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Title:
MULTI-MODE UPS SYSTEM WITH AN IMPROVED ENERGY SAVER MODE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/234046
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An uninterruptible power supply - UPS - system (100, 100') operable in an energy saver mode is disclosed, which comprises a static bypass switch (110, 110') being connected between an input connector and an output connector of the UPS system (100, 100') and being activatable to operate the UPS system (100, 100') in the energy saver mode, several power modules (120, 130, 121, 131, 120', 130', 121', 131') each being connected between the input connector and the output connector of the UPS system (100, 100') and at least some of the power modules being controllable for a reactive power compensation, and a controller (180) being configured to control one or more of the controllable power modules (120, 130, 121, 131, 120', 130', 121', 131') depending on a data input related to a reactive power compensation.

Inventors:
BERGER, Jan-Erik (Porintie 9 G 79, Helsinki, 00350, FI)
KOHTAMÄKI, Tuomo (Helsinginkatu 22 C74, Helsinki, 00530, FI)
SJÖBERG, Anders (Ylämäentie 19, Espoo, 02760, FI)
Application Number:
EP2018/064963
Publication Date:
December 27, 2018
Filing Date:
June 07, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
EATON INTELLIGENT POWER LIMITED (30 Pembroke Road, Dublin, 4, 4, IE)
International Classes:
H02J3/18; G05F1/70; H02J9/06
Foreign References:
US6295215B12001-09-25
US20050043859A12005-02-24
US20120181871A12012-07-19
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
EATON IP GROUP EMEA (Route de la Longeraie 7, 1110 Morges, 1110, CH)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. An uninterruptible power supply - UPS - system (100, 100') operable in an

energy saver mode, comprising a static bypass switch (110, 110') being connected between an input connector and an output connector of the UPS system (100, 100') and being activatable to operate the UPS system (100, 100') in the energy saver mode,

- several power modules (120, 130, 121, 131, 120', 130', 121', 131') each being connected between the input connector and the output connector of the UPS system (100, 100') and at least some of the power modules being controllable for a reactive power compensation, and a controller (180) being configured to control one or more of the controllable power modules (120, 130, 121, 131, 120', 130', 121', 131') depending on a data input related to a reactive power compensation.

2. The system (100, 100') of claims 1, wherein the controller (180) is configured to control one or more of the controllable power modules (120, 130, 121, 131, 120', 130', 121', 131') depending on the data input such that a reactive power flow via the UPS system (100, 100') between a power supply connected to the input connector and a load (170) connected to the output connector is adjusted according to a required reactive power compensation when the UPS system (100, 100') is operated in the energy saver mode.

3. The system (100, 100') of claim 2, wherein the controller (180) is configured to determine the required reactive power compensation based on the data input and to determine a number of active power modules (120, 130, 121, 131, 120', 130', 121', 131') for obtaining the required reactive power compensation.

4. The system (100, 100') of claim 3, wherein the controller (180) is configured to determine the number of active power modules (120, 130, 121, 131, 120', 130', 121', 131') by rounding up the result of the following equation to the next integer value: number of active power modules = required reactive power

compensation/maximum reactive power compensation per power module.

5. The system (100, 100') of any of the preceding claims, wherein the data input comprises one or more of the following data: a configured reactive load compensation requirement; a defined UPS system equivalent capacitance; a reactive power on the input side of the UPS system (100, 100') and/or a power factor.

6. The system (100, 100') of claim 5, wherein the controller (180) is configured to calculate a required reactive power compensation based on one or more of the data comprised by the data input.

7. The system (100, 100') of any of the preceding claims, wherein at least one of the controllable power modules (120, 130, 121, 131, 120', 130', 121', 131') comprises reactive power compensation means being controllable by the controller (180).

8. The system (100, 100') of claim 7, wherein the reactive power compensation means comprise a rectifier and an inverter being connected in series between the input connector and the output connector of the UPS system (100, 100'), and at least one of the rectifier and the inverter being controllable by the controller (180).

9. The system (100, 100') of any of the preceding claims, comprising measurement means for measurement the reactive power flow via the UPS system (100, 100') and/or the power factor of the system (100, 100') comprising the UPS system (100, 100') and a load (170) connected to the output connector of the UPS system (100, 100').

10. A method for operating an uninterruptible power supply - UPS - system (100, 100') of any of the preceding claims in an energy saver mode, comprising the steps of obtaining data for determining a required reactive power compensation (S12, S14, S16), determining the required reactive power compensation depending on the obtained data (S18], determining a number of power modules (120, 130, 121, 131, 120', 130', 121', 131') of the UPS system (100, 100') for the determined required reactive power compensation (S20), and controlling the determined number of power modules (120, 130, 121, 131, 120', 130', 121', 131') for achieving the determined required reactive power compensation (S22).

Description:
DESCRIPTION

TITLE

Multi-mode UPS system with an improved energy saver mode TECHNICAL FIELD This specification relates to a multi-mode UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) system, which can be operated in an energy saver mode.

BACKGROUND

Figure 1 shows a block diagram of a typical multi-mode UPS system 10 comprising a rectifier 12, an inverter 13, a battery converter 14, and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) 11. The UPS system 10 comprises an input connector for connecting it to a power supply system such as a grid 15, a battery connector for coupling the UPS system 10 to one or more rechargeable batteries 16, and an output connector for connecting it to a load 17. The input connector and the output connector can be provided either for one, 3- phase or generally a multi-phase power supply. Power supply fed to the input connector can come from separate power sources or from a shared power source.

The UPS system 10 can be operated in several different modes.

In a double conversion mode, the rectifier 12 generates a DC (direct current) link voltage from the voltage supplied to the input connector, and the inverter 13 generates an output AC (alternate current) voltage from the DC link voltage. The battery converter 14 uses the DC link voltage to charge the one or more batteries 16. During a power outage, the battery converter 14 maintains the DC link voltage while the inverter 13 continues to operate like in double conversion mode.

The UPS system 10 can also be put on bypass for maintenance purposes or because of a failure. In this so-called bypass mode, the UPS system 10 provides mains current directly to the load 17 through the SCR 11. In bypass mode, the load 17 is however not protected from power outages.

The UPS system 10 can also support an energy saver mode. In such mode, the UPS system 10 provides mains current directly to the load 17 through the SCR 11, and the DC link voltage is taken from the output connector. The inverter 13 and the rectifier 12 are commanded off to save power. However, when the bypass voltage goes out of its limits or there is some other condition preventing switching the UPS system 10 into the energy saver mode, the UPS system 10 immediately transfers back to double conversion mode to protect the load 17. The main reason for using the energy saver mode is the improved operation efficiency.

The input power factor of the UPS system 10 may incur a problem in the energy saver mode. In the double conversion mode, the rectifier 12 can control the input power factor and depending on the design of the UPS system 10, the amount of reactive current can be close to zero. In the energy saver mode, the UPS system 10 has no control over the power factor, and the load 17 connected to the UPS output, which may draw reactive power, may cause a lower power factor on the UPS input connector. Capacitors at the input of the rectifier 12 and at the output of the inverter 13 may also draw reactive current and, thus, may contribute to a lower power factor of the UPS system 10.

The international patent application WO2014201309A1 discloses a multi-mode UPS system, which is operable in an economy mode like the above described energy saver mode. In the economy mode, at least one of the rectifier and the inverter o the UPS system is activated, and that at least one of the rectifier and the inverter is operable to perform at least one of DC voltage regulation, reactive power compensation, and active damping. SUMMARY

This specification describes an improved multi-mode UPS system.

According a first aspect, an improved UPS system being operable in an energy saver mode comprises several power modules each being connected between the input connector and the output connector of the UPS system and at least some of the power modules being controllable for a reactive power compensation. The reactive power compensation may be performed depending on a data input related to a reactive load compensation.

According to a first embodiment, a UPS system operable in an energy saver mode is disclosed. The system comprises a static bypass switch being connected between an input connector and an output connector of the UPS system and being activatable to operate the UPS system in the energy saver mode, several power modules each being connected between the input connector and the output connector of the UPS system and at least some of the power modules being controllable for a reactive power compensation, and a controller being configured to control one or more of the controllable power modules depending on a data input related to a reactive power compensation. In some embodiments, the controller may be configured to control the one or more of the controllable power modules depending on the data input such that a reactive power flow via the UPS system between a power supply connected to the input connector and a load connected to the output connector is adjusted according to a required reactive power compensation when the UPS system is operated in the energy saver mode. In some embodiments, the controller may be configured to determine the required reactive power compensation based on the data input and to determine a number of active power modules for obtaining the required reactive power compensation.

In some embodiments, the controller may be configured to determine the number of active power modules by rounding up the result of the following equation to the next integer value: number of active power modules = required reactive power compensation/maximum reactive power compensation per power module.

In some embodiments, the data input may comprise one or more of the following data: a configured reactive load compensation requirement; a defined UPS system equivalent capacitance; a reactive power on the input side of the UPS system and/or a power factor.

In some embodiments, the controller may be configured to calculate a required reactive power compensation based on one or more of the data comprised by the data input.

In some embodiments, at least one of the controllable power modules may comprise reactive power compensation means being controllable by the controller.

In a specific embodiment, the reactive power compensation means may comprise a rectifier and an inverter being connected in series between the input connector and the output connector of the UPS system, and at least one of the rectifier and the inverter being controllable by the controller. In some embodiments, the system may comprise measurement means for measuring the reactive power flow via the UPS system and/or the power factor of the system comprising the UPS system and a load connected to the output connector of the UPS system.

According to a second aspect, , a method for operating a UPS system in an energy saver mode is disclosed, the method comprising the steps of obtaining data for determining a required reactive power compensation, determining the required reactive power compensation depending on the obtained data, determining a number of power modules of the UPS system for the determined required reactive power compensation, and controlling the determined number of power modules for achieving the determined required reactive power compensation.

Details of one or more embodiments are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features and advantages will be apparent from the description, the drawings and from the claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS Fig. 1 shows a block diagram of a prior-art multi-mode UPS system; Fig. 2 shows a block diagram of an embodiment of a multi-mode UPS system; and

Fig. 3 shows a flowchart of an embodiment of a control program for a multi-mode UPS system.

DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS In the following, functionally similar or identical elements may have the same reference numerals. Absolute values are shown below by way of example only and should not be construed as limiting.

Figure 2 shows a block diagram of a multi-mode UPS system comprising two parallel connected UPS systems 100, 100' for supplying a load 170, for example server racks in a datacenter, being connected to the output connectors of the UPS systems 100, 100'. The input connectors of both UPS systems 100, 100' are connected to power supply means such as the grid 150.

Both UPS systems 100, 100' may be identically implemented, i.e. may comprise identical elements. In the following, only the implementation of the UPS system 100 is described in detail since the implementation of system 100' is identical.

UPS system 100 comprises a SCR 110, and two or even more power modules connected in parallel to the SCR 110 between the input connector and the output connector of the UPS system 100. Each power module may comprise a series connection of a rectifier 120, 121 and an inverter 130, 131. The connection point between the rectifier 120, 121 and the inverter 130, 131 comprises a branch connection to a battery and/or battery converter like in the UPS system 10 shown in Figure 1.

At least some of the power modules of both UPS systems 100, 100' are controllable, which means that they can be at least partly commanded off, particularly when the UPS system 100, 100' is operated in the energy saver mode. The at least partly commanding off may be implemented in that the rectifiers 120, 121 and/or inverters 130, 131 of the power modules can be activated or deactivated by means of a respective control signal. Either a rectifier or an inverter or even both can be used for a reactive power compensation.

The control of the rectifiers and/or inverters of the controller power modules of UPS systems 100, 100' is performed by a controller 180. The controller 180 may be an element external to or separated from the UPS systems 100, 100', or it may be implemented as an internal element of one or more of the UPS systems 100, 100'. The controller 180 may be for example implemented by a stationary or mobile computing device being configured to perform control of the power modules and comprising a data communication connection with the UPS systems 100, 100', for example wired or wireless LAN connection, a USB connection, or a Bluetooth connection. The controller 180 may be also for example integrated in an internal control electronic of the UPS systems 100, 100', particularly it may be integrated together with the power modules in an integrated circuit implementing a power electronics of the UPS system. The controller 180 may be implemented by a standard processor as it is applied for example in personal computers or a microcontroller and configured by a computer program implementing a control algorithm for performing the controller tasks required for a reactive power compensation. The controller 180 may also be implemented by an ASIC or a FPGA.

When the UPS system 100, 100' is operated in the energy saver mode, the SCR 110, 110' is activated so that electrical power from the grid 150 is directly supplied to the load 170. As explained in the introductory part, the power modules of both UPS systems 100, 100' are normally commanded off in this mode to save energy. The load 170 or the UPS system 100, 100' itself, particularly the input and/or output capacitors of the power modules, may however draw reactive power Q in the energy saver mode. A goal of the reactive power compensation is to eliminate the drawn reactive power Q so that ideally only active power P flows in the input of the UPS system, which would mean an ideal power factor of 1.

For reactive power compensation, a number of the power modules is determined by the controller 180, which are not completely commanded off, but either remain activated or are merely partly commanded off, for example by deactivating the inverter or the rectifier of a power module. The number of the power modules used for reactive power compensation versus the number of all power modules of a UPS system may depend on the following data input: the (amount of) reactive power compensation required in the energy saver mode may be a setting that can be modified according to customer's needs; the reactive power compensation may then be constant and may try to match this predetermined setting; and/or the (amount of) reactive power compensation required in the energy saver mode may be determined depending on the reactive power drawn by the load and/or the UPS system itself, the reactive power on the UPS input, and/or the power factor of the UPS system in the energy saver mode; and the maximum reactive power compensation that can be achieved by one power module (maximum compensation per power module).

The number of the power modules required for the reactive power compensation can be calculated from the data input using the following formula: number of active power modules = reactive power compensation / maximum compensation per power module

The result of the above formula can be rounded up to the next integer value. The maximum compensation per power module may be a configurable quantity, which may be set depending on the type of power module and is known by the algorithm. Particularly, it may be a value predefined in the algorithm and defining the maximum compensation which is possible per power module.

Power modules are commanded on or off according to the result of the calculation. If it is for example calculated that two power modules are needed for the compensation, the first and the second power module of a UPS system may be commanded on while the other power modules are commanded off. A rotation function for commanding on and off power modules according to a predetermined scheme can also be used to reduce the stress for individual power modules. For example, the reactive power compensation can be switched from one power module to another, for instance monthly. For example, so that if power module one and two handled the compensation in January power module two and three will do it in February, power module three and four in March and so on.

In energy saver mode, also the input power factor of the UPS system can be controlled by adjusting the level of reactive power compensation. The UPS system may constantly monitor the power factor and adjust the level of compensation trying to achieve an optimal power factor. The number of active power modules can be calculated using the formula described above. The number of power modules commanded on can change as the reactive power drawn by the load may change. A similar power module rotation function as above described can be used.

Next, an algorithm for controlling a reactive power compensation in energy saver mode of the UPS system 100, 100' is explained in detail with reference to the flowchart shown in Figure 3.

In step S10, the algorithm checks whether the energy saver mode of the UPS system 100, 100' is activated.

If the UPS system operates in the energy saver mode, the algorithm loads in step S12 as data input a configured reactive load compensation requirement if a corresponding setting has been input for example by a user.

In the following step S14, the algorithm loads as further data input a defined UPS equivalent capacitance which particularly corresponds to the sum capacitance of all power modules of the UPS system, particularly the sum capacitance of the input and output capacitors of the rectifiers and inverters comprised by the power modules. The algorithm may further determine in step S16 as data input the reactive power on the input side of the UPS system and/or the power factor of the UPS system, for example by obtaining measurements of the reactive power and/or power factor as data input from measurement means, which may be part of the entire system. It should be noted that two of the data inputs obtained in steps S12 to S16 may be optional, which means that only one data input is required for a reactive power compensation. It should also be noted that the steps S12 to S16 can be processed in another order or even simultaneously by the algorithm.

After obtaining the data inputs in steps S12 to S16, the algorithm determines in step S18 the required reactive power compensation.

If the required reactive power compensation was input as a user setting in step S12, the algorithm can directly use the setting.

If in step S14, a defined UPS equivalent capacitance was input, the algorithm may derive therefrom the required reactive power compensation incurred by the equivalent capacitance. The derivation could be for example calculated with the following formula: Q = C * 2 * pi * f * U A 2, where Q is the reactive power to be compensated (in Var), C is the equivalent capacitance (in F), f is the input frequency of the UPS power supply (in Hz), and U is the input voltage of the UPS power supply (in Volts). Since the input voltage and frequency can vary slightly, an actual measurement of the input voltage and frequency should be used in the calculation. For example, the input voltage and frequency can be constantly measured and the required reactive power compensation can be adjusted accordingly. So, the amount of the reactive power compensation based on the equivalent capacitance is not constant but almost since the UPS system usually only allows small variations in voltage and frequency. In an alternative approach, the required reactive power compensation could be calculated based on the nominal voltage and frequency of the UPS system, for example 230 V @ 50 Hz in Europe and use a constant compensation based on this.

If the algorithm determined in step S16 the actual reactive power and/or power factor, it can deduce the required reactive power compensation from these values or measurements.

In step S20, the algorithm determines the number of power modules, which are required for achieving the determined required reactive power compensation, particularly by calculating it with the above described formula by using the data input from steps S12 to S16.

The algorithm can use anyone of the data inputs obtained in steps S12, S14, and S16. Particularly, the algorithm may determine the usage of data input depending on whether it obtained in steps S12, S14, and S16, as will be explained in the following:

If the algorithm obtained no data input in step S16, but in steps S12 and S14, it may use the data input obtained in the later steps for the determination of the number of power modules to be used for reactive power compensation. The number of power modules determined in this way may be constant. If the algorithm obtained a data input in step S16, and also in steps S12 and S14, the data inputs obtained in steps S12 and S14 may be used as a starting points for the reactive power compensation, i.e. the algorithm may calculate an initial number of power modules to be used for an initial reactive power compensation from the data inputs obtained in steps S12 and S14 and may further adjust the number of modules and the reactive power compensation based on the data input obtained in step S16, for example based on actual measurements of the reactive power and/or power factor.

If the algorithm obtained only a data input in step S16 and no data inputs in steps S12 and S14, it may start with an initial configuration, where all power modules are commanded off and no reactive power compensation is performed by the power modules. Then, the algorithm may determine a number of power modules to be used for reactive power compensation and activate the determined number of power modules. The number of power modules may thereafter be adjusted depending on the actual data input obtained in step S16.

Finally, the algorithm controls in step S22 the determined number of power modules, particularly inverters and/or rectifiers of the determined number of power modules for the compensation. For example, the algorithm may generate control signals in step S22 to activate the rectifiers and deactivate the inverters of the determined number of power modules. However, it is also possible to active both the rectifiers and inverters of the determined number of power modules, or to deactivate the rectifiers and to activate the inverters.

At least some of the functionality may be performed by hard- or software. In case of an implementation in software, a single or multiple standard microprocessors or microcontrollers may be used to process a single or multiple algorithms.

It should be noted that the word "comprise" does not exclude other elements or steps, and that the word "a" or "an" does not exclude a plurality. Furthermore, any reference signs in the claims shall not be construed as limiting the scope of the this specification.