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Title:
MULTILAYER, RESTORABLE PROTECTIVE FURNITURE PADS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/150347
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present disclosure relates to improved furniture pads that provide an opportunity to repair the connection between the pad and a furniture surface, the integrity of the pad, or both. In some instances, this can be accomplished by providing a pad comprising multiple pad bodies, each of which can has a protective surface. The pad bodies can be stacked or removed depending on the relationship between the furniture and the floor. In other instances, multiple adhesive layers are arranged on the top surface of a protective pad body, allowing for an adhesive bond to be refreshed and restored if the pad fails.

Inventors:
KULSETH, Kyle E. (3M Center, Post Office Box 33427Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55133-3427, US)
DAVIS, Landon B. (3M Center, Post Office Box 33427Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55133-3427, US)
DIAS MARQUES FARIA, Tatiane (3M Center, Post Office Box 33427Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55133-3427, US)
BARRON, Debora F. (3M Center, Post Office Box 33427Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55133-3427, US)
PAN, Angela L. (3M Center, Post Office Box 33427Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55133-3427, US)
KRUMHUS, Kristine K. (3M Center, Post Office Box 33427Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55133-3427, US)
COWMAN-EGGERT, Christina D. (3M Center, Post Office Box 33427Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55133-3427, US)
THOMPSON, Aaron P. (3M Center, Post Office Box 33427Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55133-3427, US)
Application Number:
IB2019/050915
Publication Date:
August 08, 2019
Filing Date:
February 05, 2019
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
3M INNOVATIVE PROPERTIES COMPANY (3M Center, Post Office Box 33427Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55133-3427, US)
International Classes:
A47B91/12; A47B91/06
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WEBER, Kevin W. et al. (3M Center, Office of Intellectual Property CounselPost Office Box 33427,Saint Pau, Minnesota, 55133-3427, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
We Claim:

1. A furniture pad comprising:

a first pad body comprising a first protective element;

a second pad body comprising a second protective element; and

a third pad body comprising a third protective element, wherein the first and second pad bodies are coupled by a first detachable interface, and wherein the second and third pad bodies are coupled by a second detachable interface. 2. A furniture pad comprising:

a first pad body comprising a first protective element having a first major surface and second major surface;

a plurality of adhesive layers arranged in a vertical stack above the first major surface. 3. The furniture pad of claim 2, wherein each adhesive layer of the plurality of adhesive layers is separated from an adjacent adhesive layer by a release liner.

4. A furniture pad kit comprising a plurality of pad bodies, each body comprising a protective element and a detachable interface.

5. A furniture pad kit comprising a first pad body and a plurality of adhesive elements, each adhesive element including an adhesive layer and release liner.

Description:
MULTILAYER, RESTORABLE PROTECTIVE FURNITURE PADS

Summary

Protecting a floor from markings caused by contacting furniture has traditionally been accomplished with felt or plastic pads. While generally satisfactory for their purpose, each has been associated with its share of problems. One problem associated with felt pads is the coupling to a piece of furniture with either adhesive or otherwise tacky surfaces. Such felt pads may easily peel from the furniture as the furniture is repeatedly slid across a floor or may permanently bond to leg after compression, causing user frustration. Furthermore, the adhesives typically used are not repositionable, meaning that the pad cannot be repeatedly reapplied to the leg should shift or other displacement occur.

Another problem often encountered with felt pads is that the soft material may not offer sufficient resistance to shear. The material itself can demonstrate a tendency to break down by layers or otherwise deform, especially when moving heavy furniture over uneven floors. This is a cause for premature wear of the pad.

Another problem associated with plastic pads, such as nylon or similar solid plastic material is its application to furniture with a screw, nail or other metal fastener that must be driven into the furniture, thus damaging the furniture. This problem is compounded when changing the pad is desired. In such instance, the fastener must again be driven into the same portion of the furniture, thus further degrading the integrity of the furniture and perhaps creating splinters and stripping wood finish. Another limitation of current, hard plastic floor protectors is their propensity to strip finish from hard floors or otherwise mark the hard floor surface with which they contact.

The inventors of the present disclosure recognized that the existing furniture pads could be improved or enhanced by providing an opportunity to repair the connection between the pad and furniture surface, the integrity of the pad, or both. In some instances, this can be accomplished by providing a pad comprising multiple pad bodies, each of which can has a protective surface. The pad bodies can be stacked or removed depending on the relationship between the furniture and the floor. In other instances, enhancing existing pads calls for multiple adhesive layers to be arranged on the top surface of a protective pad body, allowing for an adhesive bond to be refreshed and restored if the pad fails.

In one aspect, the present disclosure provides a furniture pad comprising a first pad body comprising a first protective element; a second pad body comprising a second protective element; and a third pad body comprising a third protective element, wherein the first and second pad bodies are coupled by a first detachable interface, and wherein the second and third pad bodies are coupled by a second detachable interface.

In another aspect, the present disclosure provides a furniture pad comprising a first pad body comprising a first protective element having a first major surface and second major surface; and a plurality of adhesive layers arranged in a vertical stack above the first major surface. In some embodiments, each adhesive layer of the plurality of adhesive layers is separated from an adjacent adhesive layer by a release liner.

As used herein,“layer” means a single stratum that may be continuous or discontinuous over a surface.

As used herein, the terms,“height”,“depth”,“top” and“bottom” are for illustrative purposes only, and do not necessarily define the orientation or the relationship between the surface and the intrusive feature. Accordingly, the terms “height” and “depth”, as well as “top” and “bottom” should be considered interchangeable.

The terms“comprises” and variations thereof do not have a limiting meaning where these terms appear in the description and claims.

The words“preferred” and“preferably” refer to embodiments of the invention that may afford certain benefits, under certain circumstances. However, other embodiments may also be preferred, under the same or other circumstances. Furthermore, the recitation of one or more preferred embodiments does not imply that other embodiments are not useful and is not intended to exclude other embodiments from the scope of the invention.

As recited herein, all numbers should be considered modified by the term“about”.

As used herein,“a”,“an”,“the”,“at least one”, and“one or more” are used interchangeably. Thus, for example, a core comprising“a” pattern of recesses can be interpreted as a core comprising“one or more” patterns.

Also herein, the recitations of numerical ranges by endpoints include all numbers subsumed within that range (e.g., 1 to 5 includes 1, 1.5, 2, 2.75, 3, 3.80, 4, 5, etc.).

As used herein as a modifier to a property or attribute, the term“generally”, unless otherwise specifically defined, means that the property or attribute would be readily recognizable by a person of ordinary skill but without requiring absolute precision or a perfect match (e.g., within +/- 20 % for quantifiable properties). The term“substantially”, unless otherwise specifically defined, means to a high degree of approximation (e.g., within +/- 10% for quantifiable properties) but again without requiring absolute precision or a perfect match. Terms such as same, equal, uniform, constant, strictly, and the like, are understood to be within the usual tolerances or measuring error applicable to the particular circumstance rather than requiring absolute precision or a perfect match.

The above summary of the present disclosure is not intended to describe each disclosed embodiment or every implementation of the present invention. The description that follows more particularly exemplifies illustrative embodiments. In several places throughout the application, guidance is provided through lists of examples, which examples can be used in various combinations. In each instance, the recited list serves only as a representative group and should not be interpreted as an exhaustive list.

Brief Description of Drawings

Fig. 1 is a side plan view of one embodiment of an exemplary furniture pad of the type generally described herein;

Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the adhesive article of Fig. 1;

Fig 3 is a depiction of the furniture pad of Figs. 1-2 as applied and adjusted;

Fig. 4 is a perspective view of another embodiment of an exemplary furniture pad; and

Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view of the adhesive article of Fig. 4.

Layers in certain depicted embodiments are for illustrative purposes only and are not intended to absolutely define the thickness, relative or otherwise, or the absolute location of any component. While the above -identified figures set forth several embodiments of the disclosure other embodiments are also contemplated, as noted in the description. In all cases, this disclosure is presented by way of

representation and not limitation. It should be understood that numerous other modifications and embodiments can be devised by those skilled in the art, which fall within the scope and spirit of the principles of the disclosure.

Detailed Description

Various embodiments and implementations will be described in detail. These embodiments should not be construed as limiting the scope of the present application in any manner, and changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the inventions. Further, only some end uses have been discussed herein, but end uses not specifically described herein are included within the scope of the present application. As such, the scope of the present application should be determined by the claims. Figs. 1 and 2 depict an exemplary embodiment of a furniture pad 100 as generally described herein. The furniture pad 100 includes an attachment surface 102 on the top major surface and a protective surface 104 on the bottom major surface. The furniture pad 100 includes a first pad body 110, a second pad body 120, and a third pad body 130. The individual pad bodies 110, 120, 130 are releasably coupled to one another, creating a stack of elements that define the furniture pad 100.

As seen in Fig. 1, the pad 100 has a generally circular or disc shape, with each distinct pad body 110, 120, 130 including the same three-dimensional shape. The shape of the pad 100 is not particularly limited, however, and can include any suitable shape or combination of shapes. In some embodiments, for instance, the pad 100 can be rectangular (which includes a square). In other embodiments, one of the pad bodies 110, 120, 130 may be rectangular, while one or both of the remaining bodies may be circular.

Other combinations of shapes are contemplated for use amongst different categories of furniture. The base of the protective pad may be straight or have curved edges to reduce drag or wear on certain floor substrates.

Though pad 100 as depicted includes three distinct pad bodies 110, 120, 130, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the furniture pads of the present disclosure can include more or fewer pad bodies as desired. For instance, it may be possible to realize at least some of the certain benefits of the disclosure with two pad bodies. In presently preferred implementations, however, the furniture pad includes three or more pad bodies.

Each pad body includes a protective element adapted to prevent wear on flooring and/or space a leg from the ground. The protective element is designed to lie between a furniture leg and the floor to prevent scratching or wear on the floor as the furniture leg rests or moves along the floor surface (See, e.g., Fig. 3 below). The protective element 112 of pad body 110 includes atop surface 114 arranged in proximity to pad body 120 and a bottom surface 116 adapted to engage or be positioned adjacent the floor.

The protective element typically includes felt, woven or knitted fabric or cloth, scratch-resistant material such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polypropylene or polyethylene, or other resilient materials such as rubber, nonwovens, and foam. The felt, cloth, and nonwovens may be made using any size fibers or fibers made from any material known in the art. Fibers used in felt or nonwovens may be derived from biological sources such as linen or wool. Felt or nonwovens may be made using synthetic fibers including but not limited to polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon, or other polyesters. Felt or nonwovens made from biological sources may also be used either alone or in combination with other fibers made from synthetic materials such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), nylon, or other polyester fibers. The fibers may or may not be reinforced using additives such as microspheres or polymer resin or reinforced using thermal treatments. Single layer combinations of the above materials such as nonwovens or fabric reinforced with polymer resins are also anticipated. The protective element 112 may be a single continuous layer of material, or may include multiple materials arranged in one or more layers. For example, a protective element may include a scrim or shock absorbing element, as described in European Patent No. EP1529464.

In the specific embodiment of Figs. 1 & 2, the first protective element includes a single layer of material having a thickness“T”, though multilayer or multi-material constructions are also contemplated as described above. In some embodiments, the element has a thickness“T” of between about 2 mils and about 1000 mils. In some embodiments, the protective element has a thickness of greater than 35 mils. In some embodiments, the core has a thickness of greater than 110 mils. The protective elements of any given set of pad bodies may have the same thickness. Alternatively, one of the protective elements may thicker than the others, with the third pad body (or other body nearest the top of the stack) including a thicker protective element than either the first or second bodies. Such a construction can allow for reduced changes in the height of the pad as bodies are removed during the pad’s useful life.

The bottom surface 116 of the first pad body 110 (i.e.. protective surface 104 of the pad 100) may be coated with a layer of a low friction material 170, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyoxymethylene and mixtures thereof. One or both of the second and third pad bodies 120, 130, may also be coated with a layer of a low friction material 170.

The pad bodies can be connected to each other at detachable interfaces, with the first pad body coupled to the second pad body 120 at a first detachable interface 150 and the second pad body connected to the third pad body at a second detachable interface 160.

The detachable interfaces 150, 160 can include any known or developed reusable or non -reusable connector for connecting the pad bodies. The detachable interface permits the separation and connection of the given pad bodies along a general plane. In some embodiments, the detachable interface can include, for example, a mechanical type fastener including an interlocking system, an intermeshing system having connection without macroscopic mechanical deformation or interference, a releasable contact responsive fastener, a splittable construction, and the like. In other embodiments, the interface includes one or more layers of an adhesive, gel, or gel adhesive bound by covalent bonding, ionic bonding, hydrogen bonding, and/or van der Waals forces.

In some embodiments, one or both detachable interfaces 150, 160 include an adhesive. In some embodiments, the detachable interface includes a pressure-sensitive adhesive. A general description of useful pressure sensitive adhesives may be found in the Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and

Engineering, Vol. 13, Wiley-Interscience Publishers (New York, 1988). Additional description of useful pressure -sensitive adhesives may be found in the Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, Vol. 1, Interscience Publishers (New York, 1964). Pressure sensitive adhesive compositions are well known to those of ordinary skill in the art to possess properties including the following: (1) tack, (2) adherence with no more than finger pressure, (3) sufficient ability to hold onto an adherend, and (4) sufficient cohesive strength to be cleanly removable from the adherend. Materials that have been found to function well as pressure sensitive adhesives are polymers designed and formulated to exhibit the requisite viscoelastic properties resulting in a desired balance of tack, peel adhesion, and shear holding power. Suitable PSAs may be based on crosslinked or non-crosslinked (meth)acrylics, rubbers, thermoplastic elastomers, silicones, polyurethanes, and the like, and may include tackifiers in order to provide the desired tack, as well as other additives. In some embodiments, the PSA is based on a (meth)acrylic PSA or at least one poly(meth)acrylate, where (meth)acrylate refers to both acrylate and methacrylate groups. In some embodiments, the PSA is an olefin block copolymer based adhesive. In some embodiments, the PSA is an adhesive based on styrenic block copolymers or copolymers of styrene and hydrogenated, partially hydrogenated, or non-hydrogenated dienes such as butadiene or isoprene. Acrylic based pressure sensitive adhesives are described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,726,982 (Traynor et al.) and in U.S. Pat. No.

5,965,256 (Barrera), for example. Silicone based pressure sensitive adhesives are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,730,397 (Melancon et al.) and U.S. Pat. No. 5,082,706 (Tangney), for example. Polyurethane based pressure sensitive adhesives are described in U.S. Pat. Appl. Pub. No. 2005/0137375 (Hansen et al.), for example. Olefin block copolymer based pressure sensitive adhesives are described in U.S. Pat. Appl. Pub. No. 2014/0335299 (Wang et al.), for example.

Generally, any known additives useful in the formulation of adhesives may also be included in an adhesive based detachable interface. Additives include plasticizers, anti- aging agents, ultraviolet stabilizers, colorants, thermal stabilizers, anti-infective agents, fillers, crosslinkers, as well as mixtures and combinations thereof. In certain embodiments, the adhesive can be reinforced with fibers or a fiber scrim which may include inorganic and/or organic fibers. Suitable fiber scrims may include woven-, non- woven or knit webs or scrims. For example, the fibers in the scrim may include wire, ceramic fiber, glass fiber (for example, fiberglass), and organic fibers (for example, natural and/or synthetic organic fibers).

A detachable interface may include a plurality of adhesive layers. For example, the interface may include a relatively stiff rubber based adhesive as an inner layer, with a softer acrylic based PSA disposed between the inner layer and the adjacent pad body or bodies. As another example, the interface may include a relatively soft acrylic based adhesive as an inner layer, with a relatively stiffer rubber based adhesive disposed between the inner layer and the adjacent pad body. The characteristics of the adhesive in the detachable interface may be selected or modified to achieve the desired properties In certain embodiments where the detachable interfaces 150, 160 include an adhesive, the material for a given protective element can be selected so that it forms a relative weak bond with adhesive, allowing for reasonably easy separation.

Alternatively, any one protective element may include a release material to reduce or minimize the bond strength at the detachable interface. Suitable release materials include, but are not limited to, low surface energy materials such as silicones, epoxy silicones cured by photo-acid generated crosslinking, fluorosilicones, silicone acrylates, perfluoropolyether and other fluorochemical materials, olefin materials, long-chain hydrocarbon-functional materials, and copolymers and mixtures thereof. The release materials may be coated on a backing including but not limited to paper or polymeric films.

In some embodiments, the detachable interface 150 can include a layer of hook material which is bonded with or otherwise attached to the first protective element 110 at the top major surface thereof. The hook material may interlock with the protective element 122 of the second body 120 or a layer of loop material which is bonded to a bottom major surface thereof. It is contemplated that any commercially available hook and loop connector system, including those available from 3M Company, can be utilized. Hook and loop connector systems are but one type of mechanical interlocking connector systems which are suggested by this embodiment. By mechanical interlocking, it is meant those fasteners where at least one of the connector elements undergoes some macroscopic deformation (preferably plastic deformation) so that a mechanical interference results between plural components. Many different modifications of the inter-engaging elements are designed based on the requisite force and manner of separation between the cooperating layers of such a separable connector system. Some exemplary separable connectors are described in, for example, U.S. Patent Nos. 6,572,945; 7,781,056; 6,403,206; and 6,972,141, all of which are incorporated by reference in their entirety herein.

In another embodiment, a detachable interface can include a backing having opposing major surfaces, with each major surface including a layer of hook material. Each layer of hook material is adapted to interlock with either a corresponding loop material or a protective element. Suitable backing materials include plastic and elastomeric materials, and mixtures or blend thereof.

Under certain circumstances, the separable connector can be reconstituted for reuse even after separation. For example, a detachable interface 150, 160 can be realigned and pressure applied across a major surface to cause another mechanical interlocking. As another example, a separable connector featuring one or more layers of adhesive and/or gel can allow for one or more of the bonds (e.g., ionic, Van der Waals) to reform. A presently preferred detachable interface can provide sufficient strength along the general plane of its separation so that, depending on the specific application, the detachable interface will not fail based on the use or movement of the furniture pad 100. The interface can provide an internal static shear strength in a direction parallel to the general plane for supporting the object during movement and providing a level of resiliency to the pad 100.

Attachment of the pad 100 to the furniture can be achieved with a layer of pressure sensitive adhesive 180 on the top surface of the protective element of the third pad body 130. Alternatively, the pad may be attached by traditional mechanical fasteners (e.g., a screw or a nail), single part or two-part epoxies or liquid adhesives, or intermeshing elements, such as the hook and loop connections used for detachable interfaces 150, 160.

The furniture pads 100 described herein may be attached or adhered, for example, to one or more legs of an article of furniture or may be attached to a table base or pedestal. When the furniture glide(s) are attached to a table base or pedestal, multiple furniture glides may be used. In addition, as known to those skilled in the art, the table base or pedestal may comprise multiple legs or prongs that each may have one or more furniture pads attached thereto.

Fig 3 depicts the removal of a pad body 110 from a furniture pad 100 coupled to a furniture leg 200. As depicted, a furniture pad 100 is attached to the leg 200, with the protective surface 104 available to engage the floor. As the protective surface 104 is worn or dirtied, the first pad body 110 can be separated at detachable interface 150. Once the first pad body is removed, the second pad body provides a new protective surface 126 for the furniture leg 200.

The furniture pad 100 may be provided preassembled or as a modular kit of pad bodies, allowing the user to select the precise number pad bodies needed for a given object. The kit may include any number of pad bodies of the same or different thicknesses. In some embodiments, the detachable interface elements can also be provided separate from the individual protective elements, requiring the user to assemble the pad bodies prior to stacking. The modular kit can also allow a user to replace a worn or sullied pad body with a new version or replace a failing interface. In some embodiments, the pad bodies may include a plurality of separable or separated pad segments, as described in co-filed provisional patent application with the Attorney Docket Number 80512US002, entitled RESIZABLE FURNITURE PAD and incorporated by reference in its entirety herein.

Fig. 4 depicts another embodiment of a restorable furniture pad 400 according to the present disclosure. Like pad 100 of Figs. 1-2, the pad 400 includes a protective element 412 defining a protective surface 404 and an outer attachment surface 402 at the top of the pad. Instead of one or more additional pad bodies, the pad 400 includes a plurality of stacked adhesive connectors arranged above the top, second major surface of the protective element 412. Though pad 400 includes three distinct adhesive connectors in the stack, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the furniture pads of the present disclosure can include more or fewer layers of adhesive as desired. For instance, it may be possible to realize at least some of the certain benefits of the disclosure with two separable adhesive layers. In presently preferred implementations, however, the furniture pad includes three or more separable adhesive layers. In some embodiments, the pad 400 may include a plurality of separable or separated pad segments, as described in co-filed provisional patent application with the Attorney Docket Number 80512US002, entitled RESIZABLE FURNITURE PAD and incorporated by reference in its entirety herein.

In one exemplary embodiment, each separable adhesive connector includes an adhesive layer 432, 442, 452 and a release liner 434, 444, 454. The release liner protects the adhesive layer during manufacturing, transit, and use. When one desires to use or refresh the pad, one can peel or remove the release liner to expose the next detachable adhesive connector in the stack, as seen in Fig. 5. The pad can then be cleaned, reinforced, and/or reapplied to the desired location.

The adhesive layers 432, 442, 452 may have the same thickness, or a different thickness depending on desired orientation of the layer. Adhesive layers can be the same as one another or disparate from one another. Disparate, in this context, is used to describe substantial differences in composition or adhesive performance. Adhesive layers can each be a single layer or can be multilayer. Adhesive layers can each be continuous or discontinuous (e.g., patterned) across the major surfaces of the protective element or release liner. Suitable adhesives include any of those listed above.

Examples of suitable liners include paper, e.g., kraft paper, or polymeric films, e.g., polyethylene, polypropylene or polyester. At least one surface of the liner can be treated with a release agent such as silicone, a fluorochemical, or other low surface energy based release material to provide a release liner. Suitable release liners and methods for treating liners are described in, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,472,480, 4,980,443 and 4,736,048, and incorporated herein. The release liners can be printed with lines, brand indicia, or other information.

The liners may also include a tab (not shown) extending beyond the periphery of the protective element 410 and an adhesive layer. The tab can facilitate removal of an adhesive layer from the pad 400 when the adhesive connection between and furniture begins to deteriorate. The worn adhesive connector can more easily be separated by grasping the tab and pulling the liner away from the pad 400, removing an adhesive layer from the stack. Thus, it can be seen that the furniture pads described herein can compensate for the unevenness of floors and other surfaces and allow articles of furniture to be moved and self-leveled.

In addition, it is also contemplated that furniture pads described herein can be applied to other legged objects, including appliances (washers, dryers, etc.) that also require leveling.

Additionally, the furniture pads may easily accommodate furniture with unequal length legs. In such an instance, due to manufacturing inconsistencies, sloping or uneven floors, or other occurrences, the various legs of a table, chair, bottom of a bookcase, etc. may not rest in a level fashion upon a floor surface. By using the furniture pads of the present disclosure exemplified herein, particularly those of Figs. 1-3, such unlevel sitting pieces of furniture may be made to sit level, and unequal length legs may be "made equal" to provide a piece of furniture that does not rock or shake when used. This solution to wobbling furniture and unequal length legs provides a quick, easy and attractive solution to such unstable pieces of furniture. An added advantage is that the pad bodies used to make a piece of furniture not wobble will stay in place as the furniture is even just slightly moved or moved from room to room. The pads may be made in a variety of thicknesses and stacked to solve a variety of unlevel furniture situations yet provide a way to easily slide furniture without scratching flooring surfaces.

The furniture pads of the present disclosure may be manufactured according to any available technique, including those described in US Publication Nos. 2005/0003723 (Brouard et al.) and US2016/0157608 (Gergonne et al.).

The recitation of all numerical ranges by endpoint is meant to include all numbers subsumed within the range (i.e., the range 1 to 10 includes, for example, 1, 1.5, 3.33, and 10).

The patents, patent documents, and patent applications cited herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety as if each were individually incorporated by reference. It will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art that various changes and modifications may be made without deviating from the inventing concepts set from above. Thus, the scope of the present disclosure should not be limited to the structures described herein. Those having skill in the art will appreciate that many changes may be made to the details of the above-described embodiments and implementations without departing from the underlying principles thereof. Further, various modifications and alterations of the present invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. The scope of the present application should, therefore, be determined only by the following claims and equivalents thereof.