|1.||Articulator for dental modelling, such as restoration of single teeth and the manufacture of bridges or the like, and comprising an upper part and a lower part mutually con¬ nected by means of a hinge, which makes it possible to simu¬ late a movement approximately corresponding to a chewing mo¬ vement, between the upper part and the lower part as well as means for adjusting the upper part in relation to the lower part in order to establish a correct mutual engagement be¬ tween the models mounted on the two parts and a subsequent fixation thereof, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the upper and the lower part each comprises a mould having walls with a toothing, in that one of the parts comprises a stanchion made of thermo¬ plastics, said stanchion carrying one part of the hinge, and in that the hinge per se is separable.|
|2.||Articulator according to claim 1, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the part, on which the stanchion is mounted, is cast integrally from thermopla¬ stics.|
|3.||Articulator according to claim 2, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the hinge of the stanchion is a ballandsocket joint.|
|4.||Articulator according to claims 1, 2, or 3, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the stanchion is mounted on the lower part.|
|5.||Articulator according to claims 1, 2, 3, or 4, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the mould is elongate and possibly curved.|
|6.||Articulator according to claim 6, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the mould is provided with a removable bottom with an index ruler adapted to pro vide an impression in the cast model as well as a stationary ruler or surface with a corresponding index, which is vi¬ sible from the outside of the mould and parallel to the in¬ dex ruler or surface.|
|7.||Articulator according to any of the claims 16, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the stanchion is pro¬ vided with a cavity extending from an inlet in the bottom surface of the lower part to some openings positioned ap proximately at half of the height of the stanchion.|
|8.||Articulator according to claim 7, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the openings have such a shape and extension that the remaining part of the stanchion forms a grating, which is resistant to bending and twisting.|
|9.||Apparatus for adjusting an articulator according to claim 7, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in comprising a support surface, on which the lower part can be mounted, a nozzle being placed on said support surface and being adapted to giving off a jet of hot air into the cavity of the stanchion.|
|10.||Apparatus according to claim 9, c h a r a c t e r i z e d in that the apparatus is provided with means for giving off at a predetermined period of time after the disconnection of the supply of hot air an air jet having approximately ambient temperature.|
RATUS FOR ADJUSTMENT OF THE ARTICULATOR.
The present invention relates to a model holder and an articulator for dental modelling and comprises an upper part and a lower part mutually connected by means of a hinge, which makes it possible to simulate a movement approximately corresponding to a chewing movement, between the upper .part and the lower part as well as means for adjusting the upper part in relation to the lower part in order to establish a correct mutual engagement between the models mounted on the two parts and a subsequent fixation thereof. Moreover, the invention relates to an apparatus for adjusting such an articulator.
From US Patent No. 4,548,581 an articulator for den¬ ture modelling is known, said articulator consisting of a hinged two part flexible element, each part ending in a ball-and-socket joint placed in a mounting element. The mounting elements are provided with a pin adapted to be glued in a groove in a cast model, which in the examples given is a complete jaw model or mould of either an upper jaw or a lower jaw. After the mounting of the mounting ele- ments the two models or casts can be adjusted to correct en¬ gagement corresponding to the the bite registered from the patient, after which the two ball-and-socket joints are fixated by means of an adhesive. The articular can on ac¬ count of the combination of the hinge and the two ball-and- socket joints be fully adequately adjusted, but is, due to the fact that during the mounting and the adjustment thereof two subsequent glueing operations are required, fairly slow to work with. For dental modelling consisting of the resto¬ ration of single teeth or smaller bridges and the like tasks, where no cast of the whole set of teeth is available, the known apparatus is akward to handle, and the use of the known apparatus involves an unreasonably big consumption of time for fastening the models on a suitable stanchion, to
which the connecting parts may be glued. This fastening nor¬ mally takes place by means of pins to be inserted into bores in the model, and which pins are moulded in the stanchion, the number of pins being of such a size that a single tooth can be cut out of the model and mounted separately.
It is known in connection with the production of mo¬ dels to cast these in a rectangular mould with toothed walls. The model can be removed from the toothed mould and reinserted after having been divided or worked up in other ways, and on account of the-toothing also parts of the model can be put back in the mould in the same place, in which they were originally moulded. The mould can be cast in an articulator which may later be adjusted, but in all quite a number of operations with subsequent setting is required to produce an applicable model of a denture.
The object of the present invention is to provide an articulator, which is characteristic by means of the subject matter of the characterizing clause of claim 1.
Through mounting of the hinge of the articulator on a stanchion made of thermoplastics, which can be plastified through heating and fixated in a new position by cooling and by combining these features therewith that the models are directly cast in the upper and lower part of the articula¬ tor, a number of working processes will be superfluous in connection with the making of the model, said operations being admittedly per se not very time-consuming, but which per se requires a setting time of several minutes for the plaster or the adhesive used. Besides, the articulator is simple to make and suitable for being used only once. The hinge of the articulator should be separable to make it pos¬ sible immediately to cast the model in the toothed mould, which is integral with the remaining part of the upper or lower part.
Preferred embodiments will appear from the dependent claims. It is in particular advantageous that the models cast in the moulds can be taken out and worked up, for in¬ stance cut through, and that it is possible to place the in¬ dividual pieces correctly in the articulator again. For this
purpose the moulds are provided with index rulers and with means for providing a corresponding impression in the cast model. The index of the ruler ensures a completely accurate re-placing. Moreover, the invention relates to an apparatus for adjustment of the articulator according to the invention. The apparatus is worked out as stated in claim 9. The appa¬ ratus is adapted to blow a jet of hot air up through the stanchion shaped as a tube, whereby the stanchion mollifies very quickly, so that the necessary adjustment can take place, after which the apparatus is adapted to give off a cooling jet of air, which quickly fixates the articulator in the desired position. The part of the stanchion, which is the quickest to plastify during the heating, is a part shaped as a grating, through which the hot air is blown out, and the grating is preferably made in such a way that when hardened it is to a very high extent resistant to bending and twisting, while it, when plastified, will be very little resistant towards deformation, which increases the accuracy, with which the two parts can be adapted on the basis of the bite registration used in a conventional way.
The invention will be described in detail in the fol¬ lowing with reference to the drawing, in which fig. 1 is an embodiment of a lower part of an. articu- lator according to the invention seen from in front, fig. 2 shows the lower part according to fig. 1 from the side, fig. 3 shows the under part according to fig. 1 from above, fig. 4 shows the under part according to fig. 1 from below, fig. 5 shows an upper part mating the lower part ac¬ cording to fig. 1 in perspective through the hinge joint, and fig. 6 is a lateral view of an adjustment apparatus for use in connection with the articulator according to claim 1.
The articulator according to the invention comprises
a lower part and an upper part. An embodiment of a lower part 1 is shown in figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4. A sectional view of a mating upper part is shown in fig. 5. The lower part 1 comprises a form part 2 and a stanchion 3, which is at the top provided with a hinge joint, preferably a ball-and- socket joint, the stanchion being provided with a ball- shaped bearing surface 4. The stanchion 3 is slightly conical and is hollow, a channel extending from the lower side of the -stanchion and through it to a ring of openings 5. The part of the stanchion not being part of these open¬ ings, forms a grating which is fairly resistant to bending and twisting, so that the ball-and-socket joint 4 is fixated in relation to the form part 2. In fig. 2 the lower part is seen from the side, and the cavity of the stanchion is indi- cated by dotted lines running form the bottom surface of the lower part to the openings 5.
The form part 2 of the lower part comprises a mould, in which a model of a bigger or smaller part of a denture can be cast in. The mould is best seen in fig. 3, which shows the lower part 1 from above. In the embodiment shown the outline of the mould is oval and the mould has side walls 6, which partly have a considereably slip, so that the model made in the mould can be easily removed, and partly a toothing 7, which ensures that the model made in the- mould or parts thereof can be re-placed in the mould and be accu¬ rately fixated therein. To facilitate the accurate re¬ placing of a model part in the mould, it may moreover be provided with a ruler 8 forming the bottom of the mould, and which is provided with an index making an impression in the model cast. The part of the bottom, which is provided with an index, may preferably be clipped in a small slot between a fixed ruler 9, which partly supports the form part and which partly at the under surface is provided with the same index as the clipped in ruler 8. The ruler 9 can in particular be seen in fig. 4, which shows the lower part seen from below. The ruler 8 may be provided with a pair of finger grips 10, which make it easy to remove the ruler after the casting in of the model. Those parts of the form
bottom, which cast in an index in ' the model, may possibly be surrounded by weakened or partly perforated areas, so that the part of the bottom, which provides the index impression in the model, can be pressed out, when the cast in model is set and removed from the mould. When inserting a part of the model, it has to be placed in such a way that the cast in index is placed opposite to the index visible on the outer surface of the mould.
In the embodiment shown in figs. 3 and 4 the cavity of the mould is elaborated in such a way that the cast in models can only be re-placed in one way. The possibility, when restoring single teeth, of erroneously placing the iso¬ lated tooth in relation to the teeth of the opposite jaw part is thereby eliminated. It may, however, be advantageous in certain cases to let the mould cavitiy with the toothed walls have the shape of two concentric spheres. It is there¬ by made possible to insert partition walls in the toothing, which may then at a later division of the model into single teeth serve as breaking instructions. The partition walls only have to be of such a height that the model is given sufficient strength to be handled, but should, however, weaken the model to such an extent that it can easily be broken in the desired place, perhaps after an incision on both sides of the tooth or the teeth to be isolated. To the lower part 1 an upper part 20 corresponds, said upper part being provided with a form part 21 corre¬ sponding to the form part 2 shown in perspective in fig. 5. Unlike the bottom part 1 the upper part is not provided with a stanchion, but solely a hinge joint 21, adapted to be clipped to the bearing surface after the casting of the mo¬ del in the form cavity 22. The form part is in the same way as the form part 2 provided with toothed side walls 23 and a ruler 24 longitudinally to the bottom and a ruler 25 clipped in a slot in the bottom surface, said ruler being also pro- vided with an index leaving an impression in the model.
The articulator according to the ivention is used for dental modelling, for instance restoration of individual teeth or for bridge modelling. The model holder may possibly
be used in an enlarged version in " connection with denture work and makes a considerably simplified working process possible as compared to common practice. For use in denture work the cavity of the mould should be shaped like a horse- shoe like a normal set of teeth. On basis of the casts taken of the mouth of a patient, models are made of the teeth or the set of teeth to be restored or perhaps replaced by a denture. The models are cast in the form parts 2 and 22, the form parts having not yet been connected in the hinged joint. After the setting of- the plaster, by means of which the models have been cast in, the upper and lower part are connected, after which an adjustment has to be made so that an engagement between the models corresponding to the bite of the patient can be established. It is most practical that the models of the teeth in the upper and the lower jaw are cast in in the two moulds so that the necessary adjustment can be limited to a few millimeters only, which facilitates the adjustment, but which is no prerequisite for making it. Adjustment is carried out thereby that the stanchion, which is made from thermoplastics, is heated to such a temperature that it plastifies. While the thermoplastics is plastified, the upper and lower part are adjusted with respect to one another, and when the desired engagement is established, the stanchion is allowed to cool, after which the thermoplastics hardens again, the adjustment thus becoming permanent. In the embodiment shown in the drawing, in which the stanchion is tubular and bears a ring of openings, the plastic condi¬ tion is very quickly reached at the ribs between the openings, and these ribs form a grating, which in plastified condition is deformable by use of very little force, and which after being hardened again, acquire a comparatively big resistance towards bending and twisting. In plastified condition the ribs may be both stretched and compressed, so that the adjustment can take place not only horizontally, but also vertically. If the openings are elongate, so that the ribs between them acquire a length of 10 - 15 mm, it is possible to make adjustments of several millimeters between the two parts.
Afcer the adjustment the models can be removed from the moulds and used in the subsequent denture work. In this connection it is possible to cut the models in several pieces and replace them in the form parts, where on account of the toothing it will be possible to fixate them in their original place. To facilitate the positioning, the model may be provided with an impression from the ruler 8, and it will then be possible to place index opposite to the same figure on the ruler 9. Even though, for adjustment reasons, it is necessary to make only the stanchion from thermopalstics, it is pre¬ ferred to produce both the upper part as well as the lower part of plastics material cast integrally from thermopla¬ stics by means of die casting. These plastic parts may be made from any plastics material suitable for die casting. When producing the parts of plastics it is preferable to discard them after use, the stanchion becoming after several adjustments somewhat weakened.
The upper and lower parts shown in the drawing are in particular suited for dentures, where only one model of a half jaw is used. Through a suitable shaping of the form parts they might also be applicable for the making of com¬ plete dentures. It will for instance be possible to make the form part approximately horse-shoe shaped, making it possib- le to cast in a model of a whole jaw.
For use in the adjustment it is advantageous to use the apparatus shown in fig. 6, said apparatus comprising a support surface 30 for the lower part of the articulator and an upwards directed nozzle, through which, by activation of a control button 32, a jet of hot air can be given off, said hot air having a temperature, which just soften the plastics adequately. It is preferable that the apparatus, when the control button is disconnected, gives off for some time an air jet of ambient temperature so that the plastics of the stanchion, when the adjustment is terminated, cools quickly, so that there is no danger in touching the articulator during the subsequent denture work. The apparatus contains an electric fan with an air intake 33. In the connecting
channel from the fan to the nozzle a preferably thermo¬ statically controlled heating element is mounted.
Next Patent: AN IMPROVED DENTAL ATTACHMENT STRUCTURE