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Title:
A MULTI-UNDULATOR SPIRAL COMPACT LIGHT SOURCE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/072913
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
It is the objective of the present invention to provide a compact and cost effective light source with a small foot print that can host more than one insertion device. Exemplarily –but not limited to –a compact source for metrology application in the EUV range, in particular optimized for actinic mask inspection using coherent scattering methods, is presented. This objective is achieved according to the present invention by a compact light source based on electron beam accelerator technology, where three (but not limited to) storage rings are connected in a spiral configuration that provides three plane straight sections for the implementation of insertion devices. A compact multi-bend magnet structure is used for the storage ring to generate a small emittance leading to high brilliance and large coherent content of the light. A booster is continuously feeding the storage ring by top-up injection and keeping in this way the intensity of the electron beam stable down to a level of 10-3. The booster is located on a level below the spiral storage ring and receives the electron beam from a linear accelerator positioned in the central area of the booster. These measures result in a sufficiently compact source that fits into conventional laboratories or their maintenance areas and is designed to have a footprint being about 50 m2. In addition to space saving, there are numerous other advantages compared to a concept with 3 separated compact sources. Major systems are only required once, as injection, RF-acceleration, beam manipulating devices and large size diagnostics. Higher average currents can be stored in such a spiral configuration which enhances the overall central cone power. In a small compact source the number of bunches is limited by ion trapping and therefore a large gap is needed to clear the ions. For the same gap length the average current is increased in the spiral configuration. Therefore the gain in central cone power is not only tripled but increased by a factor of 5, assuming a gap size of half the single storage ring circumference.

Inventors:
WRULICH, Albin (Burghaldenstrasse 14, Baden 5400, Baden, CH)
RIVKIN, Leonid (Baldeggerstrasse 15a, Baden, CH-5400, CH)
STREUN, Andreas (Schulstrasse 2, Schliengen, 79418, DE)
Application Number:
EP2017/070696
Publication Date:
April 26, 2018
Filing Date:
August 16, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
PAUL SCHERRER INSTITUT (5232 Villigen PSI, 5232, CH)
International Classes:
H05H1/00; H05G2/00; H05H7/06
Foreign References:
US20140098919A12014-04-10
EP2016069809W2016-08-22
Other References:
RANK J ET AL: "The Extraction Lambertson Septum Magnet of the SNS", PARTICLE ACCELERATOR CONFERENCE, 2005. PAC 2005. PROCEEDINGS OF THE, PISCATAWAY, NJ, USA,IEEE /KNOXVILLE TENNESEE, 16 May 2005 (2005-05-16), pages 3847 - 3849, XP010892007, ISBN: 978-0-7803-8859-8, DOI: 10.1109/PAC.2005.1591644
CRADDOCK M K ED - INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS: "The TRIUMF Kaon Factory", PROCEEDINGS OF THE PARTICLE ACCELERATOR CONFERENCE. SAN FRANCISCO, MAY 6 - 9, 1991; [PROCEEDINGS OF THE PARTICLE ACCELERATOR CONFERENCE], NEW YORK, IEEE, US, 6 May 1991 (1991-05-06), pages 57 - 61vol.1, XP032140665, ISBN: 978-0-7803-0135-1, DOI: 10.1109/PAC.1991.164202
A. STREUN: "COSAMI lattices: ring, booster and transfer line", INTERNAL NOTE, PSI, 28 June 2016 (2016-06-28)
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
FISCHER, Michael (Siemens AG, Postfach 22 16 34, München, 80506, DE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Patent Claims

1. A spiral compact light source (SCL) based on accelerator technology with multiple straight sections for the

implementation of insertion devices providing exemplarily (but not limited to) light having the characteristics for actinic mask inspection, such as at 13.5 nm, wherein:

a) the required floor space is not larger than for a

conventional compact source with only one undulator;

b) a plurality, i.e. three (but not limited to), of storage rings are combined in a spiral loop form;

c) the spiral loops are connected by rotation of the quarter arcs without the need of vertical transfer sections;

d) the return path from the uppest loop (SR-3) to the lowest loop (SR-1) is displaced by introducing a matching section in the arc symmetry points of lowest loop (SR-1) and uppest loop (SR-3) in order to not interfere with the storage ring

structure ;

e) major accelerator systems, as injection, RF-accelleration, electron beam manipulating devices and large size diagnostics are only required once, as compared to a planar arrangement of plurality of storage rings, such as three storage rings;

f) the average current limiting ion trapping effects are strongly alleviated since for the same duty cycle as for a single facility the gap in the ring filling, which is defining the ion clearing efficiency, is three times larger, or

g) alternatively for the same gap as for a single loop

facility the number of bunches and consequently the average electron beam intensity can be increased; in consequence, i.e. for three storage rings, the overall central cone radiation power is not only tripled by three undulators but increased by a factor of 5;

h) for the top-up injection from the booster ring into the storage ring (SR) two anti-symmetrically arranged Lambertson septa are used.

2. The compact spiral light source (CSL) according to claim 1, wherein the booster ring is positioned below the lowest loop of the spiral configuration from where the beam is extracted vertically by a Lambertson septum.

3. The compact spiral light source (CSL) according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the injection system of the storage ring is placed in the upwards oriented straight section which is connecting the lowest loop (SR-1) and the next adjacent loop (SR-2) .

4. The compact spiral light source (CSL) according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the accelerating cavity, the beam manipulating devices and the large size diagnostics is placed in the upwards oriented straight section which is connecting the least uppest loop (SR-2) and uppest loop (SR- 3) .

5. The spiral compact light source (SCL) according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the footprint is around 50 m2 in total; said footprint for a racetrack design with two long straight sections is achieved by a spiral arrangement of a plurality of three storage rings (SR) , the positioning of the booster below the lowest loop of the spiral storage ring configuration and the positioning of the linear accelerator in the inner side of the booster.

Description:
A multi-undulator spiral compact light source

The present invention relates to a compact light source based on accelerator technology with straight sections for the implementation of insertion devices. It will find its

application wherever floor space is limited and the wavelength range provided by this facility is of interest. Exemplarily - but not limited to - a compact source for metrology

application in the EUV range, in particular optimized for actinic mask inspection using coherent scattering methods, is presented here. A compact light source is for example proposed in the International Patent Application PCT/EP2016/069809.

A drawback of compact sources with small footprints is the limited space available for the integration of undulators or wigglers . Such a small compact source has usually a racetrack shape with two long straight sections where one is used for the implementation of an insertion device and the other one for the injection system, the accelerating cavities, beam manipulating devices as a higher harmonic cavity and large size beam diagnostics.

It is the objective of the present invention to provide a compact and cost effective light source with a small foot print based on a storage ring that can host more than one (in the present case three (but not limited to) insertion devices.

This objective is achieved according to the present invention by a spiral compact light source, where a plurality of storage rings (but not limited to) are connected in a spiral

configuration that provides a corresponding number of plane straight sections for the implementation of insertion devices.

In detail, the spiral compact light source (SCL) according to the present invention based on accelerator technology with multiple straight sections for the implementation of insertion devices providing exemplarily (but not limited to) light having the characteristics for actinic mask inspection, such as at 13.5 nm, comprises the following features, wherein:

a) the required floor space is not larger than for a

conventional compact source with only one undulator;

b) a plurality, i.e. three (but not limited to), of storage rings are combined in a spiral loop form;

c) the spiral loops are connected by rotation of the quarter arcs without the need of vertical transfer sections;

d) the return path from the uppest loop to the lowest loop is displaced by introducing a matching section in the arc

symmetry points of lowest loop and uppest loop in order to not interfere with the storage ring structure;

e) major accelerator systems, as injection, RF-accelleration, electron beam manipulating devices and large size diagnostics are only required once, as compared to a planar arrangement of three storage rings;

f) the average current limiting ion trapping effects are strongly alleviated since for the same duty cycle as for a single facility the gap in the ring filling, which is defining the ion clearing efficiency, is three times larger, or

g) alternatively for the same gap as for a single loop

facility the number of bunches and consequently the average electron beam intensity can be increased; in consequence, i.e. for three storage rings, the overall central cone radiation power is not only tripled by three undulators but increased by a factor of 5;

h) for the top-up injection from the booster ring into the storage ring two anti-symmetrically arranged Lambertson septa are used.

A compact multi-bend magnet structure is used for the storage ring to generate a small emittance leading to high brilliance and a large coherent content of the light.

A booster is located on a level below the spiral storage ring and receives the electron beam from a linear accelerator placed in the central area of the booster.

The booster is continuously feeding the storage ring by top-up injection and keeping in this way the intensity of the

electron beam stable down to a level of 10 ~3 . Top-up injection is not only mandatory to reach the required intensity

stability but also to combat lifetime reductions due to

Touschek scattering and elastic beam gas scattering. Both, the low energy of the electron beam and the small vertical

aperture gap of the undulator strongly enhance these effects.

These measures result in a sufficiently compact source that fits into conventional laboratories or their maintenance areas and is designed to have a footprint being about 50 m 2 .

In addition to space saving, there are numerous other

advantages as compared to an installation of 3 separated compact sources. Major systems are only required once, as injection, RF-acceleration, beam manipulating devices and sophisticated diagnostics.

For a single compact source the major beam and source

parameters are collected in table 1. One crucial performance limiting parameter is the beam current. Higher single bunch currents are exposed to instabilities and consequently there exists an upper limit for the storable bunch current. The average current, which is defining the central cone power, is then limited by the number of bunches which can be accumulated in the storage ring since for the clearing of trapped ions a gap has to be introduced in the bunch train. It has been demonstrated in [3] that essentially the length of this gap defines the clearing efficiency. For a compact source with small circumference this gap can extend over half of the circumference. In this respect the spiral compact source has a clear advantage. For the same gap length the average current is increased and consequently the central cone power enhanced. For the same clearing efficiency as for a single source, assuming a gap length of half of the circumference, 250 mA average current can be stored instead of 150 mA. In

consequence, the gain in overall light beam power for a 3- spiral compact source is not only a factor 3 but even a factor of 5. Other embodiments having just 2 or even 4 or more loops of storage rings are also possible providing a respective beam power due to the number of undulators corresponding the number of loops in the spiral structure.

Table 1: Beam- and source parameters of a basic compact source that fulfills the requirements for actinic mask inspection

+) Intra-Beam-Scattering blow up include Preferred embodiments of the present invention are hereinafter described with reference to the attached drawings which depict in :

Figure 1 perspective view and top view of the spiral storage ring;

Figure 2 rotation of the quarter to connect to the next

storage ring level;

Figure 3 schematic view of the quarter arc rotations; and Figure 4 conceptual view of the storage ring injection

layout.

The basic elements of the spiral source are three identical storage rings positioned on top of each other, which are connected in a spiral form as shown in Fig. 1 and constituting in this way one unit. Each of the loops contains one undulator which, if not used for actinic mask inspection, could be optimized for a different wavelength range (wavelength could be at EUV but may also be higher or lower according to the design of the periodicity and the distance of the magnet poles in the undulator. The three half rings in the back of Fig. 1 are hosting the three undulators. There is no special vertical deflection required to transport the beam from one level to the other. The quarter arcs (in front of Fig. 1) are simply bent in order to connect with the adjacent ring. The left quarter arc in front of SR-1 is bent upwards in the way as shown in Fig. 2, whereas the right quarter arc of SR-2 is bent downwards. The same configuration is implemented between SR-2 and SR-3. For the return arc from SR-3 to SR.l the quarter arc is displaced by 0.5 to 1 m in order to not interfere with the front structure of the rings. The conceptual view of the transfer paths is shown in Fig. 3. The inclination of the transfer path angles are a=7.4° between two loops and β=14.8° for the return path.

The design of the booster synchroton follows the racetrack shape of the spiral storage ring and is positioned below the lowest loop of the spiral storage ring. The injection in the storage ring is performed vertically on the slope between SR-1 and SR-2. The beam coming from the booster enters a Lambertson septum (LS) with horizontal displacement and angle and points after the vertical deflection of the LS to the downstream located pulsed nonlinear multipole kicker (NK) where it gets captured in the acceptance of the storage ring. Fig. 4 shows conceptually the vertical and horizontal beam transfer. For top-up injection from the booster ring into the storage ring two antisymmetrically arranged Lambertson septa are used. For the injection into the storage ring, a pulsed multipole system is used which leaves the stored beam unaffected during the injection process.

The linear accelerator fits fully within the structure of the storage ring. This measure also contributes to the demand of reducing the footprint of the source. Accelerating RF-cavities, beam manipulating devices and large scale diagnostics will be positioned in the second straight section connecting SR-2 with SR-3.

Further preferred embodiments of the present invention are listed in the depending claims.

References : [1] A. Wrulich et al, Feasibility Study for

COSAMI - a Compact EUV Source for Actinic Mask Inspection [2] A. Streun, : "COSAMI lattices: ring, booster and transfer line", Internal note, PSI June 28, 2016. with coherent diffraction imaging methods

[3] A. Wrulich, Ion trapping ....