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Title:
MULTI-TRIGGERED ELECTRODES IN ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/098824
Kind Code:
A4
Abstract:
The present invention is in the field of an electrochemical hydrogen storage system for forming a chemical fuel, such as by electrolysis of water thereby forming hydrogen, and for storing electricity, such as during daylight, and for delivering electricity and/or hydrogen during night, as well as to a method of operating said electrochemical hydrogen and/or oxygen storage system, a battery with cells of the system, and a chemical production unit.

Inventors:
WENINGER, Bernhard (Postbus 5, 2600 AA Delft, NL)
Application Number:
NL2018/050749
Publication Date:
July 11, 2019
Filing Date:
November 12, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITEIT DELFT (Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, NL)
International Classes:
C25B15/02; C25B1/02; C25B9/18; H01M10/42; H01M16/00
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
VOGELS, Leonard Johan Paul (Weteringschans 96, 1017 XS Amsterdam, NL)
Download PDF:
Claims:
AMENDED CLAIMS

received by the International Bureau on 20 May 2019 (20.05.19)

1. Electrochemical storage system comprising

a multi cell-array with [2,n] cells electrically connected in series,

each cell comprising

a membrane, a first cell compartment and a second cell compartment, and electrolytes,

at least one Hydroxyl Storage Electrode (HSE) with at least one appendant Hydrogen Evolution Electrode (HEE) together forming a negative electrode,

at least one Oxygen Evolution Electrode (OEE) forming a positive electrode,

at least one first electrical connection to the posi tive electrode and at least one fourth electrical connection to the negative electrode,

wherein the fourth electrical connection at the cell side is split into a fifth electrical connection to the at least one HSE and a sixth electrical connection to the at least one HEE,

wherein the negative electrode of cell m is in elec trical connection to the positive electrode of cell m+1,

wherein hydrogen evolution (IHE) currents between HSE± and HEEi (ie[l,n]) are independently controlled with at least one controller,

wherein electrical connections provide a multi-trig gered electrode, and

wherein the at least one first electrical connection of the first cell is adapted to be electrically connected to a first terminal of an external DC power source/sink and wherein the at least one fourth electrical connection of the last (nth) cell is adapted to be electrically connected to a second terminal of the DC power source/sink.

2. Electrochemical hydrogen storage system according to claim 1, wherein the positive electrode comprises at least one appendant Proton Storage Electrode (PSE) , and wherein the first electrical connection at the cell side is split into a second electrical connection to the at least one PSE and a third elec trical connection to the at least one OEE, and wherein oxygen evolution (IOE) currents between PSEi and OEE± (ie[l,n]) are inde pendently controlled with the at least one controller.

3. Electrochemical hydrogen storage system according to claim 2, wherein the controller is a DC/AC controller with an individually controllable IAC/IDC current ratio in use, wherein the DC is provided at the electrode side of the controller.

4. Electrochemical hydrogen storage system according to claim 3, wherein the controller has at least one AC current for controlling oxygen evolution (IOE) currents and independently at least one AC current for controlling hydrogen evolution (IHE) currents, preferably one AC current for controlling all oxygen evolution (IOE) currents and one AC current for controlling hy drogen evolution (iHE) currents.

5. Electrochemical hydrogen storage system according to any of claims 1-4, wherein the controller comprises a transformer.

6. Electrochemical hydrogen storage system according to any of claims 1-5, wherein the HSE, HEE, optional PSE, and OEE elec trodes are each independently selected from Ni, Fe, Cd, Co, W,

Mo, Pt, Ru, Ir, C, and combinations thereof.

7. Electrochemical hydrogen storage system according to any of claims 1-6, wherein ne [3-1000].

8. Electrochemical hydrogen storage system according to any of claims 1-7, comprising k multi cell-arrays in parallel, wherein ke [2-250].

9. Electrochemical hydrogen storage system according to any of claims 1-8, comprising per cell each individually 2-100 Hy droxyl Storage Electrode (HSE) with each individually 2-100 ap pendant Hydrogen Evolution Electrode (HEE) together forming a negative electrode, and each individually 2-100 optional Proton Storage Electrode (PSE) with each individually 2-100 appendant Oxygen Evolution Electrode (OEE) forming a positive electrode, wherein preferably at least one of a number of HEE's is equal to a number of hydrogen evolution currents, a number of OEE's is equal to a number of oxygen evolution currents, a num ber of HSE's is equal to a number of controllable bidirectional HSE currents plus 1, and a number of PSE's is equal to a number of controllable bidirectional PSE currents plus 1.

10. Electrochemical hydrogen storage system according to 26

any of claims 1-9, wherein at least one HSE electrode is adja cent to at least one HEE electrode, preferably wherein all HSE electrodes are adjacent to at least one HEE electrode, and/or wherein at least one optional PSE electrode is adjacent to at least one OEE electrode, preferably wherein all optional PSE electrodes are adjacent to at least one OEE electrode.

11. Electrochemical hydrogen storage system according to any of claims 2-10, wherein the at least one HSE electrode and at least one HEE electrode form an array of electrodes, and/or wherein the at least one PSE electrode and at least one OEE electrode form an array of electrodes.

12. Electrochemical hydrogen storage system according to any of claims 1-11, wherein electrolytes are selected from OH and ¾ for the HEE side, preferably at a concentration of 0.1-12 mole/1, and from OH_/02 for the OEE side, preferably at a concen tration of 0.1-12 mole/1.

13. Electrochemical hydrogen storage system according to any of claims 1-12, wherein electrolytes are dissolved in water, preferably de-ionized water, preferably with a conductivity of < 0.5 mS .

14. Electrochemical hydrogen storage system according to any of claims 1-13, comprising in fluidic connection with the storage system at least one of a refill unit and a storage sys tem.

15. Electrochemical hydrogen storage system according to any of claims 1-14, comprising at least one liquid-level sensor.

16. Method of operating an electrochemical hydrogen storage system according to any of claims 1-15, comprising loading the system during daytime by a total system current ITSC and dis charging the system during night-time.

17. Method of operating according to claim 16, wherein a fraction of power available for loading is used for storing hy drogen .

18. Method according to any of claims 16-17, comprising charging in daytime at least one cell by providing a part of an iTsc current to at least one HSE and through a cell to at least one PSE, and providing electrolysis in daytime by provid ing a part of an ITSC current to at least one HEE and through a cell to at least one OEE, 27

discharging at least one cell during night time by provid ing an ITSC current to at least one PSE and through a cell to at least one HSE and providing electrolysis in a cell by a current from at least one OEE to at least one PSE and electrolysis in a cell by a current from at least one HEE to at least one HSE.

19. Method according to any of claims 16-18,

(A) wherein in at least one cell, preferably in all cells, in daytime 75-100% of the ITSC current is provided to the at least one HSE, and independently 75-100% of the ITSC current is pro vided to the at least one PSE, and/or

wherein in night-time 75-100% of the ITSC current is provided to the at least one HSE, and independently 75-100% of the ITSC cur rent is provided to the at least one PSE, or

(B) wherein in at least one cell, preferably in all cells, in daytime 75-100% of the ITSC current is provided to the at least one HEE, and independently 75-100% of the ITSC current is pro vided to the at least one OEE, and/or

wherein in night-time no current ITSC is provided and electroly sis is performed by providing a current from the OEE to the PSE and from the HEE to the HSE, or

(C) wherein in at least one cell, preferably in all cells, in daytime 15-90% of the ITSC current is provided to the at least one HSE, and independently 10-85% of the ITSC current is provided to the at least one HEE, and independently 1-50% of the ITSC cur rent is provided to the at least one PSE, and independently 50- 99% of the ITSC current is provided to the at least one OEE, and/or

(D) wherein in night-time 80-1000% of the ITSC current is pro vided to the at least one HSE, and independently a current IHE is provided from the HEE to the HSE, and independently 75-100% of the ITSC current is provided to the at least one PSE.

20. Method according to any of claims 16-19, wherein cur rents are switched on during a first period of time and are switched off during a second period of time.

21. Battery with [l,n] cells according to any of claims 1- 15 with a controller for regulating power distribution.

22. Chemical production unit comprising at least one elec trochemical hydrogen storage system according to any of claims 1-15, wherein hydrogen or oxygen is supplied. 28

23. Chemical production unit according to claim 22, corn- prising at least one of a biogas production unit, a cement pro duction unit, an ammonia production unit, a urea production unit, and a syngas production unit.