d|imidazole-4- carboxylic acid as a pale-yellow foam (215 mg, 80%): 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) δ 7.86 (br s, 1 H), 7.78 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.41 - 7.36 (m, 4 H), 7.33 - 7.30 (m, 1 H), 7.30 - 7.25 (m, 1 H), 7.06 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 0.5 H), 6.91 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 1 H), 6.70 (br s, 1 H), 5.15 - 5.09 (m, 0.5 H), 5.07 - 5.04 (m, 1 H), 3.87 - 3.54 (m, 3 H), 2.76 (br s, 1 H), 1 .92 (s, 3 H), 1 .87 (br s, 2 H), 1 .86 (br s, 1 H); 13 C-NMR (700 MHz, DMSO-ofe) δ 1 67.5, 160.5, 1 59.8, 1 54.4, 1 54.1 , 137.4, 136.8, 128.9, 128.2, 127.9, 1 27.7, 127.1 , 1 24.4, 124.3, 121 .7, 66.3, 66.2, 62.9, 55.4, 48.8, 48.3, 42.7, 40.5, 24.4, 24.2, 22.9, 22.4; IR (ATR, neat) 1682.8, 1407.6, 1351 .5, 1255.8, 746.4 cm "1 ; Mp 102.3 - 104.6 °C; HRMS (ESI + ) m/z calcd for C2i H 2 2N 3 O 4 [M+H] 380.1605, found 380.1610.

[0087] benzyl (S)-2-(4-((3-((ieri-butoxycarbonyl)amino)propyl)carbamoyl)-1 H- benzo-[d]imidazol-2-yl)-2-methylpyrrolidine-1-carboxylate (12). To a solution of /V-Boc-1 ,3-propanediamine (0.28 ml_, 1 .6 mmol) and 11a (342 mg, 1 .05 mmol) in CH2CI2 (12 ml_) at 0 °C was added DIPEA (0.46 ml_, 2.6 mmol) followed by the drop- wise addition of T3P (50 wt% in EtOAc, 0.92 ml_, 1 .6 mmol). The resulting mixture was warmed and stirred at rt overnight, washed with 5% aq. Na2CO3 and brine, dried (MgSO 4 ), filtered and evaporated. The crude was purified via chromatography on S1O2 (1 00% CH2CI2 to 10% MeOH/CH 2 CI 2 ) to give 12 as a pale-yellow foam (503 mg, 89%): 1 H NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-ofe) δ 12.76 (br s, 0.5 H), 12.69 (br s, 0.5 H), 9.93 (br s, 1 H), 7.86 - 7.80 (m, 1 H), 7.64 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 0.5 H), 7.60 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 0.5 H), 7.39

- 7.34 (m, 2 H), 7.33 - 7.27 (m, 2 H), 6.94 - 6.81 (m, 2 H), 6.73 - 6.65 (m, 1 H), 5.09

- 4.97 (m, 1 H), 4.94 - 4.79 (m, 1 H), 3.86 - 3.77 (m, 1 H), 3.70 - 3.60 (m, 1 H), 3.47 - 3.37 (m, 2 H), 3.1 1 - 3.00 (m, 2 H), 2.28 - 2.10 (m, 2 H), 2.02 - 1 .94 (m, 2 H), 1 .91 (br s, 1 .5 H), 1 .89 (br s, 1 .5 H), 1 .73 - 1 .65 (m, 3 H), 1 .38 (s, 9 H); 13 C-NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-dg) δ 1 65.1 , 160.4, 160.2, 156.1 , 154.1 , 153.7, 140.7, 140.6, 137.5, 136.7, 135.3, 1 35.2, 1 28.8, 1 28.2, 127.8, 127.7, 127.0, 122.5, 122.4, 1 22.3, 122.2, 1 22.1 , 1 15.2, 1 15.1 , 77.9, 66.2, 62.6, 62.2, 55.4, 49.0, 48.2, 43.4, 42.1 , 38.2, 36.9, 30.3, 30.3, 28.7, 24.4, 23.3, 23.0, 22.5 (as a mixture of rotamers); Mp 1 12.7 - 1 16.2 °C; HRMS (ESI + ) m/z calcd for C29H38N5O5 [M+H] 536.2867, found 536.2867.

[0088] ferf-butyl (S)-(3-(2-(2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-1 H-benzo[d]imidazole-4- carbox-amido)propyl)carbamate. A solution of 12 (500 mg, 0.933 mmol) and 1 0% Pd/C (99 mg, 0.093 mmol) in MeOH (5 ml_) was placed in the Anton Paar hydrogenator and the reaction mixture was flushed with argon and purged with hydrogen (3x). The pressure was set to 6 bar and the mixture stirred at this pressure at rt overnight. The solution was filtered through a plug of CELITE® and washed with portions of CH2CI2. The solvent was evaporated and the crude material was purified via chromatography on S1O2 (100% CH2CI2 to 10% MeOH/CH 2 Cl2) to give tert-butyl (S)-(3-(2-(2- methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-1 H-benzo[<¾imidazole-4-carboxamido)propyl)carbamate as a white foam (375 mg, 85%). Ή NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-afe) δ 12.50 (br s, 2 H), 9.94 (br s, 1 H), 7.78 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.62 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1 H), 7.25 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1 H), 6.92 - 6.87 (m, 1 H), 3.45 - 3.38 (m, 2 H), 3.12 - 3.04 (m, 3H), 2.93 - 2.86 (m, 1 H), 2.45 - 2.38 (m, 1 H), 1 .89 - 1 .80 (m, 2 H), 1 .72 - 1 .64 (m, 3 H), 1 .59 (br s, 3 H), 1 .38 (s, 9 H); 13 C-NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-afe) δ 165.3, 156.2, 1 22.1 , 121 .8, 79.7, 79.4, 79.2, 77.9, 62.6, 60.2, 55.4, 49.1 , 46.4, 38.1 , 36.8, 30.4, 28.7, 27.6, 25.7, 21 .3, 14.6; IR (ATR, neat) 3269, 2973, 1694, 1645, 1612, 1523, 1406, 1 365, 1245, 1 166, 1046, 988, 758 cm- 1 ; Mp 79.8 - 83.2 °C; HRMS (ESI + ) m/z calcd for C21 H32N5O3 [M+H] 402.2500, found 402.2499.

[0089] (S)-A/-(3-aminopropyl)-2-(2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-1 H- benzo[d]imidazole-4-carboxamide hydrochloride (13). To a solution of te/t-Butyl (S)-(3-(2-(2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-1 H-benzo[d|imidazole-4- carboxamido)propyl)carbamate (32.8 mg, 0.0817 mmol) in CH2CI2 (1 ml_) was added 4M HCI in dioxane (0.2 ml_, 0.8 mmol). The resulting mixture was stirred at rt for 2 h. The desired product was filtered off, washed with portions of hexanes and the resulting white solid (27.1 mg, 98%) was used in the next step without further purification. HRMS (ESI + ) m/z calcd for Ci6H 24 N 5 0 [M+H] 302.1975, found 302.1974.

[0090] ferf-Butyl ((4S,7S,£)-7-benzyl-2-methyl-8-((S)-2-(((S)-3-methyl-1-(((S )- 15-(2-((S)-2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)-1 ^benzo[cQimidazol-4-yl)-3,9,15-trioxo-1 - phenyl-2-oxa-4,10,14-triazapentadecan-8-yl)amino)-1-oxobutan -2- yl)carbamoyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl)-8-oxooct-5-en-4-yl)carbamate ("XJB-Veliparib", 15). To a solution of XJB-acid 14 (36.9 mg, 0.0458 mmol) and 13 (23.2 mg, 0.0687 mmol) in DMF (0.92 ml_, 0.05M) at 0 °C was added DIPEA (40 μΙ_, 0.23 mmol) followed by the dropwise addition of T3P (50% in DMF, 35 μΙ_, 0.060 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1 h, after which it was quenched with aq. NH 4 CI, and extracted with CH2CI2 (3x). The combined organic layers were washed with 5% aq. LiCI solution (1 x), dried (MgS0 4 ), filtered and evaporated to give the crude product as a pale yellow oil. The residue was purified via chromatography on S1O2 (100% CH2CI2 to 15% MeOH/CH 2 Cl2) to afford 15 as a white solid (18.5 mg, 37%). 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de, 100 °C) δ 9.32 (br s, 1 H), 7.88 (d, J = 7.44 Hz, 1 H), 7.72 (d, J = 7.96 Hz, 1 H), 7.69 - 7.59 (m, 1 H), 7.47 - 7.38 (m, 1 H), 7.37 - 7.31 (m, 5 H), 7.30 - 7.26 ( m, 1 H), 7.25 - 7.12 (m, 5 H), 6.79 (br s, 1 H), 6.12 (d, J = 7.72 Hz, 1 H), 5.52 - 5.42 (m, 2 H), 5.02 (s, 2 H), 4.44 - 4.37 (m, 1 H), 4.30 - 4.23 (m, 1 H), 4.18 - 4.09 (m, 1 H), 3.93 - 3.84 (m, 1 H), 3.53 - 3.35 (m, 6 H), 3.29 - 3.21 (m, 3 H), 3.10 - 3.03 (m, 4 H), 2.72 - 2.00 (m, 3 H), 1 .98 - 1 .88 (m, 2 H), 1 .84 (br s, 3 H), 1 .80 - 1 .71 (m, 5 H), 1 .66 - 1 .57 (m, 1 H), 1 .55 - 1 .43 (m, 3 H), 1 .38 (s, 9 H), 1 .30 - 1 .25 (m, 4 H), 0.90 - 0.78 (m, 12 H); 13 C NMR (700 MHz, DMSO-afe) δ 172.7, 172.5, 172.2, 171 .9, 171 .8, 171 .7, 1 71 .4, 1 71 .3, 1 71 .2, 164.8, 156.6, 155.3, 155.2, 139.7, 1 39.5, 137.7, 1 35.0, 134.6, 129.6, 128.8, 1 28.4, 1 28.3, 128.2, 127.8, 126.4, 126.2, 122.8, 78.0, 77.8, 65.6, 64.9, 64.6, 59.7, 59.6, 59.3, 58.2, 53.1 , 53.0, 50.7, 50.5, 49.3, 48.8, 47.2, 47.1 , 45.5, 38.9, 38.2, 36.5, 36.4, 35.2, 32.4, 30.9, 30.7, 30.2, 29.8, 28.7, 26.5, 25.0, 24.7, 24.4, 24.3, 23.8, 23.0, 22.8; Mp 147.2 - 152.6 °C; IR (ATR, CH2CI2) 3291 .7, 2955.8, 1 647.1 , 1528.8, 1439.1 , 1365.7, 1248.0, 1 167.2, 1028.3, 758.2, 698.1 cm "1 ; HRMS (ESI) m/z calcd for CeoHssNioOg 1089.6496, found 1089.6495.

[0091] PARP1 Activity: The capacity to inhibit PARP1 was determined using a commercial assay (Trevigen, Gaithersburg, MD) as per manufacturer's direction. Various concentrations of XJB-Veliparib or naked veliparib were added to histone- coated wells containing active PARP1 enzyme and NAD + in surplus. [0092] Quantification of XJB-veliparib: The mitochondrial fraction (50 μΙ_) or nuclear fraction (50 μΙ_), treated with XJB-veliparib or veliparib (100 nM), was added to a 5:1 ratio of CH 2 Cl2:MeOH (950 μΙ_) and vortexed (30 sec). Water (150 μΙ_) was added and the solution was vortexed (15 sec) and set aside to equilibrate at room temperature (30 min). The resulting suspension was placed in an Eppendorf Centrifuge 5702 (4400 rpm, 20°C) for 12 min. The organic layer was extracted and filtered through a 0.45 μιη filter for analysis.

[0093] XJB-Veliparib and veliparib content was quantified on a Thermo Scientific Exactive Orbitrap LC-MS (ESI positive ion mode) coupled to a Thermo Scientific Accela HPLC system using a 3.5 μΜ Water XTerra C18 column (2.1 x 50 mm; 20 min gradient elution with MeCN/h O containing 0.1 % formic acid at a flow rate of 500 MlJmin from 5:95 at 0-1 .0 min to 95:5 at 12.0 min, back to 5:95 from 16.0 to 1 6.1 min). Calibration curves for XJB-Veliparib and veliparib were run in duplicate from 102 nM to 5.7 nM. Samples (10 μΙ_) were injected in triplicate and Thermo Xcalibur software was used to determine the concentration of XJB-Veliparib and veliparib in mitochondrial and nuclear fractions (n=3). The concentration was reported as pM concentration of XJB-Veliparib per 10 μg of protein with corresponding standard deviation values.

[0094] Cell Cultures: Primary cortical neuron-enriched cultures were prepared from 16-17 day old Sprague-Dawley rat embryos. Dissociated cell suspensions were filtered through a 70 μητι nylon cell strainer and seeded in 96-well plates (5x10 4 cells/well) or on poly-D-lysine coated glass coverslips, and maintained in Neurobasal medium with B27 supplements (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA). Experiments were performed 12 days in vitro (DIV).

[0095] HT22 cells were cultured at 37°C in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) (Invitrogen Inc., Carlsbad, CA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (Thermo Fisher Scientific, San Jose, CA) and 1 % penicillin-streptomycin (ATCC, Manassas, VA) in an atmosphere containing 5% CO2. Cells were cultured for 24 to 48 hr before use.

[0096] Oxygen-glucose Deprivation: To model ischemia-reperfusion in vitro, culture medium was replaced with a pre-equilibrated low glucose (0.5 mM) medium. Neurons were transferred into a sealed hypoxic chamber (Coy Laboratory Products Inc., Grass Lake, Ml) set to an atmosphere of 95% N 2 with 5% CO2 at 37 Q C for 2 h. After OGD neurons were removed from the chamber and returned to the incubator.

[0097] Excitotoxicity: To model excitotoxicity in primary cortical neurons, cells were exposed to 10 μΜ L-glutamate with 10 μΜ glycine. Neuronal cells from HT22 cell line were exposed to 5 mM L-glutamate.

[0098] Assessment of Cell Death: Cell death was quantified by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released into supernatant using a colorometric assay. LDH values were normalized to 100% cell death caused by 0.5% Triton X-100 exposure. Data are reported as the percentage of dead cells relative to total cells and presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD).

[0099] Immunocytochemistry and Immunofluorescent Microscopy: Neurons grown on poly-D-lysine coated glass coverslips were fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde and permeabilized with TritonX-100. Coverslips were then incubated in a 1 :200 dilution of mouse monoclonal antibody against PAR (SA21 6, ENzo Life Sciences, Inc., Farmingdale, NY) and an antibody against TOMM20 (Abeam, Cambridge, MA) followed by incubation in the appropriate secondary antibodies. Cell nuclei were labelled with 4', 6 diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for standard confocal microscopy or DRAQ5 (both from ThermoFisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) for STED microscopy. Images were collected using an Olympus Fluoview 1000 confocal microscope (Olympus Corporation of the Americas, Center Valley, PA).

[00100] For STED imaging a Leica TCS SP8 super resolution STED microscope with a pulsed white light laser and AOBS detection system was used (Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany). Images were collected using the 775 nm STED laser line with 30% 3D STED using the Leica STED WHITE oil objective lens (HC PL APO 100x/1 .40 OIL) with a 200 Hz scan speed and 2x line averaging. Pixel size was set to 45 nm/pixel, step size was set to 1 60 μητι, and pinhole was set at 132.8 μιτι (0.875 AU). TOMM20 was visualized using Alexa Fluor 555, exciting at 553 nm and detecting between 558- 599 nm and temporally gate between 0.83-4.33 nm. PAR was visualized with Alexa Fluor 594, exciting at 598 nm and detecting between 603-666 nm and temporally gated between 0.3-6.0 nsec. DRAQ5 (ThermoFisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) was excited at 662 and detected between 667 to 780 nm and temporally gated between 0.3-6.0 nsec. Channels were collected between stacks, sequentially. [00101] PARP Inhibition ex vivo, Cytotoxicity, and Mitochondrial Enrichment Studies: To determine whether the linkage to the mitochondria-targeting moiety on 15 affected PARP1 inhibition, a control assay with active PARP1 enzyme was used. PARP1 inhibition was similar between untargeted veliparib and the XJB-veliparib conjugate 15 (Figure 4; experiments performed in triplicate), and is consistent with the reported i of veliparib of 5.2 nmol/L.

[00102] To investigate the biological properties and potential cytotoxicity of XJB- veliparib, rat primary cortical neurons were exposed to varying concentrations of untargeted veliparib and XJB-veliparib. Cytotoxicity was assessed by LDH release from dying neurons at 24 h. While both veliparib and XJB-veliparib showed a dose- dependent cytotoxicity profile, XJB-veliparib was significantly less toxic compared with unconjugated veliparib (Figure 5; n = 6/group; * P < 0.05). Neurotoxicity defined as >10% cell death was seen with veliparib at 1 μΜ concentration, vs. a 10 μΜ concentration required for XJB-veliparib. Significant cytotoxicity has previously been reported when leukemia cells are exposed to micromolar concentrations of veliparib. Since cytotoxicity produced by PARP inhibitors in clinical use, including veliparib, may be related to genomic instability, mitochondria-targeting PARP inhibitors may have a therapeutic advantage where prevention of cell death is desired.

[00103] To verify mitochondrial enrichment, rat primary cortical neurons were exposed to 1 00 nM XJB-veliparib for 24 h. Mitochondria- and nuclear-enriched subcellular fractions were obtained and verified by western blot using antibodies against the cytochrome oxidase subunit Va (COX Va) and histone H3, respectively (Figure 6A). In mitochondria-enriched fractions, the LCMS analysis of XJB-veliparib indicated a concentration of 1 16 ± 55 pmol/10 μg protein compared with 29 ± 27 pmol/1 0 μg protein in nuclear-enriched fractions (Figure 6B; mean ± standard deviation [SD]; n = 3 independent experiments). In addition, mitochondria-enriched fractions spiked with active PARP1 enzyme showed greater PARP1 inhibitory capacity compared to unconjugated veliparib (Figure 6C; performed in triplicate).

[00104] XJB-veliparib Neuroprotection Studies: To determine whether mitochondria-targeting XJB-veliparib can promote neuronal survival in ischemia-like conditions in vitro, primary cortical neurons at 12 DIV were subjected to OGD. Cultured neurons were exposed to a hypoxic and glucose-depleted environment for 2 h, followed by normal culture conditions for 24 h to mimic ischemia/reperfusion injury. As shown in Figure 7A, treatment with XJB-veliparib significantly attenuated OGD- induced cell death at low nanomolar concentrations. Specifically, 1 0 nM XJB-veliparib reduced cell death by 67% (LDH release 12.4 ± 3.1 % vs. 38.0 ± 2.5%, 10 nM XJB- veliparib vs. vehicle; mean ± SD; P < 0.05). Treatment with concentrations >100 nM of either veliparib or XJB-veliparib conjugate provided no additional protection. Both XJB-veliparib and non-targeting veliparib appear more protective against OGD compared with other published PARP1 inhibitors, where protection is observed in micromolar ranges. In vivo, PARP1 inhibition is highly effective at reducing neuronal death caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury.

[00105] To determine whether XJB-veliparib was also effective in attenuating excitotoxic cell death in vitro, primary cortical neurons were exposed to 10 μΜ L- glutamate and 10 μΜ glycine with varying concentrations of XJB-veliparib or naked veliparib for 24 h. PARP inhibition reduced cell death after glutamate/glycine exposure in a dose-dependent manner (Figure 7B). Differing from in vitro ischemia/reperfusion, non-targeting veliparib was more potent than XJB-veliparib in reducing LDH release. This is consistent with previous studies showing an important role for nuclear PARP1 activation in inhibiting excitotoxic neuronal death in vitro (Zhang, J., et al., Nitric oxide activation of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase in neurotoxicity. Science 1994, 263 (5147), 687-9). In vivo, PARP1 inhibition is effective at reducing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) but not non-NMDA excitotoxicity (Mandir, A. S., et al., NMDA but not non- NMDA excitotoxicity is mediated by Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. J Neurosci 2000, 20 (21 ), 8005-1 1 ).

[00106] In addition to rat primary cortical neuron cultures, the effect of veliparib and XJB-veliparib was determined in a stable mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line HT22, in which ferroptotic cell death is induced by high concentrations of glutamate. HT22 cells grown to confluence were exposed to 5 mM glutamate and various concentrations of veliparib or XJB-veliparib with LDH release measured at 24 h (Figure 7C). Both veliparib and XJB-veliparib inhibit glutamate-induced ferroptosis in HT22 cells, with XJB-veliparib slightly more effective than veliparib at higher concentrations (1 0 μΜ).

[00107] In order to investigate the cellular site of action of both veliparib and XJB- veliparib, the NAD + concentrations in mitochondria- and cytosol-enriched fractions were measured after OGD. Both XJB-veliparib and non-targeting veliparib preserve mitochondrial NAD + stores (Figure 8). However, while OGD led to increased cytosolic NAD + levels, it was found that a 10 nM dose of XJB-veliparib prevented efflux of NAD + from the mitochondria to the cytosol 24 h after OGD.

[00108] Cellular Localization of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymers: The cellular localization of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymers, a footprint of PARP activation, was examined in primary cortical neurons after OGD using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Primary rat cortical neurons were treated with 10 nM XJB- veliparib, 10 nM veliparib, or vehicle and then exposed to OGD for 2 h. As shown in Figure 9, one hour after OGD in vehicle treated neurons, PARP activation, assessed by immunofluorescence staining with anti-PAR antibody, was increased in mitochondria (labelled with translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20 [TOMM20]) and nuclei (labelled with 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole [DAPI]) compared with control neurons (no ischemia; performed in triplicate). After treatment with either veliparib or XJB-veliparib, a reduction of PAR immunofluorescence was observed. The PAR data obtained were consistent with PARP activation in mitochondria after OGD, inhibited by the XJB-veliparib conjugate and the unconjugated veliparib. The relative increase in PAR immunoreactivity observed in mitochondria vs. nuclei in neurons after OGD may be explainable by more effective PAR metabolism by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in cell nuclei vs. ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 in mitochondria.

[00109] To evaluate the impact of XJB-veliparib on mitochondrial structure after OGD, we used stimulation emission depletion (STED) microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Primary rat cortical neurons were treated with 10 nM XJB- veliparib or vehicle and then exposed to OGD for 2 h. Vehicle treated neurons showed increased PARP activation at 1 h as determined by PAR immunohistochemistry, and swollen, circular mitochondria consistent with fission compared with control (no ischemia) neurons (Figure 1 0; performed in triplicate). In contrast, PAR immunoreactivity was reduced in neurons treated with XJB-veliparib (vs. vehicle) and mitochondrial architecture appeared partially preserved.

Example 2 - XJB-veliparib mitigates the effects of radiation exposure.

[00110] XJB-veliparib reduces IR-induced cell death and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF), suggesting that XJB-veliparib may be an effective mitigator of radiation toxicity. Figure 1 1 shows that XJB-Veliparib reduces irradiation death in MEFs. MEF cells were treated with 10, 20 μΜ XJB- veliparib for 30 min prior to 10 Gy IR (309R/min, Cs137 source), media was changed to drugless media 4h post-IR. Survival was assessed at 48h by Annexin V-FTIC/PI flow cytometry. MEFs treated with XJB-veliparib had increased survival vs. vehicle or veliparib (90.1 %±0.3 vs. 68.4%±2.2 or 57.1 %±0.1 .9, respectively). Mean±SD, * p<0.05, **** p<0.0001 .

[00111] Figure 12 shows that XJB-veliparib reduces γ-irradiation-induced mitochondrial DNA damage in MEFs. PARylation of mtDNA repair enzymes, polymerase-γ and exo/endonucleaseG, by mt-PARP1 is thought interfere with normal mtDNA repair. MEFs were treated with 20 μΜ XJB-veliparib or unconjugated veliparib for 30 minutes prior to 10 Gy IR (309R/min, Cs137 source), media was changed to drugless media 4h post-IR. Cells were harvested and DNA extracted 4 and 24h post- IR. Specific inhibition of mt-PARP1 by XJB-veliparib reduced the number of PCR- detectable mtDNA lesions (increased qPCR amplification efficiency) following γ-IR compared to vehicle-treated (0.30±0.03 vs. 0.48±0.03, respectively). Veliparib had no effect compared to vehicle irradiated cells. ANOVA, * p<0.05, ** p<0.01 .

[00112] The following numbered clauses describe non-limiting various aspects of the present invention.

1 . A compound comprising a mitochondria-targeting gramicidin S peptide isostere moiety covalently linked to a PARP inhibitor, or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof.

2. The compound of clause 1 , having the structure:

wherein R 8 is -NH-Rg, -O-Rg, -CH 2 -Rg, -L-Rg, -NH-L-Rg, or -O-L-Rg, where Rg is a PARP inhibitor, such as, olaparib, veliparib, CEP-8983 (ll-methoxy-4,5,6,7- tetrahydro- IH-cyclopenta[a]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole-l,3(2H)-dione) or a prodrug thereof (e.g. CEP- 9722), rucaparib, E7016 (10-((4-hydroxypiperidin-l-yl)methyl)chromeno-[4,3,2- de]phthalazin-3(2H)- one), INO-1001 (4-phenoxy-3-pyrrolidin-l-yl-5-sulfamoyl-benzoic acid), niraparib, talazoparib (BMN673), NU1025 (8-hydroxy-2-methylquinazolin- 4(3H)-one), 1 ,5-dihydroiso quinoline, 4-amino-1 ,8-naphthalimide, 2-nitro-6[5H] phenanthridinone, PD1 28763, and analogues, isosteres, and derivatives thereof, and where L is a C1-5 alkyl linker, optionally comprising an ester or amide linkage; R15 and R16, independently are an amine protecting group or acylated;

R21 is H or C1-3 alkylaryl, such as methylphenyl (-Ch -Ph);

R22 and R23 are, independently, H, Ci- 4 alkyl or hetero-substituted alkyl, such as a thioether, for exam le and without limita aliphatic amino acid side chain, such

as (Val, V), (Leu, L), lie, I), (Met, M), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof.

3. The compound of clause 2, having the structure:

a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof.

4. The clause 2, having the structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof. 5. The compound of any one of clauses 2-4, wherein R22 and R

independently, aliphatic amino acid side chains, such as - , , or 1

6. The compound of clause 2, having the structure:

a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof.

7. The compound of any one of clauses 2-6, wherein R15 is Boc and R16, when present, is Cbz.

8. The compound of clause 2, having the structure:

pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof.

9. The compound of any one of clauses 2-8, wherein Rs is:

or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof. 10. The compound of clause 1 , having a structure:

r

wherein Ri , R2, R5, and R6 are independently hydrogen, hydroxyl, halo, a C1 -C6 straight or branched-chain alkyi, or a C1 -C6 straight or branched-chain alkyi further comprising a phenyl (C6H5) group, wherein the C1-C6 straight or branched- chain alkyi group or the C1 -C6 straight or branched-chain alkyi group comprising a phenyl group is unsubstituted or is methyl-, hydroxyl- or halo-substituted, for example, and without limitation, Ri , R2, R5, and R6 are independently methyl-, hydroxyl- or fluoro-substituted, including: methyl, ethyl, propyl, 2-propyl, butyl, t-butyl, pentyl, hexyl, benzyl, hydroxybenzyl (e.g., 4-hydroxybenzyl), phenyl, or hydroxyphenyl;

R 4 is hydrogen, a halo, a C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyi, or a Ci- Ce straight or branched-chain alkyi further comprising a phenyl (C6H5) group, wherein the C1 -C6 straight or branched-chain alkyi group or the C1-C6 straight or branched- chain alkyi group comprising a phenyl group is unsubstituted or is methyl-, hydroxyl- or halo-substituted;

R 7 is -C(0)-Ri3, -C(0)0-Ri3, or -P(0)-(Ris)2, wherein R 24 is C1-G3 straight or branched-chain alkyi or a C1 -C6 straight or branched-chain alkyi optionally comprising one or more (C6H5) groups that are independently unsubstituted, or methyl-, ethyl-, hydroxyl-, halo-substituted or fluoro-substituted, for example and without limitation, R 7 is Ac (Acetyl, R = -C(O)-CHs), Boc (R = -C(O)O-tert-butyl), Cbz (R = -C(0)0-benzyl (Bn)), or a diphenylphosphate group;

R 8 is -NH-Rg, -O-R9, -CH2-R9, -L-R9, -NH-L-Rg, or -O-L-R9, where Rg is a PARP inhibitor or a derivative or isostere thereof, and where L is a C1-5 alkyi linker, optionally comprising an ester or amide linkage; R3 is a halo, a C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl or a C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl further comprising one or more (C6H5) groups that are independently unsubstituted, or methyl-, ethyl-, hydroxyl- or halo-substituted; and

R10, R11 , and R12 are independently H or a halo;

Ri , R2, R5, R6, and Ri 4 are each independently hydrogen, halo, a Ci - C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl, or a C1 -C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl further comprising a phenyl (C6H5) group, wherein the C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl group or the C1-C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl group comprising a phenyl group is unsubstituted or is methyl-, hydroxyl- or halo-substituted;

Rs is -NH-Rg, -O-R9, -CH2-R9, -L-R9, -NH-L-Rg, or -O-L-R9, where R9 is a PARP inhibitor or a derivative or isostere thereof, and where L is a C1-5 alkyl linker, optionally comprising an ester or amide linkage; and

R 7 is -C(0)-Ri3, -C(0)0-Ri3, or -P(0)-(Ris)2, wherein R13 is C1-G3 straight or branched-chain alkyl or a C1 -C6 straight or branched-chain alkyl optionally comprising one or more (C6H5) groups that are independently unsubstituted, or methyl- , ethyl-, hydroxyl-, halo-substituted or fluoro-substituted, for example and without limitation, R13 is Ac (Acetyl, R = -C(0)-CH 3 ), Boc (R = -C(O)O-tert-butyl), Cbz (R = - C(0)0-benzyl (Bn)), or a diphenylphosphate group; or

where R9 is a PARP inhibitor or a derivative or isostere thereof, and where L is a C1-5 alkyl linker, optionally comprising an ester or amide linkage; R15 and R16, independently are an amine protecting group or acylated. In one aspect, R15 and R16 are protecting groups independently selected from the group consisting of: 9- fluorenylmethyloxy carbonyl (Fmoc), t-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc), benzhydryloxycarbonyl (Bhoc), benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz), O-nitroveratryloxycarbonyl (Nvoc), benzyl (Bn), allyloxycarbonyl (alloc), trityl (Trt), l-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxacyclohexylidene)ethyl (Dde), diathiasuccinoyi (Dts), benzothiazole-2-sulfonyl (Bts), dimethoxytrityl (DMT) and monomethoxytrityl (MMT), and R17 is H or methyl, optionally, R15 is Boc and R16 is Cbz.

1 1 . The compound of clause 10, having the structure of (I) or (II).

12. The compound of clause 10, having the structure of (III) or (IV).

13. The compound of clause 10, having the structure of (V).

14. The compound of clause 1 , having the structure:

wherein R 8 is -NH-Rg, -O-R9, -CH2-R9, -L-R9, -NH-L-Rg, or -O-L-R9, where R9 is a PARP inhibitor, or a derivative or isostere thereof, and where L is a Ci- 5 alkyl linker, optionally comprising an ester or amide linkage. 15. The compound of clause 1 , having the structure:

an isostere thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof.

16. The compound of any of clauses 10-15, wherein the PARP inhibitor is olaparib, veliparib, CEP-8983 (ll-methoxy-4,5,6,7- tetrahydro-IH-cyclopenta[a]pyrrolo[3,4- c]carbazole-l,3(2H)-dione) or a prodrug thereof (e.g. CEP- 9722), rucaparib, E7016 (1 0-((4-hydroxypiperidin-l-yl)methyl)chromeno-[4,3,2-de]phthal azin-3(2H)- one), INO- 1001 (4-phenoxy-3-pyrrolidin-l-yl-5-sulfamoyl-benzoic acid), niraparib, talazoparib (BMN673), NU1025 (8-hydroxy-2-methylquinazolin-4(3H)-one), 1 ,5-dihydroiso quinoline, 4-amino-1 ,8-naphthalimide, 2-nitro-6[5H] phenanthridinone, PD1 28763, and analogues, isosteres, and derivatives thereof.

17. The compound of any one of clauses 1 0-16, wherein the PARP inhibitor is veliparib. 18. The compound of any one of clauses 1 0-17, wherein Rs is:

19. A composition comprising a first compound according to any one of clauses 1 -18, and a pharmaceutically-acceptable excipient.

20. The composition of clause 19, further comprising a chemotherapeutic agent that is different from the first compound.

21 . The composition of clause 20, wherein the chemotherapeutic agent is selected from: abiraterone acetate, altretamine, amsacrine, anhydro vinblastine, auristatin, bafetinib, bexarotene, bicalutamide, BMS 184476, 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-N-(3-fluoro- 4-methoxyphenyl)benzene sulfonamide, bleomycin, bosutinib, busulfan, cachectin, cemadotin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, 3',4'-didehydro-4'-deoxy-8'-norvin- caleukoblastine, docetaxol, doxetaxel, carboplatin, carmustine (BCNU), chlorambucil, cisplatin, cryptophycin, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, dacarbazine (DTIC), dactinomycin, daunorubicin, decitabine dolastatin, doxorubicin (adriamycin), etoposide, etoposide phosphate, 5-fluorouracil, finasteride, flutamide, hydroxyurea, hydroxyureataxanes, ifosfamide, imatinib, irinotecan, liarozole, lonidamine, lomustine (CCNU), MDV3100, mechlorethamine (nitrogen mustard), melphalan, mitoxantrone, mivobulin isethionate, rhizoxin, sertenef, streptozocin, mitomycin, methotrexate, nilotinib, nilutamide, onapristone, oxaliplatin, paclitaxel, ponatinib, prednimustine, procarbazine, RPRI 09881 , stramustine phosphate, tamoxifen, tasonermin, taxol, teniposide, topotecan, tretinoin, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine sulfate, vinflunine, and combinations thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts or esters thereof.

22. A method of treating a cancer in a patient, comprising administering to a patient an amount of a first compound according to any one of clauses 1 -18 effective to sensitize malignant, but not non-malignant, cells of a patient to anti-cancer drugs.

23. The method of clause 23, further comprising administering a radiation therapy to the patient while the first compound is present in the patient. 24. The method of clause 22 or clause 23, further comprising administering a chemotherapeutic agent that differs from the first compound.

25. The method of clause 24, wherein the chemotherapeutic agent is selected from: abiraterone acetate, altretamine, amsacrine, anhydro vinblastine, auristatin, bafetinib, bexarotene, bicalutamide, BMS 184476, 2,3,4,5, 6-pentafluoro-N-(3-fluoro-4- methoxyphenyl)benzene sulfonamide, bleomycin, bosutinib, busulfan, cachectin, cemadotin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, 3',4'-didehydro-4'-deoxy-8'-norvin- caleukoblastine, docetaxol, doxetaxel, carboplatin, carmustine (BCNU), chlorambucil, cisplatin, cryptophycin, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, dacarbazine (DTIC), dactinomycin, daunorubicin, decitabine dolastatin, doxorubicin (adriamycin), etoposide, etoposide phosphate, 5-fluorouracil, finasteride, flutamide, hydroxyurea, hydroxyureataxanes, ifosfamide, imatinib, irinotecan, liarozole, lonidamine, lomustine (CCNU), MDV3100, mechlorethamine (nitrogen mustard), melphalan, mitoxantrone, mivobulin isethionate, rhizoxin, sertenef, streptozocin, mitomycin, methotrexate, nilotinib, nilutamide, onapristone, oxaliplatin, paclitaxel, ponatinib, prednimustine, procarbazine, RPRI 09881 , stramustine phosphate, tamoxifen, tasonermin, taxol, teniposide, topotecan, tretinoin, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine sulfate, vinflunine, and combinations thereof, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts or esters thereof.

26. A method of reducing NAD + depletion and cell death induced by oxidative stress in a cell or a patient, comprising administering to a cell or a patient an amount of a compound according to any one of clauses 1 -18 effective to decrease NAD + depletion in mitochondria of a cell or of a patient.

27. A method of reducing cell death induced by mitochondrial dysfunction and/or damage in a cell or a patient, comprising administering to a cell or a patient an amount of a compound according to any one of clauses 1 -18 effective to improve mitochondrial function and reduce mitochondrial damage in a cell or in a patient.

28. A method of reducing energy failure induced by ischemia-reperfusion in a cell or a patient, comprising administering to a cell or a patient an amount of a compound according to any one of clauses 1 -18 effective to prevent or reduce ischemia- reperfusion injury in a cell or in a patient.

29. A method of reducing irradiation (IR)-induced cell death and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage from exposure to ionizing radiation in a patient, comprising administering to a patient an amount of a compound according to any one of clauses 1 -18 effective to reduce irradiation (IR)-induced cell death and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in a patient.

30. Use of a compound according to any one of clauses 1 -18 for the preparation of a medicament for sensitizing malignant, but not non-malignant cells of a patient to anticancer drugs.

31 . Use of a compound according to any one of clauses 1 -18 for the preparation of a medicament for reducing NAD + depletion and cell death induced by oxidative stress in a cell or a patient.

32. Use of a compound according to any one of clauses 1 -18 for the preparation of a medicament for reducing cell death induced by mitochondrial dysfunction and/or damage in a cell or a patient.

33. Use of a compound according to any one of clauses 1 -18 for the preparation of a medicament for reducing energy failure induced by ischemia-reperfusion in a cell or a patient.

34. Use of a compound according to any one of clauses 1 -18 for the preparation of a medicament for reducing irradiation (IR)-induced cell death and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage from exposure to ionizing radiation in a patient.

[00113] The present invention has been described with reference to certain exemplary embodiments, dispersible compositions and uses thereof. However, it will be recognized by those of ordinary skill in the art that various substitutions, modifications or combinations of any of the exemplary embodiments may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Thus, the invention is not limited by the description of the exemplary embodiments, but rather by the appended claims as originally filed.