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Title:
MULTIFUNCTIONAL LIGAND FOR USE AS A DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC PHARMACEUTICAL
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/1995/029669
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
A compound and method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical comprises either a phosphorous or germanium core and at least two hydrazine groups forming a ligand for bonding to a metal extending from the phosphorous or germanium core.

Inventors:
Katti, Kattesh V.
Volkert, Wynn A.
Ketring, Alan Singh Prahlad R.
Application Number:
PCT/US1995/003629
Publication Date:
November 09, 1995
Filing Date:
March 27, 1995
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CURATORS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI.
International Classes:
A61K38/00; A61K31/047; A61K31/28; A61K31/66; A61K31/675; A61K31/695; A61K39/395; A61K49/00; A61K49/06; A61K49/08; A61K51/00; A61K51/04; A61P35/00; A61P43/00; C07B59/00; C07F7/00; C07F7/30; C07F9/06; C07F9/22; C07F9/24; C07F9/44; C07F9/535; C07F13/00; C07F15/00; C07F15/06; C07F19/00; (IPC1-7): A61K31/15; A61K31/19; A61K31/66; A61K31/135; A61K31/165; A61K31/235; A61K31/675; A61K31/695; C07D241/04; C07F7/10; C07F7/30; C07F9/50; C07F9/53; C07F13/00; C07F15/02; C07F15/06
Other References:
MAJORAL J.P. ET AL.: 'Heterocycles contenant du phosphore - XXIX' TETRAHEDRON vol. 32, 1976, pages 2633 - 2644
NOTH H. ET AL.: 'Die Stabilisierung von Tris (hydrazino)phosphan durch Kemplexbildung' Z. NATURFORSCH. vol. 36B, 1981, pages 659 - 661
MAISCH H.: 'Die Stabilisierung von Phosphanen P(nhx)3 durch Ligandenreaktionene am Pentacarbonyl(trichlorophosphan) molybdan(O)' Z. NATURFORSCH. vol. 34B, 1979, pages 784 - 789
CATES L.A. ET AL.: 'Phosphorus-nitrogen compounds XVIII: Hydrazides and thiosemicarbazides' JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES vol. 63, no. 11, November 1974, pages 1736 - 1737
HORN H. ET AL.: 'Datstellung von thiophosphoryltrihydrazid und 1-phenyl-2-difluorthiophosphoryl-hydrazin' CHEMISCHE BERICHTE vol. 100, no. 7, 1967, pages 2258 - 2260
MAJORAL J.P. ET AL.: 'Heterocyclic compounds containing phosphorus. Part 30. Synthesis of mixed phosphorohydrazides and of some new mono-, bi- and tri-cyclic derivatives' JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY, PERKINS TRANSACTIONS 1 1976, pages 2093 - 2098
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, vol. 105, no. 5, 1986, Columbus, Ohio, US; abstract no. 52955G, AL-RAWI ET AL.: 'Carbon-13 chemical shift assignment of some organophosphorus compounds. VI. Aryl, aryloxy, phenylhydrazino and alkylamino substituted thiophosphoric hydrazines and cyclic analogs' & SPECTROCHIM. ACTA vol. 41A, no. 12, PART A, pages 1387 - 1389
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, vol. 99, no. 25, 1983, Columbus, Ohio, US; abstract no. 212591N, BAKHTIYAROVA F.A. ET AL.: 'Reaction of monochloroacetic acid with diamides, hydrazides and dihydrazides of phosphorous acids in the presence of ammonium thiocyanate' & DEPOSITED DOC., SPSTL 429 KHP-D82 9pp
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, vol. 93, no. 11, 1980, Columbus, Ohio, US; abstract no. 114466G, MAJORAL J.P.: 'Heterocyclic compounds containing phosphorus. Part 35. New reactions of phosphorohydrazidic derivatives with aldehydes; production of macropolycyclic compounds' & J. CHEM. RES., SYNOP. no. 4, page 129
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, vol. 88, no. 7, 1978, Columbus, Ohio, US; abstract no. 50967H, MAJORAL J.P. ET AL.: 'Heterocycles containing phosphorus. XXXII. Study of the reaction of phosphorus hydrazides with ortho esters, acetic anhydride and formic acid' & J. HETEROCYCL. CHEM. vol. 14, no. 4, pages 749 - 755
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, vol. 87, no. 19, 1977, Columbus, Ohio, US; abstract no. 152323S, GRAPOV A.F. ET AL.: 'Some reactions of phosphorus thio acid dihydrazides' & ZH. OBSHCH. KHIM. vol. 47, no. 8, pages 1704 - 1711
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, vol. 85, no. 18, 1976, Columbus, Ohio, US; abstract no. 136429J, AGGARWAL R.C. ET AL.: 'Complexes of germanium (IV) and tin(IV) chlorides with N-salicyloylhydrazine, N-acetyl-N'-salicyloylhydrazine and N-benzoyl-N'-salicyloylhydrazine' & INDIAN J. CHEM. SECT. A vol. 14A, no. 5, pages 362 - 364
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, vol. 76, no. 20, 1972, Columbus, Ohio, US; abstract no. 113579H, HUANG Y. ET AL.: 'Polymers containing phosphorus. X. Polyaddition of diisocyanates and diisothiocyanates to phosphorous-containing dihydrazides' & KOGYO KAGAKU ZASSHI vol. 74, no. 11, pages 2406 - 2409
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, vol. 74, no. 22, 1970, Columbus, Ohio, US; abstract no. 118424X, SMALL F.E.: 'Recording sheet, suitable for thermographic reproduction' & FR 2 009 764 A
CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS, vol. 69, no. 25, 1968, Columbus, Ohio, US; abstract no. 106808J, SCOLA D.A. ET AL.: 'N,N'-disubstituted P-phenylphosphonothioic diamides' & J. CHEM. ENG. DATA vol. 13, no. 4, pages 571 - 572
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Claims:
CLAIMS
1. What is claimed is: A compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical, or MRI contrast agent, said compound comprising: a phosphine core, and at least two hydrazine groups forming a ligand bound to a metal extending from said phosphorous core. 2'.
2. A compound as set forth in claim 1 or wherein said ligand is complexed with a transition metal.
3. A compound as set forth in claim 1 wherein said metal is a metallic isotope selected form the group including γ and β emitting isotopes, said compound being stable in aqueous solutions, serum and other body fluids.
4. The compound as set forth in claim 3 wherein said metallic isotope is a radionuclide selected from the group including 186Re, 188Re, 109Pd, 105Rh and 99mTc, said compound being stable in aqueous solutions, serum and other body fluids.
5. A compound as set forth in claim 1 wherein said metal is a paramagnetic metal selected from the group including Fe and Mn, said compound being stable in aqueous solutions, serum or other body fluids.
6. A compound as set forth in claim 1 including a 1:1 metal to ligand ratio. A compound as set forth in claim l wherein said ligand is conjugated to a protein or antibody. 8. A compound as set forth in claim l wherein said ligand is a bishydrazine phosphine of the formula P R5 wherein R1, R2, R3, R4 are all the same or different and are H, alkyl (Me, Et, n or ipropyl, n, i or t butyl, n or cyclohexyl, CH2COOH, CH(OH)CH2OH) , alkylamine [primary and secondary, NMe2, NHMe, (CH2)nNMe2, (CH2)nNHMe, (CH2)nNH2], alkoxy [0(CH2)nCH3 or (CH2)nOCH3, (CH2)nCOOH or (CH2)nSH], aromatics (C6H4R wherein R = H, NH2, COOH, OH, NCS, CHO, activated esters, acid anhydrides, Nhydroxy succinamide, and SiMe3) ; R5 is H, OCH3CH(OH)CH2OH, Me or Ph; E is O, S, NSiMe3, a lone pair of electrons or NC5H4R wherein R = H, OH, NH2, COOH, NCS, CHO, N hydroxy succinamide, activated esters or acid anhydrides; as used herein, n is the number 1 to 6; and Q is H, CH2Ph or =CHPh wherein in each instance Ph is unsubstituted or substituted with OH, COOH, 0 alkyl wherein alkyl are from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, NH2, NH(alkyl C14) or NH(alkyl C1_4)2, or halogen such as chlorine, fluorine, brome or iodine or Q can be CH2 piperazino or =CH piperazino.
7. 9 A compound as set forth in claim l wherein said ligand is a trishydrazine phosphine of the formula H H wherein R1, R2, R3, R4 are all the same or different and are H, alkyl (Me, Et, n or ipropyl, n, i or tbutyl, n or cyclohexyl) , alkylamine [primary and secondary, NMe2, NHMe, (CH2)nNMe2, (CH2)nNHMe, (CH2)nNH2], alkoxy [0(CH2)nCH3 or (CH2)nOCH3], or aromatics (C6H4R wherein R = H, NH2, COOH, NCS, CHO, activated esters, acid anhydrides, N hydroxy succinamide, and SiMe3) ; R5,R6 are all the same or different and are H, Me or Ph; E is 0, S, NSiMe3, a lone pair of electrons or NC6H4R wherein R = H, NH2, COOH, NCS, CHO, Nhydroxy succinamide, activated esters or acid anhydrides as used herein n is the number 1 to 6.
8. 10 A compound as set forth in claim l wherein said ligand is selected from the group consisting of the formulas R1 N N R2 R4 N i N i R3 I I Q Q and R Re Q Q wherein E is =0, =S, NSiMe3, a lone pair of electrons or NC6H4R wherein R is OH, H, NH2, COOH, NCS, CHO, Nhydroxy succinamide, activated esters or acid anhydrides; wherein R5 is H, OCH3, CH(OH)CH2OH, CH3, Ph; wherein R1, R2, R3, R4 and R6 are the same or different and are H, straight or branched cyclohexyl, CH2COOH; CH(OH)CH2OH, alkyl(C0_6)NYZ wherein each of Y and Z is hydrogen or lower alkyl C C4, straight or branched alkoxy having from 1 to 6 carbon atoms, (CH2)nOCH3 wherein n is 1 to 6, phenyl or phenyl substituted with OH, NH2, COOH, NCS, CHO, activated esters, acid anhydrides, Nhydroxysuccinamide, SiMe3; Q is H, CH2Ph or ■~CHPh wherein each Ph is unsubstituted or substituted with OH, COOH, alkyl wherein alkyl has from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, alkyl (C0_6)NYZ wherein Y and Z are as defined above or Ph is substituted with halogen, or Q is CH2 piperazino or =CH piperazino.
9. 11 A compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical, or MRI contrast agent, said compound comprising: a phosphine core, and at least two hydrazine groups forming a bishydrazine phosphine ligand for binding to a metal extending from said phosphorous core of the formula R1 N N R2 R 44 N I N I R3 I I Q Q wherein R1, R2, R3, R4 are all the same or different and are H, alkyl (Me, Et, n or ipropyl, n, i or t butyl, n or cyclohexyl, CH2COOH, CH(OH)CH2OH) , alkylamine [primary and secondary, NMe2, NHMe, (CH2)nNMe2, (CH2)nNHMe, (CH2)nNH2], alkoxy [0(CH2)nCH3 or (CH2)nOCH3, (CH2)nCOOH or (CH2)nSH], aromatics (C6H4R wherein R = H, NH2, COOH, OH, NCS, CHO, activated esters, acid anhydrides, Nhydroxy succinamide, and SiMe3) ; R5 is H, OCH3CH(OH)CH2OH, Me or Ph; E is 0, S, NSiMe3, a lone pair of electrons or NC6H4R wherein R = H, OH, NH2, COOH, NCS, CHO, N hydroxy succinamide, activated esters or acid anhydrides; as used herein, n is the number 1 to 6; and Q is H, CH2Ph or =CHPh wherein in each instance Ph is unsubstituted or substituted with OH, COOH, 0 alkyl wherein Alkyl are from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, NH2, NH(alkyl C14) or NH(Alkyl C1_4)2, or halogen such chlorine, fluorine, brome or iodine or Q can be CH2 piperazino or =CH piperazino.
10. 12 A compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical, or MRI contrast agent, said compound comprising: a phosphine core, and at least three hydrazine groups forming a trishydrazine phosphine ligand for binding to a metal extending from said phosphorous core of the formula H H wherein R1, R2, R3, R4 are all the same or different and are H, alkyl (Me, Et, n or ipropyl, n, i or t butyl, n or cyclohexyl) , alkylamine [primary and secondary, NMe2, NHMe, (CH2)nNMe2, (CH2)nNHMe, (CH2)nNH2], alkoxy [0(CH2)nCH3 or (CH2)nOCH3], or aromatics (C6H4R wherein R = H, NH2, COOH, NCS, CHO, activated esters, acid anhydrides, N hydroxy succinamide, and SiMe3) ; R5,R6 are all the same or different and are H, Me or Ph; E is 0, S, NSiMe3, a lone pair of electrons or NC6H4R wherein R = H, NH2, COOH, NCS, CHO, Nhydroxy succinamide, activated esters or acid anhydrides.
11. 13 A compound as set forth in claim 11 wherein any one or several of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, or R6 are benzyl isocyanate, bromacetamide, an activated ester, Nhydroxysuccinimides, a cleavable ester or an aldehyde.
12. 14 A compound as set forth in claim 11 wherein any one or all of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, or R6 are carboxylated or hydroxylated to render said ligand more polar.
13. 15 A compound as set forth in claim 12 wherein any one or several of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, or R6 are benzyl isocyanate, bromacetamide, an activated ester, Nhydroxysuccinimides, a cleavable ester or an aldehyde.
14. 16 A compound as set forth in claim 12 wherein any one or all of R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, or R6 are carboxylated or hydroxylated to render said ligand more polar.
15. 17 Compounds for use as diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceuticals, or MRI contrast agents, said compounds comprising a germanium core, and at least two hydrazine groups forming ligands for binding to a metal extending from said germanium core.
16. 18 Compounds as set forth in claim 17 wherein said ligands are bis, tris or tetra hydrazine germanium ligands.
17. 19 Compounds as set forth in claim 17 of the formula I I Q Q wherein R1, R2, R3, R4, are all the same or different and are H, alkyl (Me, Et, n or ipropyl, n, i or t butyl, n or cyclohexyl) alkylamine [primary and secondary, NMe2, NHMe, (CH2)nNMe2, (CH2)nNHMe, (CH2)nNH2], alkoxy [0(CH2)nCH3 or (CH2)nOCH3], aromatics (C6H4R wherein R = H, NH2, COOH, NCS, CHO, activated esters, acid anhydrides, N hydroxy succinamide, and SiMe3) ; R5,R6 are Cl, Me, Ph, R2NNH2 or NC6H4R wherein R,Rχ = H, NH2, COOH, NCS, CHO, Nhydroxy succinamide, activated esters or acid anhydrides and are all the same or different; Q and n are defined as in Formula I herein and further R1 to R6 can be defined as in Formula II herein.
18. 20 A method of making a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical, or MRI contrast agent said method including the following reaction: Wherein R1 is H; R5R6 X is N INIH, alkyl (Me, Et, n or i propyl, n, i or tbutyl, n or cyclohexyl) , alkyl amine [primary and secondary, NMe2, MHMe, (CH2)nNMe2, (CH2)nNHMe, (CH2)nNH2], alkoxy [0(CH2)2nCH3)n], aromatics (C6H5R7 wherein R7 is H, NH2 COOH, NCS, CHO, activated esters, acid anhydrides, N hydroxy succinimide, and SiMe3) ; R2' R3, R4, R6 are all the same or different being H, alkyl (Me, Et, n or ipropyl, n, i or t butyl, n or cyclohexyl) , alkyl amine [primary and secondary, NMe2, NHMe, (CH2)nNMe2, (CH2)nNHMe, (CH2)nNH2] alkyoxy [0(CH2)nCH3 or (CH2)nOCH3] ; R5 is the same or different than R2, R3, R4, R6 and is all the substitutes defined for X except for the hydrazine group; E is 0, S, NSiME3, a lone pair of electrons, or NC6H4R8 wherein R8 = H, NH2, COOH, NCS, CHO, N hydroxysuccinimide, activated esters or acid anhydrides.
19. 21 A method as set forth in claim 20 further including the step of chelating the compound to a metal selected from the group including Fe, Mn, 186Re, 188Re, 109Pd, 105Rh and 99mTc, said compound being stable in aqueous solutions, serum and other body fluids.
20. 22 A method as set forth in claim 20 wherein said compound is conjugated to a protein or antibody.
21. 23 A method as set forth in claim 20 further including the step of derivatizing R1, R2, R3, R5, or R6, to a benzyl isocyanate, bromoacetamide, activated ester, N hydroxysuccinimide, cleavable ester, or aldehydes.
22. 24 A method as set forth in claim 20 further including the step of modifying R1, R2, R3, R5, or R6 to be more polar, thereby rendering the compound more hydrophilic.
23. 25 A method as set forth in claim 24 wherein said modifying step is further defined by hydroxylating or carboxylating R1, R2, R3, R5, or R6.
Description:
MULTIFUNCTIONAL LIGAND FOR USE AS A DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC PHARMACEUTICAL

This application is a continuation-in- part of copending application Serial No. 050,253, filed August 26, 1993, now abandoned.

TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to pharmaceuticals, especially radiopharmaceuticals, for use as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. More specifically, the present invention relates to a compound and method of synthesizing a compound which is a multidentate ligand that complexes with transition metal radionuclides for use as diagnostic or therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Radiotherapy using "non-sealed sources" by way of radiolabeled pharmaceuticals has been employed for several decades. 1-3 Unfortunately, less than a handful of therapeutic radio- pharmaceuticals are currently in routine use, as being approved by the FDA. There has been renewed interest in developing new agents due to

the emergence of more sophisticated molecular carriers, such as monoclonal antibodies that are capable of selectively targeting cancerous lesions. In addition, the identification of several different radionuclides 4"7 with different chemical properties that have physical decay properties that are desirable for therapeutic application have further spurred development of new agents. Despite some successes in treatment of specific malignant diseases and increased research and development activities in this area, many problems remain with the use of such treatments. For example, it has been difficult in most cancers to provide acceptable selectivity in radiation doses delivered to target tissues relative to normal tissues. Successful development of new therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals requires improved localization of these agents in target tissues and/or increasing rates of clearance from non-target tissues. In both of these cases, it is imperative that the therapeutic radionuclide remain firmly associated with the radioactive drug in vivo for extended periods of time. These periods of time can extend from a

few hours up to several days, depending on the phar acokinetics and physical half-life of the radionuclide. No single radionuclide can be appropriate in formulating therapeutic agents since different half-lives and the energy of emitted particles is required for different applications 4"7 thereby making it essential that radiopharmaceuticals with different radionuclides be available. Therapeutic agents have been primarily labeled with beta-particle emitting radionuclides. Most of the promising radionuclides are produced in nuclear reactors, however, some are accelerator produced. 4"7 Several different chelating structures have been employed to maintain the association of these beta emitters with the drug. 8"12 Many of these structures are not sufficiently stable and most, if not all, do not provide appropriate routes or rates of clearance of radioactivity from non- target tissues. 13"14 Accordingly, there is a delivery of high radiation doses to normal tissues and a reduction of the therapeutic ratio. This lowers the amount of radiation dose that can be safely delivered to a target tissue. Development of new radionuclide

chelates that link the radioactive metal to the radiophar aceutical is necessary. Further, new approaches must be taken in order to identify radio-labeling techniques that produce chelates that are highly stable in vivo but have improved clearance characteristics from normal tissues.

Bi-functional chelating agents have been used to form stable metal complexes that were designed to minimize in vivo release of the metallic radionuclide from the radiopharmaceutical. For example, diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) forms rather stable chelates with a variety of metals. However, coupling of this ligand to monoclonal antibodies by one of its five carboxyl groups resulted in unacceptable in vivo stability with a variety of radionuclides. 15 Linking of this compound by a side group attached to one of the carbon atoms on an ethylene bridging group provides improved stability in vitro and in vivo . The stability characteristics of these compounds are not ideal resulting in poor clearance of activity from certain non-target organs are poor. Chelating agents based on diamido- dithiol and tria idomonothiol backbones are

used for forming small and stable hydrophilic complexes with several beta-emitting transition metals. These were developed by Fritzberg and colleagues 10 for labeled monoclonal antibody products for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. These chelates provide improved clearance characteristics from the liver; however, kidney retention of activity when using Fab or (Fab) 2 fragments of monoclonal antibodies labeled with these radionuclide chelates is higher than desirable.

A macrocyclic tetramine-based chelating agent that also has four methylene carboxylate side atoms has been used to form a copper complex that has a high in vitro and in vivo stability when linked to monoclonal antibodies. This chelate was first described for monoclonal antibody bioconjugation by Meares and coworkers. 11,12 The chelate is rather large. Clearance of activity from non-target organs has not been shown to be more efficient than the chelates mentioned above.

Recently, a mono-hydrazide bifunctional chelating agent has been described that forms somewhat stable 99m Tc complexes. 16 ' 17 This particular ligand can be first attached to a

protein and then binds to 99m Tc as it is chelated with glucoheptonate in aqueous solutions at or near neutral pH. 17 Other work with mono-hydrazide ligands with other Tc v complexes demonstrates the reaction of the monohydrazides at the axial position with Tc v =0 to form similar mondentate linkages. 16 The in vitro and in vivo stability of these types of chelates has not been adequately described in the literature. Applicant has synthesized a series of multi-dentate ligands derived from a phosphorous or germanium core utilizing hydrazine groups as arms of these ligands to form small but stable and well defined complexes with transition metal radionuclides. Unlike prior art chelates, these chelates show good stability in both aqueous solutions, serum, and other body fluids.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the present invention, there is provided a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical, the compound comprising a phosphorous or germanium core and at least two hydrazine groups forming a ligand for bonding to a metal extending from the phosphorous or germanium core.

The present invention further provides a method of making the compound for use as a diagnostic therapeutic pharmaceutical, the method including the following reaction

Wherein R 1 is H and

alkyl (Me, Et, n- or i- propyl, n-, i- or t- butyl, n- or cyclohexyl) , alkyl aπtine [primary and secondary, -NMe 2 , MHMe, -(CH 2 ) n NMe 2 , -(CH 2 ) n NHMe, -(CH 2 ) n NH 2 ], alkoxy [0(CH 2 ) 2n CH 3 ) n ] , aromatics (-C 6 H 4 R 7 wherein R 7 is H, NH 2 COOH, NCS, CHO, activated esters, acid anhydrides, N-hydroxy succinimide, and SiMe 3 ) . R 2 ' R 3 , R 4 , R 6 are all the same or different being H, alkyl (Me, Et, n- or i-propyl, n-, i- or t-butyl, n- or cyclohexyl) , alkyl a ine [primary and secondary, -NMe 2 , NHMe, -(CH 2 ) n NMe 2 , -(CH 2 ) n NHMe, -(CH 2 ) n NH 2 ],

alkyoxy [0(CH 2 ) n CH 3 or -(CH 2 ) n 0CH 3 ] . R 5 is the same or different than R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 6 and is all the substitutes defined for X except for the hydrazine group. E is 0, S, NSiME 3 , a lone pair of electrons, or NC 6 H 4 R 8 wherein R 8 = H, NH 2 , COOH, NCS, CHO, N-hydroxysuccinimide, activated esters or acid anhydrides.

Similar reactions of germanium halides (eg., GeCl 4 , RGeCl 3 ) with hydrazine reactants as defined above for the phosphorous core produced germanium hydrazides containing up to four hydrazine units.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Generally, the present invention provides a compound for use as a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical; however, they may also be used for other pharmaceutical applications, including MRI contrast agents. The compound includes a phosphine core and at least two hydrazine groups forming a ligand for bonding to a metal extending from the phosphorous or germanium core. That is, the invention provides phosphorous and germanium hydrazide ligand systems containing between 2 and 4 hydrazine units for use in forming complexes with a variety

of transition metals that have high in vi tro and/or in vivo stability.

The phosphorous and germanium ligands were chosen since the hydrazine arms linked directly to phosphorous atom provides a plethora of electron density on the terminal hydrazine-N- atoms that promote formation of highly stable nitrogen-metal bonds. This occurs even with the transition metals in their higher oxidation states, such as Re v . The utilization of at least two hydrazine groups for metal bonding produces complexes that are more stable than the metal complexes with only one hydrazine arm.

The ligand is complexed with the transition metal, generally from the group including Fe, Mn, Re, Re, Pd, Rh, and 99m Tc. These complexes contain a 1:1 metal to ligand ratio which is formed making the resulting chelates small and well-defined. These specific combinations permit the formation of the complexes in a one step, high yield reaction as described below, especially for use with readily available chemical forms of the radionuclides. Other metals suitable for chelating are copper and cobalt.

For example, 99m TcO ~~ , ReOT chelates or PdCl 2 can be used. It has been determined that these types of ligands form highly stable chelates with a variety of transition metals that have radioactive isotopes that have potential for formulation of new therapeutic uses, such as 186 Re, 188 Re, 109 Pd, 105 Rh, etc., or for diagnostic use such as with 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals.

For example, Fe and Mn are paramagnetic elements and have potential application in chelate form as MRI contrast imaging agents. Stable Mn and Fe chelates with the P and Ge hydrazine ligands with appropriate substituents can be formulated. The chelates made in accordance with the present invention have been found to be stable in aqueous solutions, serum and other body fluids. This is critical to solve the problems of prior art agents which did not form stable chelates thereby having an inherent loss of control of localization of the radionuclide paramagnetic metal. Further, compounds made in accordance with the present invention can be chemically modified, as discussed below, to provide for specificity of localization, increased physical half-life of the radionuclide,

improved pharmacokinetics, and increased selectivity of target tissues, such as tumors, over normal tissue, such as bone marrow, kidney, Gl tract, liver etc. The compounds made in accordance with the present invention are not only stable in neutral aqueous solutions, but have also been found to be stable in acidic and basic aqueous media. Again, this is critical with regard to localization of the compound in areas of the body having different pH's, as well as being stable through different administration routes, such as oral administration.

More specifically, the bis-hydrazine ligand made in accordance with the present invention can be characterized by the following formula:

Q Q wherein R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , are all the same or different and are H,

alkyl (Me, Et, n- or i-propyl, n-, i- or t- butyl, n- or cyclohexyl, -CH 2 COOH, -CH(OH)CH 2 OH) , alkyla ine [primary and secondary, -NMe 2 , NHMe, (CH 2 ) n NMe 2 , (CH 2 ) n NHMe, -(CH 2 ) n NH 2 ], alkoxy [-0(CH 2 ) n CH 3 or (CH 2 ) n OCH 3 , -(CH 2 ) n - COOH or -(CH 2 ) n SH] , aromatics (-C 6 H 4 R wherein R = H, NH 2 , COOH, OH, NCS, CHO, activated esters, acid anhydrides, N-hydroxy succinamide, and SiMe 3 ) . R 5 is H, OCH 3 - CH(OH)-CH 2 OH, Me or Ph. E is 0, S, -NSiMe 3 , a lone pair of electrons or NC 6 H 4 R wherein R = H, OH, NH 2 , COOH, NCS, CHO, N-hydroxy succinamide, activated esters or acid anhydrides.

As used herein, n is the number 1 to 6; and Q is H, -CH 2 Ph or =CHPh wherein in each instance Ph is unsubstituted or substituted with OH, COOH, alkyl wherein alkyl are from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, NH 2 , NH(alkyl C 1-4 ) or NH(Alkyl C 1 _ 4 ) 2 , or halogen such as chlorine, fluorine, brome and iodine or Q can be -CH 2 piperazino or CH piperazino.

The tris-hydrazine ligand made in accordance with the present invention can be characterized by the following:

Formula II

wherein R 1 , R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , are all the same or different and are H, alkyl (Me, Et, n- or i-propyl, n-, i- or t- butyl, n- or cyclohexyl) , alkyla ine [primary and secondary, -NMe 2 , NHMe, (CH 2 ) n NMe 2 , (CH 2 ) n NHMe, -(CH 2 ) n NH 2 ] , alkoxy [-0(CH 2 ) n CH 3 or (CH 2 ) n OCH 3 ], aromatics (-C 6 H 4 R wherein R = H, NH 2 , COOH, NCS, CHO, activated esters, acid anhydrides, N- hydroxy succinamide, and SiMe 3 ) . R 5 R 6 is H, Me or Ph. E is O, S, -NSiMe 3 , a lone pair of electrons or NC 6 H 4 R wherein R = H, NH 2 , COOH, NCS, CHO,

N-hydroxy succinamide, activated esters or acid anhydrides. Q and n are as defined in Formula I and further each of R 1 to R 5 can be defined as in Formula I and R 6 can be the same as R 1 to R 5 as defined in Formula I.

The germanium hydrazide ligands made in accordance with the present invention can be characterized by the following:

R 5 R 6 \ /

Ge \ 2 R 1 - N N - R 2 R 4 - N N - R 3

wherein R 1 , R , R 3 , R 4 , are all the same or different and are H, alkyl (Me, Et, n- or i-propyl, n-, i- or t-butyl, n- or cyclohexyl) , alkylamine [primary and secondary, -NMe 2 , NHMe, (CH 2 ) n NMe 2 , (CH 2 ) n NHMe, -(CH 2 ) n NH 2 ], alkoxy [-0(CH 2 ) n CH 3 or (CH 2 ) n OCH 3 ], aromatics (-C 6 H 4 R wherein R = H, NH 2 , COOH, NCS, CHO, activated esters, acid anhydrides, N- hydroxy succinamide, and SiMe 3 ) . R 5 ,R 6 are Cl, Me, Ph, R 1 N-NH 2 or NC 6 H 4 R wherein R, ^ = H, NH 2 , COOH, NCS, CHO, N-hydroxy succinamide, activated esters or acid anhydrides and are all the same or different. Q and n are as defined as in Formula I and further R 1 to R 6 can be defined as in Formula II.

The above formulas characterize the present invention as being very modifiable in order to specifically tailor the ligand for chelation with a specific radionuclide and localization at a specific target organ. For example, the ligand can be conjugated to protein or antibodies and can use side chains previously used for linking monoclonal antibodies. 15 For example, conjugation reactions can involve reactive groups such as benzyl isothiocyanate, bromoacetamide, activated esters, N-hydroxysuccinimides, cleavable ester linkages, and aldehydes. 15 In the case where E is a lone pair of electrons on the phosphorous atom, attachment of the chelate or the hydrazide ligand to proteins or other molecules already containing an azido group can be brought about by the Standinger reaction. The conjugation reaction can occur using any of the R groups attached to the nitrogens on one of the hydrazihe side arms or attached directly to the phosphorous or germanium atom. Accordingly, a single monoclonal antibody or several monoclonal antibodies can be added to the phosphorous or germanium hydrazine core to provide specificity

of the binding of the ligand metal complex to specific surface antigen of target tissue.

As discussed above, other side chain modifications can be accomplished to make the chelate more polar and hydrophilic. For example, charged groups such as carboxyl or hydroxyl groups can be added at the various R groups appended to the hydrazine nitrogens. This additional small change in the compounds providing charged/polar groups increases the hydrophilic character of the resulting chelate. This will produce more rapid and selective clearance from the blood and nontarget tissue. This modification is highly desirable for the promotion of efficient clearance of radioactivity from nontarget tissues, such as blood, liver, kidney, and spleen following catabolism of conjugated radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies that are presently used for therapy. Alternatively, the hydrophobicity of the chelate can be varied incrementally by varying the alkyl chain length of the side chains appended to the hydrazine nitrogens. For example, the R groups or the hydrazine side arms can be derivatized with hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, n- or i-propyl and n-, i-, or t-butyl. This

is desirable because with some chelates, particularly those labeled with 99m Tc, an increase in the hydrophobicity of the chelate plays a major role in targeting uptake in selective tissues, such as in brain, heart and lung. Addition of alkyl groups to the chelating backbone increases the lipid solubility of the chelate. If the resulting chelate is neutral, either brain, heart, or lung imaging agents can be developed. 18 Similarly, if the overall chelate charge is +1 myocardial imaging agents can be developed. 19 Modifying the hydrophobicity of chelates with beta-emitting radionuclides for therapy will also change the clearance and uptake properties in target and nontarget tissues.

An alternative to varying the alkyl chain length of the R groups appended to the nitrogens of the hydrazines is to add other hydrophobic functional groups, such as alkyl methoxy and alkyl methoxys to the R groups. The use of ether side chains instead of the alkyl side chains will increase lipophilicity but also improves the rate of clearance of the chelate from the blood and other non-target tissues. Other side chain modifications to increase

hydrophilicity, such as the addition ester groups or amide groups, can also be accomplished.

Another alternative modification of the chelate is to modify the charge or basic metal chelate core. It is possible to make the chelate with zero charge to produce a neutral hydrophilic chelate. For example, the bis-hydrazine ligand can be modified by the addition of a side chain other than hydrogen at the R groups attached to one of the hydrazine terminal nitrogens.

Alternatively, negatively charged groups can be added, such as (-CH 2 ) n -SH or (-CH 2 ) n -COOH.

All of the aforementioned modifications demonstrate the flexibility of compounds made in accordance with the present invention and further the ability to modify these compounds to alter the binding, elimination, and absorption of the compounds in order to tailor the compounds for specific organ targeting, dosing, and metabolism. Compounds made in accordance with the present invention for use as diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceuticals can be made by the following general reaction:

Wherein R 1 is H and

R 5 R 6

I I X is N-N-H , alkyl (Me, Et, n- or i- propyl, n-, i- or t-butyl, n- or cyclohexyl) , alkyl amine [primary and secondary, -NMe 2 , MHMe, -(CH 2 ) n NMe 2 , -(CH 2 ) n NHMe, -(CH 2 ) n NH 2 ], alkoxy [0(CH 2 ) 2n CH 3 ) n ] , aromatics (-C 6 H 4 R 7 wherein R 7 is H, NH 2 COOH, NCS, CHO, activated esters, acid anhydrides, N- hydroxy succinimide, and SiMe 3 ) . R 2 ' R 3 , R 4 , R 6 are all the same or different being H, alkyl (Me, Et, n- or i-propyl, n-, i- or t-butyl, n- or cyclohexyl) , alkyl amine [primary and secondary, -NMe 2 , NHMe, -(CH 2 ) n NMe 2 , -(CH 2 ) n NHMe, -(CH 2 ) n NH 2 ], alkyoxy [0(CH 2 ) n CH 3 or -(CH 2 ) n OCH 3 ] . R 5 is the same or different than R 2 , R 3 , R 4 , R 6 and is all the substitutes defined for X except for the hydrazine group. E is 0, S, NSiME 3 , a lone pair of electrons, or NC 6 H 4 R 8 wherein R 8 = H, NH 2 ,

COOH, NCS, CHO, N-hydroxysuccinimide, activated esters or acid anhydrides.

A solution of the appropriate phosphorous halide (e.g. P(0)C1 3 , P(S)C1 3 , PC1 3 ; RPC1 2 R=Ph,Me...) in THF, toluene or chloroform was mixed with the solutions of lithiated or silyated hydrazines according to a set stoichiometry at 25°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at RT for 8-16 hours before the solvent was removed in the vacuum. The purifications of the phosphorous hydrazides were achieved either by recrystallization or through distillation under reduced pressure.

A solution of GeCl 4 or RGeCl 3 (R=Me,PH) in THF, toluene or CHC1 3 was mixed with the solutions of lithiated or silyated hydrazines according to a set stoichiometry at 25°C. The reaction mixtures were stirred at RT for 8-16 hour before the solvent was removed in vacuum. The germanium hydrazides were purified either by recrystallization or through distillations at reduced pressure.

The following are examples of ligands and chelates formed in accordance with the present invention.

EXAMPLE l: LIGANDS SYNTHESIZED

P - R- / \

R 1 - N N - R"

R, 4 - N N - R,

R 1 = R 2 = R 3 = R 4 = H; R 1 = R 4 = Me

E = 0, S, NSiMe 3 or electron pair

R a Ci: NMe — NH 2 ; Ph: Me

EIAMPLE II: FORMATION OF COMPLEXES WITH REHENIUM

1. Re-BHP Complexes formed:

a. Complex I (Re)

Characterized by -H and 31 P NMR and C, H, N elemental analysis.

5 b. Complex II, .

Characterized by -H and 31 P NMR and C,

H, N elemental analysis.

c. Complex III (Rβ) Formation of THP complexes with Re

d. Complex IV, . Formation of BHP complexes with Re

Characterized by -H and 31 P NMR and C, H, N elemental analysis.

For the following examples unless otherwise stated, all reactions were carried out under anaerobic and anhydrous conditions using prepurified N 2 and conventional Schlenk techniques. Reagents such as CO(C10 4 ) 2 6H 2 0,

Cu(C10 4 ) 2 6H 2 0, P(S)PhCl 2 and PdCl 2 were purchased from Aldrich Chemical Co., USA and were used without further purification. Phenylphosphodihydrazide l (Equation 1; Scheme 2; Scheme3) was prepared by the reaction of PhP(S)Cl 2 with methyl hydrazine. (9,10).

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were recorded on a Bruker WH-500 Spectrometer. The ~H NMR chemical shifts are reported in parts per million (ppm) downfield from external standard

SiMe 4 . The 31 P NMR spectra were recorded with 85% H 3 P0 4 as an external standard and positive shifts lie downfield of the standard. The structure of the compounds prepared are set forth in Equation 1 and Schemes 2 to 4 hereof.

Synthesis of Complex 2 (Scheme 2): To a solution of 1 (4.7 g; 20.25 mmol) in absolute ethanol (lOOmL) was added dropwise with stirring at 0 o C a solution of Co(C10 4 ) 2 6H 2 0 (2.47g; 6.74 mmol) also in absolute ethanol (50mL) . Upon completion of addition (30 minutes) , a pink solid

precipitated out. The mixture was stirred at 25°C for 6 hours before the solid precipitate was filtered and dried in air to obtain shiny light pink crystalline solid of analytically pure Complex 2, as shown in Scheme 2 (yield 3.93g; 95% based on Co(C10 4 6H 2 0;) ; mp 180°C dec. Anal. Calcd. for C 16 H 30 N 8 CIO 4 P 2 S 2 CO: C, 31.04; H, 4.85; N, 18.11; Cl, 573. Found: C, 31.02; H, 4.87; N, 18.10; Cl. 575. Synthesis of Complex 3 (Scheme 2): To a solution of 1 (4.53g: 19.70 mmol) in THF (150 mL) was added dropwise (30 minutes) with stirring at 0°C a solution of Cu(cl0 4 ) 2 6H 2 0 (1.82 g; 4.92 mmol) in absolute ethanol (50 mL) . The mixture on stirring at 25°C for 8 hours turned greenish with suspensions of similar colored solid precipitate. The solvents were removed under vacuo and the crystalline residue was washed successively (4 x 25 mL) the THF to remove the unreacted excess of 1. The leftover green solid was found to be analytically pure Complex 3, as shown in Scheme 2 (yield 2.80g; 91% based on Cu(C10 4 ) 2 6H 2 0) ; mp 194C dec. Anal. Calcd for C, 30.81; H, 4.81; N, 17.97; Cl, 5.69. Found: C,30.84; H, 4.83; N, 17.96; Cl, 5.71.

βynthesis of Complex 4 (Equation l) : A solution of PdCl 2 (PhCN) 2 (3.53g; 9.22 mmol) in CH 2 C1 2 (100 mL) was added dropwise (15 minutes) at 25°C to a solution of 1 (2.12g; 9.22 mmol) also in CH 2 C1 2 (100 ml) . The dark orange colored mixture on stirring for 4 hours turned yellow and the solvent was removed in vacuo to obtain a brown colored microcrystalline solid which upon washing with THF (2 x 10 ml) gave analytically pure Complex 4, as shown in Equation 1 (yield 3.42g; 91%) mp 210°C dec. Anal, calcd. for C 8 H 15 N 4 Cl 2 PSPd: C, 23.56; H, 3.68; N, 13.74; cl, 17.40. Found: C,23.54; H, 3.70; N, 13.71; Cl, 17.51. Synthesis of Compound 5 (Scheme 3) : To a solution of 1 (3.50g; 15.26 mmol) in absolute ethanol (100ml) was added dropwise (15 minutes) at 25°C with stirring a solution of salicyladehyde (3.81g; 31.28 mmol) in absolute ethanol (100 ml) . The mixture was stirred under reflux for 12 hours before the solvent was removed under vacuo to obtain a white crystalline sold of Compound 5 (Scheme 3) which was recrystallized from boiling acetonitrile (yield 6.4g; 96%); mp 80°C Anal. Calcd for C 22 H 23 N 4 0 2 PS:

C, 60.22; H, 5.25; N, 12.78. Found C,60.21; H, 5.21; N, 12.74.

Synthesis of Compound 6 (Scheme 3) : Was synthesized by the reaction of 1 with piperazine aldehyde (Scheme 3) under identical reaction conditions as described above for 5. Recrystallization from CH 3 CH/CH1 3 (3:1) (yield 88%) mp 109°C. Anal. Calcd for C 18 H 31 N 8 PS: C, 51.11; H, 7.34; N, 26.52. Found: C, 51.14; H, 7.37; N, 26.50.

Synthesis of Complex 7 (Scheme 4): To a solution of 5 (2.95g; 6.73 mmol) in THF (100 mL) was added with stirring at 25°C a solution of PdCl 2 (PhCN) 2 (2.58g; 6.73 mmol) also was removed under vacuo to obtain a brown macrocrystalline solid of 7 (Scheme 4) . The crude 7 was washed with chilled CH 2 C1 2 (2 x 10 mL) to remove the residual benzonitrile before it was recrystallized from acetonitrile (yield 3.60g; 92%); mp 151°C (dec). Anal. Calcd for

C 22 H 22 N 4 C10 2 PSPd: C, 45.64; H, 3.83; N, 9.67; Cl, 6.12. Found: C, 45.57; H, 3.84; N, 9.70; Cl, 6.10.

Synthesis of Complex 8 (Scheme A ) : to a suspension of 6 (2.75g; 6.51 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) was added with stirring at 25°C a solution of Pdcl 2 (PhCN) 2 (2.49g; 6.51 mmol) also in dichloromethane (50 mL) . The mixture was stirred for 6 hours before the solvent was removed in vacuo to obtain an orange colored microcrystalline solid of 8 (Scheme 4) . Recrystallization from boiling CH 3 CN gave analytically pure 8 (yield 3.25 g; 83%); mp.

163°C(dec). Anal. Calcd for C 18 H 31 N 8 Cl 2 PSPd: C, 36.02; H, 5.17; N, 18.67; Cl, 11.82. Found: C, 36.11; H, 5.15; N, 18.63; Cl, 11.84.

EXAMPLE III: SYNTHESIS OF MONO-PHOSPHORUS HYDRAZIDES AND THEIR Pd(II) COMPLEXES

Synthesis of Phosphorohydrazidothioic acid, 1-methyl-, 0,0-dimethyl ester,.

Phosphorohydrazidothioic acid, 1-methyl-, 0,0-diethyl ester,. Phosphorohydrazidic acid,. Nl-methyl-, diphenyl ester Phosphorohydrazidic acid, Nl-methyl-, 0,0-diphenyl. A solution of methyl hydrazine

(75 mmol) in CHC1 3 (75 mL) was added dropwise to a solution of the respective phosphorus chloride (30 mmol) also in 75 mL of CHC1 3 maintained at 0 β C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 6 hours at 25°C before the methyl hydrazine hydrochloride adduct was filtered off and the filtrate evaporated to dryness in vacuo . (CH 3 0) 2 P(S)NMeNH 2 yielded a mixture of products and required separation by flash chromatography. This was achieved by using silica Gel 60 as the stationary phase and a solvent system comprised of hexane:ethyl acetate:methanol in the ratio 9:3:1. The other compounds were recrystallized in CH 3 CN to obtain the pure monophosphorus hydrazides.

(CH 3 0) 2 P(S)NMeNH 2 oil, yield 80% MS (M + ) 170; 31 P NMR (CDC1 3 ) : 81.5 (s) . 1 H NMR (CDC1 3 ) : 3.72 (d, 13.5 Hz, 6H, P-(OCH 3 )) ; 2.94 (d, 10.8 Hz, N-CH 3 ) ; 3.61 (s, 2H, NH 2 ) . Anal. Calcd. for C 3 H 11 N 2 0 2 PS: C, 21.12; H, 6.52; N, 16.47. Found: C, 21.09; H, 6.51; N, 16.45.

(C 2 H 5 0) 2 P(S)NMeNH 2 oil, yield 91%. 31 P NMR (CDC1 3 ) : 77.88 (s) . * -H NMR (CDC1 3 ) : 1.18 (t, 6H, P-OCH 2 CH 3 ) ; 2.78 (d, 8.1 Hz, 3H, N-CH 3 ) ; 3.47 (s, 2H, NH 2 ) ; 3.97 (m, 4H,

P-OCH 2 CH 3 ) . Anal. Calcd. for C 5 H 15 N 2 0 2 PS:

C, 30.30; H, 7.63; N, 14.14. Found: C, 30.29;

H, 7.62; N, 14.13.

(C 6 H 5 0) 2 P(0)NMeNH 2 yellow powder, Yield 89%, mp 41°C. 31 P NMR (CDC1 3 ) : 0.294, "H NMR (CDCI 3 ) : 2.87 (d, 7.8 Hz, 3H, N-CH 3 ) ; 3.52 (s, 2H, NH 2 ); 7.1-7.4 (m, 10H, (OPh) ) . Anal. Calcd. for C 13 H 15 N 2 0 3 P: C, 56.11; H, 5.43; N, 10.07. Found: C, 56.09; H, 5.42; N, 10.05. (C 6 H 5 ) 2 P(0)NMeNH 2 white powder, yield

90%, mp 121°C. 31 P NMR (CDC1 3 ) : 29.2, X H NMR (CDCI3) : 2.62 (d, 8.7 HZ, 3H, N-CH 3 ) ; 3.48 (s, 2H, NH 2 ); 7.5-7.9 (m, 10H, -(Ph)) . Anal. Calcd. for C 13 H 15 N 2 OP: C, 63.41; H, 6.14; N, 11.38. Found: C, 63.40; H, 6.13; N, 11.36.

Synthesis of compounds R 2 P(E)NMeNH 2 *PdCl 2 (R=OCH 3 , E=S, R=OC-H 5 , E=S, R=OC 6 H 5 , E=0, R=C g H 5 , E=0.

To a sample of the monophosphorus hydrazide (1 mmol) in CH 2 C1 2 (25 mL) was added dropwise with stirring at 25°C a solution of PdCl 2 (PhCN) 2 (1 mmol) also in CH 2 C1 2 (25 mL) . An orange colored precipitate slowly appeared. The mixture was stirred for 2 hours before the precipitate was filtered off and washed first with hexane (3 x 10 mL) and then with diethyl ether (3 x 10 mL) . The micro-crystalline solid compounds 5-8 (Schemes 5-6) were then recrys¬ tallized from boiling acetonitrile.

(CH 3 0) 2 P(8)NMeNH 2 *PdCl 2 brown crystals; yield 89%; mp < 118°C dec. 31 P NMR (CDC1 3 ) : 87.5. -H NMR (CDC1 3 ) : 3.87 (d, 14.1, 6H, P-(OCH 3 )); 3.12 (d, 9.3 Hz, 3H, N-CH 3 ) . Anal. Calcd. for C 3 H 11 N 2 0 2 PSPdCl 2 : C, 10.37; H, 3.19; N, 8.06; Cl, 20.41. Found: C, 10.35; H, 3.16; N, 8.05; Cl, 20.40.

(C 2 H 5 0) 2 P(S)NMeNH 2 *PdCl 2 brown powder; yield 90%; mp; < 100 β C dec 31 P NMR (CDC1 3 ) : 83.5. : H NMR (CDC1 3 ) : 1.29 (t, 6H, P-OCH 2 CH 3 ) ; 3.24 (d, 9.4 HZ, 3H, N-CH 3 ) ; 4.41 (m, 4H, P-OCH-CH-) • Anal. Calcd. for C 5 H 15 N 2 0 2 PSPdCl 2 : C, 15.99; H, 4.03; N, 7.46; Cl, 18.88. Found: C, 15.97; H, 4.01; N, 7.45; Cl, 18.87.

(C 6 H 5 0) 2 P(θ)NMeNH 2 *PdCl 2 brown powder; yield 85%; mp < 138°C dec. 31 P NMR (CDC1 3 ) :

-4.01. -H NMR (CDC1 3 ) ; 2.7 (d, 12.6 Hz, 3H,

N-CH 3 ) ; 7.1-7.6 (m, 10H, -(OPh)) . Anal. Calcd. for C 13 H 15 N 2 0 3 PPdCl 2 : C, 34.27; H, 3.32; N, 6.15;

Cl, 15.56. Found: C, 34.25; H, 3.30; N, 6.13;

Cl, 15.55.

(C 6 H 5 ) 2 P(0)NMeNH 2 *PdCl 2 brown powder; yield 87%; mp < 141°C dec. 31 P NMR (CDC1 3 ) : 25.91. -H NMR (CDC1 3 ): 2.56 (d, 11.1 Hz, 3H,

N-CH 3 ) : 7.4-7.8 ( , 10H, -(Ph)). Anal. Calcd. for C 13 H 15 N 2 POPdCl 2 : C, 36.86; H, 3.57; N, 6.61;

Cl, 16.74. Found: C, 36.85; H, 3.56; N, 6.57;

Cl, 16.73. Synthesis Of C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH- (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 COOH)

(Scheme 5)

A solution of 4-carboxybenzaldehyde

(1.3g, 8.7 mmol) in ethanol (50 mL) was added dropwise to an ethanolic solution (100 mL) of phosphorus bis (hydrazide)sulfide C 6 H 5 (S) (NMeNH 2 ) 2

(lg, 8.7 mmol) which had been cooled to -70°C.

The solution was allowed to warm to 25 β C and stirred for an additional 4h. The thin layer chromatographic analysis of the solution showed three spots (Rf = 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9). The solvent was removed in vacuo to obtain a white powdery residue. The three components were separated by

flash chromatography (silica gel) with a solvent system of hexane:ethyl acetate: MeOH in the ratio of 6:4:1. The eluants of each of the fractions were combined and evaporated to give the components as white crystalline powders. The component which showed an Rf of 0.6 was identified to be the mono-carboxylate derivative C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 COOH) whereas, the component of Rf of 0.3 was the biscarboxylate compound C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 COOH) 2 .

The starting compound 1 (Scheme 5) showed an Rf of 0.9.

C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 COOH) , white powder; yield 73%; mp, 97°C. 31 P NMR (CDC1 3 ) : 82.34. -H NMR (CDC1 3 ) : 2.9 (d, 3H, 3 J p _ H = 12.1 Hz), 2.41 (d, 3H, 3 J P _. H = 14.1 Hz) , 7.57 (s, IH, N=CH) , 7.39-8.09 (m, 9H, aromatic protons) . 13 C NMR (CDC1 3 ) : 40.16 (d, 2 J p _ c ~* 15.1 Hz) , 31.99 (d, 2 J P . C =9.8 HZ) , 143.1 (S, NC=H) , 140.28, 136.58, 132.70, 132.34, 130.57, 130.31, 129.47, 128.28, 127.94, 126.31 (aromatic carbons) . IR (KBr) : 3216 (NH 2 ) ; 1670 (C=0) ; 603 (P=S) . Anal. Calcd. for C 16 H 19 N 4 0 2 PS: C, 53.03; H, 5.28; N, 15.46. Found: C, 53.44; H, 5.45; N, 15.31.

3: (Scheme 5) Yield 12%; white powder; mp l03 o C. Anal Calcd for C 24 H 23 N 4 0 4 PS: C, 58.29; H, 4.69; N, 11.33. Found, C, 58.35; H, 4.71; N, 11.30. C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) 2 was recovered in 12% yield.

Synthesis of C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 COOH) 2 (Scheme 5)

A solution of 4-carboxybenzaldehyde (2.69g, 17.4 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was added dropwise at 25°C to a THF solution (100 mL) of C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) 2 (2g, 8.7 mmol). The mixture was stirred at RT for 6h before the solvent was removed in vacuo to obtain a white crystalline powder of 3 (Scheme 5) . The final purification of 3 was achieved by boiling the solid in acetonitrile and cooling the solution to 0° to produce pure 3 (yield 89%) , mp 103°C. Anal Calcd for C 24 H 23 N 4 0 4 OPS: C, 58.29; H, 4.69; N, 11.33. Found, C, 58.31; H, 4.67; N, 11.29. 31 P NMR

(CDC1 3 ) : 80.04. * -H NMR (CDC1 3 ) : 3.21 (d, 6H, 3 J p _ H =12-3 Hz), 7.67 (s, 2H, N=CH) , 7.35-7.97 (m, 13H, aromatic protons) . IR (KBr) : 1647 (C=0) ; 605 (P=S) . 13 C NMR (DMSO) : 33.14 (d, 2 J P _ C = 9.75 HZ), 139.39 (s, NC=H) , 171.7

(S, COOH) , 126.07, 127.6, 127.7, 128.2, 129.8, 130.6, 130.9, 131.9, 133.1, 133.2, 136.4, 136.6 (aromatic carbons) .

Synthesis of C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH- (NMeCHC 6 H 4 CH=CH-COOH) To a methylene chloride (100 mL) solution of C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) 2 (4.60g; 20.0 mmol) was added dropwise at 0°C a solution of 4-formylcinnamic acid (3.50g; 19.9 mmol) also in methylene chloride (100 mL) . The mixture was allowed to warm to 25°C and stirred for 6 hours before the solvent removed in vacuo to obtain a yellow powder. Unreacted C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) 2 and the bis-cinnamic acid adduct C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 - (H=(HCOOH) 2 were removed by washing the yellow powder with diethyl ether (2 x 25 mL) .

Recrystallization with dry acetonitrile gave pure 4 (89%) (Scheme 5) , mp 68°C. Anal Calcd for C 18 H 21 N 4 0 2 PS: C, 55.66; H, 5.45; N, 14.43. Found: C, 55.37; H, 5.41; N, 14.37. 31 P NMR (DMSO) : 81.37. "H NMR (DMSO) : 2.82 (d, 3H, 3 J p _ H = 11.2 Hz), 3.4 (d, 3H, 3 J p _. H =12.2 Hz) , 7.34 (s, IH, N=CH) , 5.5 - 8.3 (m, 11H, aromatic and HC=CH protons). 13 C NMR (CH 3 OD) : 32.16 (d, 3 J p _ c = 10.1 Hz) , 40.97 (d, 3 J P _ C = 14.98 Hz), 146.37 (s, NC=H) , 170.31 (s, COOH), 119.64, 121.51 ()c = C() , 139.21, 139.13, 183.77, 138.68, 138.19, 138.09, 136.07, 135.92, 134.44, 134.36, 133.99,

133.92, 133.01, 132.93, 129.71, 129.53, 129.37, 129.09, 128,99, 128.80, 128.69, 128.02, 127.99. IR (KBr) : 3179 (NH 2 ) ; 1671 (C=N) ; 608 (P=S) ; 1650 (C=0) . Synthesis of Pd(ll) Complexes of C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) (NMβNCHC 6 H 4 COOH) , C 6 H S P(8) (NMβNCHC 6 H 4 COOH) 2 , and C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMΘNH-) (Scheme 6) . A solution of PdCl 2 (PhCN) 2 (637 mg,

1.66 mmoles) in CH 2 C1 2 (25 mL) was added dropwise at 25°C to a CH C1 2 solution of C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 C00H) (600 mg, 1.66 mmoles) . The reaction mixture was stirred for 2 hours before the solvent removed in vacuo to obtain an orange solid C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 COOH) 'PdCl 2 which was repeatedly washed with dry hexane to remove the benzonitrile byproduct. Final purification of 6 was achieved through crystallization in acetonitrile (yield 73%) , mp 134°C (dec) . Anal Calcd for C 16 H 19 N 4 0 2 PSPdCl 2 : C, 35.68; H, 3.55; N, 10.40; Cl, 13.14. Found: C, 35.62; H, 3.61; N, 9.99, Cl, 13.01. 31 P NMR (DMSO) : 84.38. "H NMR (DMSO): 2.43 (d, 3H, 3 J p . H = 11.8 Hz) , 3.24 (d, 3H, 3 J p _ H = 12.4 Hz) ,

7.61 (s, IH, N=CH) , 7.4 - 8.88 (m, 9H, aromatic protons). IR (KBr): 1673 (C=0) ; 3245 (NH 2 ); 553 (P=S).

The Pd(II) complexes of C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 COOH) 2 and

C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 -CH=CHCOOH) were prepared following the procedure as described above by the interaction of the respective carboxylate functionalized phosphorus hydrazides with PdCl 2 (PhCN) 2 in dichloromethane. Purification of the crude complexes C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 COOH) 2 -PdCl 2 and C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 CH=CH-COOH) -PdCl 2 was effected through recrystallization in acetonitrile.

C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 COOH) 2 -PdCl 2 orange red crystals (75%) , mp 195°C (dec) . Anal Calcd for C 24 H 23 N 4 0 4 PSPdCl 2 : C, 42.99; H, 3.46; N, 8.36; Cl, 10.55. Found: C, 42.87; H, 3.45; N, 8.37, Cl, 10.13. 31 P NMR (DMSO): 82.79. 1 H NMR (DMSO): 3.25 (d, 3H, 3 Jp- H ~ - 1 ' 3 Hz ) ' 3 - 61 (d, 3H, 3 Jp_ H = 10 * 8 HZ), 8.81 (s, IH, N=CH) , 7.71 (s, IH, N=CH) , 7.4 - 8.9 (m, 13H, aromatic protons) . IR (KBr) : 1651 (C=0) ; 555 (P=S) . C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 CH=CH-

COOH) *PdCl 2 brown cubic crystals (69%), mp 168°C (dec) . Anal Calcd for C 18 H 21 N 4 0 2 PSPdCl 2 :

C, 38.22; H, 3.74; N, 9.91; Cl, 12.54.

Found: C, 38.71; H, 3.75; N, 9.87; Cl, 12.23.

31 P NMR (DMSO): 83.62. "H NMR (DMSO): 2.86

(d, 3H, 3 J p _ H = 11.0 HZ), 3.64 (d, 3H, 3 Jp- H = 12 - 1 Hz ), 7 -43 (s, IH, N=CH) , 5.6 - 8.2

(m, 11H, aromatic and C=C protons) . IR (KBr) :

1647 (C=0) ; 3193 (NH 2 ) ; 557 (P=S) .

Conjugation of C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 COOH) to n-butylamine (Scheme 7) To 500 mg of C 6 H 5 P(S) (NMeNH 2 ) (NMeNCHC 6 H 4 COOH)

(1.38 mmoles) in 30 mL of methylene chloride was added 139 mg (1.38 mmoles) of triethylamine. The mixture was stirred for 10 minutes after which

188 mg (1.38 mmoles) of isobutyl chloroformate was added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes, after which 125 mg (1.38 mmoles) of n-butylamine was added dropwise in a solution of methylene chloride. Evaporation under reduced pressure gave a brown precipitate, which was extracted in chloroform and washed with brine and subsequently dried over MgS0 4 . The brownish precipitate obtained was passed through celite to yield the pure n-butyl amine conjugated product 9

(Scheme 7) . Yield 69%; brown powder. 31 P NMR (CDC1 3 ) ; 85.07 ppm. 1 H NMR (CDC1 3 ) ; δ 2.65 (d, 3H, NCH 3 ) ; 3.25 (d, 3H, NCH 3 ); 6.6-8.5

(m, ar. and imine H) ; 0.97 ( , 3H, CH 3 ) ; 1.38

(m, 4H, CH 2 -CH 2 -) ; 1.58 (m, 2H, -HN-CH 2 ) . IR (KBr): 3195 (NH 2 );1648 (C=0) ; 557 (P=S) . Anal. Calcd. for C 20 H 28 N 5 Cl 2 OPSPd: c, 40.39; H, 4.74; N, 11.78; Cl, 11.92. Found: C, 39.31; H, 4.07; N, 11.53; Cl, 11.76.

The invention has been described in an illustrative manner, and it is to be understood that the terminology which has been used is intended to be in the nature of words of description rather than of limitation.

Throughout this application various publications are referenced by full citation or numbers. Full citations for the publications referenced by number are listed below. The disclosures of these publications in their entireties are hereby incorporated by reference into this application in order to more fully describe the state of the art to which this invention pertains. Obviously many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings. It is, therefore, to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described.

EQUATION 1

SCHEME 2

for M = Co ; 3 fur M « Co

Scheme 3

Scheme 4

PdCI 2 (PhCN) 2

H δ

\ //

2 2

2 U

SCHEME ~

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