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Title:
A MONITORING SYSTEM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/165510
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A monitoring system including: a temperature sensor configured to be connected to a water system; a processing module in communication with the temperature sensor, the processing module configured to: receive temperature related information from the temperature sensor; retrieve a pre-set change in temperature parameter; process the temperature related information to monitor for the pre-set change in temperature parameter; and based on the identification of the pre-set change in temperature parameter over one or more predetermined time parameters, provide a performance indication relating to the water system.

Inventors:
HAY, Gary (Level 55525 Collins S, Melbourne Victoria 3000, 3000, AU)
HARDT, Jake (Level 54525 Collins S, Melbourne Victoria 3000, 3000, AU)
Application Number:
AU2019/050177
Publication Date:
September 06, 2019
Filing Date:
March 01, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
RELIANCE WORLDWIDE CORPORATION (AUST.) PTY. LTD. (Level 54, 525 Collins StMelbourne, Victoria 3000, 3000, AU)
International Classes:
G01K13/02; G02B21/18; E03B7/07; G01K3/00; F24D19/10
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
ALLENS PATENT & TRADE MARK ATTORNEYS (101 Collins Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, 3000, AU)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims:

1. A monitoring system including:

a temperature sensor configured to be connected to a water system;

a processing module in communication with the temperature sensor, the processing module configured to:

receive temperature related information from the temperature sensor;

retrieve a pre-set change in temperature parameter;

process the temperature related information to monitor for the pre-set change in temperature parameter; and

based on the identification of the pre-set change in temperature parameter over one or more predetermined time parameters, provide an indication relating to the water system.

2. The monitoring system of claim 1 , wherein the identification of the pre-set change in temperature parameter over the one or more predetermined time parameters includes retrieving time information associated with the temperature related information.

3. The monitoring system of claim 1 or 2, wherein the identification of the pre- set change in temperature parameter over the one or more predetermined time parameters relates to a profile.

4. The monitoring system of claim 3, wherein the profile is related to a normal use profile, a stagnant profile and/or a thermal disinfection profile.

5. The monitoring system of claim 4, wherein the normal use profile is based on a temperature change in the system over time due to a user distributing water from the water system.

6. The monitoring system of claim 5, wherein based on not receiving a normal use profile over a predetermine stagnation time, the indication is in the form of a stagnant indication.

7. The monitoring system of any one of claims 4 to 6, wherein the stagnant profile is based on a temperature change associated with water in a pipe transferring energy with an ambient temperature.

8. The monitoring system of any one of claims 4 to 7, wherein the thermal disinfection profile is based on holding a temperature of the water system relative to a prefixed disinfection temperature for a predetermined thermal sterilisation time.

9. The monitoring system of any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the pre-set change in temperature parameter includes a hot water temperature parameter, associated with a hot water pipe of the water system, and a cold water

temperature parameter, associated with a cold water pipe of the water system.

10. The monitoring system of any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the pre-set change in temperature parameter includes a predetermined temperature range.

11. The monitoring system of claim 10, wherein based on the temperature related information indicating a change in temperature being out or within the predetermined temperature range, the processing module is configured to provide the indication relating to the water system.

12. The monitoring system of any one of claims 1 to 1 1 , wherein the pre-set change in temperature parameter includes a predetermined temperature threshold.

13. The monitoring system of claim 12, wherein based on the temperature related information indicating a change in temperature beyond the predetermined temperature threshold, over the one or more predetermined time parameters, the processing module is configured to provide the indication relating to the water system .

14. The monitoring system of any one of claims 1 to 13, wherein the processing module retrieves the pre-set change in temperature parameter from a user configurable input.

15. The monitoring system of any one of claims 1 to 14, wherein the indication relates to a flushing status.

16. The monitoring system of any one claims 1 to 15, wherein the indication includes an alarm.

17. The monitoring system of any one of claims 1 to 16, wherein the processing module is configured to communicate a location of the temperature sensor.

18. The monitoring system of any one of claims 1 to 17, wherein the processing module is configured to record associated remedial action taken after providing the indication relating to the water system.

19. The monitoring system of claim 18, wherein the associated remedial action is based on a change in temperature.

20. The monitoring system of any one of claims 1 to 19, wherein the

processing module is configured to store the indication until a communication signal is established.

21. The monitoring system of any one of claims 1 to 20, wherein the

temperature sensor is configured to engage with an outer surface of a pipe in a non-invasive manner to suitably measure temperature of the pipe.

22. A method for monitoring a water system, the method including: receiving temperature related information from a temperature sensor;

processing the temperature related information to monitor for pre-set change in temperature parameter; and

based on the detection of the pre-set change in temperature parameter over one or more predetermined time parameters, alerting an operator that remedial action is required.

23. The method of claim 22, wherein the step of detecting the pre-set change in temperature parameter over the one or more predetermined time parameters includes comparing a change in temperature with a time input to determine whether remedial action is required.

24. The method of claim 23, wherein the step of comparing the change in temperature with the time input includes determining whether the temperature has reached a predetermined value and/or range.

25. The method of any one of claims 23 to 24, wherein the step of alerting the operator that remedial action is required includes indicating a location where the remedial action is required.

Description:
A MONITORING SYSTEM

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001 ] The invention relates to a monitoring system. In particular, the invention relates, but is not limited, to a monitoring system for temperature to determine potential bacteria colonisation. The invention also relates to a method of monitoring temperature for potential bacteria colonisation.

BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION

[0002] Reference to background art herein is not to be construed as an admission that such art constitutes common general knowledge in Australia or elsewhere.

[0003] Legionella outbreaks and the alike are still unfortunately common in many water systems, particularly in hospitals and aged care facilities. In order to reduce the risk of waterborne bacteria, preventative measures currently include, but are not limited, to chemical dosing a water distribution system. However, such practices may have a corrosive effect on components within the water distribution system, creating further problems.

[0004] Measures for reducing the risk of waterborne bacteria also include flushing water systems in order to increase water turnover and reduce stagnation. That being said, it is currently difficult to determine where water stagnation may occur in a system, despite new designs reducing dead legs and the alike. In this regard, maintenance technicians spend a significant amount of time flushing water systems on a regular basis (sometimes unnecessarily) to reduce the risk of waterborne bacteria.

[0005] In addition, proper thermal control of water systems (i.e. keeping hot water hot and cold water cold) may also assist in avoiding an ideal bacterial growth range but this has, for example, further cost implications in heating and cooling. Thermal disinfection processes are currently carried out to assist in managing bacterial growth but again this is a manual process without a direct form of feedback.

[0006] Separately, samples for laboratory culture may be taken from a water source to determine the risk of waterborne bacteria. However, testing such samples takes time and increases the potential for bacterial growth to go undetected until, for example, a patient acquires an infection. Furthermore, such testing is expensive and does not provide timely feedback.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

[0007] In one form, the invention resides in a monitoring system including: a temperature sensor configured to be connected to a water system;

a processing module in communication with the temperature sensor, the processing module configured to:

receive temperature related information from the temperature sensor;

retrieve a pre-set change in temperature parameter;

process the temperature related information to monitor for the pre- set change in temperature parameter; and

based on the identification of the pre-set change in temperature parameter over one or more predetermined time parameters, provide an indication relating to the water system.

[0008] In order to alert operators of potentially hazardous conditions, the monitoring system advantageously provides an indication of the water system performance, based on change in temperature over time, through an indication. Using a change in temperature over time, as opposed to simply logging

temperature and/or looking for changes in temperature, provides a convenient and useful way to assist in determining the health of a water system. Furthermore, the use of a change in temperature over a predetermined time parameter also assists in avoiding false positives. Once the operator is aware of a poor performance indication, the operator may take remedial action in order to rectify the health of the system in an appropriate manner.

[0009] In an embodiment, the identification of the pre-set change in

temperature parameter over the one or more predetermined time parameters includes retrieving time information associated with the temperature related information.

[0010] In an embodiment, the identification of the pre-set change in

temperature parameter over the one or more predetermined time parameters relates to a profile.

[0011 ] In an embodiment, the profile is associated with the indication.

[0012] In an embodiment, the pre-set change in temperature parameter is related to a normal use profile, a stagnant profile and/or a thermal disinfection profile.

[0013] In an embodiment, the normal use profile is based on a temperature change in the system (over time) due to a user distributing water from the water system .

[0014] In an embodiment, in response to identifying the normal use profile, the processing module may remain idle in external communication as the water system is in good health.

[0015] In an embodiment, based on not receiving a normal use profile over a predetermine stagnation time, the indication is in the form of a stagnant indication (i.e. flushing required).

[0016] In an embodiment, the stagnant profile is based on a temperature change associated with water in a pipe transferring energy with an ambient temperature.

[0017] In an embodiment, the stagnation profile includes correlating the temperature change with the one or more predetermined time parameters.

[0018] In an embodiment, the thermal disinfection profile is based on holding a temperature of the water system relative to a prefixed disinfection temperature for a predetermined thermal sterilisation time. [0019] In embodiment, the pre-set change in temperature parameter includes a hot water temperature parameter, associated with a hot water pipe of the water system, and a cold water temperature parameter, associated with a cold water pipe of the water system.

[0020] In an embodiment, the hot water temperature parameter and/or the cold water temperature parameter is related to a normal use profile, a stagnant profile and/or a thermal disinfection profile.

[0021 ] In an embodiment, the pre-set change in temperature parameter includes a predetermined temperature range.

[0022] In an embodiment, based on the temperature related information indicating a change in temperature being out or within the predetermined temperature range, the processing module is configured to provide the indication relating to the water system.

[0023] In an embodiment, based on identification of the predetermined temperature range over the one or more predetermined time parameters, the processing module is configured to provide the (performance) indication relating to the water system.

[0024] In an embodiment, the pre-set change in temperature parameter includes a predetermined temperature threshold.

[0025] In an embodiment, based on the temperature related information indicating a change in temperature beyond the predetermined temperature threshold, over the one or more predetermined time parameters, the processing module is configured to provide the indication relating to the water system.

[0026] In an embodiment, the processing module retrieves the pre-set change in temperature parameter from a user configurable input. This allows different parameters to be set for each water system.

[0027] In an embodiment, the user configurable input includes inputs for the hot water pipe and the cold water pipe.

[0028] In an embodiment, the (performance) indication relates to a flushing status. [0029] In an embodiment, the flushing status includes a stagnant condition, a thermal flush and/or a chemical flush.

[0030] In an embodiment, the stagnant condition is based on the stagnant profile and/or the absence of the normal use profile.

[0031 ] In an embodiment, the indication includes an alarm.

[0032] In an embodiment, the processing module is configured to

communicate a location of the temperature sensor.

[0033] In an embodiment, the processing module provides the location of the temperature sensor based on it providing the indication. In a further embodiment, the processing module may receive a location request from a device.

[0034] In an embodiment, the location of the temperature sensor is provided as a location input to the processing module.

[0035] In an embodiment, the location input is associated with the temperature sensor installation location. On this basis, operators may program where different temperature sensors are located in the water system whilst they are being installed.

[0036] In an embodiment, the processing module communicates the location of the temperature sensor along with the flush status. In this regard, this allows an operator to determine the location and type of remedial action required in the water system.

[0037] In an embodiment, the processing module is configured to record associated remedial action taken after providing the performance indication relating to the water system.

[0038] In an embodiment, the associated remedial action is based on a change in temperature.

[0039] In an embodiment, the processing module is configured to store the indication until a communication signal is established.

[0040] In an embodiment, the processing module is configured to

communicate with a separate device. [0041 ] In an embodiment, the processing module is configured to

communicate wirelessly with a mobile device and/or building management system .

[0042] In an embodiment, in response to the mobile device being within range of the processing module, the processing module is configured to communicate the stored indication relating to the water system.

[0043] In an embodiment, the processing module is configured to trigger an alarm on the mobile device based on providing the indication thereto.

[0044] In an embodiment, the processing module is configured to

communicate with a server.

[0045] In an embodiment, the processing module is configured to

communicate with the server in order to store information thereon.

[0046] In an embodiment, the processing module provides the indication relating to the water system to the server for distribution therefrom.

[0047] In an embodiment, the temperature sensor is configured to be mounted on a pipe of the water system.

[0048] In an embodiment, the temperature sensor is biased onto the pipe with a spring.

[0049] In an embodiment, the temperature sensor is non-invasive to the pipe of the water system.

[0050] In an embodiment, the temperature sensor is in the form of a surface mounted thermistor.

[0051 ] In another form the invention resides in a method for monitoring a water system, the method including:

receiving temperature related information from a temperature sensor; processing the temperature related information to monitor for a pre-set change in temperature parameter; and based on the detection of the pre-set change in temperature parameter over one or more predetermined time parameters, alerting an operator that remedial action is required.

[0052] In an embodiment, the step of detecting the pre-set change in temperature parameter over the one or more predetermined time parameters includes comparing a change in temperature with a time input to determine whether remedial action is required.

[0053] In an embodiment, the step of comparing the change in temperature with the time input includes determining whether the temperature has reached a predetermined value and/or range.

[0054] In an embodiment, the method further includes correlating whether the pre-set change in temperature parameter is a normal use temperature change, a stagnant temperature change and/or a thermal disinfection temperature change.

[0055] In an embodiment, the step of alerting the operator that remedial action is required includes indicating a location where the remedial action is required.

[0056] In an embodiment, the step of alerting the operator that remedial action is required includes indicating that flushing of the water system is required.

[0057] As will be understood from this specification, the invention provides a monitoring system and method which addresses at least in part one or more of the disadvantages or problems noted above or at least provides a useful alternative.

[0058] Further features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0059] By way of example only, preferred embodiments of the invention will be described more fully hereinafter with reference to the accompanying figures, wherein:

Figure 1 illustrates a monitoring system, according to an embodiment of the invention; and Figure 2 illustrates a monitoring device, as shown in Figure 1 , according to an embodiment of the invention;

Figure 3 illustrates a further monitoring device, according to an

embodiment of the invention;

Figure 4 illustrates a method of monitoring a water system, with the monitoring system in Figure 1 , according to an embodiment of the invention;

Figure 5 illustrates a first set of temperature related information associated with the monitoring system shown in Figure 1 , according to an embodiment of the invention; and

Figure 6 illustrates a second set of temperature related information associated with the monitoring system shown in Figure 1 , according to an embodiment of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0060] Figure 1 illustrates a monitoring system 10 for monitoring the water system 20. The water system 20 includes a hot water pipe 22 and a cold water pipe 24. The hot water pipe 22 and cold water pipe 24 are connected to a variety of fittings that assist in flushing particular sections of water system 20 upon activation. By way of example, the water system 20 includes a number of bathroom taps that assist in flushing parts of the water system 20 when in use.

[0061 ] The monitoring system 10 includes monitoring devices 30. As shown further in Figure 2, each monitoring device 30 includes a temperature sensor 100 that is in communication with a processing module 200. Monitoring devices 30 are located at various locations on the water system 20 and at least one monitoring device 30 is included on each of the hot water pipe 22 and the cold water pipe 24.

[0062] The temperature sensor 100 in this embodiment is in the form of a surface mounted thermistor. The surface mounted thermistor is configured to be biased onto part of a water pipe in the system 20 with the assistance of a spring (not shown). In further embodiments, it will be appreciated that the other temperature sensors such as resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) and the alike may be used in the present invention, but the surface thermistor in this embodiment provides a relatively cheap and reasonably accurate sensor.

[0063] Figure 3 illustrates a further monitoring device 30a that may be used in the monitoring system 10. The monitoring device 30a includes a temperature sensor 100a and a processing module 200a. In contrast to the monitoring device 30, the temperature sensor 100a is not under bias. The temperature sensor 100a proceeds through a hole in a casing to allow it to be situated between the casing and a water pipe. The processing module 200a performs the same functions as the processing module 200, the details of which are outlined below.

[0064] The processing module 200 is configured to receive temperature related information from the temperature sensor 100. Based on this temperature information, the processing module 200 is configured to determine a related temperature of the water system 20 adjacent thereto. In addition, the processing module 200 is configured to retrieve one or more pre-set change in temperature parameters from memory. The pre-set change in temperature parameters may include different parameters between the hot water pipe 22 and the cold water pipe 24. The pre-set change in temperature parameters may also be entered by a user into the processing module 200 through a user interface or the alike.

Alternatively, the pre-set change in temperature parameters may be a factory setting. The pre-set change in temperature parameters may also be established relative to, for example, an ambient temperature.

[0065] Along with the pre-set change in temperature parameters, the processing module 200 is configured to retrieve one or more predetermined time parameters. The predetermined time parameters are correlated with the pre-set change in temperature parameters to form a number of temperature profiles. Based on these temperature profiles, whether they are detected or undetected, the processing module 200 is configured to provide a performance indication relating to the health of the water system 20.

[0066] In this embodiment, one or more normal use profiles are available. These normal use profiles correlate to a typically change in temperature in response to a user turning on a tap in the water system 20. The normal use profiles can be established for either the hot water pipe 22 or the cold water pipe 24, respectively.

[0067] With the above in mind, it will also be appreciated that if a normal use profile has not been detected by the processing module 200 over a predetermined stagnation time, the processing module 200 is configured to provide a

performance indication in the form of a stagnant indication.

[0068] Alternatively, a stagnant indication may be provided based on the processing module 200 detecting a stagnant use profile. That is, based on a pre- set change in temperature over a predetermined time, indicating that water is stagnant and gradually transferring energy with its surrounding environment, the processing module 200 is configured to provide a stagnant indication.

[0069] In a further form, the performance indication relating to the water system 20 may be based on a profile where falling within or outside of a

predetermined temperature range, over a predetermined time parameter, is a cause for remedial action. By way of example, if the water system 20 falls within a temperature of 20°C-45°C over a predetermined time parameter, ideal for bacterial growth, an indication can be provided that remedial action is required. Similarly, if a temperature is recorded beyond (i.e. under or over) a predetermined temperature threshold, over the one or more predetermined time parameters, the processing module 200 is configured to provide a performance indication relating to the water system 20.

[0070] A further temperature profile the processing module 200 is configured to detect, based on one or more of the pre-set change in temperature parameters, relates to thermal disinfection profile. This thermal disinfection profile is

associated with changing the temperature to at, near or above a prefixed disinfection temperature. Following this, a successful thermal disinfection process is identified by holding water temperature in the associated water system 20 to at, near or above the prefixed disinfection temperature for a predetermined thermal sterilisation time.

[0071 ] As indicated above, based on the pre-set change in temperature parameter (or the temperature profiles), the processing module 200 is configured to provide an indication relating to the water system 20 (i.e. a stagnant indication, a thermal disinfection indication etc.). As part of providing the indication, a flush status may be included (i.e. system flush required). In order to provide the indication relating to the water system 20 in this embodiment, the processing module 200 relies on establishing a Bluetooth connection with a mobile device 300.

[0072] With the above in mind, one processing module 200 in this

embodiment has a field 210 that establishes communications with the mobile device 300. In the event that the processing module 200 with field 210 has a performance indication to indicate, it will pass it onto the mobile device 300 when in range. Once the mobile device 300 receives the indication, it can alert a user if remedial action is required in the water system 20. Furthermore, the mobile device 300 is configured to pass information onto server 400 for storage and distribution to other devices. In further embodiments, where the processing modules 200 have an internet/mobile connection, they may communicate directly with the server 400, or other devices, to provide (performance) indications that can be passed onto users in the event that remedial action is required.

[0073] In the case of the other processing module 200 with the field 220, this field 220 is not in range with the mobile device 300. On this basis, the processing module 200 in this instance is configured to store its (performance) indication, assuming it has been triggered, and pass it onto the mobile device 300 when it comes into range. Accordingly, the monitoring system 10 is reliant on the mobile device 300 being moved in this embodiment, potentially via a maintenance worker doing a hospital round. This is an economical manner to implement the monitoring system 10 into current infrastructure. However, it will be appreciated that in further embodiments that direct communication between the processing module 200 and server 400, along with other devices, may allow alerts to be sent upon receipt of a performance indication requiring remedial action.

[0074] Figure 4 illustrates a method 1000 of monitoring a water system using the system 10, according to an embodiment of the invention. At step 1100, the processing modules 200 respectively receive temperature related information from the temperature sensors 100. An example of this temperature related information is shown in Figures 5 and 6.

[0075] At step 1200, the processing module 200 monitors the temperature related data to determine whether a pre-set change in temperature parameter has occurred. In this embodiment, the following pre-set change in temperature parameters may occur but it will be appreciated that in further embodiments other change in temperature parameters may be programmed and monitored.

[0076] At step 1300a, in the event that a relatively small change in

temperature (i.e. 5 degrees) over a predetermined flush time (e.g. approximately 60 seconds) is detected, this is an indication that a tap in either a hot or cold pipe 22, 24 has been turned on. This relates to a normal use profile which provides an indication that the water system 20 is being flushed in a particular area. This reduces the risk of bacterial growth. An example of a water tap turning on and off is shown in Figure 5 as line 510. In response to the processing module 200 detecting the normal use profile, the processing module 200 returns to step 1100 and continues to process the temperature related data. It may also record its detection of the normal use profile for later user review.

[0077] At step 1300b, in response to not receiving a normal use profile associated with the water system 20 over a predetermined stagnation time, the processing module 200 is configured to provide an indication in the form of a stagnant indication at step 1400. This stagnant indication is communicated via Bluetooth to the mobile device 300 when in range. In the event that the mobile device 300 is not in range, the processing module 200 stores the indication until the mobile device 300 is in range. In further embodiments, as outlined above, it will be appreciated that the processing module 200 may be in direct

communication with the server 400 to assist in distributing the indication. It will also be appreciated that the communication in the present invention may take a variety of forms (e.g. Wi-Fi, ZigBee, 3G, 4G, 5G, RFID etc.). As part of

communicating the indication, the processing module 200 may also communicate its location to the mobile device 300 to assist the operator in finding its position. The location of the processing module 200 (or the temperature sensor 100) may be programmed into the system 10 during installation. [0078] At 1300c, an alternative form of determining whether stagnant water is present is available. That is, based on a pre-set change in temperature over a separate predetermined stagnation time, the processing module 200 is configured to provide a stagnant indication. By way of example, if the temperature of a mixed water outlet/line becomes notably warmer over a period of time, moving towards the ambient temperature of its environment, this normally indicates that stagnant water is present. An illustration of this indicated by line 520 in Figure 5. Once detected, this stagnant indication is communicated via Bluetooth to the mobile device 300 when in range.

[0079] With the above in mind, a further form for determining stagnant water may include profile 530 along line 540 in Figure 6. That is, in response to a change in temperature falling outside of a predetermined range for a

predetermined time, or beyond a predetermined temperature threshold (shown as line 542) for a predetermined time, a stagnant indication may be established.

[0080] At step 1300d, the processing module 200 may detect a pre-set change in temperature parameter in the form of a thermal disinfection event. A thermal disinfection event involves raising the temperature in the water system 20 to at, near or above a prefixed disinfection temperature (e.g. about 60°C). In order to carry out a thermal disinfection event, the water system 20 typically needs to be flushed whilst overriding a thermostatic valve. In this regard, it will be appreciated that the processing module 200 is configured to separately detect between a normal use profile at step 1300a and a thermal disinfection profile at step 1300d.

In response to recording a consistent temperature at, near or above the prefixed disinfection temperature over the thermal sterilisation time the processing module 200 is configured to provide a performance indication in the form of a successful thermal disinfection process at step 1400. This in turn provides an indication to a user that the risk of bacterial growth has been reduced. By way of example, profile 550 along line 540 illustrates a successful thermal disinfection event. Other examples of successful thermal disinfection event may include: i) holding 66°C for approximately 2 minutes; ii) holding 60°C for approximately 32 minutes; and ii) holding 55°C for approximately 5 to 6 hours. [0081 ] At step 1500, in response to receiving a stagnant indication through steps 1300b, 1300c, the processing module 200 is configured to record the remedial action taken by a user thereafter. This remedial work may be

communicated to the mobile device 300 for keeping a record on server 400.

[0082] The monitoring system 10 and method 1000 advantageously provides an indication of the water system performance, based on change in temperature, through a performance indication. Once the operator is aware of a poor

performance indication, the operator may take remedial action in order to rectify the health of the system 20 in an appropriate manner. Furthermore, the

successful thermal disinfection indication or normal use indication provide further reassurances that the system 20 is being suitably maintained to assist in avoiding bacterial growth. In particular, as a thermal disinfection process may be carried out in different parts of the system 20, and as it is at the operator's discretion on which outlets are turned on and for how long, being able to successfully detect and log thermal disinfection events provides further reassurance that the system 20 as a whole is being maintained.

[0083] The monitoring devices 30, 30a are easily configured to be attached to the water system 20. By way of example, the temperature devices 100, 100a do not require to be invasively inserted into the water system 20. In addition, the ability of the processing modules 200, 200a to communicate with mobile devices 300 readily assists users in identifying potential risks during, for example, their maintenance rounds. Moreover, the ability to record the performance of the system 20 and the remedial actions taken assists in further reducing the risk of adverse water health.

[0084] The monitoring system 10 can also be readily adapted to different environments due to its configurability. By way of example, as regularly flushing a system is not required as often in industrial applications, in comparison to hospital applications, the required frequency of normal use profiles may be adjusted.

Furthermore, the different ways to determine whether a stagnant condition is present allows more versatility in suitably monitoring the system 20. For example, it may be more suitable to use profile 530 in detecting a stagnant condition in a recirculation line whilst carrying out step 1300b may be more appropriate in dead legs and outlets of the system 20.

[0085] In addition, it is noted that once data has been sent to the server 400 or the alike, via mobile device 300 or directly by the processing modules 200, 200a, this data can be access by a web platform for further analysis, performance review and so forth. This further assists in managing the commercial risk associated with the water system 20.

[0086] In this specification, adjectives such as left and right, top and bottom, first and second, and the like may be used to distinguish one element or action from another element or action without necessarily requiring or implying any actual such relationship or order. Where context permits, reference to a

component, an integer or step (or the alike) is not to be construed as being limited to only one of that component, integer, or step, but rather could be one or more of that component, integer or step.

[0087] The above description relating to embodiments of the present invention is provided for purposes of description to one of ordinary skill in the related art. It is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to a single disclosed embodiment. As mentioned above, numerous alternatives and variations to the present invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the above teaching. Accordingly, while some alternative embodiments have been discussed specifically, other embodiments will be apparent or relatively easily developed by those of ordinary skill in the art. The invention is intended to embrace all modifications, alternatives, and variations of the present invention that have been discussed herein, and other embodiments that fall within the spirit and scope of the above described invention.

[0088] In this specification, the terms‘comprises’,‘comprising’,‘includes’, ‘including’, or similar terms are intended to mean a non-exclusive inclusion, such that a method, system or apparatus that comprises a list of elements does not include those elements solely, but may include other elements not listed.