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Title:
MODIFYING SOYBEAN OIL COMPOSITION THROUGH TARGETED KNOCKOUT OF THE FAD3A/B/C GENES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/134601
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Materials and methods are provided for making soybean varieties that have altered oil composition as a result of mutations in the FAD3A, FAD3B and/or FAD3C genes alone or in combination with mutations in the FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B genes.

Inventors:
MATHIS, Luc (30 rue Gambetta, Le Kremlin Bicetre, 94270, FR)
DEMOREST, Zachary (3215 Garfield St. NE, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55418, US)
ZHANG, Feng (17780 62nd Court, Maple Grove, Minnesota, 55311, US)
HAUN, William (1478 Cumberland Street, St. Paul, Minnesota, 55117, US)
Application Number:
IB2017/050574
Publication Date:
August 10, 2017
Filing Date:
February 02, 2017
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
CELLECTIS (8 rue de la Croix Jarry, Paris, 75013, FR)
International Classes:
A01H1/06; A01H5/10; A23D9/00; C12N15/82
Domestic Patent References:
2014-03-13
2014-09-18
2004-08-12
2011-06-16
Foreign References:
US4957748A1990-09-18
US5100679A1992-03-31
US5219596A1993-06-15
US5936069A1999-08-10
US6005076A1999-12-21
US6146669A2000-11-14
US6156227A2000-12-05
Other References:
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DATABASE Geneseq [online] 5 February 2009 (2009-02-05), "Soybean FAD3-1C gene, SEQ ID 62.", XP002768563, retrieved from EBI accession no. GSN:AUM14321 Database accession no. AUM14321
WILLIAM HAUN ET AL: "Improved soybean oil quality by targeted mutagenesis of the fatty acid desaturase 2 gene family", PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL, vol. 12, no. 7, 23 May 2014 (2014-05-23), GB, pages 934 - 940, XP055358281, ISSN: 1467-7644, DOI: 10.1111/pbi.12201
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ZACHARY L. DEMOREST ET AL: "Direct stacking of sequence-specific nuclease-induced mutations to produce high oleic and low linolenic soybean oil", BMC PLANT BIOLOGY, vol. 16, no. 1, 13 October 2016 (2016-10-13), XP055358290, DOI: 10.1186/s12870-016-0906-1
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Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell comprising a mutation in:

one or more FAD3A alleles,

one or more FAD3B alleles,

one or more FAD3C alleles,

one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles,

one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles,

one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or

one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles,

wherein the plant, plant part, or plant cell produces oil that has decreased linolenic acid content as compared to oil produced from a corresponding wild type soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell.

2. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 1 , wherein each mutation is at a sequence in SEQ ID NO:24, SEQ ID NO:25, or SEQ ID NO:26.

3. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 1, wherein the one or more FAD3A alleles comprise a mutation selected from the group consisting of:

(i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 459 of SEQ ID NO:24;

(ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 515 of SEQ ID NO:24; and

(iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 894 of SEQ ID NO:24.

4. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 1 , wherein the one or more FAD3B alleles comprise a mutation selected from the group consisting of:

(i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 496 of SEQ ID NO: 25;

(ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 552 of SEQ ID NO: 25; and

(iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 952 of SEQ ID NO:25.

5. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 1, wherein the one or more FAD3C alleles comprise a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 686 of SEQ ID NO:26.

6. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 1 , wherein each mutation was induced by a rare-cutting endonuclease.

7. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 6, wherein the rare-cutting endonuclease is a transcription activator-like (TAL) effector endonuclease.

8. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 7, wherein the TAL effector endonuclease binds to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NO S: 6-23.

9. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 1 , wherein each mutated FAD3A allele has a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:64-90 and 102-106, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106.

10. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 1, wherein each mutated FAD3B allele has a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99.

11. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 1 , wherein the plant, plant part, or plant cell does not contain a transgene.

12. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 1, wherein the plant, plant part, or plant cell further comprises a transgene encoding a protein, and wherein the protein is selected from the group consisting of a plant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3- phosphate synthase (EPSPS) protein, a modified plant EPSPS protein, a bacterial EPSPS protein, an agrobacterium CP4 EPSPS protein, an aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase (AAD) protein, a phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (PAT) protein, an acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit protein, a p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (hppd) protein, a dicamba monooxygenase (DMO) protein, a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein, Cry IF delta-endotoxin protein, Cry2Ab delta-endotoxin protein, and a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein.

13. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 1, wherein the plant part is a seed.

14. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 1, wherein the linolenic acid content is less than 4.3%.

15. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 1, wherein the linolenic acid content is less than 3%.

16. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 1, wherein the linolenic acid content is less than 2%.

17. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 1, wherein the linolenic acid content is less than 1.2%.

18. Oil produced from the seed of claim 13, wherein the oil has a linolenic acid content less than 4.3%.

19. Oil produced from the seed of claim 13, wherein the oil has a linolenic acid content less than 1.2%.

20. A method for making a soybean plant comprising a mutation in

one or more FAD3A alleles,

one or more FAD3B alleles,

one or more FAD3C alleles,

one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles,

one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles,

one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or

one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles,

the method comprising:

(a) contacting a population of soybean plant parts or plant cells comprising functional FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C alleles with one or more rare-cutting endonucleases targeted to one or more endogenous FAD3A sequences, one or more rare- cutting endonucleases targeted to one or more endogenous FAD3B sequences, and one or more rare-cutting endonucleases targeted to one or more endogenous FAD3C sequences, (b) regenerating the soybean plant parts or plant cells into whole soybean plants, and

(c) selecting from the whole soybean plants a soybean plant comprising a mutation in

one or more FAD3A alleles,

one or more FAD3B alleles,

one or more FAD3C alleles,

one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles,

one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles,

one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or

one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more

FAD3C alleles.

21. The method of claim 20, wherein the soybean plant parts or plant cells are selected from the group consisting of cotyledon cells, seeds, embryos, embryogenic calli cells, and pollen cells.

22. The method of claim 21, comprising transforming the soybean plant parts or plant cells with one or more vectors encoding the one or more rare-cutting endonucleases.

23. The method of claim 22, wherein the one or more rare-cutting endonucleases are TAL effector endonucleases.

24. The method of claim 23, wherein each of the TAL effector endonucleases is targeted to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:6-23.

25. The method of claim 23, comprising introducing into the plant parts or plant cells one or more TAL effector endonuclease proteins.

26. The method of claim 20, further comprising culturing the plant parts or plant cells to generate plant lines.

27. The method of claim 20, further comprising isolating genomic DNA comprising at least a portion of the FAD3A locus, at least a portion of the FAD3B locus, or at least a portion of the FAD3C locus from the plant cells.

28. A method for generating a soybean plant comprising a mutation in

one or more FAD3A alleles,

one or more FAD3B alleles,

one or more FAD3C alleles,

one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles,

one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles,

one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or

one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles,

the method comprising:

(a) providing a first soybean plant comprising a mutation in at least a first FAD3 allele, wherein the first FAD3 allele is selected from the group consisting of a FAD3A allele, a FAD3B allele and a FAD3C allele,

(b) providing a second soybean plant comprising a mutation in at least a second FAD3 gene, wherein the second FAD3 allele is selected from the group consisting of a FAD3A allele, a FAD3B allele and a FAD3C allele,

wherein if the first FAD3 allele is a FAD3A allele, the second FAD3 allele is a FAD3B or FAD3C allele,

wherein if the first FAD3 allele is a FAD3B allele, the second FAD3 allele is a FAD3A or FAD3C allele, and

wherein if the first FAD3 allele is a FAD3C allele, the second FAD3 allele is a FAD3A or FAD3B allele,

(c) crossing the first soybean plant with the second soybean plant to generate progeny, and

(d) selecting from the progeny a soybean plant that comprises a mutation in one or more FAD3A alleles,

one or more FAD3B alleles,

one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles,

one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or

one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more

FAD3C alleles.

29. The method of claim 28, wherein each mutation was induced by a rare-cutting endonuclease.

30. The method of claim 29, wherein the rare-cutting endonuclease is a TAL effector endonuclease.

31. The method of claim 30, wherein the TAL effector endonuclease binds to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:6-23.

32. The method of claim 28, wherein each mutation is a deletion of more than one nucleotide.

33. The method of claim 28, wherein the first or second soybean plant comprises a FAD3A allele that comprises a mutation selected from the group consisting of:

(i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 459 of SEQ ID NO:24;

(ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 515 of SEQ ID NO:24; and

(iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 894 of SEQ ID NO:24.

34. The method of claim 28, wherein the first or second soybean plant comprises a FAD3B allele that comprises a mutation selected from the group consisting of:

(i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 496 of SEQ ID NO: 25;

(ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 552 of SEQ ID NO: 25; and

(iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 952 of SEQ ID NO:25.

35. The method of claim 28, wherein the first or second soybean plant comprises a FAD3C allele that comprises a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 686 of SEQ ID NO: 26.

36. The method of claim 28, wherein each mutated FAD3A allele has a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106.

37. The method of claim 28, wherein each mutated FAD3B allele has a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99.

38. The method of claim 28, wherein the first and second soybean plants do not contain a transgene.

39. The method of claim 28, wherein one or both of the first and second soybean plants comprises a transgene that encodes a protein, and wherein the protein is selected from the group consisting of a plant EPSPS protein, a modified plant EPSPS protein, a bacterial EPSPS protein, an agrobacterium CP4 EPSPS protein, an AAD protein, a PAT protein, an acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit protein, a hppd protein, a DMO protein, a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein, Cry IF delta-endotoxin protein, Cry2Ab delta- endotoxin protein, and a CrylAc delta-endotoxin protein.

40. A method for producing soybean oil having decreased linolenic acid content, comprising:

(a) providing a soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell comprising a mutation in one or more FAD3A alleles,

one or more FAD3B alleles,

one or more FAD3C alleles,

one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles, and

(b) producing oil from the plant, plant part, or plant cell.

41. The method of claim 40, wherein each mutation was induced by a rare-cutting endonuclease.

42. The method of claim 41, wherein the rare-cutting endonuclease is a TAL effector endonuclease.

43. The method of claim 42, wherein the TAL effector endonuclease binds to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:6-23.

44. The method of claim 40, wherein the one or more FAD3A alleles comprise a mutation selected from the group consisting of:

(i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 459 of SEQ ID NO:24;

(ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 515 of SEQ ID NO:24; and

(iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 894 of SEQ ID NO:24.

45. The method of claim 40, wherein the one or more FAD3B alleles comprise a mutation selected from the group consisting of:

(i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 496 of SEQ ID NO: 25;

(ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 552 of SEQ ID NO: 25; and

(iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 952 of SEQ ID NO:25.

46. The method of claim 40, wherein the one or more FAD3C alleles comprise a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 686 of SEQ ID NO:26.

47. The method of claim 40, wherein the plant, plant part, or plant cell does not contain a transgene.

48. The method of claim 40, wherein the plant, plant part, or plant cell further contains a transgene that encodes a protein, wherein the protein is selected from the group consisting of a plant EPSPS protein, a modified plant EPSPS protein, a bacterial EPSPS protein, an agrobacterium CP4 EPSPS protein, an AAD protein, a PAT protein, an acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit protein, a hppd protein, a DMO protein, a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein, Cry IF delta-endotoxin protein, Cry2Ab delta-endotoxin protein, and a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein.

49. The method of claim 40, wherein each mutated FAD3A allele has a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106.

50. The method of claim 40, wherein each mutated FAD3B allele has a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99.

51. A soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell comprising a mutation in a FAD2-1A allele and a mutation in a FAD2-1B allele, wherein the plant, plant part, or plant cell has increased protein content compared to a corresponding wild type soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell, and wherein the plant, plant part, or plant cell produces oil that has increased oleic acid content as compared to oil produced from a corresponding wild type soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell.

52. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 51, wherein each mutated FAD2-1 A allele has a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 100.

53. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 51, wherein each mutated FAD2-1B allele has a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 101.

54. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 51, wherein the plant part is a seed.

55. Oil produced from the seed of claim 54, wherein the oil has a linolenic acid content less than 4.9%, a linoleic acid content less than 6.4%, an oleic acid content more than 76.5%, a stearic acid content less than 3.5%, and a palmitic acid content less than 8.5%.

56. A soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell comprising a mutation in

one or more FAD3A alleles,

one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3C alleles,

one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles,

one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles,

one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or

one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles,

and a mutation in

one or more FAD2-1A alleles,

one or more FAD2-1B alleles, or

one or more FAD2-1A alleles and one or more FAD2-1B alleles,

wherein the plant, plant part, or plant cell produces oil that has decreased linolenic acid content, increased oleic acid content, and decreased linoleic acid content as compared to oil produced from a corresponding wild type soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell.

57. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein each FAD3 mutation is at a sequence in SEQ ID NO:24, SEQ ID NO:25, or SEQ ID NO:26, and wherein each FAD2 mutation is at a sequence in SEQ ID NO: 43 or SEQ ID NO: 44.

58. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein each mutation was induced by a rare-cutting endonuclease.

59. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein the rare-cutting endonuclease is a TAL effector endonuclease.

60. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein the TAL effector endonuclease binds to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NO S: 6-23, or to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 27-42.

61. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein each mutation is a deletion of more than one nucleotide.

62. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein the one or more FAD3A alleles comprise a mutation selected from the group consisting of: (i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 459 of SEQ ID NO:24;

(ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 515 of SEQ ID NO:24; and

(iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 894 of SEQ ID NO:24.

63. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein the one or more FAD3B alleles comprise a mutation selected from the group consisting of:

(i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 496 of SEQ ID NO: 25;

(ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 552 of SEQ ID NO: 25; and

(iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 952 of SEQ ID NO:25.

64. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein the one or more FAD3C alleles comprise a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 686 of SEQ ID NO:26.

65. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein each mutated FAD3A allele has a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:64-90 and 102-106, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106.

66. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein each mutated FAD3B allele has a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99.

67. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein each mutated FAD2-1 A allele has a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 100.

68. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein each mutated FAD2-1B allele has a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 101.

69. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein each mutated FAD3A, FAD3B, FAD3C, FAD2-1A, and FAD2-1B allele has a deletion of an endogenous nucleic acid sequence and does not include any exogenous nucleic acid.

70. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein the plant, plant part, or plant cell does not contain a transgene.

71. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein the plant, plant part, or plant cell further contains a transgene that encodes a protein, wherein the protein is selected from the group consisting of a plant EPSPS protein, a modified plant EPSPS protein, a bacterial EPSPS protein, an agrobacterium CP4 EPSPS protein, an AAD protein, a PAT protein, an acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit protein, a hppd protein, a DMO protein, a Cryl Ac delta- endotoxin protein, CrylF delta-endotoxin protein, Cry2Ab delta-endotoxin protein, and a Cryl Ac delta-endotoxin protein.

72. The soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell of claim 56, wherein the plant part is a seed.

73. Oil produced from the seed of claim 72, wherein the oil has a linolenic acid content less than 3.2%, a linoleic acid content less than 5.0%, an oleic acid content more than 78.6%, a stearic acid content less than 4.6%, and a palmitic acid content less than 8.6%.

74. A method for making a soybean plant comprising a mutation in

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3A alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles;

one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles;

one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles;

one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; or one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles;

the method comprising:

(a) providing soybean plant parts or plant cells, wherein the plant parts or plant cells comprise a mutation in one or more FAD2-1 A alleles and a mutation in one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and wherein the plant parts or plant cells comprise at least a functional FAD3A, FAD3B, or FAD3C allele,

(b) contacting the plant parts or plant cells with one or more rare-cutting endonucleases targeted to an endogenous FAD3A sequence, one or more rare-cutting endonucleases targeted to an endogenous FAD3B sequence, one or more rare-cutting endonucleases targeted to an endogenous FAD3C sequence, or a combination thereof,

(c) regenerating the plant parts or plant cells into whole soybean plants, and

(d) selecting from the whole soybean plants a soybean plant comprising a mutation in

one or more FAD3A alleles,

one or more FAD3B alleles,

one or more FAD3C alleles,

one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles,

one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles,

one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or

one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more

FAD3C alleles,

75. The method of claim 74, wherein the soybean plant parts or plant cells are selected from the group consisting of cotyledon cells, seeds, embryos, embryogenic calli cells, and pollen cells.

76. The method of claim 74, wherein each FAD2-1A allele has a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 100.

77. The method of claim 74, wherein each FAD2-1B allele has a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 101.

78. The method of claim 74, wherein the contacting comprises transforming the soybean plant cells with one or more vectors encoding the one or more rare-cutting endonucleases.

79. The method of claim 74, wherein the one or more rare-cutting endonucleases are TAL effector endonucleases.

80. The method of claim 74, wherein each mutated FAD3A allele comprises a mutation selected from the group consisting of:

(i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 459 of SEQ ID NO:24;

(ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 515 of SEQ ID NO:24; and

(iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 894 of SEQ ID NO:24.

81. The method of claim 74, wherein each mutated FAD3B allele comprises a mutation selected from the group consisting of:

(i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 496 of SEQ ID NO: 25;

(ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 552 of SEQ ID NO: 25; and

(iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 952 of SEQ ID NO:25.

82. The method of claim 74, wherein each mutated FAD3C allele comprises a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 686 of SEQ ID NO:26.

83. The method of claim 74, wherein each mutated FAD3A allele has a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106.

84. The method of claim 74, wherein each mutated FAD3B allele has a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99.

85. The method of claim 74, wherein each of the TAL effector endonucleases is targeted to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 6-23.

86. The method of claim 74, comprising introducing into the plant cells one or more TAL effector endonuclease proteins.

87. The method of claim 74, further comprising culturing the plant cells to generate plant lines.

88. The method of claim 74, further comprising isolating genomic DNA comprising at least a portion of the FAD3A locus, at least a portion of the FAD3B locus, or at least a portion of the FAD3C locus from the plant cells.

89. A method for generating a soybean plant comprising a mutation in

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3A alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; or

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; the method comprising:

(a) providing a first soybean plant comprising a mutation in one or more FAD2- 1A alleles and one or more FAD2-1B alleles,

(b) providing a second soybean plant comprising a mutation in at least one FAD3 allele, wherein the FAD3 allele is selected from the group consisting of a FAD3A allele, a FAD3B allele and a FAD3C allele, (c) crossing the first soybean plant with the second soybean plant to generate progeny, and

(d) selecting from the progeny a soybean plant that comprises a mutation in

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3A alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; or

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles.

90. The method of claim 89, wherein each mutation was induced by a rare-cutting endonuclease.

91. The method of claim 89, wherein the rare-cutting endonuclease is a TAL effector endonuclease.

92. The method of claim 89, wherein the TAL effector endonuclease binds to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:6-23.

93. The method of claim 89, wherein each mutation is a deletion of more than one nucleotide.

94. The method of claim 89, wherein each of the one or more mutated FAD2-1 A alleles has a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 100.

95. The method of claim 89, wherein each of the one or more mutated FAD2-1B alleles has a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 101.

96. The method of claim 89, wherein the mutated FAD3A alleles comprise a mutation selected from the group consisting of:

(i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 459 of SEQ ID NO:24;

(ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 515 of SEQ ID NO:24; and

(iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 894 of SEQ ID NO:24.

97. The method of claim 89, wherein the mutated FAD3B alleles comprise a mutation selected from the group consisting of:

(i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 496 of SEQ ID NO: 25;

(ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 552 of SEQ ID NO: 25; and

(iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 952 of SEQ ID NO:25.

98. The method of claim 89, wherein the mutated FAD3C alleles comprise a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 686 of SEQ ID NO:26.

99. The method of claim 89, wherein each mutated FAD3A allele has a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106.

100. The method of claim 89, wherein each mutated FAD3B allele has a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99.

101. The method of claim 89, wherein the first and second soybean plants do not contain a transgene.

102. The method of claim 89, wherein one or both of the first and second soybean plants further comprise a transgene that encodes a protein, wherein the protein is selected from the group consisting of a plant EPSPS protein, a modified plant EPSPS protein, a bacterial EPSPS protein, an agrobacterium CP4 EPSPS protein, an AAD protein, a PAT protein, an acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit protein, a hppd protein, a DMO protein, a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein, Cry IF delta-endotoxin protein, Cry2Ab delta- endotoxin protein, and a CrylAc delta-endotoxin protein.

103. A method for producing soybean oil having increased oleic acid and decreased linolenic acid content, comprising:

(a) providing a soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell comprising a mutation in one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3A alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles;

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; or

one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; and

(b) producing oil from the plant, plant part, or plant cell.

104. The method of claim 103, wherein each mutation was induced by a rare-cutting endonuclease.

105. The method of claim 103, wherein the rare-cutting endonuclease is a TAL effector endonuclease.

106. The method of claim 103, wherein the TAL effector endonuclease binds to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:6-23.

107. The method of claim 103, wherein each mutation is a deletion of more than one nucleotide.

108. The method of claim 103, wherein each of the one or more mutated FAD2-1A alleles has a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 100.

109. The method of claim 103, wherein each of the one or more mutated FAD2-1B alleles has a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 101.

110. The method of claim 103, wherein the mutated FAD3A alleles comprise a mutation selected from the group consisting of:

(i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 459 of SEQ ID NO:24;

(ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 515 of SEQ ID NO:24; and

(iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 894 of SEQ ID NO:24.

111. The method of claim 103, wherein the mutated FAD3B alleles comprise a mutation selected from the group consisting of:

(i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 496 of SEQ ID NO: 25;

(ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 552 of SEQ ID NO: 25; and

(iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 952 of SEQ ID NO:25.

112. The method of claim 103, wherein the mutated FAD3C alleles comprise a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 686 of SEQ ID NO:26.

113. The method of claim 103, wherein each of the mutated FAD3A alleles has a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:64-90 and 102-106.

114. The method of claim 103, wherein each of the mutated FAD3B alleles has a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99.

115. The method of claim 103, wherein the first and second soybean plants do not contain a transgene.

116. The method of claim 103, wherein one or both of the first and second soybean plants further comprise a transgene that encodes a protein, wherein the protein is selected from the group consisting of a plant EPSPS protein, a modified plant EPSPS protein, a bacterial EPSPS protein, an agrobacterium CP4 EPSPS protein, an AAD protein, a PAT protein, an acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit protein, a hppd protein, a DMO protein, a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein, Cry IF delta-endotoxin protein, Cry2Ab delta- endotoxin protein, and a CrylAc delta-endotoxin protein.

Description:
MODIFYING SOYBEAN OIL COMPOSITION THROUGH TARGETED KNOCKOUT OF THE FAD3A/B/C GENES

TECHNICAL FIELD

This document relates to materials and methods for making soybean plants that can be used to produce oil having a modified composition as compared to wild type plants. This document also relates to soybean varieties that lack FAD3A/B/C activity.

BACKGROUND

Soybean (Glycine max) is an important legume crop worldwide due to its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. Soybean also serves as a major source of animal feed protein, and its oil has uses ranging from cooking/frying to the production of biodiesel. Typically, a hydrogenation process is used to increase heat stability and improve the shelf life and taste of soybean oil. However, hydrogenation increases the cost of production and results in the formation of trans fatty acids, which have been linked to cardiovascular disease in humans.

SUMMARY

Provided herein are materials and methods for modifying soybean oil composition by reducing or eliminating expression of the delta-fifteen fatty acid desaturase 3 (FAD3) A, B and C genes without the use of transgenesis. Soybean varieties having such modified oil composition also are provided.

The methods described herein utilize sequence-specific, rare-cutting

endonucl eases to introduce mutations in the FAD3A, FAD3B and/or FAD3C coding sequences, thereby knocking out gene function. In some cases, the methods described herein also include utilizing sequence-specific, rare-cutting endonucleases to introduce mutations into the FAD2-1A and/or FAD2-1B coding sequences to knock out their gene function. These methods can mediate FAD3A/B/C silencing (with or without FAD2- lA/lB silencing) without insertion of a transgene. Plants containing transgenes are highly regulated in certain jurisdictions, including Europe, and the costs to obtain regulatory approval can be very high. The methods described herein can expedite the production of new varieties, and can be more cost-effective than transgenic or traditional breeding approaches.

In one aspect, this document features a soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell containing a mutation in one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles, wherein the plant, plant part, or plant cell produces oil that has decreased linolenic acid content and as compared to oil produced from a corresponding wild type soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell. Each mutation can be at a sequence in SEQ ID NO: 24, SEQ ID NO: 25, or SEQ ID NO: 26. The one or more FAD3A alleles can include a mutation selected from the group consisting of (i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 459 of SEQ ID NO:24, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 515 of SEQ ID NO: 24, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 894 of SEQ ID NO:24. The one or more FAD3B alleles can include a mutation selected from the group consisting of (i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 496 of SEQ ID NO: 25, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 552 of SEQ ID NO:25, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 952 of SEQ ID NO:25. The one or more FAD3C alleles can have a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 686 of SEQ ID NO: 26. Each mutation can have been induced by a rare-cutting endonuclease (e.g., a transcription activator-like (TAL) effector endonuclease). The TAL effector endonuclease can bind to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:6-23. Each mutated FAD3A allele can have a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106. Each mutated FAD3B allele can have a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99. The plant, plant part, or plant cell may not contain a transgene, or the soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell may contain a transgene encoding a protein, where the protein is selected from the group consisting of a plant 5- enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) protein, a modified plant EPSPS protein, a bacterial EPSPS protein, an agrobacterium CP4 EPSPS protein, an aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase (AAD) protein, a phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (PAT) protein, an acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit protein, a p- hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase ( ppd) protein, a dicamba monooxygenase (DMO) protein, a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein, Cry IF delta-endotoxin protein, Cry2Ab delta- endotoxin protein, and a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein. The plant part can be a seed. The linolenic acid content can be less than 4.3% (e.g., less than 3%, less than 2%, or less than 1.2%).

In another aspect, this document features oil produced from a soybean seed containing a mutation in one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3 A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles, where the oil has a linolenic acid content less than 4.3%. The oil can have a linolenic acid content less than 1.2%.

In another aspect, this document features a method for making a soybean plant having a mutation in one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles. The method can include contacting a population of soybean plant parts or plant cells having functional FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C alleles with one or more rare-cutting endonucleases targeted to one or more endogenous FAD3A sequences, one or more rare-cutting endonucleases targeted to one or more endogenous FAD3B sequences, and one or more rare-cutting endonucleases targeted to one or more endogenous FAD3C sequences, regenerating the soybean plant parts or plant cells into whole soybean plants, and selecting from the whole soybean plants a soybean plant having a mutation in one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles. The soybean plant parts or plant cells can be selected from the group consisting of cotyledon cells, seeds, embryos, embryogenic calli cells, and pollen cells. The method can include transforming the soybean plant parts or plant cells with one or more vectors encoding the one or more rare-cutting endonucleases. The one or more rare-cutting endonucleases can be TAL effector endonucleases. Each of the TAL effector endonucleases can be targeted to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:6-23. The method can include introducing into the plant parts or plant cells one or more TAL effector endonuclease proteins. The method may include culturing the plant parts or plant cells to generate plant lines. In some cases, the method can further include isolating genomic DNA containing at least a portion of the FAD3A locus, at least a portion of the FAD3B locus, or at least a portion of the FAD3C locus from the plant cells.

In another aspect, this document features a method for generating a soybean plant having a mutation in one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles. The method can include (a) providing a first soybean plant having a mutation in at least a first FAD3 allele, wherein the first FAD3 allele is selected from the group consisting of a FAD3A allele, a FAD3B allele and a FAD3C allele, (b) providing a second soybean plant having a mutation in at least a second FAD3 gene, wherein the second FAD3 allele is selected from the group consisting of a FAD3A allele, a FAD3B allele and a FAD3C allele, wherein if the first FAD3 allele is a FAD3A allele, the second FAD3 allele is a FAD3B or FAD3C allele, if the first FAD3 allele is a FAD3B allele, the second FAD3 allele is a FAD3A or FAD3C allele, and if the first FAD3 allele is a FAD3C allele, the second FAD3 allele is a FAD3A or FAD3B allele, (c) crossing the first soybean plant with the second soybean plant to generate progeny, and (d) selecting from the progeny a soybean plant that contains a mutation in one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles. Each mutation can have been induced by a rare-cutting endonuclease (e.g., a TAL effector endonuclease). The TAL effector endonuclease can bind to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:6-23. Each mutation can be a deletion of more than one nucleotide. The first or second soybean plant can have a FAD3A allele that includes a mutation selected from the group consisting of (i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 459 of SEQ ID NO:24, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 515 of SEQ ID NO:24, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 894 of SEQ ID NO: 24. The first or second soybean plant can have a FAD3B allele that includes a mutation selected from the group consisting of (i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 496 of SEQ ID NO:25, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 552 of SEQ ID NO:25, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 952 of SEQ ID NO: 25. The first or second soybean plant can have a FAD3C allele that includes a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 686 of SEQ ID NO:26. Each mutated FAD3A allele can have a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102- 106, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106. Each mutated FAD3B allele can have a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:91- 99, or has a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99. The first and second soybean plants may not contain a transgene, or one or both of the first and second soybean plants can contain a transgene that encodes a protein, where the protein is selected from the group consisting of a plant EPSPS protein, a modified plant EPSPS protein, a bacterial EPSPS protein, an agrobacterium CP4 EPSPS protein, an AAD protein, a PAT protein, an acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit protein, a hppd protein, a DMO protein, a Cryl Ac delta- endotoxin protein, CrylF delta-endotoxin protein, Cry2Ab delta-endotoxin protein, and a Cryl Ac delta-endotoxin protein.

In still another aspect, this document features a method for producing soybean oil having decreased linolenic acid content. The method can include (a) providing a soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell having a mutation in one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; and (b) producing oil from the plant, plant part, or plant cell. Each mutation can have been induced by a rare-cutting endonuclease (e.g., a TAL effector endonuclease). The TAL effector endonuclease can bind to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:6-23. The one or more FAD3A alleles can include a mutation selected from the group consisting of (i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 459 of SEQ ID NO: 24, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 515 of SEQ ID NO: 24, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 894 of SEQ ID NO:24. The one or more FAD3B alleles can include a mutation selected from the group consisting of (i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 496 of SEQ ID NO: 25, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 552 of SEQ ID NO:25, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 952 of SEQ ID NO:25. The one or more FAD3C alleles can have a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 686 of SEQ ID NO: 26. The plant, plant part, or plant cell may not contain a transgene, or may contain a transgene that encodes a protein, wherein the protein is selected from the group consisting of a plant EPSPS protein, a modified plant EPSPS protein, a bacterial EPSPS protein, an agrobacterium CP4 EPSPS protein, an AAD protein, a PAT protein, an acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit protein, a hppd protein, a DMO protein, a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein, Cry IF delta-endotoxin protein, Cry2Ab delta-endotoxin protein, and a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein. Each mutated FAD3A allele can have a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102- 106. Each mutated FAD3B allele can have a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99.

In another aspect, this document features a soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell having a mutation in a FAD2-1A allele and a mutation in a FAD2-1B allele, wherein the plant, plant part, or plant cell has increased protein content compared to a corresponding wild type soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell, and wherein the plant, plant part, or plant cell produces oil that has increased oleic acid content as compared to oil produced from a corresponding wild type soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell. Each mutated FAD2-1 A allele can have a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 100. Each mutated FAD2-1B allele can have a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 101. The plant part can be a seed.

In another aspect, this document features oil produced from the seed of a soybean plant having a mutation in a FAD2-1 A allele and a mutation in a FAD2-1B allele, wherein the soybean plant has increased protein content compared to a corresponding wild type soybean plant, and wherein the oil has increased oleic acid content as compared to oil produced from a corresponding wild type soybean plant. The oil can have a linolenic acid content less than 4.9%, a linoleic acid content less than 6.4%, an oleic acid content more than 76.5%, a stearic acid content less than 3.5%, and a palmitic acid content less than 8.5%.

In yet another aspect, this document features a soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell having (a) a mutation in one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles, and (b) a mutation in one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, or one or more FAD2-1A alleles and one or more FAD2-1B alleles, where the plant, plant part, or plant cell produces oil that has decreased linolenic acid content, increased oleic acid content, and decreased linoleic acid content as compared to oil produced from a corresponding wild type soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell. Each FAD3 mutation can be at a sequence in SEQ ID NO:24, SEQ ID NO:25, or SEQ ID NO: 26, and each FAD2 mutation can be at a sequence in SEQ ID NO: 43 or SEQ ID NO: 44. Each mutation can have been induced by a rare-cutting endonuclease (e.g., a TAL effector endonuclease). The TAL effector endonuclease can bind to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:6-23, or to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 27-42. Each mutation can be a deletion of more than one nucleotide. The one or more FAD3A alleles can contain a mutation selected from the group consisting of (i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 459 of SEQ ID NO: 24, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 515 of SEQ ID NO:24, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 894 of SEQ ID NO: 24. The one or more FAD3B alleles can contain a mutation selected from the group consisting of (i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 496 of SEQ ID NO: 25, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 552 of SEQ ID NO:25, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 952 of SEQ ID NO:25. The one or more FAD3C alleles can have a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 686 of SEQ ID NO:26. Each mutated FAD3A allele can have a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106. Each mutated FAD3B allele can have a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99. Each mutated FAD2- 1 A allele can have a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100, or a sequence with at least 95%) identity to SEQ ID NO: 100. Each mutated FAD2-1B allele can have a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101 , or a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 101. Each mutated FAD 3 A, FAD3B, FAD3C, FAD2-1A, and FAD2-1B allele can have a deletion of an endogenous nucleic acid sequence and does not include any exogenous nucleic acid. The plant, plant part, or plant cell may not contain a transgene, or may contain a transgene that encodes a protein, wherein the protein is selected from the group consisting of a plant EPSPS protein, a modified plant EPSPS protein, a bacterial EPSPS protein, an agrobacterium CP4 EPSPS protein, an AAD protein, a PAT protein, an acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit protein, a hppd protein, a DMO protein, a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein, Cry IF delta-endotoxin protein, Cry2Ab delta-endotoxin protein, and a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein. The plant part can be a seed.

In another aspect, this document features oil produced from the seed of a soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell having (a) a mutation in one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles, and (b) a mutation in one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, or one or more FAD2-1A alleles and one or more FAD2-1B alleles, where the plant, plant part, or plant cell produces oil that has decreased linolenic acid content, increased oleic acid content, and decreased linoleic acid content as compared to oil produced from a corresponding wild type soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell. The oil can have a linolenic acid content less than 3.2%, a linoleic acid content less than 5.0%, an oleic acid content more than 78.6%, a stearic acid content less than 4.6%, and a palmitic acid content less than 8.6%.

In yet another aspect, this document features a method for making a soybean plant containing a mutation in: one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3A alleles; one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles; one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles; one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; or one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles. The method can include (a) providing soybean plant parts or plant cells, where the plant parts or plant cells contain a mutation in one or more FAD2-1 A alleles and one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and where the plant parts or plant cells have at least a functional FAD3A, FAD3B, or FAD3C allele, (b) contacting the plant parts or plant cells with one or more rare-cutting endonucleases targeted to an endogenous FAD3A sequence, one or more rare-cutting endonucleases targeted to an endogenous FAD3B sequence, and one or more rare-cutting endonucleases targeted to an endogenous FAD3C sequence, or a combination thereof, (c) regenerating the plant parts or plant cells into whole soybean plants, and (d) selecting from the whole soybean plants a soybean plant containing a mutation in one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles and one or more FAD3C alleles, or one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles. The soybean plant parts or plant cells can be selected from the group consisting of cotyledon cells, seeds, embryos, embryogenic calli cells, and pollen cells. Each FAD2-1 A allele can have a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 100. Each FAD2-1B allele can have a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 101. The contacting can include transforming the soybean plant cells with one or more vectors encoding the one or more rare-cutting endonucleases. The one or more rare-cutting endonucleases can be TAL effector endonucleases. Each mutated FAD3A allele can include a mutation selected from the group consisting of (i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 459 of SEQ ID NO:24, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 515 of SEQ ID NO:24, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 894 of SEQ ID NO:24. Each mutated FAD3B allele can include a mutation selected from the group consisting of (i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 496 of SEQ ID NO: 25, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 552 of SEQ ID NO:25, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 952 of SEQ ID NO:25. Each mutated FAD3C allele can include a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 686 of SEQ ID NO:26. Each mutated FAD3A allele can have a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102- 106, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106. Each mutated FAD3B allele can have a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:91- 99, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99. Each of the TAL effector endonucleases can be targeted to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 6-23. The method can include introducing into the plant cells one or more TAL effector endonuclease proteins, culturing the plant cells to generate plant lines, and/or isolating, from the plant cells, genomic DNA containing at least a portion of the FAD3A locus, at least a portion of the FAD3B locus, or at least a portion of the FAD3C locus.

In another aspect, this document features a method for generating a soybean plant containing a mutation in: one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3A alleles; one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles; one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles; one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; or one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles. The method can include (a) providing a first soybean plant containing a mutation in one or more FAD2-1 A alleles and one or more FAD2-1B alleles, (b) providing a second soybean plant containing a mutation in at least one FAD3 allele, wherein the FAD3 allele is selected from the group consisting of a FAD3A allele, a FAD3B allele and a FAD3C allele, (c) crossing the first soybean plant with the second soybean plant to generate progeny, and (d) selecting from the progeny a soybean plant that has a mutation in one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3A alleles; one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles; one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles; one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; or one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles. Each mutation can have been induced by a rare-cutting endonuclease (e.g., a TAL effector endonuclease). The TAL effector endonuclease can bind to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:6-23. Each mutation can be a deletion of more than one nucleotide. Each of the one or more mutated FAD2-1 A alleles can have a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 100. Each of the one or more mutated FAD2-1B alleles can have a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 101. The mutated FAD3A alleles can include a mutation selected from the group consisting of (i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 459 of SEQ ID NO:24, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 515 of SEQ ID NO:24, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 894 of SEQ ID NO: 24. The mutated FAD3B alleles can include a mutation selected from the group consisting of (i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 496 of SEQ ID NO:25, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 552 of SEQ ID NO:25, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 952 of SEQ ID NO:25. The mutated FAD3C alleles can include a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 686 of SEQ ID NO:26. Each mutated FAD3A allele can have a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:64-90 and 102-106. Each mutated FAD3B allele can have a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99. The first and second soybean plants may not contain a transgene, or one or both of the first and second soybean plants may contain a transgene that encodes a protein, where the protein is selected from the group consisting of a plant EPSPS protein, a modified plant EPSPS protein, a bacterial EPSPS protein, an agrobacterium CP4 EPSPS protein, an AAD protein, a PAT protein, an acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit protein, a hppd protein, a DMO protein, a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein, Cry IF delta-endotoxin protein, Cry2Ab delta-endotoxin protein, and a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein.

In yet another aspect, this document features a method for producing soybean oil having increased oleic acid and decreased linolenic acid content. The method can include (a) providing a soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell containing a mutation in one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3A alleles; one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles; one or more FAD2-1A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3B alleles; one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles; or one or more FAD2-1 A alleles, one or more FAD2-1B alleles, one or more FAD3A alleles, one or more FAD3B alleles, and one or more FAD3C alleles, and (b) producing oil from the plant, plant part, or plant cell. Each mutation can have been induced by a rare-cutting endonuclease (e.g., a TAL effector endonuclease). The TAL effector endonuclease can bind to a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 6-23. Each mutation can be a deletion of more than one nucleotide. Each of the one or more mutated FAD2-1A alleles can have a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 100, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 100. Each of the one or more mutated FAD2-1B alleles can have a sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 101, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to SEQ ID NO: 101. The mutated FAD3A alleles can include a mutation selected from the group consisting of (i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 459 of SEQ ID NO:24, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 515 of SEQ ID NO: 24, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 894 of SEQ ID NO:24. The mutated FAD3B alleles can include a mutation selected from the group consisting of (i) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 496 of SEQ ID NO:25, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 552 of SEQ ID NO:25, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 952 of SEQ ID NO: 25. The mutated FAD3C alleles can include a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 686 of SEQ ID NO:26. Each of the mutated FAD3A alleles can have a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and 102-106. Each of the mutated FAD3B alleles can have a sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99, or a sequence with at least 95% identity to any of SEQ ID NOS:91-99. The first and second soybean plants may not contain a transgene, or the first and/or second soybean plant may contain a transgene that encodes a protein, where the protein is selected from the group consisting of a plant EPSPS protein, a modified plant EPSPS protein, a bacterial EPSPS protein, an agrobacterium CP4 EPSPS protein, an AAD protein, a PAT protein, an acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit protein, a hppd protein, a DMO protein, a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein, Cry IF delta-endotoxin protein, Cry2Ab delta-endotoxin protein, and a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein.

Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention pertains. Although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used to practice the invention, suitable methods and materials are described below. All publications, patent applications, patents, and other references mentioned herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety. In case of conflict, the present specification, including definitions, will control. In addition, the materials, methods, and examples are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting.

The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.

DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 shows DNA sequences for various TAL effector endonuclease target sites in FAD3A (SEQ ID NO: l). The underlined sequences indicate target sites for TAL effector endonucleases, designated T01 to T03.

FIG. 2 shows DNA sequences for various TAL effector endonuclease target sites in FAD3B (SEQ ID NO:2). The underlined sequences indicate target sites for TAL effector endonucleases, designated T01 to T03.

FIG. 3 shows DNA sequences for various TAL effector endonuclease target sites in FAD3C (SEQ ID NO:3). The underlined sequences indicate target sites for TAL effector endonucleases, designated T01 to T03.

FIG. 4 shows DNA sequences for various TAL effector endonuclease target sites in FAD2-1A (SEQ ID NO:4). The underlined sequences indicate target sites for TAL effector endonucleases. Lower case letters denote restriction endonuclease sites used to screen for TAL effector endonuclease-induced mutations.

FIG. 5 shows DNA sequences for various TAL effector endonuclease target sites in FAD2-1B (SEQ ID NO: 5). The underlined sequences indicate target sites for TAL effector endonucleases. Lower case letters denote restriction endonuclease sites used to screen for TAL effector endonuclease-induced mutations.

FIG. 6 is a graph plotting TAL effector endonuclease activity relative to the number of SNPs present within the predicted TAL effector endonuclease binding sites.

FIG. 7 shows representative FAD3A and FAD3B DNA sequences of several confirmed mutant profiles from regenerated TO plants. The underlined sequences indicate target sites for TAL effector endonucleases. The wild type FAD3A sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO:45, and mutant sequences are shown in SEQ ID NOS:46-52. The wild type FAD3B sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 53, and the mutant sequences are shown SEQ ID NOS: 54-60).

FIG. 8 shows representative FAD2-1 A and FAD2-1B DNA sequences of several confirmed mutant profiles from regenerated TO plants. The underlined sequences indicate target sites for TAL effector endonucleases. The wild type FAD2-lA and FAD2-1B sequences are shown in SEQ ID NO: 61, the mutant FAD2-1A sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 62, and the mutant FAD2-1B sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 63.

FIG. 9 is a graph plotting the fatty acid profile from fad2-la fad2-lb fad3a mutant soybean plants. Error bars represent standard deviation of four or more biological replicates. Oil from T2 seed from four different Tl fad2-la fad2-lb fad3a mutant lines was analyzed. The genotypes for the fad2-la fad2-lb fad3a plant lines at the fad3a TAL effector endonuclease target site were -7 bp/-7 bp (Gml 83-4-3), -43 bp/-43 bp (Gml 83- 5-4), -43 bp/-43 bp (Gml 83-5-5), and -43 bp/-43 bp (Gml 83-5-9). The genotype for the fad3a plant line was -4 bp/-4 bp (Gml 84-3-20).

FIG. 10 shows the TAL effector endonuclease target sites for FAD2.

FIG. 11 shows the characteristics of field-grown FAD2-1 A FAD2-1B knockout plants compared to a control wild type counterpart.

FIG. 12 shows fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis results for seed oil from field-grown soybean plants of genotype fad2-la fad2-lb fad3a.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Commodity soybean oil is made up principally of five fatty acids: palmitic acid (10%), stearic acid (4%), oleic acid (18%), linoleic acid (55%), and linolenic acid (13%). Plant oils with low linolenic acid content may increase the oxidative and frying stability of soybean oil. Such oils also may be healthier, particularly since hydrogenation (a chemically-induced reduction reaction that saturates fatty acids) will reduce the levels of trans fatty acids, which are known to increase risk of heart disease. Traditional breeding, mutagenesis, and siRNA strategies have been used to generate soybean varieties containing reduced levels of linolenic acid. See, e.g., Flores et al., Transgenic Res 17:839-850, 2008. Transgenes expressing RNAi constructs are subject to variation in transgene expression, however, and conventional breeding efforts can be a lengthy and costly process.

Enzymes responsible for the biosynthetic progression from palmitic acid to linolenic acid have been identified. For example, the FAD3 enzymes are responsible for converting linoleic acid precursors to linolenic acid precursors during oil accumulation in developing soybean seeds. Due to ancient polyploidization and multiple duplication events, three copies of FAD3 (FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C) exist in the soybean genome. FAD3 A and FAD3B have 86% sequence identity at the DNA level, and the encoded proteins have 93% sequence identity at the amino acid level. FAD3 A and FAD3C have 89% sequence identity at the DNA level, and the encoded proteins have 77% sequence identity at the amino acid level. FAD3B and FAD3C have 88% sequence identity at the DNA level, and the encoded proteins have 77% sequence identity at the amino acid level. Plants homozygous for naturally occurring FAD3 A mutant alleles can have a modest decrease in linolenic acid composition (to about 4% of the total fatty acid content), as described elsewhere (Chappel et al, Crop Sci. 47: 1705-1710, 2007). FAD3 double mutants have shown decreased linolenic acid (3%) in total seed oil, while mutations in FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C resulted in a further decrease (1%) in linolenic acid content (Bilyeu et al, Crop Sci. 51 :259-264, 2011).

This document provides soybean plants that have reduced (e.g., decreased or completely abolished) FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C activity, as well methods for generating such plants, and oil derived from such plants. In some embodiments, the methods described herein can be used to generate soybean varieties having oil with a decreased linolenic acid component that is 3% or less (e.g., 2.5% or less, 2% or less, 1.5% or less, 1% or less, or 0.5% or less) of the total fatty acid content. In some embodiments, this modification of soybean oil composition can be achieved by completely knocking out expression of the FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C genes.

According to some of the methods provided herein, both alleles of FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C genes are inactivated using non-transgenic techniques. Removing the gene products of FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C can severely reduce the conversion of linoleic acid precursors to linolenic acid precursors in soybean seeds.

As used herein, the terms "fatty acid content" and "fatty acid composition" refer to levels of specific fatty acids relative to total fatty acids. "Fatty acid content" and "fatty acid composition" can be represented as a percentage. For example, the overall fatty acid content/fatty acid composition of oil from wild type soybean plants is about 10% palmitic acid, 4% stearic acid, 18% oleic acid, 55% linoleic acid, and 13% linolenic acid. The content of particular fatty acids also can be described related to total fatty acids. For example, the "linolenic acid content" is the level of linolenic acid relative to total fatty acids, such that the "linolenic acid content" within oil from wild type soybean plants is about 13%. Similarly, the "oleic acid content" within oil from wild type soybean plants is about 18%, and the "linoleic acid content" within oil from wild type soybean plants is about 55%.

To accomplish reduced or even complete elimination of FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C expression, for example, an engineered, rare-cutting nuclease (e.g., a

transcription activator-like (TAL) effector endonuclease) can be designed to recognize a conserved region of all FAD3 genes and create a double-strand break. Improper repair due to Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) at each DNA break site can generate missense and/or nonsense mutations in the FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C coding regions, rendering the FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C RNA transcripts unstable and targeted for degradation prior to translation.

In soybean, there are at least three members (A, B, and C) of the FAD3 gene family. Representative examples of naturally occurring soybean FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C nucleotide sequences are shown in TABLE 2 (SEQ ID NOS:24, 25, and 26). The soybean plants, cells, plant parts, seeds, and progeny thereof provided herein can have a mutation in each of the endogenous FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C alleles, such that expression of each gene is reduced or completely abolished. Alternatively, the soybean plants, cells, plant parts, seeds, and progeny thereof provided herein may have a mutation in at least one FAD3A allele, in at least one FAD3B allele, and/or in at least one FAD3C allele, such that expression of each gene is reduced or completely abolished. The soybean plants, cells, parts, seeds, and progeny can have decreased levels of linolenic acid as compared to wild type soybean plants, cells, parts, seeds, and progeny.

As used herein, the terms "plants" and "plant parts" refer to cells, tissues, organs, seeds, and severed parts (e.g., roots, leaves, and flowers) that retain the distinguishing characteristics of the parent plant. "Seed" refers to any plant structure that is formed by continued differentiation of the ovule of the plant, following its normal maturation point at flower opening, irrespective of whether it is formed in the presence or absence of fertilization and irrespective of whether or not the seed structure is fertile or infertile. The term "gene" as used herein refers to a nucleic acid sequence that includes a promoter region associated with expression of a gene product. "Gene" also encompasses intron and exon regions associated with expression of the gene product, as well as 5' or 3' untranslated regions associated with expression of the gene product.

The term "allele(s)" means any of one or more alternative forms of a gene at a particular locus. In a diploid (or amphidiploid) cell of an organism, alleles of a given gene are located at a specific location or locus on a chromosome. One allele is present on each chromosome of the pair of homologous chromosomes. "Heterozygous" alleles are two different alleles residing at a specific locus, positioned individually on corresponding pairs of homologous chromosomes. "Homozygous" alleles are two identical alleles residing at a specific locus, positioned individually on corresponding pairs of

homologous chromosomes in the cell.

A "wild type" allele or gene refers to an allele or gene that most commonly occurs in nature, and typically is associated with the wild type phenotype. For example, a "wild type FAD3A allele" is a naturally occurring FAD3 A allele (e.g., as found within naturally occurring soybean plants) that encodes a functional FAD3 A protein. The terms "mutant" and "mutation" are used in connection with alleles, genes, and plant phenotypes that are different from the conventional or wild type alleles, genes, and plant phenotypes that most commonly occur in nature. A mutant plant or allele can occur in the natural population or can be produced by human intervention (e.g., by mutagenesis), and a "mutant allele" refers to an allele having one or more changes in its nucleic acid sequence when compared to the wild type allele, such that it can result in a mutant phenotype either alone or in combination with another mutant allele. In some embodiments, for example, a "mutant FAD3A allele" can be a FAD3A allele that does not encode a functional FAD3A protein; a "mutant FAD3 A allele" may include one or more mutations in its nucleic acid sequence that result in no detectable amount of functional FAD3 A protein in the plant or plant cell in vivo.

"Mutagenesis" as used herein refers to processes in which mutations are introduced into a selected DNA sequence. Mutations can include one or more deletions, insertions, and/or substitutions. Mutations induced by endonucleases generally are the result of a double strand break, which can yield insertions or deletions ("indels") that are detectable by deep-sequencing analysis. Such mutations typically are deletions of at least several base pairs, and can have the effect of inactivating the mutated allele. A deletion that results in a frameshift, for example, can inactivate an allele. In some cases, mutations can include large deletions that remove all or a portion of a gene of interest. Deletions can range in size from one bp to 1000 bp or more (e.g., one to ten bp, 10 to 20 bp, 20 to 50 bp, 50 to 100 bp, 100 to 200 bp, 200 to 300 bp, 300 to 500 bp, 500 to 1000 bp, or more than 1000 bp). Mutations also can be introduced into a promoter region to decrease or inactivate expression of the corresponding gene. In some of the methods described herein, for example, mutagenesis can occur via double stranded DNA breaks made by TAL effector endonucleases targeted to selected DNA sequences in a plant cell. Such mutagenesis results in "TAL effector endonuclease-induced mutations" (e.g., TAL effector endonuclease-induced knockouts) and reduced expression of the targeted gene. Following mutagenesis, plants can be regenerated from the treated cells using known techniques (e.g., planting seeds in accordance with conventional growing procedures, followed by self-pollination).

As used herein, the phrase "mutation in one or more FAD alleles" refers to one or more FAD (e.g., FAD2 or FAD3) alleles with sequences that are altered such that their expression is reduced, or such that the activity of the encoded FAD protein is reduced, as compared to the corresponding wild type allele or protein. This can occur either by the mutant FAD allele encoding a non- functional FAD protein (e.g., a FAD protein having no biological activity, or a FAD protein with significantly modified or reduced biological activity, as compared to the corresponding wild type FAD protein), or by the mutant FAD allele expressing a significantly reduced amount of functional FAD protein, or no FAD protein at all. As used herein, "significantly" indicates that a result is reproducibly different, typically with a P value < 0.05.

A mutation in a FAD nucleic acid sequence can be, for example, a missense mutation, a nonsense mutation, an insertion mutation, a deletion mutation, a frameshift mutation or a splice site mutation, or a combination of the aforementioned mutations.

The term "expression" as used herein refers to the transcription of a particular nucleic acid sequence to produce sense or antisense mRNA, and/or the translation of a sense mRNA molecule to produce a polypeptide, with or without subsequent post- translational events.

The term "reduced" as used herein with regard to expression of a FAD allele or activity of an encoded FAD polypeptide refers to any decrease in expression or activity as compared to that of a corresponding wild type FAD allele or polypeptide. For example, expression or activity can be decreased by at least 1%, at least 3%, at least 5%, at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 50%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, or at least 99%, or by 1 to 5%, 5 to 10%, 10 to 20%, 20 to 30%, 30 to 50%, 50 to 70%, 70 to 80%, 80 to 90%, 90 to 95%, or 95 to 100%. "Reducing the expression" of a gene or polypeptide in a plant or a plant cell can be achieved by inhibiting, interrupting, knocking-out, or knocking-down the gene or polypeptide, such that transcription of the gene and/or translation of the encoded polypeptide are reduced as compared to a corresponding wild type plant or plant cell. Expression levels can be assessed using methods such as, for example, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Northern blotting, dot-blot hybridization, in situ hybridization, nuclear run-on and/or nuclear run-off, RNase protection, or immunological and enzymatic methods such as ELISA, radioimmunoassay, and western blotting.

The term "reduced" with regard to fatty acid content refers to a fatty acid level that is less than that in oil from a wild type soybean plant. For example, "reduced linolenic acid content" refers to a linolenic acid content that is less than the linolenic acid content found in oil from a wild type soybean plant, and "reduced linoleic acid content" is a linoleic acid content that is less than the linoleic acid content found in oil from a wild type soybean plant. The content of a particular fatty acid can be decreased by at least 1%, at least 3%, at least 5%, at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 50%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95%, or at least 99%, or by 1 to 5%, 5 to 10%, 10 to 20%, 20 to 30%, 30 to 50%, 50 to 70%, 70 to 80%, 80 to 90%, 90 to 95%, or 95 to 100% as compared to the content of that fatty acid in oil from a wild type soybean plant. Thus, the level of linoleic acid in oil from a soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell as provided herein may be 54% or less, 53% or less, 52% or less, 51% or less, 50% or less, 49% or less, 48% or less, 45% or less, 40% or less, 35% or less, 30% or less, 25% or less, 20% or less, 15% or less, 10% or less, 5% or less, or 3% or less of the total fatty acid content. The level of linolenic acid in oil from a soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell as provided herein may be 12.8% or less, 12.5% or less, 12.3% or less, 12% or less, 11.5% or less, 11% or less, 10.5% or less, 10% or less, 9% or less, 8% or less, 7% or less, 6% or less, 5% or less, 4% or less, 3% or less, 2.5% or less, 2% or less, 1.5% or less, 1% or less, or 0.5% or less of the total fatty acid content.

As used herein, the term "increased" with regard to fatty acid content refers to a fatty acid level that is more than that in oil from a wild type soybean plant. For example, "increase oleic acid content" refers to an oleic acid content that is more than the oleic acid content found in oil from a wild type soybean plant. The content of a particular fatty acid can be increased by at least 1%, at least 3%, at least 5%, at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 25%, at least 50%, at least 75%, at least 80%, or at least 90%, or by 1 to 5%, 5 to 10%, 10 to 20%, 20 to 30%, 30 to 50%, 50 to 75%, 75 to 100%, or more than 100% as compared to the content of that fatty acid in oil from a wild type soybean plant. Thus, the level of oleic acid in oil from a soybean plant, plant part, or plant cell as provided herein may be 18.2% or more, 18.5% or more, 18.8% or more, 19% or more, 19.5% or more, 20% or more, 21% or more, 22% or more, 23% or more, 25% or more, 30% or more, 35% or more, 40% or more, 45% or more, 50% or more, 55% or more, 60% or more, 65% or more, 70% or more 75% or more, 80% or more, or 85% or more of the total fatty acid content.

As used herein, a "knockout" or "inactive" allele refers to a mutant allele that is not expressed, or to a mutant allele that encodes a protein without its normal functional activity. Knockout FAD alleles include, for example, deletion mutations of the entire coding region or a substantial part of the coding region, or frameshift or stop-codon mutations that lead to a substantial deletion or entire deletion of the protein. Knockout FAD alleles also encompass alleles having splice site mutations, deletions or insertions in the promoter region, and, with respect to FAD3, alleles with a mutation that removes or replaces any of the eight conserved histidine residues that are present within the FAD3 proteins.

The eight conserved histidine residues are found within region la, region lb, and region II of the FAD3 proteins. The conserved amino acids including the histidine residues within region la of the soybean FAD3 genes are HDCGH (SEQ ID NO:4909), which are encoded by the nucleotides beginning at position 286 of SEQ ID NO: 24 (FAD3A), the nucleotides beginning at position 298 of SEQ ID NO:25 (FAD3B), and the nucleotides beginning at position 289 of SEQ ID NO:26 (FAD3C). The conserved amino acid sequence that contains the histidines within region lb of the soybean FAD3 proteins is HRTHH (SEQ ID NO:4910), which is encoded by nucleotides 885-899 of SEQ ID NO:24 (FAD3A), nucleotides 946-960 of SEQ ID NO:25 (FAD3B), and nucleotides 680- 694 of SEQ ID NO: 26 (FAD3C). The conserved amino acid sequence containing the histidines within region II of the soybean FAD3 proteins is HVIHH (SEQ ID NO:4911), which is encoded by nucleotides 2959-2973 of SEQ ID NO:24 (FAD3A), nucleotides 3034-3048 of SEQ ID NO:25 (FAD3B), and nucleotides 2012-2026 of SEQ ID NO:26 (FAD3C). Mutations that disrupt any of these histidines can result in a knockout FAD3 allele. For example, an in-frame deletion encompassing any of the nucleotides encoding a conserved histidine, a frameshift mutation that occurs before the last conserved histidine, and a missense mutation occurring at any of the codons encoding a conserved histidine will result in a FAD3 knockout allele.

Examples of specific mutations that can be generated in FAD3 A include, without limitation, (i) a deletion of the adenine at position 459 of SEQ ID NO: 24, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine at position 515 of SEQ ID NO: 24, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine at position 894 of SEQ ID NO:24. Examples of specific mutations that can be generated in FAD3B include, without limitation, (i) a deletion of the adenine at position 496 of SEQ ID NO:25, (ii) a deletion of the cytosine at position 552 of SEQ ID NO:25, and (iii) a deletion of the adenine at position 952 of SEQ ID NO:25. Examples of specific mutations that can be generated in FAD3C include, without limitation, a deletion of the adenine at position 686 of SEQ ID NO:26. Such deletions can result in knockout of the FAD3 gene, such as when they are included within a frameshift mutation, or when they are included in an in-frame deletion that removes at least one conserved histidine residue or another conserved portion of the protein, for example.

The term "rare-cutting endonucleases" herein refer to natural or engineered proteins having endonuclease activity directed to nucleic acid sequences having a recognition sequence (target sequence) about 12-40 bp in length (e.g., 14-40 bp in length). Typical rare-cutting endonucleases cause cleavage inside their recognition site, leaving 4 nt staggered cut with 3ΌΗ or 5ΌΗ overhangs. These rare-cutting

endonucleases may be meganucleases, such as wild type or variant proteins of homing endonucleases, more particularly belonging to the dodecapeptide family (LAGLIDADG (SEQ ID NO: 107; see, WO 2004/067736) or may result from fusion proteins that associate a DNA binding domain and a catalytic domain with cleavage activity. TAL- effector endonucleases and zinc-finger- nucleases (ZFN) are examples of fusions of DNA binding domains with the catalytic domain of the endonuclease Fokl. Customized TAL effector endonucleases are commercially available under the trade name TALEN™ (Cellectis, Paris, France). For a review of rare-cutting endonucleases, see Baker, Nature Methods 9:23-26, 2012.

"Rare-cutting endonucleases" also encompass RNA-guided systems that can be used in the methods provided herein. For example, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR Cas) systems use RNA to direct DNA cleavage (see, e.g., Belahj et al., Plant Methods 9:39, 2013). These systems consist of a Cas9 endonuclease and a guide RNA [either a complex between a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA), or a synthetic fusion between the 3' end of the crRNA and 5' end of the tracrRNA]. The guide RNA directs Cas9 binding and DNA cleavage to sequences that are adjacent to a proto-spacer adjacent motif (PAM; e.g., NGG for Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes). Once at the target DNA sequence, Cas9 generates a DNA double-strand break at a position three nucleotides from the 3' end of the crRNA sequence that is complementary to the target sequence. As there are several PAM motifs present in the nucleotide sequence of the FAD3 genes, a CRISPR Cas system may be employed to introduce mutations within the FAD3 genes of Glycine max plant cells into which the Cas9 endonuclease and the guide RNA are transfected and expressed. In addition to Cas9, the CRISPR system from Prevotella and Francisella 1 (Cpfl) can be employed to introduce mutations in the FAD3 genes (see, for example, Zetsche et al., Cell 163:759-771, 2015, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). These systems can be used as an alternative to TALE nucleases, to obtain plants and plant parts as described herein.

Thus, in some embodiments, the plants, plant cells, plant parts, seeds, and plant progeny provided herein can be generated using a TAL effector endonuclease system to make targeted knockouts in the FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C genes. For example, nucleic acids encoding TAL effector endonucleases targeted to selected FAD3A, FAD3B, or FAD3C sequences (e.g., the FAD3A sequences shown in FIG. 1 and TABLE 1, the FAD3B sequences shown in FIG. 2 and TABLE 1, and/or the FAD3C sequences shown in FIG. 3 and TABLE 1) can be can be transformed into plant cells (e.g., cells in cotyledons), where they can be expressed. Thus, this disclosure provides materials and methods for using TAL effector endonucleases to generate plants and related products (e.g., seeds and plant parts) that are particularly suitable for production of soybean oil with decreased linolenic acid content. Other rare cutting, sequence-specific nucleases can be used to generate the desired plant material, including engineered homing

endonucleases or zinc finger nucleases.

In some embodiments, the plants, plant parts, and plant cells provided herein also can include a mutation in one or more FAD2 genes. The FAD2 genes are responsible for converting oleic acid precursors to linoleic acid precursors during oil accumulation in developing soybean seeds. Two copies of FAD2 (FAD2-lA and FAD2-1B) exist in the soybean genome. These genes have about 95% sequence identity at the DNA level, and the encoded proteins have about 99% sequence identity at the amino acid level. Plants homozygous for naturally occurring FAD2-1B mutant alleles can have a modest increase (20.5% to 29.4%) in oleic acid composition, as described elsewhere (Pham et al, BMC Plant Biol. 10: 195, 2010). Mutations in FAD2-1 A have been developed through X-ray mutagenesis and TILLING, to produce seeds containing up to 50% oleic acid (Sandhu et al, JAOCS 84:229-235, 2007), and mutating both the FAD2-1 A and FAD2-1B alleles resulted in oil with an oleic acid content of 82.2% (Pham et al, supra).

Thus, this document also provides soybean plants that have reduced (e.g., lack) FAD2-1 A and/or FAD2-1B activity in addition to reduced FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C activity. This can be achieved by, for example, knocking out FAD3 in FAD2 mutants, knocking out FAD2 in FAD3 mutants, delivering TAL effector endonucleases that knock out both FAD2 and FAD3, or by crossing. For example, in some embodiments (as for FAD3 targeted mutations), a rare cutting endonuclease (e.g., a TAL effector endonuclease) system can be used to make targeted knockouts in the FAD2-1 A and/or FAD2-1B genes. In some embodiments, the soybean plants, cells, plant parts, seeds, and progeny thereof provided herein can have a mutation in each of the endogenous FAD2- 1 A and FAD2-1B alleles (in addition to a mutation in one or more of the endogenous FAD3 genes), such that expression of each gene is reduced or completely abolished. Alternatively, the soybean plants, cells, plant parts, seeds, and progeny thereof provided herein may have a mutation in at least one FAD2-1 A allele and/or in at least one FAD2- 1B allele (in addition to a mutation in one or more of the endogenous FAD3 genes), such that expression of each gene is reduced or completely abolished. The soybean plants, cells, parts, seeds, and progeny can have reduced levels of linolenic acid, increased levels of oleic acid, and reduced levels of linoleic acid as compared to wild type soybean plants, cells, parts, seeds, and progeny.

This document also provides methods for generating soybean plants having reduced (e.g., lacking) FAD2-1 A and/or FAD2-1B activity in addition to reduced

FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C activity, as well as oil derived from such plants. In some embodiments, the methods provided herein can be used to produce plant parts (e.g., seeds) or plant products (e.g., oil) having increased oleic acid content, reduced linoleic acid content, and reduced linolenic acid content, as compared corresponding plant parts or products from wild type plants. For example, the methods described herein can be used to generate soybean varieties having oil with a decreased linolenic acid component of 3% or less (e.g., 2.5% or less, 2% or less, 1.5% or less, 1% or less, or 0.5% or less) of the total fatty acid content, as well as an increased oleic acid component of at least 30% (e.g., at least 35%, at least 40%, at least 45%, at least 50%, at least 55%, at least 60%, at least 65%, at least 70%, at least 75%, or at least 80%) of the total fatty acid content, and a reduced linoleic acid component of 10% or less (e.g., 8% or less, 5% or less, 4% or less, 3% or less, 2% or less, 1% or less, or 0.5% or less) of the total fatty acid content.

In some embodiments, the methods provided herein can include using TAL effector endonucleases to generate plants and related products (e.g., seeds and plant parts) that are particularly suitable for production of soybean oil with increased oleic acid content and decreased linoleic acid content, as well as decreased linolenic acid content. For example, nucleic acids encoding TAL effector endonucleases targeted to selected FAD2-1 A or FAD2-1B sequences (e.g., the FAD2-1 A sequences shown in FIG. 4 and TABLE 3, or the FAD2-1B sequences shown in FIG. 5 and TABLE 3) can be transformed into plant cells (e.g., cells in cotyledons), where they can be expressed. To accomplish the complete elimination of FAD2-lA and FAD2-lB expression, for example, an engineered, rare-cutting nuclease can be designed to recognize a conserved region of both FAD2-1 genes and create a double-strand break. Improper repair due to NHEJ at the DNA break site can generate missense and/or nonsense mutations in the FAD2-1 A/IB coding regions, rendering the FAD2-1A/1B RNA transcripts unstable and targeted for degradation prior to translation. Representative examples of naturally occurring soybean FAD2-lA and FAD2-1B nucleotide sequences are shown in TABLE 4 (SEQ ID NOS:43 and 44), and also in SEQ ID NOS: 100 and 101. The resulting soybean plants, plant parts, and/or plant cells subsequently can be analyzed to determine whether mutations have been introduced at the target site(s).

The Glycine max plants, plant parts, and plant cells provided herein can have mutations in one or more of the FAD3 genes (FAD3A, FAD3B and/or FAD3C). Each FAD3 gene can be in a heterozygous or homozygous state, where the heterozygous state includes one allele with a knockout mutation and one allele without the mutation, and the homozygous state includes two alleles with knockout mutations. Combinations of FAD3 single mutants provided herein are fad3a FAD3B FAD3C, FAD3A fad3b FAD3C, and FAD3A FAD3B fad3c. Combinations of FAD3 double mutants provided herein are fad3a fad3b FAD3C, FAD3Afad3bfad3c, and fad3a FAD3B fad3c. FAD3 triple mutants provided herein are fad3a fad3b fad3c.

This disclosure also provides Glycine max plants, plant parts, and plant cells containing a knockout mutation in at least one allele for each of two different FAD2 genes, where the two different FAD2 genes are FAD2-1 A and FAD2-1B. The FAD2 genes can be in a heterozygous or homozygous state, where the heterozygous state includes one allele with a knockout mutation and one allele without the mutation, and the homozygous state includes two alleles with knockout mutations. Plants having homozygous knockout mutations in the FAD2-lA and FAD2-1B genes are denoted fad2- la fad2-lb, with the name of the mutant alleles in lower case.

In addition, this disclosure provides Glycine max plants, plant parts, and plant cells with mutations in the FAD2-1A, FAD2-1B, and FAD3 genes. The genotypes of these plants, plant parts, and plant cells can be described as follows: fad2-la fad2-lb fad3a FAD3B FAD3C,fad2-la fad2-lb FAD3A fad3b FAD3C,fad2-la fad2-lb FAD3A FAD3B fad3c,fad2-la fad2-lb fad3a fad3b FAD3C,fad2-la fad2-lb fad3a FAD3B fad3c,fad2-la fad2-lb FAD3A fad3b fad3c, and fad2-la fad2-lb fad3a fad3b fad3c.

In some embodiments, plants containing a mutation in a FAD2 or FAD3 gene also can contain one or more transgenes. A transgene can be integrated into the soybean genome using standard transformation protocols {see, for example, Rech et al., Nat Protoc 3:410-418, 2008; Haun et al., Plant Biotech J 12:934-940, 2014; and Curtin et al, Plant Physiol 156:466-473, 2011). In some cases, a transgene can encode a protein that confers tolerance or resistance to one or more herbicides (e.g., glufonsinate, mesotrione, imidazolinone, isoxaflutole, glyphosate, 2,4-D, hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase- inhibiting herbicides, or dicamba). In some cases, a transgene can encode a plant 5- enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) protein, or a modified plant EPSPS protein, where the modified plant EPSPS contains an amino acid substitution within the conserved TAMRP (SEQ ID NO:4908) sequence. The substitution can be, for example, a threonine to isoleucine substitution, a proline to serine substitution, or a proline to adenine substitution. In some embodiments, a transgene can encode a bacterial EPSPS protein, an agrobacterium CP4 EPSPS protein, an aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase (AAD) protein, a phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (PAT) protein, an acetohydroxyacid synthase large subunit protein, a p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (hppd) protein, or a dicamba monooxygenase (DMO) protein.

In some cases, a transgene can encode a product that enhances resistance to insects (e.g., lepidopteran insects). For example, a transgene can encode a protein from Bacillus thuringiensis, such as a Cry protein (e.g., a Cry 1 Ac delta-endotoxin protein, a CrylF delta-endotoxin protein, a Cry2Ab delta-endotoxin protein, or a Cryl Ac delta- endotoxin protein). In some embodiments, a transgene can enhance virus resistance. For example, a transgene can contain a sequence from a viral genome, such as an antisense sequence from a virus genome.

In some embodiments, a transgene can cause male sterility. For example, a transgene can include a pollen killer gene (e.g., an alpha amylase gene, S24 gene, or S35 gene). A transgene can further include a screenable marker, such as a fluorescent protein (e.g., GFP, YFP, RFP, BFP, or luciferase) or a gene involved in regulating seed size. In some cases, a transgene can further include a restoring factor (e.g., a functional male- sterile (MS) gene).

This document also provides FAD2 and FAD3 nucleic acid molecules. In some embodiments, a nucleic acid can have a nucleotide sequence with at least about 75 percent sequence identity to a representative FAD3A, FAD3B, FAD3C, FAD2-1 A, or FAD2-1B nucleotide sequence. For example, a nucleotide sequence can have at least 75, at least 80, at least 85, at least 90, at least 91, at least 92, at least 93, at least 94, at least 95, at least 96, at least 97, at least 98, or at least 99 percent sequence identity to a representative, naturally occurring FAD3A, FAD3B, or FAD3C nucleotide sequence as set forth in TABLE 2, or to a representative, naturally occurring FAD2-1 A or FAD2-1B nucleotide sequence as set forth in TABLE 4 (SEQ ID NOS:43 and 44). In some embodiments, at least about 1% (e.g., at least 3%, 5%, 10%, or more than 10%) of the nucleotide sequence of a targeted gene can be deleted when generating the mutant.

The percent sequence identity between a particular nucleic acid or amino acid sequence and a sequence referenced by a particular sequence identification number is determined as follows. First, a nucleic acid or amino acid sequence is compared to the sequence set forth in a particular sequence identification number using the BLAST 2 Sequences (B12seq) program from the stand-alone version of BLASTZ containing BLASTN version 2.0.14 and BLASTP version 2.0.14. This stand-alone version of BLASTZ can be obtained online at fr.com/blast or at ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Instructions explaining how to use the B12seq program can be found in the readme file accompanying BLASTZ. B12seq performs a comparison between two sequences using either the BLASTN or BLASTP algorithm. BLASTN is used to compare nucleic acid sequences, while BLASTP is used to compare amino acid sequences. To compare two nucleic acid sequences, the options are set as follows: -i is set to a file containing the first nucleic acid sequence to be compared (e.g., C:\seql .txt); -j is set to a file containing the second nucleic acid sequence to be compared (e.g., C:\seq2.txt); -p is set to blastn; -o is set to any desired file name (e.g., C:\output.txt); -q is set to -1 ; -r is set to 2; and all other options are left at their default setting. For example, the following command can be used to generate an output file containing a comparison between two sequences: C:\B12seq -i c:\seql.txt -j c:\seq2.txt -p blastn -o c:\output.txt -q -1 -r 2. To compare two amino acid sequences, the options of B12seq are set as follows: -i is set to a file containing the first amino acid sequence to be compared (e.g., C:\seql .txt); -j is set to a file containing the second amino acid sequence to be compared (e.g., C:\seq2.txt); -p is set to blastp; -o is set to any desired file name (e.g., C:\output.txt); and all other options are left at their default setting. For example, the following command can be used to generate an output file containing a comparison between two amino acid sequences: C:\B12seq -i c:\seql .txt -j c:\seq2.txt -p blastp -o c:\output.txt. If the two compared sequences share homology, then the designated output file will present those regions of homology as aligned sequences. If the two compared sequences do not share homology, then the designated output file will not present aligned sequences.

Once aligned, the number of matches is determined by counting the number of positions where an identical nucleotide or amino acid residue is presented in both sequences. The percent sequence identity is determined by dividing the number of matches either by the length of the sequence set forth in the identified sequence (e.g., SEQ ID NO: 1), or by an articulated length (e.g., 100 consecutive nucleotides or amino acid residues from a sequence set forth in an identified sequence), followed by multiplying the resulting value by 100. For example, a nucleic acid sequence that has 900 matches when aligned with the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1 is 95.6 percent identical to the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1 (i.e., 900 ÷ 941 x 100 = 95.6). It is noted that the percent sequence identity value is rounded to the nearest tenth. For example, 75.11, 75.12, 75.13, and 75.14 is rounded down to 75.1, while 75.15, 75.16, 75.17, 75.18, and 75.19 is rounded up to 75.2. It also is noted that the length value will always be an integer.

In some embodiments, the FAD nucleic acid molecules provided herein can include target sequences for rare cutting endonucleases (e.g., TAL effector

endonucl eases). Methods for selecting endogenous target sequences and generating TAL effector endonucleases targeted to such sequences can be performed as described elsewhere. See, for example, PCT Publication No. WO 2011/072246 (which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). TAL effectors are found in plant pathogenic bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas. These proteins play important roles in disease, or trigger defense, by binding host DNA and activating effector-specific host genes (see, e.g., Gu et al., Nature 435: 1122-1125, 2005; Yang et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 10503-10508, 2006; Kay et al. Science 318:648-651, 2007; Sugio et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104: 10720-10725, 2007; and Romer et al. Science 318:645- 648, 2007). Specificity depends on an effector-variable number of imperfect, typically 34 amino acid repeats (Schornack et al., J. Plant Physiol. 163:256-272, 2006; and WO 2011/072246). Polymorphisms are present primarily at repeat positions 12 and 13, which are referred to herein as the repeat variable-diresidue (RVD).

The RVDs of TAL effectors correspond to the nucleotides in their target sites in a direct, linear fashion, one RVD to one nucleotide, with some degeneracy and no apparent context dependence. This mechanism for protein-DNA recognition enables target site prediction for new target specific TAL effectors, as well as target site selection and engineering of new TAL effectors with binding specificity for the selected sites.

TAL effector DNA binding domains can be fused to other sequences, such as endonuclease sequences, resulting in chimeric endonucleases targeted to specific, selected DNA sequences, and leading to subsequent cutting of the DNA at or near the targeted sequences. Such cuts (i.e., double-stranded breaks) in DNA can induce mutations into the wild type DNA sequence via NHEJ or homologous recombination, for example. In some cases, TAL effector endonucleases can be used to facilitate site directed mutagenesis in complex genomes, knocking out or otherwise altering gene function with great precision and high efficiency. As described in the Examples below, TAL effector endonucleases targeted to the soybean FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C alleles can be used to mutagenize the endogenous genes, resulting in plants with reduced expression (e.g., without detectable expression) of these genes. The fact that some endonucleases (e.g., Fokl) function as dimers can be used to enhance the target specificity of the TAL effector endonuclease. For example, in some cases a pair of TAL effector endonuclease monomers targeted to different DNA sequences (e.g., the underlined target sequences shown in FIGS. 1, 2, and 3) can be used. When the two TAL effector endonuclease recognition sites are in close proximity, as depicted in FIGS. 1-3, the inactive monomers can come together to create a functional enzyme that cleaves the DNA. By requiring DNA binding to activate the nuclease, a highly site-specific restriction enzyme can be created. Methods for using TAL effector endonucleases to generate plants, plant cells, or plant parts having mutations in endogenous genes include, for example, those described in the Examples herein. For example, nucleic acids encoding TAL effector endonucleases targeted to selected FAD3A, FAD3B, or FAD3C sequences (e.g., the FAD3A sequences shown in FIG. 1 and TABLE 1, the FAD3B sequences shown in FIG. 2 and TABLE 1 , and/or the FAD3C sequences shown in FIG. 3 and TABLE 1) can be transformed into plant cells (e.g., cells in cotyledons), where they can be expressed. The cells subsequently can be analyzed to determine whether mutations have been introduced at the target site(s), through nucleic acid-based assays or protein-based assays to detect expression levels as described above, for example, or using nucleic acid-based assays (e.g., PCR and DNA sequencing, or PCR followed by a T7E1 assay; Mussolino et al, Nucleic Acids Res 39:9283-9293, 201 1) to detect mutations at the genomic loci.

The mutagenized population, or a subsequent generation of that population, can be screened for one or more desired traits (e.g., altered oil composition) that result from the mutations. Alternatively, the mutagenized population, or a subsequent generation of that population, can be screened for a mutation in a FAD3A, FAD3B, or FAD3C gene. For example, the progeny Mi generation of Mi plants may be evaluated for the presence of a mutation in a FAD3A, FAD3B, or FAD3C gene. A "population" is any group of individuals that share a common gene pool. As used herein, "Mo" refers to plant cells (and plants grown therefrom) exposed to a TAL effector nuclease, while "Mi" refers to seeds produced by self-pollinated Mo plants, and plants grown from such seeds. "M 2 " is the progeny (seeds and plants) of self-pollinated Mi plants, "M3" is the progeny of self- pollinated M2 plants, and "M 4 " is the progeny of self-pollinated M3 plants. "Ms" is the progeny of self-pollinated M 4 plants. "Μβ", "M7", etc. are each the progeny of self- pollinated plants of the previous generation. The term "selfed" as used herein means self- pollinated.

One or more Mi soybean plants can be obtained from individual, mutagenized Mo plant cells (and plants grown therefrom), and at least one of the plants can be identified as containing a mutation in a FAD3A, FAD3B, or FAD3C gene. An Mi soybean plant may be heterozygous for a mutant allele at a FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C locus and, due to the presence of the wild type allele, exhibit delta-fifteen fatty acid desaturase activity. Alternatively, an Mi soybean plant may have a mutant allele at a FAD3A, FAD3B, or FAD3C locus and exhibit the phenotype of lacking delta-fifteen fatty acid desaturase activity. Such plants may be heterozygous and lack delta-fifteen fatty acid desaturase activity due to phenomena such a dominant negative suppression, despite the presence of the wild type allele, or may be homozygous due to independently induced mutations in both alleles at the FAD3A, FAD3B, or FAD3C locus.

A soybean plant carrying mutant FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C alleles can be used in a plant breeding program to create novel and useful lines and varieties. Thus, in some embodiments, an Mi, Mi, M3, or later generation soybean plant containing at least one mutation in a FAD3A gene, at least one mutation in a FAD3B gene, and at least one mutation in a FAD3C gene can be crossed with a second soybean plant, and progeny of the cross can be identified in which the FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C gene mutations are present. It is to be appreciated that the second soybean plant can contain the same FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C mutations as the plant to which it is crossed, different FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C mutations, or can be wild type at the FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C loci.

It also should be appreciated that the mutagenized soybean population can be combined with other previously identified mutations, to yield increased agronomically valuable traits. For example, a FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C mutant can be combined with a FAD2 mutant soybean plant. Such a combinatorial mutant may further increase the value of the oil profile. This combination can be obtained either by utilizing mutant plants as the material for FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C mutagenesis, or through breeding programs.

Breeding can be carried out via known procedures. DNA fingerprinting, SNP or similar technologies may be used in a marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding program to transfer or breed mutant FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C alleles into other soybean plants. For example, a breeder can create segregating populations from hybridizations of a genotype containing a mutant allele with an agronomically desirable genotype. Plants in the F2 or backcross generations can be screened using markers developed from FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C sequences or fragments thereof. Plants identified as possessing the mutant allele can be backcrossed or self-pollinated to create a second population to be screened. Depending on the expected inheritance pattern or the MAS technology used, it may be necessary to self-pollinate the selected plants before each cycle of backcrossing to aid identification of the desired individual plants. Backcrossing or other breeding procedure can be repeated until the desired phenotype of the recurrent parent is recovered.

Successful crosses yield Fi plants that are fertile and that can be backcrossed with one of the parents if desired. In some embodiments, a plant population in the F2 generation can be screened for FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C gene expression. For example, a plant can be identified that fails to express FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C due to the presence of mutations within the FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C genes, using standard methods such as, for example, a PCR method with primers based on the nucleotide sequence information for FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C described herein. Selected plants then can be crossed with one of the parents and the first backcross (BCi) generation plants are self-pollinated to produce a BC1F2 population that is again screened for variant FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C gene expression (e.g., null versions of the FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C genes). The process of backcrossing, self-pollination, and screening is repeated, for example, at least four times until the final screening produces a plant that is fertile and reasonably similar to the recurrent parent, such that it has acceptable agronomic performance. This plant, if desired, can be self-pollinated, and the progeny subsequently can be screened again to confirm that the plant lacks FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C gene expression. Cytogenetic analysis of the selected plants optionally can be performed to confirm the chromosome complement and chromosome pairing relationships. Breeder's seed of the selected plant can be produced using standard methods including, for example, field testing, confirmation of the null condition for FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C, and/or analyses of oil to determine the level of linolenic acid.

In situations where the original Fi hybrid resulting from the cross between a first, mutant soybean parent and a second, wild type soybean parent, is hybridized or backcrossed to the mutant soybean parent, the progeny of the backcross can be self- pollinated to create a BC1F2 generation that is screened for the mutant FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C alleles. A plant breeding program using the mutant soybean plants described herein can result in novel and useful lines and varieties. As used herein, the term "variety" refers to a population of plants that share constant characteristics that separate them from other plants of the same species. A variety is often, although not always, sold commercially. While possessing one or more distinctive traits, a variety can be further characterized by a very small overall variation between individuals within that variety. A "pure line" variety may be created by several generations of self-pollination and selection, or vegetative propagation from a single parent using tissue or cell culture techniques. A variety can be essentially derived from another line or variety. As defined by the

International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (December 2, 1961, as revised on November 10, 1972, on October 23, 1978, and on March 19, 1991), a variety is "essentially derived" from an initial variety if (a) it is predominantly derived from the initial variety, or from a variety that is predominantly derived from the initial variety, while retaining expression of the essential characteristics that result from the genotype or combination of genotypes of the initial variety, (b) it is clearly

distinguishable from the initial variety, and (c) except for the differences that result from the act of derivation, it conforms to the initial variety in the expression of essential characteristics that result from the genotype or combination of genotypes of the initial variety. Essentially derived varieties can be obtained, for example, by selection of a natural or induced mutant, a somaclonal variant, a variant individual from plants of the initial variety, backcrossing, or transformation. A "line" as distinguished from a variety most often denotes a group of plants used non-commercially, for example in plant research. A line typically displays little overall variation between individuals for one or more traits of interest, although there may be some variation between individuals for other traits.

The methods provided herein can be used to produce plant parts (e.g., seeds) or plant products (e.g., oil) having decreased linolenic acid content, as compared corresponding plant parts or products from wild type plants. The fatty acid content of a plant part or a plant product can be evaluated using standard methods, such as those described in Example 6 herein, for example. Any of the plants or plant parts of the present disclosure, containing combinations of mutations in the FAD2 and/or FAD3 genes, can be processed to produce a feed, meal, protein, or oil. In some embodiments, the feed, meal, protein, or oil preparation can be for livestock animals, fish, or humans, or a combination thereof. Methods for producing feed, meal, protein, and oil are known in the art. See, for example, U.S. Patent Nos. 4,957,748, 5,100,679, 5,219,596, 5,936,069, 6,005,076, 6,146,669, and 6,156,227, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

Oil generated from the plants and plant parts provided herein can be blended with other oils. In some embodiments, the oil produced from plants provided herein, or generated using a method described herein, can constitute at least 1% (e.g., at least 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 90%) by volume or weight of the oil component of any product. In some embodiments, the oil can be blended, and can constitute at least 10% (e.g., at least 25%, 35%, 50%, or 75%) of the blend by volume. Oil generated from plants provided herein also can be admixed with one or more organic solvents or petroleum distillates.

The soybean oil can be a crude soybean oil, or can be a processed soybean oil. The soybean oil can be refined, bleached, deodorized, and/or winterized. As used herein, "refining" refers to a process of treating natural or processed fat or oil to remove impurities, which can be accomplished by treating fat or oil with caustic soda, followed by centrifugation, washing with water, and heating under vacuum. "Bleaching" refers to a process of treating a fat or oil to remove or reduce the levels of coloring materials in the fat or oil. Bleaching can be achieved by treating fat or oil with activated charcoal or diatomaceous earth. "Deodorizing" refers to a process of removing components from a fat or oil that contribute flavors or odors (e.g., objectionable flavors or odors) to the end product, and can be accomplished using of high vacuum and superheated steam washing. "Winterizing" refers to a process of removing saturated glycerides from an oil, and can be accomplished by chilling and removing solidified portions of fat from an oil.

Soybean oil generated from the plants and plant parts provided herein can be well-suited for use in cooking and frying. Due to reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid content, oil generated from the plants and plant parts provided herein may not require extensive processing, compared to that of conventional soybean oils, because fewer unwanted compounds may be present.

Soybean oil generated from the plants and plant parts provided herein can be well-suited for use as a salad oil, and also may be well-suited for use in shortening, margarine, and other semi-solid vegetable fats used in foodstuffs. Production of these types of fats typically involves hydrogenation of unsaturated oils. Due to the increased oxidative stability of the present oil, the oil does not need to be hydrogenated to the extent of conventional oils for uses such as margarine and shortening, thereby reducing processing costs and the production of unhealthy trans fats.

Soybeans, and oils generated from the soybean plants and plant parts provided herein also can be well-suited for use in soyfoods made from whole soybeans, such as soymilk, soy nut butter, natto, and tempeh, and soyfoods made from processed soybeans and soybean oil, including soybean meal, soy flour, soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolates, texturized soy protein concentrate, hydrolyzed soy protein, whipped topping, cooking oil, salad oil, shortening, and lecithin.

Whole soybeans generated from the plants and provided herein also can be edible, and can be sold to consumers raw, roasted, or as edamame. Soymilk, which typically is produced by soaking and grinding whole soybeans, can be consumed as is, or can be spray-dried, or processed to form soy yogurt, soy cheese, tofu, or yuba. The soybeans and soybean oil provided herein can be particularly useful in these and other soyfoods (as compared to conventional soybeans or soybean oil) due to their improved oxidative stability.

Seeds of the plants described herein can be placed or stored in a container. As used herein, a container is an object capable of holding such seeds. A container can contain about 100, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, 25,000, 40,000, or more than 40,000 seeds.

The invention will be further described in the following examples, which do not limit the scope of the invention described in the claims. EXAMPLES

Example 1 - Engineering sequence-specific nucleases to mutagenize the FAD3A,

FAD3B. and FAD3C genes

To completely inactivate or knock out the alleles of FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C genes in G. max, sequence-specific nucleases were designed that target the nucleic acid sequence encoding conserved histidine cluster motifs required for catalytic activity. Nine TAL effector endonuclease pairs were designed to target the FAD3 gene family (i.e., three TAL effector endonuclease pairs for each FAD3 gene), using software that specifically identifies TAL effector endonuclease recognition sites, such as TALE-NT 2.0 (Doyle et al., Nucleic Acids Res 40:W117-122, 2012). TAL effector endonuclease recognition sites for the FAD3A gene are underlined in FIG. 1, TAL effector

endonuclease recognition sites for the FAD3B gene are underlined in FIG. 2, and TAL effector endonuclease recognition sites for the FAD3C gene are underlined in FIG. 3; these also are listed in TABLE 1. TAL effector endonucleases were synthesized using methods similar to those described elsewhere (Cermak et al, Nucleic Acids Res 39:e82, 2011; Reyon et al., Nat Biotechnol 30:460-465, 2012; and Zhang et al, Nat Biotechnol 29: 149-153, 2011). The TAL effector endonuclease pairs targeting FAD3 sequence are referred to as GmFAD3_T01, GmFAD3_T02, and GmFAD3_T03. GmFAD3_T01 may also referred to as GmFAD3_T01.1. GmFAD3_T02 may also referred to as

GmFAD3_T02.1. GmFAD3_T03 may also referred to as GmF AD3 T03.1.

Example 2 - FAD3A TAL effector endonuclease activity in soybean protoplasts To assess the activity of the TAL effector endonucleases targeting the FAD3A gene, NHEJ frequencies were assessed via deep sequencing of transformed soybean protoplasts. TAL effector endonuclease activity at endogenous target sites in G. max was measured by expressing the TAL effector endonucleases in protoplasts and surveying the TAL effector endonuclease target sites for mutations introduced by NHEJ. Briefly, G. max immature seeds were taken from 60 to 80 day old plants under high light conditions. Protoplasts were isolated according to the aforementioned methods described by Dhir et al, Plant Cell Reports 10:39-43, 1991. TAL effector endonuclease-encoding plasmids, together with a YFP-encoding plasmid, were introduced into G. max protoplasts by PEG-mediated transformation as described elsewhere (Yoo et al., Nature Protocols 2: 1565-1572, 2007). Twenty-four hours after treatment, transformation efficiency was measured by evaluating an aliquot of the transformed protoplasts using a fluorescent microscope to monitor YFP fluorescence. Transformation efficiency was determined to be 90%. The remainder of the transformed protoplasts were harvested, and genomic DNA was prepared by a salt-extraction based method (Ajanabi et al., Nucl. Acids Res. 25(22):4692-4693, 1997). Using the genomic DNA prepared from the protoplasts as a template, a fragment encompassing the TAL effector endonuclease recognition site was amplified by PCR. The PCR product was then subjected to 454 pyro-sequencing. Sequencing reads with insertion/deletion (indel) mutations in the spacer region were considered as having been derived from imprecise repair of a cleaved TAL effector endonuclease recognition site by NHEJ. Mutagenesis frequency was calculated as the number of sequencing reads with NHEJ mutations out of the total sequencing reads. The values were then normalized by the transformation efficiency.

The raw activity of the GmFAD3 TAL effector endonuclease pairs,

GmFAD3A_T01, GmFAD3A_T02, and GmFAD3A_T03, against FAD3 A, FAD3B, and FAD3C are summarized in TABLE 5. TAL effector endonucleases GmFAD3A_T02 had the highest activity at the intended target FAD3A (14.48%) and decreased activity at FAD3B and FAD3C (8.81% and 0.01%, respectively).

A correlation was observed between the number of SNPs within the TAL effector endonuclease binding sites and the relative mutation frequencies (FIG. 6). Raw mutation frequencies at FAD3A target sites (containing 0 SNPs) for TAL effector endonuclease pairs GmFAD3_T01, GmFAD3_T02, GmFAD3_T03 were 10.15%, 14.48% and 2.39%, respectively. After normalizing TAL effector endonuclease mutation frequencies at FAD3A, the relative mutation frequencies at FAD3B and FAD3C were determined. Target sites with one or two SNPs decreased mutation frequencies to -53 or 63%, respectively, relative to the activity of the corresponding TAL effector endonuclease at FAD3A; target sites with four SNPs decreased mutation frequencies to 14%; target sites with five SNPs decreased mutation frequencies to 0.041%, and target sites with more than five SNPs decreased mutation frequencies to undetectable levels. Whereas these data do not account for relative position of the SNPs, they provide evidence for TAL effector endonuclease target site specificity, indicating that target sites with five or more SNPs are unlikely to be recognized and cleaved.

FAD3 mutations within soybean protoplasts, which were introduced using the FAD3A TALE nuclease pairs, were further analyzed. Both insertions and deletions were observed, with the majority of the mutations being deletions. A list of the TAL effector endonuclease-induced FAD3 mutations identified in soybean cells is provided by SEQ ID NOS: 109-4901. Specific mutations introduced into FAD3 A by GmFAD3_T01.1 are set forth in the sequences of SEQ ID NOS: 109- 1140. Specific mutations introduced into FAD3B by GmFAD3_T01.1 are set forth in the sequences of SEQ ID NOS: 1141-1372. Specific mutations introduced into FAD3 A by GmFAD3_T02.1 are set forth in the sequences of SEQ ID NOS: 1373-3116. Specific mutations introduced into FAD3B by GmFAD3_T02.1 are set forth in the sequences of SEQ ID NOS: 3117-4048. Specific mutations introduced into FAD3A by GmFAD3_T03.1 are set forth in the sequences of SEQ ID NOS: 4049-4607. Specific mutations introduced into FAD3B by

GmFAD3_T03.1 are set forth in the sequences of SEQ ID NOS:4608-4884. Specific mutations introduced into FAD3C by GmFAD3_T03.1 are set forth in the sequences of SEQ ID NOS: 4885-4901. It was observed that the majority of mutations included a deletion of the nucleotide at position 9 of the 17 nucleotide spacer. Specifically, using TAL endonuclease pair GmFAD3_T01.1, a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 459 of SEQ ID NO:24 (FAD3A) was observed. Using TAL endonuclease pair

GmFAD3_T02.1, a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 515 of SEQ ID NO:24 (FAD3A) was observed. Using TAL endonuclease pair GmFAD3_T03.1, a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 894 of SEQ ID NO:24 (FAD3A) was observed. Using TAL endonuclease pair GmFAD3_T01.1, a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 496 of SEQ ID NO:25 (FAD3B) was observed. Using TAL endonuclease pair

GmFAD3_T02.1, a deletion of the cytosine nucleotide at position 552 of SEQ ID NO:25 (FAD3B) was observed. Using TAL endonuclease pair GmFAD3_T03.1, a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 952 of SEQ ID NO:25 (FAD3B) was observed. Using TAL endonuclease pair GmFAD3_T03.1, a deletion of the adenine nucleotide at position 686 of SEQ ID NO:26 (FAD3C) was observed.

Example 3 - Regeneration of soybean plants with TAL effector endonuclease-induced mutations in FAD3 genes

Following verification that FAD3 TAL effector endonuclease created targeted modifications at endogenous target sites, experiments were conducted to create soybean plants with mutations in FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C. To accomplish this, each of the FAD3 TAL effector endonuclease pairs was cloned into a bacterial vector, with TAL effector endonuclease expression driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Such vectors can be delivered to plant cells by Agrobacterium -mediated transformation or by using biolistics.

Transgenic soybean plants expressing the TAL effector endonucleases were generated using standard transformation protocols (Rech et al, Nat Protoc 3:410-418, 2008; Haun et al., Plant Biotech J 12:934-940, 2014; and Curtin et al., Plant Physiol 156:466-473, 2011). Following transformation of soybean half cotyledons (variety Bert) with sequences encoding the GmFAD3_T02 TAL effector endonuclease, putatively transgenic plants were regenerated. Both WT and FAD2-1 A, FAD2-1B mutant soybean lines were transformed. The plants were transferred to soil, and after approximately 4 weeks of growth, a small leaf was harvested from each plant for DNA extraction and genotyping. From four independent transformations (designated as experiments Gml83, Gml84, Gm205, and Gm206), a total of 72 events were generated. All TO transgene- positive plants were then subjected to a T7 Endonuclease 1 (T7E1) assay to identify plants with mutations at the FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C TAL effector endonuclease recognition sites (Kim et al., Genome Res. 19: 1279-1288, 2009). Briefly, a PCR product spanning the TAL effector endonuclease recognition site was generated, denatured, and allowed to reanneal. T7E1 was added to the annealed products to cleave heteroduplexes generated when a wild type DNA fragment annealed with a fragment carrying a TAL effector endonuclease-induced mutation, and cleavage products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Alternatively, the PCR amplicons could be directly sequenced to assess whether mutations have occurred at the FAD3A, FAD3B and/or FAD3C target sites.

The T7E1 assay revealed that out of the 72 transgene-positive plants screened, 16 plants were positive for mutations at the target site. The FAD3A and FAD3B PCR amplicons of the 16 positive plants were then inserted into cloning vectors and subjected to Sanger sequencing to confirm and characterize the mutant profiles. The resulting reads were then aligned to the wild type sequences to determine allele types. The results are summarized in TABLE 6, and representative sequences are shown in FIG. 7. Together, these results confirmed the successful mutagenesis of FAD3 within TO soybean plants, with TAL effector endonuclease GmFAD3_T02 mutagenesis frequencies at FAD3 A of about 22 percent.

To confirm that TAL effector endonuclease- induced mutations can be stably transmitted to subsequent generations, candidate Tl plants derived from experiment Gml83 were screened for mutations within FAD3A by PCR amplification and sequencing of clones. From three different TO events (Gml 83-4, Gml83-5 and Gml 83- 6), Tl plants harboring heterozygous or homozygous mutations within FAD3A were identified, indicating that mutations were stably transmitted to the next generation. No plants with combinations of FAD3A and FAD3B mutations were identified, indicating that the frequency of mutagenesis at FAD3B was <1.4% (i.e., less than 1 out of 72 events).

Sanger sequencing reads containing mutations within FAD3A were aligned to the wild type sequences to determine allele types. The results are summarized in TABLE 7. A listing of mutations identified within FAD3A is shown within SEQ ID NOS: 64-90 and SEQ ID NOS: 102- 106.

Example 4 - Regeneration of soybean plants with TAL effector endonuclease-induced mutations in FAD2 and FAD3 genes

An alternative approach to knock out FAD2 and FAD3 genes is to simultaneously deliver two TAL effector endonucl eases targeting sequence within the FAD2-1 A, FAD2- 1B (one TAL effector endonuclease), and FAD3 genes (the other TAL effector endonuclease). Following verification that FAD2 and FAD3 TAL effector endonuclease created targeted modifications at endogenous target sites, experiments are conducted to create soybean plants with mutations in FAD2-1A, FAD2-1B, FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C. To accomplish this, each of the FAD2 and FAD3 TAL effector endonucleases are cloned into a T-DNA vector, and TAL effector endonuclease expression is driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (Zuo et al., supra). The T-DNA vector also contains a selectable marker that confers resistance to glufosinate. Such vectors are delivered to plant cells by Agrobacterium -mediated transformation or by using biolistics.

Transgenic soybean plants expressing the TAL effector endonucleases are generated using standard Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation protocols (Curtin et al, supra). Following cultivation of the T-DNA-containing A. rhizogenes strains with soybean half cotyledons (variety Bert), putatively transgenic plants are regenerated. The plants are transferred to soil, and after approximately 4 weeks of growth, a small leaf is harvested from each plant for DNA extraction and genotyping. Each DNA sample is first screened using PCR for the presence of T-DNA. All T-DNA-positive plants are then subjected to a T7 Endonuclease 1 (T7E1) assay to identify plants with mutations at the FAD2-1 A, FAD2-1B, FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C TAL effector endonuclease recognition sites (Kim et al., Genome Res. 19: 1279-1288, 2009). Briefly, a PCR product spanning the TAL effector endonuclease recognition site is generated, denatured, and allowed to reanneal. T7E1 is added to the annealed products to cleave heteroduplexes generated when a wild type DNA fragment annealed with a fragment carrying a TAL effector endonuclease-induced mutation, and cleavage products are visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Alternatively, the PCR amplicons can be directly sequenced to assess whether mutations occurred at the FAD2-1 A, FAD2-1B, FAD3A, FAD3B and/or FAD3C target sites.

Example 5 - Crossing of soybean plants with TAL effector endonuclease-induced mutations in FAD2 and/or FAD3 genes to produce combinatorial mutants

Following verification that soybean plants with mutations in FAD2-1A, FAD2-1B (FIG. 8), FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C have been generated, the mutant plants are subjected to crossing to yield combinatorial mutants of FAD2-1 A, FAD2-1B, FAD3A, FAD3B, and/or FAD3C. This is accomplished by acquiring pollen from a young flower that has opened for the first time; the flower is separated and collected to transfer the desired pollen to the stigma. The resulting progeny are then genotyped to confirm successful crosses.

Example 6 - Fatty acid profile analysis on seeds produced from TAL effector endonuclease-induced mutations in soybean FAD3 genes Soybean lines are grown to maturity and allowed to self-fertilize, giving rise to seeds that are homozygous mutant in either FAD3A (designated aaBBCC), FAD3B (designated AAbbCC), FAD3C (designated AABBcc), FAD3A and FAD3B (designated aabbCC), FAD3B and FAD3C (designated AAbbcc), or FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C (designated aabbcc). These seeds are analyzed for fatty acid composition. Briefly, individual soybean seeds are pulverized, and DNA is prepared from a portion of the ground tissue and analyzed to establish the genotype of each seed. The remaining pulverized tissue from FAD3A homozygous (aaBBCC), FAD3B homozygous

(AAbbCC), FAD3C homozygous (AABBcc), FAD3A and FAD3B homozygous (aabbCC), FAD3B and FAD3C homozygous (AAbbcc), or FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C homozygous (aabbcc) knockout seeds is used to determine fatty acid

composition using fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) gas chromatography (Beuselinck et al, Crop Sci. 47:747-750, 2006). The results of the analysis likely show that the single mutant has a modest reduction in linolenic acid, whereas the double and triple mutants are likely to show a more significant reduction.

Example 7 - Oil from FAD2-1 A FAD2-1B FAD3A homozygous mutant soybean seeds contains high oleic, low linoleic, and low linolenic acid The oil profile from seed was assessed from FAD3A mutant soybean plants (designated as fadSd) and FAD2-1 A FAD2-1B FAD3A homozygous mutant soybean plants (designated as fad2-la fad2-lb fadSd) (FIG. 9). Seed from Tl homozygous mutant lines were collected and assessed for oil composition by gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (GC FAME Analysis). Significant changes in linolenic and linolenic acid levels were observed in oil from fadSa plants, relative to oil from WT plants: linolenic acid levels decreased from 8.2 ± 0.4% to 3.9 ± 0.3%, while linoleic acid levels increased from 51.1 ± 0.2% to 61.9 ± 1.2%. Surprisingly, significant changes in the levels of oleic and stearic acid levels also were observed: oleic acid levels decreased from 23.2 ± 0.8% to 17.9 ± 1.6%, and stearic acid levels decreased from 4 ± 0.01% to 3.2 ± 0.1%.

Specifically, five biological replicates of seeds from fadSa plants were found to have linolenic acid levels of 3.8%, 4.3%, 3.9%, 3.8%, and 3.5%; linoleic acid levels of 63.0%, 63.2%, 61.2%, 60.4%, and 61.9%; oleic acid levels of 17.2%, 15.6%, 18.6%, 19.4%, and 18.9%; stearic acid levels of 3.2%, 3.4%, 3.0%, 3.0%, and 3.1%; and palmitic acid levels of 12.0%, 12.6%, 12.4%, 12.6% and 11.7%.

Four biological replicates of WT seed were found to have linolenic acid levels of 8.2%, 8.2%, 8.1%, and 8.2%; linoleic acid levels of 51.2%, 51.0%, 50.9%, and 51.4%; oleic acid levels of 23.2%, 23.3%, 23.2%, and 23.3%; stearic acid levels of 4.0%, 4.0%, 4.0%, and 4.0%; and palmitic acid levels of 12.4%, 12.5%, 12.8%, and 12.0%.

Significant changes in fatty acid levels within seed oil from fad2-la fad2-lb fadSa soybean plants also were observed as compared to the fatty acid levels within fad2- la fad2-lb soybean plants (FIG. 9). The average linolenic acid level within oil from fad2- la fad2-lb fad3a plants was 2.5 ± 0.4%, significantly lower than oil from fad2-la fad2- lb soybean plants (4.7 ± 0.1%). Further, and surprisingly, linoleic acid levels decreased from 5.1 ± 0.7% in fad2-la fad2-lb lines to 2.7 ± 0.9% in fad2-la fad2-lb fad3a lines, and oleic acid levels increased from 77.5 ± 0.8% in fad2-la fad2-lb lines to 82.2 ± 1.6% in fad2-la fad2-lb fadSa lines. Together, these results indicate that stacking mutations within the FAD2-1 and FADSA genes can decrease linolenic and linoleic acid levels to below 3%, and increases oleic acid levels to over 80%.

Specifically, 20 biological replicates of seeds from fad2-la fad2-lb fad3a plants were found to have linolenic acid levels of 1.9%, 3.1%, 2.2%, 2.8%, 3.2%, 2.6%, 2.8%, 3.0%, 2.7%, 2.1%, 2.0%, 2.1%, 2.2%, 2.3%, 2.5%, 2.9%, 2.8%, 2.3%, 2.5%, and 2.3%; linoleic acid levels of 1.6%, 4.6%, 2.5%, 2.6%, 2.5%, 2.6%, 2.3%, 2.0%, 2.2%, 2.3%, 1.8%, 2.1%, 2.1%, 3.0%, 2.9%, 5.0%, 4.3%, 2.6%, 3.2% and 2.3%; oleic acid levels of 84.3%, 78.9%, 82.0%, 82.1%, 82.2%, 82.0%, 83.1%, 82.5%, 82.4%, 83.2%, 84.2%, 83.7%, 83.6%, 82.3%, 81.9%, 78.6%, 79.5%, 82.7%, 81.5% and 83.2%; stearic acid levels of 3.4%, 3.5%, 4.6%, 3.3%, 3.1%, 3.5%, 2.7%, 3.1%, 3.0%, 3.3%, 3.1%, 3.2%, 3.1%, 3.6%, 3.6%, 3.7%, 3.7%, 3.4%, 3.5% and 3.0%; and palmitic acid levels of 7.5%, 8.6%, 7.3%, 8.0%, 8.1%, 8.0%, 8.0%, 8.1%, 8.4%, 7.7%, 7.7%, 7.5%, 7.6%, 7.4%, 7.7%, 8.6%, 8.5%, 7.6%, 7.9% and 7.8%.

Twenty biological replicates of seeds from fad2-la fad2-lb plants were found to have linolemc acid levels of 4.8%, 4.9%, 4.9%, 4.9%, 4.8%, 4.8%, 4.9%, 4.8%, 4.7%, 4.7%, 4.8%, 4.8%, 4.7%, 4.7%, 4.7%, 4.7%, 4.6%, 4.6%, 4.6% and 4.6%; linoleic acid levels of 3.7%, 4.4%, 4.5%, 4.7%, 5.6%, 5.3%, 5.9%, 6.4%, 4.1%, 4.8%, 4.9%, 4.4%, 5.7%, 5.7%, 5.5%, 5.3%, 4.9%, 5.0%, 5.3% and 5.3%; oleic acid levels of 79.4%, 78.2%, 77.8%, 77.8%, 76.7%, 77.0%, 76.4%, 76.5%, 78.6%, 78.3%, 78.0%, 78.6%, 76.9%, 77.2%, 77.4%, 77.1%, 77.5%, 77.4%, 77.1% and 77.1%; stearic acid levels of 3.4%, 3.3%, 3.3%, 3.3%, 3.3%, 3.3%, 3.3%, 3.2%, 3.3%, 3.3%, 3.4%, 3.4%, 3.3%, 3.3%, 3.3%, 3.3%, 3.5%, 3.5%, 3.5% and 3.5%; and palmitic acid levels of 7.5%, 8.0%, 8.3%, 8.1%, 8.4%, 8.3%, 8.4%, 8.0%, 8.0%, 7.6%, 7.8%, 7.6%, 8.2%, 8.0%, 8.0%, 8.5%, 8.2%, 8.2%, 8.3% and 8.3%.

Example 8 - Generation of transgene-free mutant soybean lines To obtain soybean lines that have the FAD3 mutations but lack the FAD3 TAL effector endonuclease construct and its associated selectable marker, progeny are screened for the aabbcc genotype. Mutant, transgene-free segregants are then sought using a PCR strategy that utilized two sets of primer pairs: one spanning the TAL effector endonuclease coding sequence and the other the endogenous alcohol

dehydrogenase gene of soybean (a control for the PCR reaction). These results indicate the feasibility of creating transgene-free lines with mutations in the FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C genes.

Further, Tl plants containing FAD3A mutations within the FAD2 KO

background were assessed by PCR for the presence of transgene sequence (TABLE 7). Of the 17 Tl plants assayed, 15 were positive for transgene sequence and two were negative (i.e., null segregants for the TAL effector endonuclease transgene). Importantly, the two transgene-free Tl plants harbored mutations within FAD3A. These two plants were self-pollinated to produce homozygous-mutant, transgene-free fad2-la fad2-lb fadSa soybean plants. Example 9 - Generating soybean lines with mutations in FAD2-1 A and FAD2-1B genes

To completely inactivate or knock out the alleles of FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B genes in soybean, sequence-specific nucleases were designed that target the protein coding region in the vicinity of the start codon. Eight TAL effector endonuclease pairs were designed to target the FAD2-1 gene family within the first 500 bp of the coding sequence using software that specifically identifies TAL effector endonuclease recognition sites, such as TALE-NT 2.0 (Doyle et al, Nucleic Acids Res 40:W117-122, 2012). The TAL effector endonuclease recognition sites for the FAD2-1 genes are listed in FIG. 10. TAL effector endonucleases were synthesized using methods similar to those described elsewhere (Cermak et al., Nucleic Acids Res 39:e82, 2011 ; Reyon et al, Nat Biotechnol 30:460-465, 2012; and Zhang et al, Nat Biotechnol 29: 149-153, 2011). TALEN activity was verified using a yeast assay, and TALEN pair FAD2_T04 was chosen for stable transformation in soybean plants.

Candidate transgenic plants were regenerated and transferred to soil. After approximately 4 weeks of growth, a small leaf was harvested from each plant for DNA extraction and genotyping. Each DNA sample was first screened using PCR for the presence of transgenic DNA. All transgene-positive plants were then subjected to a T7E1 assay to identify plants with mutations at the FAD2-1 A and FAD2-1B TAL effector endonuclease recognition site (Kim et al, Genome Res. 19: 1279-1288, 2009). Briefly, a PCR product spanning the TAL effector endonuclease recognition site was generated, denatured, and allowed to reanneal. T7E1 endonuclease was added to the annealed products to cleave heteroduplexes generated when a wild type DNA fragment annealed with a fragment carrying a TAL effector endonuclease-induced mutation, and cleavage products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Four plants showed evidence of TAL effector endonuclease-induced mutations (Gm026-18, Gm026-23, Gm027-06 and Gm027-07). In addition, all four plants had mutations at both FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B, indicating that both genes were mutagenized simultaneously.

To determine if mutations introduced by TAL effector endonucleases in leaf tissue were transmitted to the next generation, seeds were collected from TO plants Gm026-18, Gm026-23 and Gm027-06. In each Tl population, 20-60 individual plants were genotyped to confirm transmission of the mutations. Both FAD2-1 A and FAD2-1B mutations segregated in the Tl progeny of GM026-18. In contrast, only FAD2-1 A or FAD2-1B mutations were transmitted to the Tl progeny of GM-026-23 and GM027-6, respectively. The heritable mutations within GM026-18 are shown in FIG. 8.

Example 10 - Phenotype of soybean GM026- 18 lines Seed from field-grown GM026-18 soybean plants was evaluated for protein content and fatty acid composition (FIG. 11). GM026-18 soybean plants were directly compared to control plants, Glycine max (L.) Merr. cultivar Bert, which do not contain FAD2-1 A or FAD2-1B mutations. Twenty-seven different properties were evaluated, including moisture content (by forced draft oven evaluation), as well as protein, crude fat, tryptophan, cysteine, methionine, alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, total lysine, tyrosine, valine, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha linolenic acid, and total fatty acid content. Unexpectedly, an increase in protein content was observed in GM026-18 lines compared to the wild type control (compare 37.93 to 34.49; compare 40.8 to 39.11; compare 38.4 to 37.6).

Example 11 - Combinations of FAD2 and FAD3 mutations Plants containing combinations of mutations that knock out activity of one or more FAD2 and FAD3 genes or proteins are produced, either by targeting one gene or multiple genes using TAL effector endonucleases, or by crossing plants with mutations in different FAD2 and/or FADS genes. Plants containing a series of mutation combinations are produced. For example, combination 1 is FAD2-1A (WT) FAD2-1B (WT) fad3a (mutant) FAD3B (WT) FAD3C (WT). This combination of mutations and WT genes is also written as FAD2-1A FAD2-lBfad3a FAD3B FAD3C. Combination 1 and other combinations are set forth in TABLE 8.

Example 12 - Field trial data from plants containing FAD2 and FAD3 mutations Plants having mutations in FAD2 and FAD3 genes were grown in field conditions in Minnesota, and phenotyped. Tested plants contained the genotype fad2-la fad2-lb fad3a FAD3B FAD3C. Several plants having different mutations in FAD3A were tested, including those with a -43bp deletion, a -4bp deletion, and a combination of the -43 bp and -4bp deletions (i.e., a compound heterozygous mutant). Seed oil produced by the field-grown plants was assessed by FAME. Results from the FAME testing are shown in FIG. 12.

TABLE 1

TAL effector endonuclease target sequences in FAD3 genes

TABLE 2

Representative FAD3A, FAD3B, and FAD3C coding sequences *

FAD3A

ATGGTTAAAGACACAAAGCCTTTAGCCTATGCTGCTAATAATGGATACCAA

AAGGAAGCTTTTGATCCCAGTGCTCCTCCACCGTTTAAGATTGCAGAAATC

AGAGTTGCAATACCAAAACATTGCTGGGTCAAGAATCCATGGAGATCCCTC

AGTTATGTTCTCAGGGATGTGCTTGTAATTGCTGCATTGATGGCTGCTGCAA

GTCACTTCAACAACTGGCTTCTCTGGCTAATCTATTGGCCCATTCAAGGAAC

AATGTTCTGGGCTCTGTTTGTTCTTGGACATGATTGgtaattaattaatttgttgtt acttttttgtt ataatatgaatctcacacactgctttgttatgcctacctcatttcatttggctttagaca acttaaatttgagatcttta cttatatggtaaagtgattcattcttcacattgaattgaacagTGGCCATGGAAGCTTTT CAGACAGCC

CTTTTCTAAATAGCCTGGTGGGACACATCTTGCATTCCTCAATTCTTGTGCC

ATACCATGGATGgttagttcatcccggcttttttgtttgtcattggaagttctttta ttgattcaatttttatagcgtgtt aaacgcgtttcagaaaataatgaaatacatcttgaatctgaaagttataacttttagctt cattgtcattgaaagttcttttattaattat atttttattgcgtgtttggaatcccatttgagaaataagaaatcacgtttaaaatgtgaa agttataactattaacttttgactaaactt gaaaaaatcacatttttgatgtggaaccaaatctgatttgagaaccaagttgattttgat ggattttgcagGAGAATTAG

CCACAGAACTCACCATCAAAATCATGGACACATTGAGAAGGATGAATCCT GGGTTCCAgtatgtgattaactacttcctctatagttatttttgattcaattaaatttat ttatttaataagttcaag aaaaaagg aatctttatacttcagataaagctgttcttgaacatttttttttgtcattatcttagTTA ACCGAGAAGATTTACAA

GAATCTAGACAACATGACAAGACTTGTTAGATTCACTGTGCCATTTCCATT

GTTTGTGTATCCAATTTATTTGgtgagtgcttttttttttttacttggaagactaca acacattattattattataa tatggttcaaatcaatgacttttaatttctttgtgatgtgcactccattttcagTTCTCA AGAAGCCCCGGAAAG

GAAGGTTCTCACTTCAATCCCTACAGCAATCTGTTCCCACCCAGTGAGAGA

AAGGGAATAGCAATATCAACACTGTGTTGGGTTACCATGTTTTCTATGCTT

ATCTATCTCTCCTTCATAACTAGTCCAGTTCTATTGCTCAAGCTCTATGGAA

TTCCATATTGGgtaattaaattactcttacattactttttcctctttttttttatgg gtcttaactagtatcacaaaaatattggt taaaaaattttaaaaaaatatttattatgtaaatcataaaagaacataaaaaaaatgatg aataacataattttcgtctcttattaaaa atatttttattttaaatttcttaatcaatatatttagaatctggttaacattttttgaat atttcaattctccaattaaaaatttgaaatagtca ccattaattatgtaattgtttgaacacgtgcagATATTTGTTATGTGGCTGGACTTTGTC ACATAC

TTGCATCACCATGGTCATCATCAGAAACTGCCTTGGTATCGCGGCAAGgtaac aaaaataaatagaaaatagtgagtgaacacttaaatgttagatactaccttcttcttctt ttttttttttttttgaggttaatgctagataa tagctagaaagagaaagaaagacaaatataggtaaaaataaataatataacctgggaaga agaaaacataaaaaaagaaat aatagagtctacgtaatgtttggatttttgagtgaaatggtgttcacctaccattactca aagattctgttgtctacgtagtgtttgga ctttggagtgaaatggtgttcacctaccattactcagattctgttgtgtcccttagttac tgtcttatattcttagggtatattctttatttt acatccttttcacatcttacttgaaaagatttttaattattcattgaaatattaacgtga cagttaaattaaaataataaaaaattcgtta aaacttcaaataaataagagtgaaaggatcatcatttttcttctttcttttattgcgtta ttaatcatgcttctcttcttttttttctt ccacccatatcaaattcatgtgaagtatgagaaaatcacgattcaatggaaagctacagg aactttttttgttttgtttttataatcg gaattaatttatactccattttttcacaataaatgttacttagtgccttaaagataatat ttgaaaaattaaaaaaattattaatacactg tactactatataatatttgacatatatttaacatgattttctattgaaaatttgtattta ttattttttaatcaaaacccataaggcatta tacaagacccatttttcatttatagctttacctgtgatcatttatagctttaagggactt agatgttacaatcttaattacaagtaaatat ttatgaaaaacatgtgtcttaccccttaaccttacctcaacaaagaaagtgtgataagtg gcaacacacgtgttgcttttttggcc cagcaataacacgtgtttttgtggtgtacaaaaatggacagGAATGGAGTTATTTAAGAG GTGGTCT

CACAACTGTGGATCGTGACTATGGTTGGATCAATAACATTCACCATGACAT

TGGCACCCATGTTATTCACCATCTTTTCCCTCAAATTCCTCATTATCACCTC

GTTGAAGCGgtatattttactattattactcacctaaaaagaatgcaattagtacat ttgttttatctcttggaagttagtcatt ttcagttgcatgattgtaatgttctctctatttttaaaccatgttttcacacctacttcg tttaaaataagaatgtggatactattctaatt tctattaacttcttttaaaaaataatgtaaaactagtattaaaaaagaggaaatagatta cactctactaatactaatagtataaaaa aaattacattgttattttatcacaaataattatatataattaatttttacaatcattatc ttaaaagtcatgtatgatatacagtttttacat gctttggtacttattgtaaagttagtgatttattcattatttatgttatataattggcat aaatatcatgtaaccagctcactatactataa tgggaacttggtggtgaaaggggtttacaaccctcttttctaggtgtaggtgctttgata cttctggtccctttttatatcaatataaa ttatattttgctgataaaaaaaacattattaatatataatcattaacttctttaaaaacc gtacctaaaactttatattattaaaaagaag attgagatcagcaaaagaaaaaaaaattaacagtcatttgaattcactgcagACACAAGC AGCAAAATCAG

TTCTTGGAGAGTATTACCGTGAGCCAGAAAGATCTGCACCATTACCATTTC

ATCTAATAAAGTATTTAATTCAGAGTATGAGACAAGACCACTTCGTAAGTG

ACACTGGAGATGTGGTTTATTATCAGACTGATTCTCTGCACCTTCACTCGCA

CCGAGACTGA (SEQ ID NO:24)

FAD3B ATGGTTAAAGACACAAAGCCTTTAGCCTATGCTGCCAATAATGGATACCAA CAAAAGGGTTCTTCTTTTGATTTTGATCCTAGCGCTCCTCCACCGTTTAAGA TTGCAGAAATCAGAGCTTCAATACCAAAACATTGCTGGGTCAAGAATCCAT GGAGATCCCTCAGTTATGTTCTCAGGGATGTGCTTGTAATTGCTGCATTGGT GGCTGCAGCAATTCACTTCGACAACTGGCTTCTCTGGCTAATCTATTGCCCC ATTCAAGGCACAATGTTCTGGGCTCTCTTTGTTCTTGGACATGATTGgtaataatt tttgtgtttcttactctttttttttttttt^

ttaaatttgagatctttattatgtttttgcttatatggtaaagtgattcttcattat ttcattcttcattgattgaattgaacagTGG

ATGGAAGCTTTTCAGATAGCCCTTTGCTGAATAGCCTGGTGGGACACATCT

TGCATTCCTCAATTCTTGTGCCATACCATGGATGgttagttcatactggcttttttg tttgttcattt gtcattgaaaaaaaatcttttgttgattcaattatttttatagtgtgtttggaagcccgt ttgagaaaataagaaatcgcatctggaat gtgaaagttataactatttagcttcatctgtcgttgcaagttcttttattggttaaattt ttatagcgtgctaggaaacccattcgaga aaataagaaatcacatctggaatgtgaaagttataactgttagcttctgagtaaacgtgg aaaaaccacattttggatttggaac caaattttatttgataaatgacaaccaaattgattttgatggattttgcagGAGAATTAG CCACAGAACTCAC

CATCAAAACCATGGACACATTGAGAAGGATGAGTCATGGGTTCCAgtatgtgatt aattgcttctcctatagttgttcttgattcaattacattttatttatttggtaggtccaa gaaaaaagggaatctttatgcttcctgagg ctgttcttgaacatggctcttttttatgtgtcattatcttagTTAACAGAGAAGATTTAC AAGAATCTAG

ACAGCATGACAAGACTCATTAGATTCACTGTGCCATTTCCATTGTTTGTGTA

TCCAATTTATTTGgtgagtgattttttgacttggaagacaacaacacattattatta taatatggttcaaaacaatgact ttttctttatgatgtgaactccattttttagTTTTCAAGAAGCCCCGGAAAGGAAGGCTC TCACTT

CAATCCCTACAGCAATCTGTTTCCACCCAGTGAGAGAAAAGGAATAGCAAT

ATCAACACTGTGTTGGGCTACCATGTTTTCTCTGCTTATCTATCTCTCATTCA

TAACTAGTCCACTTCTAGTGCTCAAGCTCTATGGAATTCCATATTGGgtaactaa attactcctacattgttactttttcctccttttttttattatttcaattctccaattgga aatttgaaatagttaccataattatgtaattgtt^ gatcatgtgcagATATTTGTTATGTGGCTGGACTTTGTCACATACTTGCATCACCAT

GGTCACCACCAGAAACTGCCTTGGTACCGCGGCAAGgtaacaaaaataaatagaaaa tag tgggtgaacacttaaatgcgagatagtaatacctaaaaaaagaaaaaaatataggtataa taaataatataactttcaaaataaa aagaaatcatagagtctagcgtagtgtttggagtgaaatgatgttcacctaccattactc aaagattttgttgtgtcccttagttcat tcttattattttacatatcttacttgaaaagactttttaattattcattgagatcttaaa gtgactgttaaattaaaataaaaaacaagttt gttaaaacttcaaataaataagagtgaagggagtgtcatttgtcttctttcttttattgc gttattaatcacgtttctcttctcttttttt^ tttcttctctgctttccacccattatcaagttcatgtgaagcagtggcggatctatgtaa atgagtggggggcaattgcacccaca agattttattttttatttgtacaggaataataaaataaaactttgcccccataaaaaata aatattttttcttaaaataatgcaaaataa atataagaaataaaaagagaataaattattattaattttattattttgtactttttattt agtttttttagcggttagattttttt^ tatgtaatcttttaaaagcatgtaatatttttattttgtgaaaataaatataaatgatca tattagtctcagaatgtataaactaataata attttatcactaaaagaaattctaatttagtccataaataagtaaaacaagtgacaatta tattttatatttacttaatgtgaaataata cttgaacattataataaaacttaatgacaggagatattacatagtgccataaagatattt taaaaaataaaatcattaatacactgt actactatataatattcgatatatatttttaacatgattctcaatagaaaaattgtattg attatattttattagacatgaatttacaagcc ccgtttttcatttatagctcttacctgtgatctattgtttt^

agaagtaaatatttatgaaaacatgtaccttacctcaacaaagaaagtgtggtaagt ggcaacacacgtgttgcatttttggccc agcaataacacgtgtttttgtggtgtactaaaatggacagGAATGGAGTTATTTAAGAGG TGGCCTC ACCACTGTGGATCGTGACTATGGTTGGATCAATAACATTCACCATGACATT

GGCACCCATGTTATCCACCATCTTTTCCCCCAAATTCCTCATTATCACCTCG

TTGAAGCGgtacattttattgcttattcacctaaaaacaatacaattagtacatttg ttttatctcttggaagttagtcattttca gttgcatgattctaatgctctctccattcttaaatcatgttttcacacccacttcattta aaataagaacgtgggtgttattttaatttct attcactaacatgagaaattaacttatttcaagtaataattttaaaatatttttatgcta ttattttattacaaataattatgtatattaagtt tattgattttataataattatattaaaattatatcgatattaatttttgattcactgata gtgttttatattgttagtactgtgcatt^ aattggcataaataatatatgtaaccagctcactatactatactgggagcttggtggtga aaggggttcccaaccctcctttctag gtgtacatgctttgatacttctggtaccttcttatatcaatataaattatattttgctga taaaaaaacatggttaaccattaaattctttt tttaaaaaaaaaactgtatctaaactttgtattattaaaaagaagtctgagattaacaat aaactaacactcatttgaattcactgca gACACAAGCAGCAAAACCAGTTCTTGGAGATTACTACCGTGAGCCAGAAAG

ATCTGCGCCATTACCATTTCATCTAATAAAGTATTTAATTCAGAGTATGAGA

CAAGACCACTTCGTAAGTGACACTGGAGATGTTGTTTATTATCAGACTGAT

TCTCTGCTCCTCCACTCGCAACGAGACTGA (SEQ ID NO:25)

FAD3C

ATGGTTCAAGCACAGCCTCTACAACATGTTGGTAATGGTGCAGGGAAAGA

AGATCAAGCTTATTTTGATCCAAGTGCTCCACCACCCTTCAAGATTGCAAA

TATCAGAGCAGCAATTCCAAAACATTGCTGGGAGAAGAACACATTGAGAT

CTCTGAGTTATGTTCTGAGGGATGTGTTGGTAGTGACTGCATTGGTAGCTGC

AGCAATCGGCTTCAATAGCTGGTTCTTCTGGCCACTCTATTGGCCTGCACAA

GGCACAATGTTTTGGGCACTTTTTGTTCTTGGACATGATTGgtaactaattattatt acaa attgttatgttatgttatgttatgttgttgtgcctttttctcagtgatgctttagtcatt tcatttcacttggttatgcatgattgtt atgttctgtcatggtgagttctaatttgattgatgcatggaacagTGGTCATGGAAGTTT TTCAAACAGT

CCTTTGTTGAACAGCATTGTGGGCCACATCTTGCACTCTTCAATTCTTGTAC

CATACCATGGATGgtcggttccttttagcaacttttcatgttcactttgtccttaaa tttttttttatgtttgttaaaaaatctt tggtctgatttaacaacctaaccatttttacaactcatggattttttgcagGAGAATTAG CCACAGGACTCAC

CATCAGAACCATGGCCATGTTGAGAAGGATGAATCATGGGTTCCGgtattactatg agtttgcttgattaatttccacattttttctttcttcttaattttaatcagtggttagat ttggttgtgttccaatagaagaaaaggggg tctagagagatgtgaatttcatgaagtggttcatgattatgtgtctttatgcctttatgt cagCTTACAGAGAAAGTT

TACAAGAATCTAGACAACATGACAAGAATGATGAGATTCACTCTTCCTTTC

CCCATCTTTGCATACCCCTTTTATTTGgtgagaccctctttttccagaatgacagca ttattttactatat agtacctcaatttttatatttctaaaattttgaattcttgaaattgaaaggaaaggactt tattgggtctagcatctcactctctctttgt gatatgaaccatatatttcagTGGAGCAGAAGCCCTGGAAAAGAAGGCTCTCATTTCAA

CCCTTACAGCAACTTGTTCTCTCCTGGTGAGAGAAGAGATGTGCTAACTTC

AACTCTGTGTTGGGGCATCATGCTTTCTGTGCTTCTCTATCTTTCCCTCACA

ATGGGTCCACTTTTTATGCTCAAGCTCTATGGGGTTCCCTATTTGgtaatctcactc t cacactttctttatacatcgcacaccagtgtgggttatttgcaacctacaccgaagtaat gccctataattaatggggttaacaca tgtccaagtccaatattttgttcacttatttgaacttgaacatgtgtagATCTTCGTCAT GTGGCTGGATTTC

GTCACGTACTTGCATCATCATGGTTACAAGCAGAAACTGCCTTGGTACCGT

GGCCAGgtatcccatttaacacaatttgtttcattaacattttaagagaattttttt ttcaaaatagttttcgaaattaagcaaata ccaagcaaattgttagatctacgcttgtacttgttttaaagtcaaattcatgaccaaatt gtcctcacaagtccaaaccgtccacta ttttattttcacctactttatagcccaatttgtcatttggttacttcagaaaagagaacc ccatttgtagtaaatatattatttatgaatta tggtagtttcaacataaaacatatttatgtgcagttttgccatccttcaaaagaagatag aaacttactccatgttactctgtctatat gtaatttcacagGAATGGAGTTATCTAAGGGGTGGTCTTACAACAGTAGATCGCGA

CTATGGTTGGATCAACAACATTCACCATGACATTGGCACCCATGTTATCCA

TCACCTTTTCCCTCAAATTCCACATTATCATTTAATCGAAGCGgtattaattctcta tttc acaagaaattattgtatgtctgcctatgtgatctaagtcaattttcacataacacatgat caaactttcttaattctttcttctaaattga aaaagtggattatatgtcaattgaaaattggtcaagaccacaaacatgtgatgatctccc accttacatataataatttctcctattc tacaatcaataatccttctatggtcctgaattgttcctttcttttttcattttcttattc tttttgttgtcccacaatagACTAAAG

AGCAAAGGCAGTGCTAGGAAAGTATTATCGTGAGCCTCAGAAATCTGGGC

CATTGCCACTTCATCTAATAAAGTACTTGCTCCACAGCATAAGTCAGGATC

ACTTCGTTAGCGACTCTGGCGACATTGTGTACTACCAGACTGATTCCCAGCT

CCACAAAGATTCTTGGACCCAGTCCAACTAA (SEQ ID NO:26)

*intron sequences are in lower case

TABLE 3

TAL effector endonuclease target sequences in FAD2 genes

TABLE 4

Representative FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B coding sequences*

FAD2-1A

ATGgtcatgatttcactctctctaatctctccattcattttgtagttgtcattatcttta gatttttcactacctggtttaaaattga^ attgtagttctgttggtacatattacacattcagcaaaacaactgaaactcaactgaact tgtttatactttgacacagGGTCT

AGCAAAGGAAACAACAATGGGAGGTAGAGGTCGTGTGGCCAAAGTGGAAG

TTCAAGGGAAGAAGCCTCTCTCAAGGGTTCCAAACACAAAGCCACCATTCA

CTGTTGGCCAACTCAAGAAAGCAATTCCACCACACTGCTTTCAGCGCTCCCT

CCTCACTTCATTCTCCTATGTTGTTTATGACCTTTCATTTGCCTTCATTTTCTAC

ATTGCCACCACCTACTTCCACCTCCTTCCTCAACCCTTTTCCCTCATTGCATG GCCAATCTATTGGGTTCTCCAAGGTTGCCTTCTCACTGGTGTGTGGGTGATT

GCTCACGAGTGTGGTCACCATGCCTTCAGCAAGTACCAATGGGTTGATGATG

TTGTGGGTTTGACCCTTCACTCAACACTTTTAGTCCCTTATTTCTCATGGAAA

ATAAGCCATCGCCGCCATCACTCCAACACAGGTTCCCTTGACCGTGATGAAG

TGTTTGTCCCAAAACCAAAATCCAAAGTTGCATGGTTTTCCAAGTACTTAAA

CAACCCTCTAGGAAGGGCTGTTTCTCTTCTCGTCACACTCACAATAGGGTGG

CCTATGTATTTAGCCTTCAATGTCTCTGGTAGACCCTATGATAGTTTTGCAAG

CCACTACCACCCTTATGCTCCCATATATTCTAACCGTGAGAGGCTTCTGATCT

ATGTCTCTGATGTTGCTTTGTTTTCTGTGACTTACTCTCTCTACCGTGTTGCA

ACCCTGAAAGGGTTGGTTTGGCTGCTATGTGTTTATGGGGTGCCTTTGCTCA

TTGTGAACGGTTTTCTTGTGACTATCACATATTTGCAGCACACACACTTTGCC

TTGCCTCATTACGATTCATCAGAATGGGACTGGCTGAAGGGAGCTTTGGCAA

CTATGGACAGAGATTATGGGATTCTGAACAAGGTGTTTCATCACATAACTGAT

ACTCATGTGGCTCACCATCTCTTCTCTACAATGCCACATTACCATGCAATGGA

GGCAACCAATGCAATCAAGCCAATATTGGGTGAGTACTACCAATTTGATGAC

ACACCATTTTACAAGGCACTGTGGAGAGAAGCGAGAGAGTGCCTCTATGTG

GAGCCAGATGAAGGAACATCCGAGAAGGGCGTGTATTGGTACAGGAACAA

GTATTGA (SEQ ID NO:43)

FAD 2- IB

ATGgtcatgatttcactctctctaatctgtcacttccctccattcatt

tctcttggtacatactagtattagacattcagcaacaacaactgaactgaacttctt tatactttgacacagGGTCTAGCA

AAGGAAACAATAATGGGAGGTGGAGGCCGTGTGGCCAAAGTTGAAATTCA

GCAGAAGAAGCCTCTCTCAAGGGTTCCAAACACAAAGCCACCATTCACTGT

TGGCCAACTCAAGAAAGCCATTCCACCGCACTGCTTTCAGCGTTCCCTCCTC

ACTTCATTGTCCTATGTTGTTTATGACCTTTCATTGGCTTTCATTTTCTACATT

GCCACCACCTACTTCCACCTCCTCCCTCACCCCTTTTCCCTCATTGCATGGCC

AATCTATTGGGTTCTCCAAGGTTGCATTCTTACTGGCGTGTGGGTGATTGCTC

ACGAGTGTGGTCACCATGCCTTCAGCAAGTACCCATGGGTTGATGATGTTAT

GGGTTTGACCGTTCACTCAGCACTTTTAGTCCCTTATTTCTCATGGAAAATAA

GCCATCGCCGCCACCACTCCAACACGGGTTCCCTTGACCGTGATGAAGTGTT

TGTCCCAAAACCAAAATCCAAAGTTGCATGGTACACCAAGTACCTGAACAA

CCCTCTAGGAAGGGCTGCTTCTCTTCTCATCACACTCACAATAGGGTGGCCT

TTGTATTTAGCCTTCAATGTCTCTGGCAGACCCTATGATGGTTTTGCTAGCCA

CTACCACCCTTATGCTCCCATATATTCAAATCGTGAGAGGCTTTTGATCTATGT

CTCTGATGTTGCTTTGTTTTCTGTGACTTACTTGCTCTACCGTGTTGCAACTA

TGAAAGGGTTGGTTTGGCTGCTATGTGTTTATGGGGTGCCATTGCTCATTGTG

AACGGTTTTCTTGTGACCATCACATATCTGCAGCACACACACTATGCCTTGC

CTCACTATGATTCATCAGAATGGGATTGGCTGAGGGGTGCTTTGGCAACTAT

GGACAGAGATTATGGAATTCTGAACAAGGTGTTTCACCACATAACTGATACT

CATGTGGCTCACCATCTTTTCTCTACAATGCCACATTACCATGCAACGGAGG

CAACCAATGCAATGAAGCCAATATTGGGTGAGTACTACCGATTTGATGACAC

ACCATTTTACAAGGCACTGTGGAGAGAAGCAAGAGAGTGCCTCTATGTGGA

GCCAGATGAAGGAACATCCGAGAAGGGCGTGTATTGGTACAGGAACAAGTA

TTGA (SEQ ID NO: 44)

*intron sequences are in lower case TABLE 5

454 Pyro-sequencing Data for FAD 3 A TAL effector endonuclease

** The total number of 454 sequencing reads used for this analysis is indicated in parentheses.

TABLE 6

Confirmed genotyping ofFAD3 TO mutant plants

The FAD2 KO background included the Gm026-18 FAD2-1A (SEQ ID NO: 100) and FAD2-1B alleles (SEQ ID NO: 101) alleles.

TABLE 7

Confirmed genotyping of T 1 plants from TO plants containing FAD 2 and FAD 3 mutations

Mutant

Parent Tl Plant FAD3A Presence of

Background Allele SEQ

Line (TO) Number genotype Transgene

ID NO:

FAD2 KO 1 -7 bp/WT 102 Undetected

FAD2 KO 2 -7 bp/-7 bp 102 +

Gml 83-4

FAD2 KO 3 -7 bp/-7 bp 102 +

FAD2 KO 4 -7 bp/WT 102 +

FAD2 KO 2 -43 bp/WT 104 +

FAD2 KO 4 -43 bp/-43 bp 104 +

FAD2 KO 5 -43 bp/-43 bp 104 Undetected

Gml 83-5

FAD2 KO 7 -43 bp/-43 bp 104 +

FAD2 KO 8 -4 bp/-4 bp 103 +

FAD2 KO 9 -43 bp/-43 bp 104 +

FAD2 KO 1 -4 bp/-4 bp 105 +

FAD2 KO 4 -4 bp/WT 105 +

FAD2 KO 5 -4 bp/-4 bp 105 +

Gml 83-6 FAD2 KO 7 -4 bp/WT 105 +

FAD2 KO 11 -4 bp/WT 105 +

FAD2 KO 12 -4 bp/WT 105 +

FAD2 KO 14 -4 bp/WT 105 +

Gml 84-3 WT 20 -4 bp/-4 bp 106 +

TABLE 8

Combinations of FAD 2 and FAD 3 mutations

OTHER EMBODIMENTS

It is to be understood that while the invention has been described in conjunction with the detailed description thereof, the foregoing description is intended to illustrate and not limit the scope of the invention, which is defined by the scope of the appended claims. Other aspects, advantages, and modifications are within the scope of the following claims.