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Title:
MULTI-PHASE HOT BOILER
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/015780
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention relates to heat engineering, primarily to industrial thermal technology, namely to the field of fluid heating, e.g. water, using electricity. The invention can be used to simplify and cheapen manufacturing of any multi-phase appliances intended to heat fluids, primarily in industrial plants. For example, the invention can be used in the systems of circulating water heating, in self-regulating fluid heaters for autonomous heat and hot water supply, mobile heating and hot water systems, as a universal device for different electric heaters, to produce large amounts of hot water especially at industrial, agricultural and other facilities. The invention can be applied also in domestic water heaters if multi-phase power supply is available. The invention may be used to generate hot water in movable facilities, i.e. vessels, air-planes, vehicles. The invention has the following objectives: to increase the ease of manufacturing, assembly, operation and cleaning of multi-phase electrode assemblies and electrode heating boilers in whole, to increase reliability, design simplicity, mounting and operation safety. Another objective is to improve safety of devices and their components, in particular, electrode assemblies due to inaccuracies during assembly. Another objective is to increase the device durability, service life and maintainability. This is done by improving the appliance safety from changes in due course of the electrode shape and orientation in assemblies that is especially important at a large amount of electrodes in multi-phase industrial boilers. The invention solves the problem of expanding functional capabilities, versatility and flexibility of the device, expanding the possible product range and enhancing the adaptability to solve various particular problems. In addition, the invention enables to intentionally change and improve convection properties of water heating boilers. Also, the invention aims to increase the appliance protection against breakup between electrodes, to decrease uneven loading of phases by current, to protect electrodes against non-uniform deformation during operation in dynamic modes. The objective also includes simplification and expansion of variability ranges for the design, typical sizes and power output of multi-phase boilers that is especially important for industrial plants. According to the variant 1, the electrodes (1) of the device are directed inside the cylindrical casing (2) downward in near- vertical directions. The electrodes (1) are directed vertically downwards with a slight deviation from the longitudinal axis of symmetry of the casing (2) and from the longitudinal axes of all electrodes (1) of each electrode assembly (3). The electrodes (1) can be installed on various unequal distances from each other. The longitudinal axes of the electrodes (1) of all assemblies (3) may also form non-zero angles to each other of a part or all electrodes (2), which is simultaneously congruent with unequal distances between the electrodes (1). The electrodes (1) are grouped on a spatial basis - in three groups with three electrodes in each group, forming the assembly (3), which consists in this variant of three electrodes (1). Each electrode (1) in the assembly (3) can be a phase electrode, and in such case has a separate current lead (5). Also, the electrodes in the assembly (3) can be electrically connected together within one assembly (3). In this case, the electrode assemblies (3) are the phases and each assembly (3) has a separate current lead (5). The casing (2) is covered with the lid (6) and the electrode assemblies (3) with the electrodes (1) are fastened on the lid (6) outside the casing, so that the electrodes (1) pass through it into the casing (2). In this case the lid can be made either of a heat-resistant dielectric material or of a metal; then, the electrodes require an electrical insulation (7) from the lid (6). The lid (6) can be secured with bolts (8) and can be removable or it can be welded to the casing (2); and the electrodes (3) can be removable. The electrode assemblies (3) can be made removable as well. The multi-phase water boiler can be used independently; either its casing (2) is inserted into the open or into the circulating water heating system in any desired location. The water heating system is filled with water, treated in a usual manner, lapping its electrical resistivity, and the electrodes (1) of the boiler are connected, using leads (5) disposed outside its casing (2), to an external electrical polyphase circuit, e.g. a three-phase. Connection is performed depending on the particular variant of the device - either each electrode (1) of each assembly (3) is connected to its phase or the assembly (3) is completely connected to its phase. The cooled water from heating radiators passes in the casing (2) of the boiler through the inlet (4), where it is heated by current passing through the electrodes (1). The heated water comes from the casing (2) to consumers, e.g. heating radiators. The convection processes originated in the casing (2) of the boiler, when the water is heated between the electrodes (1), can be intentionally arranged by means of mutual orientation and location of the electrodes (1) and electrode assemblies (3) in such a way that the boiler can serve as a circulation pump without any forced water pumping in a closed system. The offered option of the mutual orientation and possibility of asymmetric arrangement of electrodes (1) against each other both in the casing and in the electrode assemblies (3) considerably contributes to it. It also allows relocating localization of sliming processes including on the electrodes alone. The suggested location of the electrodes (1) and electrode assemblies (3) enables the current path choosing and its density distribution varying. All the above provides optimization of the boiler efficiency both in static and dynamic modes of operation of multi-phase water boilers in all suggested configurations.

Inventors:
ILIN, Andrey Pavlovich (Orekhovyi bulvar, 57 of. 2, Mosow 2, 115682, RU)
Application Number:
IB2016/001209
Publication Date:
January 25, 2018
Filing Date:
July 20, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
KIM, No Eul (Bansong 2-Dong, 216-50Haeundae-gu, Busan, KR)
International Classes:
F22B1/30; F24H1/20; H05B3/03; H05B3/60
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. Multi-phase hot water boiler comprising:

a) a casing;

b) electrode assemblies at least two are located within the casing;

and each electrode assembly consists of electrodes, at least of one electrode, the electrodes are grouped by spatial criterion in electrode assembly;

and moreover, electrode assemblies are fastened asymmetrically relative to the casing and to each other;

and besides, electrodes in the assembly are arranged asymmetrically relative to the symmetry axes of the casing;

and besides, electrodes in the assembly are arranged asymmetrically relative to symmetry axes of each other if there is more than one electrode in the assembly.

2. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the electrode assemblies have external terminals.

3. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the electrodes have external terminals.

4. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the electrode assemblies are fastened to the casing with outer side.

5. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the electrodes are fastened to the casing with outer side.

6. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the number of electrodes is the same in each assembly.

7. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the number of electrodes is different in each assembly.

8. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which each electrode is the phase in each assembly.

9. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which each electrode assembly is the phase.

10. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the electrodes in each assembly are made with the same shape.

11. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the electrodes in each assembly are made with different shape.

12. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the electrodes in each assembly are made with the same shape, which differs from electrode used in other assemblies.

13. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1 , in which the electrodes in each assembly are made with different shape and differ from electrodes used in other assemblies.

14. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the electrodes in each assembly are made as rods.

1 . Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the electrodes have round shape in cross-section.

16. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the electrodes in cross section differ from round shape.

17. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the casing is fabricated from metal; and electrodes are electrically insulated from each other and from the casing.

18. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the casing has a flow-through inlet and outlet nipples.

19. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the casing is made with cylindrical shape.

20. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the casing is made with cylindrical shape and round cross-section.

21. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the casing is made with cylindrical shape the cross-section that differs from round.

22. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the casing is made with rectangular cross- section.

23. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the electrode assembly also contains at least one basis.

24. Multi -phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the electrode assemblies, which represent electrodes grouped by spatial criterion; at least, one electrode is fastened directly on the casing.

25. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the electrode assemblies, which represent electrodes grouped by spatial criterion; at least, one electrode is fastened on the basis; and the basis is fastened on the casing.

26. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 25, in which the electrode basis is made as a plate;

a) besides, electrodes are fastened on the plate on one side of its first surface in such a way that their longitudinal axes are close to the perpendicular direction to the first plate surface;

b) the first surface of the electrode basis is fastened with the casing outer side;

c) electrodes pass through the casing; and their free ends are directed inside the casing;

27. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 25, in which the electrode basis is made from dielectric material;

and the basis is made from the heat-resistant material.

28. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 25, in which the electrode basis is made from metal;

and electrodes are electrically insulated from the basis.

29. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 1, in which the electrode assembly contains washer as at least one, the washer is fastened on electrode free ends of one electrode assembly.

30. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 29, in which the washer contains holes, through which the second free ends of electrodes of the assembly pass.

31. Multi-phase hot water boiler according to claim 29, in which the electrodes of the electrode assembly are pressed into the washer on at least on part of the depth of the washer.

Description:
Multi-phase hot water boiler

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to heat engineering, primarily to industrial thermal technology, namely to the field of fluid heating, e.g. water, using electricity. The invention can be used to simplify and cheapen manufacturing of any multi-phase appliances intended to heat fluids, primarily in industrial plants. For example, the invention can be used in the systems of circulating water heating, in self-regulating fluid heaters for autonomous heat and hot water supply, mobile heating and hot water systems, as a universal device for different electric heaters, to produce large amounts of hot water especially at industrial, agricultural and other facilities. The invention can be applied also in domestic water heaters if multi-phase power supply is available. The invention may be used to generate hot water in movable facilities, i.e. vessels, air-planes, vehicles.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Preferably industrial electrode water boilers are intended to produce hot water due to the heat generated by three-phase (or multi-phase) electrical current as it passes directly through water. They are used for the heat and hot water supply in residential and industrial rooms both in closed and open heating systems. This type of boilers has the following advantages: high reliability, durability and performance. Besides, these appliances may have high power density and energy efficiency due to the use of three phase or multi-phase power mains. They are also used at industrial, agricultural enterprises and any other facilities, which require hot water with a temperature of 95-100 degrees Celsius for technological processes. Moreover, they may be also used in parallel as industrial circulating pumps for hot water. These appliances have the following significant advantages: design simplicity, potential opportunity for high manufacturing ability at large-scale production, the possibility of complete automation and operation without maintenance staff. Relative easiness of precise temperature control in heated rooms and saving of primary power resources by a consumer due to this control are also advantages of these devices. In addition, they have the high safety degree including the fire one due to absence of a direct path for current flow, which passes only through water (if water boils out, there are no paths for current flow). For these reasons, electrode hot water boilers became widespread, among them, for multi-phase power supply.

The common detriment of all known appliances is the mandatory precise and geometrically symmetrical location of electrodes in the casing, between them, as a rule, strictly parallel to longitudinal and symmetry axes of the boiler casing. Another detriment is symmetrical location of multiple phase electrodes relatively to each other and relative to the casing. They significantly reduce the ease of manufacturing of appliances and electrodes; considerably complicate their assembly, repair and cleaning procedure as they can significantly disrupt the above-mentioned symmetry. The process of boiler operation also inevitably causes irregularity of symmetry since electrodes and their assemblies are subjected to multiple drops of sufficiently hard temperature modes in aqueous or other fluid medium that act as aggressive factors. Besides, these reasons reduce functional capabilities of devices since such location of electrodes and electrode assemblies in the casing does not allow to set in the boiler design the necessary conditions for the convection of fluid flows with different temperature thus complicating the mixing or separation depending on the boiler purpose. This results in decrease of the safe operation level as it increases the risk of electrode shorting. In addition, strictly symmetrical layout of electrodes creates harmful conditions for uniform deposition of iron oxidation products, salts and foreign non-soluble sludge inclusions present in fluid as suspension. They contaminate fast enough the electrode system by deposits drastically and decreases its overall performance causing the lowering of total and specific output. The effect of these adverse factors increases with increase of the number of electrodes that is inevitable at the multi-phase power supply.

Prior devices can be divided into groups as follows:

Group one. Electrode boilers are known with a true- vertical arrangement of electrodes which longitudinal axes normally either coincide with the boiler symmetry axes (at least for one electrode) or are true-parallel with the boiler symmetry axes (in this case longitudinal vertical ones) as defined in patents: US4418269 (A) — Multi-electrode boiler, 29.11.1983; US4692591 (A)— Humidifier controller having multiple-phase electrode current sensor, 08.11.1987; US4092519 (A) — Electrode boiler, 30.03.1978; DE2434907 (Al) - Geraet zur regelung der an eine ohmsche last abgegebenen elektrischen leistung 1975-02-13; DE2514524 (Al)—

Verfahren und vorrichtung zur verminderung oder vermeidung von krustenbildung an arbeitselektroden 1975-10-09— three-phase boilers; as well as in devices: CN204611721 (U)— Ability ejector half steam, 2015- 09-02; CA1166296 (Al) - Humidifier electrode shield, 1984-04-24— with an increased current propagation path between the electrodes to reduce the probability of short-circuit by means of a baffle introduced between the electrodes; FR2587449 (Al) - Direct-heating boiler for producing steam and/or hot water, 1987-03-20— with pointed ends of arranged vertically electrodes having their working ends thickened, parallel both with each other and longitudinal symmetry axes of the boiler, and KR101132125 (Bl) - A reactor using electrode catalyst for high efficiency steam generator, 2012-04-05— with electrodes fastened at the boiler bottom and arranged upwards in parallel and symmetrically with respect to the boiler. There are many modifications thereof and the following in particular:

a) The said group includes electrode boilers with their electrodes arranged vertically and having washers to maintain the parallel and vertical position of the electrodes in static conditions and all the heating temperature conditions inclusive of dynamic ones: US5526461 (A) - Evaporation vessel and electrode arrangement for an electrode evaporator having a dummy electrode 1996-06-1 1 — with one washer on the free ends of electrodes directed vertical-downwards. There are also devices as set forth in patents KR20060093192 (A) - Water heating apparatus using electrodes 2006-08-24 — several circumferentially arranged electrodes with one fixing washer; RU43624U1 - Multiple electrode for electrode boiler 06.10.2004, with one fixing washer superposed on the upper ends of symmetrically installed electrodes; US5384888 (A) - Vaporizer with electrode positioning 1995-01-24 — vertical parallel symmetrically arranged electrodes directed downwards along the symmetric axes, with a taper washer; EP0240387 (Bl) - Method and apparatus for the fast evaporation of a liquid 1996-06-05 - electrode with a washer at the free end, fixing it to the boiler body; GB2233868 (A) Heating liquids, 1991-01- 16— with a sectional washer on vertical electrodes parallel with the boiler longitudinal axis; CN2306395 (Y) - Electrode device for generating steam 1999-02-03— multi- sectional washers on parallel horizontally installed electrodes, which sections are equally spaced along the whole length of the electrodes; b) Opposed arrangement of electrodes parallel with the boiler symmetric axes and each other, for example, US 4211887 (A) - Electrical furnace, zones balanced with asymmetrically tapped transformer, 1980-07-08 vertical upper and lower electrodes; RU2137029 - Electrode boiler water heating, 26.12.1997— opposed upper and lower electrodes offset with respect to each other in parallel with their longitudinal axes, arranged symmetrically in the case; DK2401549 (T3)— An electrode boiler— 2016-05-23; c) Boilers with electrodes installed in them in parallel and symmetrically to each other and boiler case can also be attributed to the group in question; electrodes having protective covers. Those devices are such as EP1068477 (Bl) - Recycling of air humidifier cylinders 2003-03-12 - vertical electrodes with protective covers; EP2401549 (Bl) - An electrode boiler, 2016-02-17 - with covers to straight down symmetrically arranged electrodes; US6321036 (Bl) - Electric water heater, 2001-11-20 - cylindrical casing on the electrodes; US6263156 (Bl) - Recycling of air humidifier cylinders 2001-07-17— vertical electrodes having protective covers; JP61134503 (A) - Electric type once-through boiler 1986-06-21— protective covers on electrodes made as mating cylinders different in their diameters; d) Various kinds of bushings superposed on round electrodes to improve the basis insulating properties, for example, in accordance with patent DE2732683 (Al) - Elektrodendampferzeuger 1979-02-01 — multiple electrode with bushings; e) Devices having their electrodes of different heights can be ranked in the group of vertical symmetric electrodes, for instance, WO8301101 (Al) - Steam generator 1983-03-31; KR20020013018 (A) - Method and apparatus for controlling operation of electric steam boiler 2002-02-20 - active electrodes of different heights; DE2456665 (Al) - Elektrode fuer wasserstrahl-elektrodendampferzeuger 1976-08-12 — honeycomb active electrodes of different heights; RU2029199 (A) - Liquid heater electrode, 1992-05-19; f) Electrodes are also used, which sections are non-circular, for example, truncated circle sections— KR101132125 (Bl) - A reactor using electrode catalyst for high efficiency steam generator, 2012-04-05; or sections in the form of any other geometric figures: US2008279539 (Al) - Steam Generator Comprising a Swirling Device, 2008-11-13 — vertical electrodes of trapezoidal section, parallel with the longitudinal axis; CN101952654 (A) - Segmented rapid heating of fluid, 2011-01-19— sectional plate electrodes; KR20030090894 (A) - Simple steam generator, 2003-12-01— grooved plate electrodes; g) CN204388209 (U) - Compact-type efficient electric ion heating boiler, 2015-06-10 - one electrode in the housing, the role of the second and / or third to three-phase performs switching housing.

Group two. Used electrodes in the shape of entirely different geometric figures. a) Cylindrical coaxial electrodes: RU2168875 - Electrode for electrode liquid heater, 28.12.1999; RU2168876 - Electrode for electrode water heater, 28.12.1999 — multilayer electrodes; similar to the above US4812618 (A) - Electrode boiler and an insulator therefor, 1989-03-14— electrode with heat-conducting electric insulator; RU12637U1 - Electrode liquid heater, 04.08.1999— electrodes in the form of hollow cylinders, symmetric in their cross-sections, equal in angles circular sections in the form of regularly alternating electroconductive and non-conductive sections; RU16419U1 - Electrode liquid heater and electrode

(alternatives), 29.02.2000 — coaxial electrodes one of which is a cylindrical case accommodating the internal electrode so that the longitudinal axes of the case and electrode coincide; RU2189541 - Electrode liquid heater, 11.04.2000— coaxial electrodes; KR20010084150 (A) - Electric boiler 2001-09-06 - slotted coaxial cylinders; US3796857 (A)— Electrode boiler, 12.03.1976; JP8261689 (A) - Preventing method of generation of extraneous matter in water storage tank and waterstorage tank with executing device of said method 1996-10-11 — coaxial electrodes; US2009226356 (Al) - Device and Method for Evaporating a

Reactant, 2006-10-02 — horizontally arranged coaxial cylinders; CA2163932 (Al) - Method and apparatus for preventing the development of scale deposits in a water tank 1996-06-02 — concentric coaxial electrodes; GB2183802 (A) - Device for the fast generation of steam vapor 1987-06-10— the electrodes are in the form of coaxial bowls with angled walls but being arranged along the boiler symmetric axis and symmetric themselves; WO0011914 (Al) - On-demand direct electrical resistance heating system and method thereof for heating liquid, 2000-03-02— concentric electrodes arranged symmetrically with respect to each other; RU2209367 - Electric boiler, 22.11.2001— coaxial perforated electrodes arranged in aligning; RS20120085 (Al) - Electrode graphite boiler for water heating, 2013-10-31 - three-phase boiler with graphite electrodes symmetrically arranged.

b) Bent, twisted, spiral electrodes having sections deviating from one direction, for instance, SU379995— screw electrode, 1973-04-20; RU 160367 (Ul) - Coaxial heater 01.12.2015 - with an electrode in the form of a screw; WO8800316 (Al) - Steam generator for analytical instruments, 1988-01-14 -— a combination of electrode helical section and vertical sections directed downwards; W09318338 (Al) - A water tank for heating water preferably in a vending machine, 1993-09-16— an electrode in the form of an inclined spiral with an inclined section but with its turns arranged symmetrically with respect to the boiler longitudinal vertical axis; in the form of spirals, nested one inside the other, for example, US3688077(A)— Electrode boilers, 29.08.1972; WO2015192221 (Al)— Electrode water heater, 2015-12-23; WO0175360 (Al) - Household steam generator apparatus, 2001-10-11— a coiled electrode; WO9917056 (Al) - Process for restoring the level of water in boilers of steam generating machines 1999-04-08— bent by 90 degrees electrode, and CN1082683 (A) - Efficient method for producing steam and seven kinds of thermal electric appliance of efficient steam 1994-02-23; WO0031467 (Al) - Device for instantaneously producing steam 2000-06-02— a combination of horizontal and vertical electrodes; WO9506399 (Al) - Heating element 1995-03-02— vertical U-electrode; FR2593890 (Al) - Improved electric steam generator with water jets 1987-08-07— one bent electrode angled with respect to the case longitudinal axis; WO9013771 (Al) - Steam generator 1990-11-15, W09836215 (Al) - Steam generator 1998-08-20— horizontal U-electrodes; YU59896 (A) - Electrode three-phase heater, 2006-08-17 - all symmetrical with respect to the axes of symmetry of the body and each other; c) Electrodes of other shapes of three-phase and single-phase boilers, for example, SU1174683— Electric liquid heater, 27.07.1983— one of the electrodes designed to be the case concurrently is made in the form of de Laval nozzle; RU159323 (Ul) - Elect rode heater, 01.04.2015 - piston electrode with a cone;

Group three. Inclined fastening of electrodes inside the case or partially inclined sections of electrodes: a) Cone electrodes, for instance, as defined in patents: RU1064083 - Electrode heater, 19.05.1982; RU1250791 - Electrode heater, 14.03.1985

— electrode in the form of a symmetric inverse cone symmetrically arranged inside the case; RU1333992 - Electrode heater, 01.08.1985— the central electrode in the form of cone, directed downwards; US5940578 (A)

- Water evaporation apparatus 1999-08-17— angled walls of a chamber accommodating a symmetrically arranged electrode; US6072937 (A) - Steam generator 2000-06-06 — cone electrode, its longitudinal axis coinciding with the boiler vertical axis; b) Inclined electrodes RU2037088 - Three-phase current electric water heater, 30.06.1992— plate trapezoidal inclined electrodes but arranged symmetrically with respect to the case symmetric axes; GB2178834 (A) - Steam generator 1987-02-18— flat electrodes converging upwards but arranged true-symmetrically with respect to the boiler vertical longitudinal axis; GB2190989 (A) - Electrically heated steam generator 1987-12-02— bent-down auxiliary surfaces; DE2644355 (Al) - Elektrodampferzeuger 1978-03-30— inclined symmetric entry of electrodes but the electrodes are not inclined themselves and meet the boiler symmetry; JP4324001 (A) - Power generation plant 1992-11-13 — symmetric electrodes arranged along the cone generatrix; JP60038501 (A) - Electric type steam generator 1985-02-28— inclined sections of vertical electrodes; JP60108602 (A) - Electric type steam generator 1985-06-14— conical parts of cylindrical electrodes; c) Other types of inclined components, for example, CA1244864 (Al) - Electrode configuration for a high voltage electrode boiler 1988-11- 15— inclined channels for heated liquid; JP2002317902 (A) - Nozzle assembly for electrode type electric boiler 2002-10-31 - tilted nozzle; CN201145263 (Y) - Electrical heating device of water 2008-11-05 - rotating plate electrodes; RU2225569 - Steam generator, 30.08.2001— branching electrode, but at the same time symmetrically arranged inside the case and forming symmetrically arranged branching sections.

The closest analogue is application WO2014087190 (Al) —

Electrode boiler with electrodes unit, 12.06.2014, in which electrodes are fabricated as one electrode assembly comprising at least one electrode or several electrodes located parallel to each other and to the casing symmetry axes. The known device has increased manufacturing ability, easiness of fabrication and maintenance due to the decrease of requirements to the electrode layout. Low functionality is the disadvantage of the known device that does not allow using it in industrial plants if they are powered by three- phase (or multi-phase) voltage because it is designed to supply only by single-phase voltage. This is due to only one electrode assembly installed in the device; due to this reason, the device may have only low output that is unacceptable for industrial plants. Another detriment is the low protection against short-circuit of electrodes at their large amount and relative uniformity of sludge and rust deposits on electrodes.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The invention has the following objectives: to increase the ease of manufacturing, assembly, operation and cleaning of multi-phase electrode assemblies and electrode heating boilers in whole, to increase reliability, design simplicity, mounting and operation safety. Another objective is to improve safety of devices and their components, in particular, electrode assemblies due to inaccuracies during assembly. This objective is achieved in the invention by decreasing requirements to precision of the electrode assembly mounting and their orientation relative to each other so that it does not impact the energy quality of the boiler or improves it. This problem is solved at different operation modes, both static and dynamic. Another objective is to increase the device durability, service life and maintainability. This is done by improving the appliance safety from changes in due course of the electrode shape and orientation in assemblies that is especially important at a large amount of electrodes in multi-phase industrial boilers. In addition, the invention solves the problem of expanding functional capabilities, versatility and flexibility of the device, expanding the possible product range and enhancing the adaptability to solve various particular problems. In addition, the invention enables to intentionally change and improve convection properties of water heating boilers. This makes possible to reduce the uniformity of sludge and rust deposits on electrodes thus increasing the period of the heater efficient operation. Also, the invention aims to increase the appliance protection against breakup between electrodes, to decrease uneven loading of phases by current, to protect electrodes against non-uniform deformation during operation in dynamic modes. The objective also includes simplification and expansion of variability ranges for the design, typical sizes and power output of multi-phase boilers that is especially important for industrial plants.

To achieve the assigned objectives, a multi-phase hot water boiler has a casing, at least two electrode assemblies are located within the casing; and each electrode assembly consists of electrodes, at least of one electrode, the electrodes are grouped by spatial criterion in electrode assembly; moreover, electrode assemblies are fastened asymmetrically relative to the casing and to each other; besides, electrodes in the assembly are arranged asymmetrically relative to the symmetry axes of the casing; besides, electrodes in the assembly are arranged asymmetrically relative to symmetry axes of each other if there is more than one electrode in the assembly.

Moreover, electrode assemblies have external terminals.

Electrodes have external terminals.

Electrode assemblies are fastened to the casing with outer side.

Electrodes are fastened to the casing with outer side.

The number of electrodes is the same in each assembly.

The number of electrodes is different in each assembly.

Each electrode in each assembly is the phase in each assembly.

Each electrode assembly is the phase.

Electrodes in each assembly are made with the same shape. Electrodes in each assembly are made with different shape.

Electrodes in each assembly are made with the same shape, which differs from electrode used in other assemblies.

Electrodes in each assembly are made with different shape and differ from electrodes used in other assemblies.

Electrodes in each assembly are made as rods.

Electrodes have round shape in cross-section.

Electrodes in cross section differ from round shape.

The casing is fabricated from metal; and electrodes are electrically insulated from each other and from the casing.

The casing has a flow-through inlet and outlet nipples.

The casing is made with cylindrical shape.

The casing is made with cylindrical shape and round cross-section.

The casing is made with cylindrical shape the cross-section that differs from round.

The casing is made with rectangular cross-section.

Electrode assembly also contains at least one basis.

Electrode assemblies, which represent electrodes grouped by spatial criterion; at least, one electrode is fastened directly on the casing.

Electrode assemblies, which represent electrodes grouped by spatial criterion; at least, one electrode is fastened on the basis; and the basis is fastened on the casing.

The electrode basis is made as a plate; besides, electrodes are fastened on the plate on one side of its first surface in such a way that their longitudinal axes are close to the perpendicular direction to the first plate surface. Electrode basis is fastened by the first surface on the casing outer side; electrodes pass through the casing; and their free ends are directed inside the casing; The electrode basis is made from dielectric material; moreover, the basis is made from the heat-resistant material.

The electrode basis is made from metal; and electrodes are electrically insulated from the basis.

The electrode assembly contains washer as at least one, the washer is fastened on electrode free ends of one electrode assembly.

The washer contains holes, through which the second free ends of electrodes of the assembly pass.

Besides, the electrodes of the electrode assembly are pressed into the washer on at least on part of the depth of the washer.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

Figs. 1-3 show the conceptual top view of various layouts of electrode assemblies for the cases with different number of electrode assemblies and different number of electrodes in an assembly.

Fig. 4 shows axonometric view of an electrode assembly with electrode layout by version 1 and fastening on the casing outer side. Electrodes are assembled in the assembly; electrode assemblies are phases. Electrodes are fastened on the casing outer side. Electrodes have rectangular cross-section.

Fig. 5 illustrates conceptual cross-section of multi-phase water boiler with three electrode assemblies and different number of electrodes in each assembly. Electrodes have different diameter.

Figs. 6, 7, 8 illustrate conceptual top view of the various casing versions with different shape of cross-section.

Figs. 9, 10 show the alternative of the boiler; in which electrode assemblies contain, as an instance, one electrode in each assembly with the low electrode deviation from the longitudinal symmetry axis of the casing, with their irregular location on the basis; and with low deviation angles of electrode longitudinal axes from each other. The casing cross-section is round (top view in Fig. 10).

Figs. 11, 12 illustrate the version of the appliance, which electrode assemblies contain three electrodes each; electrodes have low deviation from longitudinal symmetry axis of the casing; they are located non- uniformly on the basis and with low deviation of their longitudinal axes relatively to each other. The casing is rectangular in cross-section (top view in Fig. 12).

Fig. 13 shows the side view of the electrode assembly with non- parallel and non-uniform asymmetric layout of electrodes on the basis without a locking washer.

Fig. 14 shows the side view of the electrode assembly with non- parallel and non-uniform layout of electrodes on the basis with a locking washer pressed on free ends.

Figs. 15, 16 illustrate sub-options of the electrode thread connection with locking insulating washer that forms pockets flush.

Fig. 17 shows the side view of the electrode assembly with divergent electrodes and fastening of a locking washer on the electrode free ends using nuts and pocket formation.

Fig. 18 shows the side view of the electrode assembly, in which the electrode connecting point is filled with sealant material near the basis; and the locking washer is fastened on the electrode loose ends using nuts flush embedded in the locking washer. Fig. 19 illustrates a view to for this connection.

Figs. 20-21 show top views of locking washers in plan view.

Fig. 22 shows the side view of the longitudinal multi-phase water boiler with three electrodes in each electrode assembly. Electrodes in each assembly are phase.

Fig. 23 shows the top view of the appliance in Fig. 22 with the round cross-section of the casing.

Fig. 24 illustrates the view of the appliance component in Figs. 22-

23.

Figs. 25-26 show the longitudinal section of a multi-phase water boiler with fastening electrodes on the boiler bottom.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The electrodes (1) in all variants of the device are directed inside the casing (2), which is usually made of metal. The electrodes are grouped in assemblies (3) on a spatial basis (proximity to each other). Each assembly (3) may contain several electrodes mounted on an insulating basis or directly in the casing (2). All the electrodes (3) have a slight angle of deviation from the casing's (2) symmetry axes and from each other within one assembly (3). Furthermore, the assemblies (3) are mounted unevenly in the casing (2) and asymmetrically to each other, as well as to the casing's (2) symmetry axes, which significantly simplifies the process cycles of the device manufacturing, its maintainability, as well as improves and facilitates intentional structural changing conditions of a fluid flow convection in the casing (2). It also allows creating conditions for the boiler's output power increasing, if necessary, up to any values and extending the range of the output power constructive regulation, which is required for industrial facilities. The casing (2) of any form has at least two pipes (4) - input and output. The current leads (5) of electrodes are located outside the casing (2). Such simultaneous performance of several electrode assemblies is unknown from prior art.

Variant 1

Figs. 1, 11, 13, 22 represent the view of configuration of the multi- phase electrode boiler assemblies with three electrode assemblies according to the variant 1 of the present invention embodiment.

According to the variant 1, the electrodes (1) of the device are directed inside the cylindrical casing (2) downward in near-vertical directions. In Figs. 1, 11 the electrodes (1) are directed vertically downwards with a slight deviation from the longitudinal axis of symmetry of the casing (2) and from the longitudinal axes of all electrodes (1) of each electrode assembly (3). The electrodes (1) can be installed on various unequal distances from each other (Figs. 1-22). The longitudinal axes of the electrodes (1) of all assemblies (3) may also form nonzero angles to each other of a part or all electrodes (2), as Figs. 5, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 22 show, which is simultaneously congruent with unequal distances between the electrodes (1). The electrodes (1) are grouped on a spatial basis - in three groups with three electrodes in each group, forming the assembly (3), which consists in this variant of three electrodes (1). Each electrode (1) in the assembly (3) can be a phase electrode (as in Figs. 11, 22), and in such case has a separate current lead (5). Also, the electrodes in the assembly (3) can be electrically connected together within one assembly (3). In this case, the electrode assemblies (3) are the phases (Figs. 4, 5) and each assembly (3) has a separate current lead (5) (Fig. 4). The casing (2) is covered with the lid (6) and the electrode assemblies (3) with the electrodes (1) are fastened on the lid (6) outside the casing, so that the electrodes (1) pass through it into the casing (2). In this case the lid can be made either of a thermo resistant dielectric material or of a metal; then, the electrodes require an electrical insulation (7) (Fig. 4) from the lid (6). The lid (6) can be secured with bolts (8) and can be removable (Fig. 22) or it can be welded (Figs. 11, 25) to the casing (2); and the electrodes (3) can be removable. The electrode assemblies (3) can be made removable as well. In the sub-options of this variant of the device the casing can be made of any shape in cross-section - elliptical, rectangular (Fig. 4), triangular, in the form of a polygonal curve, etc.

In the sub-options of this variant of the device, the casing can be formed of any shape in cross-section - round (Figs. 1, 3, 5, 6, 9,10, 22, 23.), elliptical (Figs. 2, 7), rectangular (Fig. 12 ) or other, e. g. semi- elliptical (Fig. 8) depending on target purposes of the device, the range of an assortment variability, etc.

The sub-options of the device may include electrodes (1) of diverse relative lengths distinct from each other in the assembly (3) - Fig. 11 ; or of the same length in the assembly (Figs. 13, 14, 17, 18), but with different length of the assemblies (3) against each other (Fig. 5). Also, the electrodes may vary lengthwise to each other in the assembly and between the assemblies (3) - Fig. 11. It allows as well reducing significantly the requirements to the accuracy of manufacturing and simplifying the production process without loss of performance, efficiency and other performance indexes of devices. Furthermore, such version of the device provides structural programming of its energetic properties and allows extending significantly the range of functional capabilities of the device.

The electrode assemblies (3) may be disposed on the basis (9), which can be usually installed outside the casing (2), Figs. 5-8, 22, 23. Each electrode (1) has a current lead (5) passing through the basis (3) for connection to the power supply phase. The basis (3) can be made of an electrically insulating heat-resistant material, or of metal; in this latter case the electrodes (1) are mounted on it though electro insulating inserts (7), Fig. 4. The electrodes (1) direction downward (Figs. 5, 9-12, 22, 25) allows to eliminate completely the slime sedimentation on the basis (9) or on the inner sections of the casing (2) between the electrodes (1). It provides possibility to reduce significantly the likelihood of electrodes (1) breakdown between themselves on the basis (3) surface or on the surface of parts of the casing (2) between the electrodes (1).

Figs. 13, 14, 17, 18 show the arrangement of the electrodes (1) with the angles of deviation from the longitudinal axis of symmetry of the electrodes, which is also congruent with uneven asymmetrical arrangement of the electrodes relative to each other, i. e. with different spacing between their location points on the basis (9) and with different angles between the longitudinal axes of the electrodes (3), Figs. 13, 14, 17, 18. It technologically simplifies the dispersion of their fastening over the surface of the casing and, respectively, along the inner space of the boiler. Consequently, it extends the functionality, the range of the device options and raises its versatility, as well as enlarges the sphere of specific problems to be solved.

Figs. 9, 11, 13 show the electrode assembly (3) with electrodes fastened on the basis (9) with open free ends of the electrodes (1), which is typically mounted outside the casing (2), Figs. 1-13. The basis (9) may contain openings (10) for its securing to the casing (2). The electrode assembly (3) may comprise the locking washer (11), Fig. 14, located at the end of the electrodes (1) in order to fix their initial position against movement and deformations in the dynamic heating-cooling modes. Herewith, . the electrodes (1) are pressed into the locking washer (11) made of heat-resistant electrically insulating material which has the expansion factor equal or close to the expansion factor of the basis (9). The electrodes (1) pressing into the washer (11) is arranged, using the openings (12) of the washer (11) throughout its whole thickness (Figs. 14, 15, 18, 19) or part of the thickness (Figs. 16, 17) with pockets (13) formation. The electrodes (1) position on the basis (9) and respectively on the washer (11) is asymmetric (Figs. 13-21). Thereat, such fastening of the fixing washer (1 1) allows preserving the initial position of the electrodes (1) in any modes of the device operation, which prevents alteration of current paths, possibility of a short circuit between electrodes, as well as electrode shorting, and enhances, consequently, the efficiency and stability of the device operation.

Figs. 15-19, 21 show the sub-option of the electrodes (1) fastening in the locking washer (11), using the thread (14) cut on the outer surface of the bevels (15) at the end of the electrode (1) with a circular cross-section. In this case, the ends of electrodes (1) are screwed into the washer (11) throughout a part of the washer thickness (11) with pockets (13) formation - Figs. 16, 17, or throughout the whole its thickness, Fig. 18. The washer (11) has openings (12) with a thread corresponding to the thread (14) on the bevels (15) of electrodes (1). It provides the possibility to increase the device versatility and raise its adaptability to existing manufacturing processes. Also, in some circumstances it may facilitate the device assembling, particularly in the case of introduction in the invention of no criticality of electrodes screwing throughout the entire thickness of the locking washer.

Figs. 18, 19, 21 show the sub-options of the washer (11) fastening at the end of the electrodes (1) using nuts (16) mounted in pockets (13) of the washer (11). In this case, the bevels (15) of free ends of the electrodes

(I) are made circular-shaped in cross-section with a diameter that allows them to pass easily into the washer (11) openings made unthreaded. Once the washer (11) is installed on the end of the electrodes (1), the nuts (16) are tighten up in the bottom of the washer pockets (11), whereby the nuts (16) do not protrude beyond the surface of the washer (11). The washer

(I I) in the plan may have the shape of a circle, ellipse, polygon, star, etc. (Fig. 21). Fig. 5 shows the variant of the device with one locking washer (11) for all electrode assemblies (3). The electrodes (1) at the basis (11) of the electrode assembly (3) can be connected to it by a sealant 17 (Fig. 18).

Variant 2

Figs. 25-29 represent the view of the multi-phase electrode boiler configuration with the electrode assembly according to the variant 2 of the present invention embodiment. The variant 2 has the following features respectively to the variant 1.

According to the variant 2, the electrodes (1) of the device are directed inside the cylindrical casing (2) downward in directions close to the vertical with a small deviation from the longitudinal axis of symmetry of the casing (2) and the longitudinal axes of all electrodes (1) of each electrode assembly (3). Angles of deviation of the electrodes are different for each electrode (1). The device is a three-phase and contains three electrode assemblies (3) with three electrodes (1) in each assembly (3), and each electrode of the each assembly (3) is phase. The feature of this variant consists in the absence of the locking washer (11), which fixes the electrodes, and securing the free ends of the electrodes (1) directly to the bottom of the casing. This is especially relevant, when the casing is made of the heat-resistant plastic. In this case, the free ends of the electrodes may have the bevels (18) pressed into the bottom of the casing (2). When the casing (2) is made of a metal, the electrodes (1) pressing is performed into the intermediate sleeves (19) of an electrically insulating material (Fig. 27). This version can enhance the reliability and durability of the multi-phase electrode water boilers due to the complete exclusion of any deformability of the electrodes (1) in the dynamic modes and in continuous operation.

In the variant 1 and the variant 2 the current leads (5) of the electrode assemblies (3) can be covered by the common protective enclosure (20) (Figs. 22, 25), and each current lead (5) is protected by the insulating sleeve (21) (Figs. 22, 25). Therewith, the protective enclosure can be fastened, e. g. with a special protrusion (22) formed on the casing (2) and with the bolt (23) screwed into this protrusion (Figs. 22-29).

Variant 3

Figs. 29-36 represent the view of the electrode boiler configuration with the electrode assembly according to the variant 3 of the present invention. The variant 3 has the following features respectively to the variants 1 and 2.

In a particular case, at least one electrode assembly (3) may comprise one electrode (1) which is phase (Fig. 3). Also the case, when all electrode assemblies (3) include a single electrode (1), is a sub-option, then all they are phase, e. g. for a three-phase network - three assemblies, with one electrode in the assembly (Figs. 9, 10.). Such solution may be acceptable for multi-phase (three-phase) boilers of a relatively low power, facilitating their manufacturing and maintenance.

The sub-option of this variant of the device consists in a variation of the number of electrodes (1) in each assembly - simultaneously from one to several electrodes (Figs. 2, 3, 5-8) in different assemblies (3). In this case the electrode assemblies (3) are phase; respectively, for the three-phase boilers - three assemblies in one casing (2). The electrodes (1) in the assemblies (3) may have a diameter which is different to each other in the assembly (3) and between the assemblies (3), which allows flexible varying energy and dynamic characteristics of boilers.

The number of electrode assemblies (3) in the casing (2) of the boiler, when the assemblies (3) are phase, may be related to a number of phases of electrical power supply (e. g. three-phase), but may also differ in the number of phases (Figs. 2, 3). Also, the number of assemblies (3) may not be equal to the number of phases; in particular, it can exceed them due to electrical connection of two or more assemblies (3) with each other and their connection to one phase. The number of assemblies may exceed the number of phases also in the case, when each assembly (3) contains the same number of electrodes (1) equal to the number of phases and each electrode in the assembly is phase.

Not only the total capacity of the boiler, but also the load of each phase in the event of a multi-phase (three-phase) connection can be regulated by the number of electrodes in the assembly (3) and by their diameter.

Any combinations of any number of the electrodes (1) arrangement may be possible in all variants, Figs. 1-29 with various degrees of their deviation from the axes of symmetry of the boiler (2), from a strict uniformity of their location and any angles of inclination relative to each other. The possibility of such asymmetric arrangement of the electrodes (1) and its variation for the multi-phase water boilers is unknown from the literature sources; it substantially simplifies and reduces the cost of the device manufacturing and repairing process, as well as reduces the safety requirements for its maintenance, in particular for cleaning and removal of slime. Wide possibilities of diversity of electrodes (1) asymmetric fastening allow choosing their best optimal arrangement and organizing in the best way convection processes in the boiler depending on a specific location of the electrodes and the electrode assemblies, the particular design and purpose of the boiler. It also enables planning and managing the asymmetry in the processes of slime sedimentation on parts of the electrode system, providing the possibility to apply non-uniformity in the effective operation reduction of the boiler in the intervals between scheduled cleanings, which makes it possible to enhance its efficiency and optimize performance, power modes and operating costs.

The operation of the multi-phase water boiler in all variants is as follows.

The multi-phase water boiler can be used independently; either its casing (2) is inserted into the open or into the circulating water heating system in any desired location. The water heating system is filled with water, treated in a usual manner, lapping its electrical resistivity, and the electrodes (1) of the boiler are connected, using leads (5) disposed outside its casing (2), to an external electrical polyphase circuit, e. g. a three-phase. Connection is performed depending on the particular variant of the device - either each electrode (1) of each assembly (3) is connected to its phase or the assembly (3) is completely connected to its phase. The cooled water from heating radiators passes in the casing (2) of the boiler through the inlet (4), where it is heated by current passing through the electrodes (1 ). The heated water comes from the casing (2) to consumers, e. g. heating radiators. The convection processes originated in the casing (2) of the boiler, when the water is heated between the electrodes (1), can be intentionally arranged by means of mutual orientation and location of the electrodes (1) and electrode assemblies (3) in such a way that the boiler can serve as a circulation pump without any forced water pumping in a closed system. The offered option of the mutual orientation and possibility of asymmetric arrangement of electrodes (1) against each other both in the casing and in the electrode assemblies (3) considerably contributes to it. It also allows relocating localization of sliming processes including on the electrodes alone. The suggested location of the electrodes (1) and electrode assemblies (3) enables the current path choosing and its density distribution varying. All the above provides optimization of the boiler efficiency both in static and dynamic modes of operation of multi-phase water boilers in all suggested configurations.