Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
MULTILAYERED TUBING FOR FUEL TRANSFER APPLICATIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/183138
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present, disclosure relates generally to polymer-based tubing, suitable, for example, for conducting hydrocarbon fuels. The present disclosure relates more particularly to multi- layered tubings that are fuel resistant, flexible, and cost effective.

Inventors:
LUDLOW, James (3090 Weymouth Road, Medina, OH, 44256, US)
Application Number:
US2019/023028
Publication Date:
September 26, 2019
Filing Date:
March 19, 2019
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SAINT-GOBAIN PERFORMANCE PLASTICS CORPORATION (31500 Solon Road, Solon, OH, 44139, US)
International Classes:
B32B1/08; B32B27/08; B32B27/30; B32B27/34; B32B27/40; F16L11/04
Domestic Patent References:
WO2016186111A12016-11-24
WO2017170985A12017-10-05
Foreign References:
US20170067581A12017-03-09
JP2011062881A2011-03-31
JPH05247478A1993-09-24
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SUGGS, James, V. (McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff LLP, 300 South Wacker DriveChicago, IL, 60606, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
1. A length of tubing having an annular cross-section, the annular cross-section having an inner surface and an outer surface, the annular cross-section comprising:

an annular fluoropo!ymer layer formed from at least 75 wt% of a CRT polymer, the fiuoropoiymer layer having an outer surface and an inner surface; and an annular thermoplastic layer disposed about the fiuoropoiymer layer, the

thermoplastic layer having an inner surface and an outer surface.

2. The length of tubing of claim 1 , wherein the inner surface of the thermoplastic layer is in contact with the outer surface of the fiuoropoiymer layer.

3. The length of tubing of claim 2, wherein the only two continuous polymeric layers of the tubing are the inner fiuoropoiymer layer, in contact with the outer thermoplastic layer

4. The length of tubing of claim 1 , further comprising an annular tie layer having an outer surface and an inner surface, wherein the inner surface of the annular layer is in contact with the outer surface of the fiuoropoiymer layer.

5. The length of tubing of claim 4, wherein the tie layer is formed from at least 75 wt% non-fluorinated polymer.

8. The length of tubing of claim 5, wherein the non-fluorinated polymer is a polyamide resin.

7. The length of tubing of claim 4, wherein the tie layer has a thickness in the range of about 0.010 mm to about Q.200 m .

8. The length of tubing of claim 1 , further comprising an annular tie layer having an outer surface and an inner surface, wherein the outer surface of the annular tie layer is in contact with the inner surface of the thermoplastic layer.

9. The length of tubing of any of claims 1 -7, wherein the fiuorinated layer is disposed at the inner surface of the tubing.

10. The length of tubing of any of claims 1 -7, wherein the fiuoropoiymer layer is formed from at least 80 wt% of a CRT polymer, e.g., at least 85 wt% of a CRT polymer, or at least 90 wt% of a CRT polymer, or at least 95 wt% of a CRT polymer, or at least 98 wt% of a CRT polymer.

11. The length of tubing of any of claims 1 -8, wherein the fluoropolymer layer further comprises a PVDR polymer, a FER polymer, a PEA polymer, an ETFE polymer, an EFER polymer, an ECTFE polymer, a PCTFE polymer, a TFIV polymer, or a combination or copolymer thereof.

12. The length of tubing of any of claims 1-8, wherein the fluoropolymer layer consists essentially of fluoropolymer (e.g., a CPT polymer).

13. The length of tubing of any of claims 1 -10, wherein the fluoropolymer layer has a thickness in the range of about 0.010 mm to about 0.2QQ mm.

14. The length of tubing of any of claims 1 -13, wherein the thermoplastic layer is a thermoplastic polyurethane layer formed from at least 75 wi% thermoplastic polyurethane.

15. The length of tubing of claim 14, wherein the thermoplastic polyurethane of the thermoplastic polyurethane layer is a polyether-type thermoplastic polyurethane, a polyester- type thermoplastic polyurethane, or a combination or copolymer thereof.

18. The length of tubing of any of claims 1 -17, wherein the thermoplastic layer has a thickness in the range of about 0.5 mm to about 20 mm.

17 The length of tubing of any of claims 1 -25, having an inner diameter in the range of Q.5 mm to 40 mm.

18 The length of tubing of any of claims 1-26, wherein the length of tubing exhibits CE10 fuel permeation at 40°C of less than 5 g/m2/day.

19 A method for transporting a hydrocarbon fuel, comprising

providing a length of tubing according to any of claims 1 -18; and

flowing the hydrocarbon fuel through the flexible tubing from a first end to a second end thereof.

20. A fuel-powered device (e.g., a marine device, a hand-operated device or an automotive device) comprising a fuel tank, a fuel-powered engine, and a length of tubing according to any of claims 1-18 fluidly connecting the fuel tank with the fuel-powered engine.

Description:
MULTILAYERED TUBING FOR FUEL TRANSFER APPLICATIONS

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of priority of U.S. Provisional Patent

Application no. 62/845041 , tiled March 19, 2018, which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE DISCLOSURE

Field of the Disclosure

[0002] The present disclosure relates generally to polymer-based tubing, suitable, for example, for conducting hydrocarbon fuels. The present disclosure relates more particularly to multi-layered tubings that are fuel resistant, flexible, and cost effective.

Technical Background

[0003] Multilayered or laminated rubber tubings are known to be useful to serve as a fuel transporting hose for a hydrocarbon fuel feed line into a vehicle or device reservoir. Such tubings are generally required to have a low permeability to fuel vapor, so as to reduce the amount of hydrocarbon vapor released to the environment. The United States

Environmental Protection Agency sets certain regulations that limit the release of hydrocarbons into the environment. The regulations for handheld devices and marine applications are more stringent, requiring a maximum permeation rate of less than 15 g/m 2 /day and less than 5 g/m 2 /day, respectively. The permeation measurements are performed on circulating fuel, measuring the capture of hydrocarbons permeating through the tube wall at a test temperature of 40 °C.

[0004] It is highly desirable that fuel tubings meet the most rigorous requirements for permeability to fuel vapor. To meet these strict evaporative emission standards, barrier layers are often used in fuel tubing. Thermoplastic fiuoropolymers are an especially attractive material for use as barrier layers. They have a unique combination of properties, such as high thermal stability, chemical inertness and non-stick release properties. But thermoplastic fiuoropolymers are expensive in comparison to many other polymers, and often do not provide the necessary strength and flexibility to a tubing. Accordingly, tubings are often formed as multilayer structures, in which one or more additional polymer layers can contribute their own properties and advantages such as, for example, low density, elasticity, sealability, scratch resistance and the like. Co-extrusion is often used to form such multilayer tubings. [0005] Chemically functionalized fiuoropolymers are often used as a barrier layer. Such materials are relatively flexible, however, they are expensive. They can also require barrier layers of 0.010" (~ 0.254 mm) and thicker to meet evaporative emission standards.

[0006] Therefore, there remains a need for improved and flexible multilayer fuel tubing that are not only chemically resistant to hydrocarbon fuels and have very low permeability to hydrocarbon fuels, but also have lower costs.

SUMMARY OF THE DISCLOSURE

[0007] In one aspect, the present disclosure provides a length of tubing having an annular cross-section, the annular cross-section having an inner surface and an outer surface, the annular cross-section including:

an annular fluoropoiymer barrier layer formed from at least 75 wt% of a CRT polymer, the fluoropoiymer barrier layer having an outer surface and an inner surface; and an annular thermoplastic layer (e.g , an annular thermoplastic polyurethane layer formed from at least 75 wt% thermoplastic polyurethane) disposed about the fluoropoiymer layer, the thermoplastic polyurethane layer having an inner surface and an outer surface, the annular thermoplastic layer being disposed outside the annular fluoropoiymer layer (e.g., at the outer surface of the annular cross section).

[0068] In another aspect, the disclosure provides methods for transporting a

hydrocarbon fuel, the method including

providing a length of tubing having an annular cross-section, the annular cross- section having an inner surface and an outer surface, the annular cross-section including:

an annular fluoropoiymer layer formed from at least 75 wt% of a GRT polymer, the fluoropoiymer layer having an outer surface and an inner surface: and an annular thermoplastic layer (e.g., an annular thermoplastic polyurethane layer formed from at least 75 wt% thermoplastic polyurethane) disposed about the fluoropoiymer layer, the thermoplastic layer having an inner surface and an outer surface; and

flowing the hydrocarbon fuel through the flexible tubing from a first end to a second end thereof

[6009] In another aspect, the disclosure provides fuel-powered devices including:

a fuel tank,

a fuel-powered engine, and a length of tubing fluidly connecting the fuel tank with the fuel-powered engine, and having an annular cross-section, the annular cross-section having an inner surface and an outer surface, the annular cross-section including:

an annular fluoropolymer layer formed from at least 75 wt% of a CRT polymer, the fluoropolymer layer having an outer surface and an inner surface; and an annular thermoplastic layer (e.g., an annular thermoplastic polyurethane layer formed from at least 75 wt% thermoplastic polyurethane) disposed about the fluoropolymer layer, the thermoplastic polyurethane layer having an inner surface and an outer surface.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0010] The accompanying drawings are included to provide a further understanding of the methods and devices of the disclosure, and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification. The drawings are not necessarily to scale, and sizes of various elements may be distorted for clarity. The drawings illustrate one or more embodiment(s) of the disclosure, and together with the description serve to explain the principles and operation of the disclosure.

[0011] FIG. 1 is a side schematic view of a length of tubing according to one embodiment of the disclosure;

[0012] FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional schematic view of the length of tubing of FIG. 1 ; and

[0013] FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional schematic view of a length of tubing according to another embodiment of the disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0014] Before the disclosed processes and materials are described, it is to be understood that the aspects described herein are not limited to specific embodiments, apparati, or configurations, and as such can, of course, vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular aspects only and, unless specifically defined herein, is not intended to be limiting.

[0015] Throughout this specification, unless the context requires otherwise, the word “comprise” and“include” and variations (e.g.,“comprises,”“comprising,”“includes,” “including”) will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated component, feature, element, or step or group of components, features, elements or steps but not the exclusion of any other integer or step or group of integers or steps. [0016] As used in the specification and the appended claims, the singular forms“a,”“an” and“the” include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise.

[0017] Ranges can be expressed herein as from“about” one particular value, and/or to “about” another particular value. When such a range is expressed, another aspect includes from the one particular value and/or to the other particular value. Similarly, when values are expressed as approximations, by use of the antecedent“about,” it will be understood that the particular value forms another aspect. It will be further understood that the endpoints of each of the ranges are significant both in relation to the other endpoint, and independently of the other endpoint.

[0018] In view of the present disclosure, the methods and compositions described herein can be configured by the person of ordinary skill in the art to meet the desired need. In general, the disclosed materials, methods, and apparati provide improvements in multilayer fuel tubing. The inventors have unexpectedly determined that use of thin CRT-based fluoropolymer material of the tubing can provide a flexible tubing that has a high resistance to hydrocarbon fuels and to permeance of fuel vapors, but also reduces overall costs for the tubing.

[0019] Accordingly, one aspect of the disclosure is a length of flexible tubing having an annular cross-section, the annular cross-section having an inner surface and an outer surface. Such a tubing is shown in schematic perspective view in FIG. 1 , and in schematic cross-sectional view in FIG. 2. Flexible tubing 100 includes has an annular cross-section 110 (shown in detail in FIG. 2), which has an inner surface 112, an outer surface 114, an inner diameter 116 and an outer diameter 1 18. The inner diameter and the outer diameter define a wall thickness 120 of the tubing. Flexible tubing 100 also has a length 121.

[0020] Flexible tubing 100 is shown as being circular in overall shape. Of course, the person of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that the tubing can be fabricated in other overall shapes, e.g., oval, elliptical, or polygonal. Similarly, while flexible tubing 100 is shown as having a radially constant wall thickness, the person of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that in other embodiments, the thickness need not be constant. In such cases, the“thickness” is taken as the radially-averaged thickness. In certain desirable

embodiments, the wall thickness at any one point along the circumference of the tubing is not less than 50%, e.g., no less than 60%, or no less than 70% of the average wail thickness.

[0021] The annular cross-section of the tubing 100 comprises an annular f!uoropoiymer layer 130, which is formed from at least 75 wt% CPT, and has an Inner surface 132 and an outer surface 134. Disposed about the fluoropolymer layer is an annular thermoplastic layer 140, having an inner surface 142 and an outer surface 144. in the embodiment of FIG. 1 , and in certain embodiments as otherwise described herein, the inner surface 142 of the thermoplastic layer is in contact with the outer surface 134 of the f!uoropoiymer layer.

[0022] The person of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that the tubings of the disclosure can be configured in many ways. For example, in certain embodiments as otherwise described herein, the only two continuous polymeric layers of the tubing are an inner fiuoropolymer layer, in contact with an outer thermoplastic layer.

[0023] In other embodiments as otherwise described herein, the annular cross-section further includes one or more inner annular tie layers disposed on the outside surface of the fiuoropolymer layer. Such an embodiment is shown in the cross-sectional schematic view of FIG 3. Here, annular cross-section 310 includes not only a fiuoropolymer layer 330 and a thermoplastic layer 340, but also one or more (here, one) inner annular tie layers 350 disposed on the outside surface of the fiuoropolymer layer (i.e. , between the outside surface of the fiuoropolymer layer and the inner surface of the annular thermoplastic layer). The annular tie layers can help to adhere the fiuoropolymer layer to the other layers of the tubing. For example, in certain embodiments, the one or more tie layers can (i.e., together) contact both the outer surface of the annular fiuoropolymer layer and the inner surface of the annular thermoplastic layer. In certain embodiments as otherwise described herein, the only three continuous polymeric layers of the tubing are an inner fiuoropolymer layer, an outer thermoplastic layer, and a tie layer disposed between them and contacting both.

[0024] In certain desirable embodiments, the fluorinated layer comprising the GPT polymer can be disposed at the inner surface of the tubing, i.e., to provide the fuel-contacting surface of the tubing. But in other embodiments, the fluorinated layer comprising the CRT polymer is in between two other annular layers of the annular cross-sectional structure of the tubing.

[0025] As described above, the fiuoropolymer layer is formed from a substantial amount of, i.e., at least 75 wt%, CRT fiuoropolymer. As used herein, the person of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that“at least 75% of a CRT polymer” includes use of a plurality of CRT polymers in a total amount of at least 75%; analogous statements related other amounts and other polymers will be understood similarly. CRT, as used herein, is a copolymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), tetrafluoroethylene (TFE), and perfluoro(alkyl vinyl ether) (PFA). in certain desirable embodiments, such copolymers have at least 75 wt% of fluorinated monomeric subunits, e.g., at least 90 wt.% of or even consist essentially of fluorinated monomeric subunits. [0026] Desirable CRT copolymers include, for example, copolymers of only CTFE, TFE, and PFA. Commercially available CRT f!uoropolymers include, for example, those fluoropolymers having the trade designations;“NEQFLON” (e.g.,“NEQFLON™ CRT LP- Series” as marketed by Daikin Industries, Ltd. Other examples include copolymers as described in U.S. Patent Publication No. 2007/0219333 and U.S. Patent No. 8,530,014, both incorporated herein in their entirety.

[0027] For example, in certain embodiments of the tubings as otherwise described herein, the fiuoropolymer layer is formed from at least 80 wt%, e.g., at least 85 wt%, or at least 90 wt%, of a CPT polymer in certain embodiments of the tubings as otherwise described herein, the fiuoropolymer layer is formed from at least 95 wt% of, e.g., at least 98 wt% of, or consists essentially of, a CPT polymer.

[0028] Other fiuorinated materials can be used in the fiuoropolymer layer, together with the CPT polymer. For example, in certain embodiments of the tubings as otherwise described herein, the fiuoropolymer layer inciude a fiuorinated polyvinylidene poiymer or copolymer (“a PVDF polymer”), a fiuorinated ethylene propylene copolymer (“a PEP polymer”), a copolymer of tetraf!uoroethyiene and perfluoropropyl vinyl ether (“a PFA poiymer”), a copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and perfluoromethyi vinyl ether (“a MFA poiymer”), a copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene (“an ETFE polymer”), copolymer of ethylene, tetrafluoroethylene, and hexafiuoropropylene (“an EFER poiymer”), a copolymer of ethylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene (“an ECTFE polymer”), polychlorotrifluoroethylene (“a PCTFE polymer”), a terpolymer including tetrafluoroethylene, hexafiuoropropylene, and vinyiidenefluoride (“a THV polymer”), or a combination or copolymer thereof. And the person of ordinary skill in the art will understand that other fiuorinated polymers can be used;

desirably, the poiymer has at least 75 moi%, e.g., at least 90 mol%, or even at least 95 moi% fiuorinated monomer residues. The person of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that a variety of commercial fiuoropolymer grades can be suitable for use in the tubings described herein.

[0029] And in certain embodiments as otherwise described herein, a fiuoropolymer layer can include a minor amount (for example, no more than 25 wt%, e.g., no more than 10 wt%, or no more than 5%) of nonfluorinated polymer. Desirably, such polymer is miscible with, or otherwise compatible with the fiuoropolymer. Non-fluorinated polymers can be used, for example, to modify the properties of the fiuorinated polymer(s) of the polymer layer.

[0039] The person of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that a variety of additional materials can be used in the fiuoropolymer layer, e.g., to aid in processing or to provide a desired appearance of the fiuoropolymer iayer. [0031] While the fluoropolymer layer can be formed in variety of thicknesses, the inventors have unexpectedly found that the fluoropolymer layers of no more than Q.200 mm in thickness afford significant cost savings yet meet the necessary permeance of fuel vapor standards. The person of ordinary skill in the art will, based on the disclosure herein, balance material properties, fuel vapor permeance properties and cost, among other factors, to provide a desired thickness of the fluoropolymer layer in certain embodiments of the tubings as otherwise described herein, the fluoropolymer layer has a thickness in the range of about 0.010 mm to about 0.200 mm. For example, in various embodiments as otherwise described herein, the fluoropolymer layer has a thickness in the range of about 0.010 mm to about Q.150 m, or about 0.010 mm to about Q.130 m, or about 0.010 mm to about 0.100 mm, or about 0.01 Q mm to about 0.075 mm. in various embodiments as otherwise

described herein, the fluoropolymer layer has a thickness in the range of about 0.030 mm to about 0.200 mm, e.g., about 0.03Q mm to about Q.150 m, or about 0.030 mm to about 0.130 mm, or about 0.030 mm to about 0.100 mm, or about 0.030 mm to about 0.075 mm. in various embodiments as otherwise described herein, the fluoropolymer layer has a thickness in the range of about 0.050 mm to about 0.200 , or about 0.050 mm to about 0.150 , or about 0.050 mm to about 0.130 , or about 0.050 mm to about 0.100 mm, or about 0.050 mm to about 0.075 mm. In various embodiments as otherwise described herein, the fluoropolymer layer has a thickness in the range of about 0.100 mm to about 0.200 mm, or about 0.100 mm to about 0.150 mm, or about 0.100 mm to about 0.130 mm, or about 0.150 mm to about 0.200 mm, or about 0.170 mm to about 0.200 mm. The fuel vapor permeance will generally be a function of layer thickness, and the thickness needed to provide a particular desired permeance will depend on the identity of the fluoropolymer layer.

[0032] In certain desirable embodiments of the tubings as otherwise described herein, the thermoplastic layer is a thermoplastic polyurethane layer formed from a substantial amount of, i.e., at least 75 wt%, thermoplastic polyurethane. The person of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that a variety of additional materials can be used in the thermoplastic polyurethane layer, e.g., stabilizers, waxes, among others, to, for example, aid in processing or to provide a desired appearance or reduce the tack of the thermoplastic polyurethane layer. In certain embodiments of the tubings as otherwise described herein, the

thermoplastic polyurethane layer is formed from at least 80 wt% thermoplastic polyurethane, e.g., or at least 85 wt% thermoplastic polyurethane, or at least 90 wt% thermoplastic polyurethane in certain embodiments of the tubings as otherwise described herein, the thermoplastic polyurethane layer is formed from at least 95 wt% thermoplastic polyurethane, or even at least 98 wt% thermoplastic polyurethane. In other embodiments as otherwise described herein, the thermoplastic polyurethane layer consists essentially of thermoplastic polyurethane.

[0033] A variety of thermoplastic poiyurethane materials can be used as the

thermoplastic polyurethane material of the thermoplastic polyurethane layer. The person of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that there are a variety of thermoplastic polyurethane materials that provide desired mechanical properties to a tubing and are amenable to formation into tubings by extrusion. The person of ordinary skill in the art will, based on the present disclosure, select an appropriate thermoplastic poiyurethane to provide any other desirable properties, for example, adequate fuel/chemical resistance, flexibility, a low glass transition temperature (e.g., using a soft-segment phase) for low temperature applications, adequate weatherability/UV resistance, and adequate mechanical strength to withstand installation, to maintain fitting retention, and to maintain a seal in use.

[0034] Typically, a thermoplastic polyurethane is formed by reacting a polyol with an isocyanate. As the person of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate, the overall properties of the polyurethane will depend, among other things, upon the type of polyol and isocyanate, crystallinity in the poiyurethane, the molecular weight of the polyurethane and chemical structure of the polyurethane backbone. Many typical thermoplastic polyurethanes also include a chain extender such as 1 ,4-butanediol that can form hard segment blocks in the polymer chain. Polyurethanes can generally be classified as being either thermoplastic or thermoset, depending on the degree of crosslinking present. Thermoplastic urethanes do not have primary crosslinking while thermoset polyurethanes have a varying degree of crosslinking, depending on the functionality of the reactants. As used herein, a

“thermoplastic poiyurethane” is one in which at least 95 mo!% of, (in some embodiments, at least 99 mol% of, or even substantially all of) its polyol constituent is difunctional. As described in more detail below, such materials can be crossl inked by electron beam treatment; despite such crosslinking, the present disclosure considers such materials “thermoplastic.”

[0035] Thermoplastic polyurethanes are commonly based on either methylene diisocyanate or toluene diisocyanate and include both polyester and polyether grades of polyols. Thermoplastic polyurethanes can be formed by a“one-shot” reaction between isocyanate and polyol (e.g., with optional chain extender) or by a“pre-polymer” system, wherein a curative is added to the partially reacted polyolisocyanate complex to complete the polyurethane reaction. Examples of some common thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers based on“pre-polymers” are“TEXIN”, a tradename of Bayer Materials Science, “ESTANE”, a tradename of Lubrizoi,“PELLETHANE”, a tradename of Lubirzoi, and “ELASTOLLAN”, a tradename of BASF. [0036] In certain embodiments of the tubings as described herein, the thermoplastic polyurethane layer is a polyether-type thermoplastic polyurethane, a polyester-type thermoplastic polyurethane, or a combination or copolymer thereof. Typically, thermoplastic polyurethanes used in fuel tubings are ester-type thermoplastic polyurethanes. Ester-type thermoplastic polyurethanes can be based on different compositions of substituted or unsubstituted methane diisocyanate (MDI) and a substituted or unsubstituted dihydroxy alcohol (a glycol).

[0037] In certain advantageous embodiments of the tubings as otherwise described herein, the thermoplastic polyurethane of the thermoplastic polyurethane layer is a polyether-type polyurethane. Poiyether-type thermoplastic polyurethanes can be more resistant to hydrolytic degradation than polyester-type thermoplastic polyurethanes. But the fact that they generally have lower resistance to hydrocarbons makes polyether-type thermoplastic polyurethanes generally less suitable than polyester-type polyurethanes for use in conventional fuel tubings. But the softness of some grades of polyether-type thermoplastic polyurethanes can make them more suitable for use in tubings like those described here.

[0038] Of course, in other embodiments, the thermoplastic layer can be formed from other non-fluorinated thermoplastic polymers. Examples of other examples of materials that can be suitable for use in thermoplastic layers include, for example, polyamide resins, polyester resins, ethylene acrylic acid and methacryiic acid copolymer resins, polyolefin resins, vinyl chloride-based resins, polyurethane resins, polyaramid resins, poiyimide resins, polyamideimide resins, polyphenylene oxide resins, polyacetal resins, polyetheretherketone resins (PEEK), polyetherimide resins, ethylene/vinyl alcohol copolymer-based resins, polyphenylene sulfide resins, polybutylene naphthalate resins, polybutylene terephthalate resins, po!yphthaiamides (PPA), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), and a combination or copolymer thereof.

[0039] The thermoplastic layer can be formed in variety of thicknesses. The person of ordinary skill in the art will, based on the disclosure herein, balance material properties and cost, among other factors, to provide a desired thickness of the thermoplastic layer. In certain embodiments of the tubings as otherwise described herein, the thermoplastic layer has a thickness in the range of about 0.5 mm to about 20 mm. For example, in various embodiments as otherwise described herein, the thermoplastic layer has a thickness in the range of 0.5 mm to 10 m , or 0.5 m to 5 m, or 0.5 m to 3 mm, or 0.5 m to 2 mm, or 1 mm to 20 mm, or 1 mm to 10 mm, or 1 mm to 5 mm, or 1 mm to 3 mm, or 2 mm to 20 mm, or 2 m to 10 mm, or 2 mm to 7 mm, or 2 mm to 5 mm, or 5 mm to 20 mm, or 5 m to 15 mm, or 5 to 1 Q mm, or 10 mm to 20 mm. [0040] In certain embodiments, the material volume of the tubing is at ieast 50%, at least 70%, at Ieast 90%, or even at Ieast 95% made up of the thermoplastic layer and the fluoropolymer layer.

[0041] Notably, the tubings of the disclosure do not require coupling agents or adhesive layers to adhere the thermoplastic polyurethane layer to the fluoropolymer layer or to the tie layer, which even layer contacts the inner surface of the thermoplastic polyurethane layer.

Of course, in certain embodiments, such materials can be used.

[0042] As described above, the tubings of the disclosure can be configured to further include one or more inner annular tie layers disposed on the outside surface of the fluoropolymer layer. Such an embodiment is shown in the cross-sectional schematic view of FIG 3, discussed above. A variety of polymeric materials can be used as the tie layer in certain embodiments, the tie layer is formed from at ieast 75 vvt.% non-fiuorinated polymer. For example, in certain embodiments, the tie layer is formed from at Ieast 80 wt% non- fiuorinated polymer, or at Ieast 85 wt% non-fiuorinated polymer, or at Ieast 90 wt% non- fiuorinated polymer, or at Ieast 95 wt% non-fiuorinated polymer, or even at ieast 98 wt% non- fiuorinated polymer. In certain embodiments, the tie layer consists essentially of non- fiuorinated polymer. The person of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that a variety of non-fiuorinated polymers can be suitable for use in the tubings described herein. For example, the non-fiuorinated polymer is selected from polyamide resins, polyester resins, ethylene acrylic acid and methacrylic acid copolymer resins, polyolefin resins, vinyl chloride- based resins, polyurethane resins, polyaram!d resins, polyimide resins, polyamideimide resins, polyphenylene oxide resins, polyacetal resins, polyetheretherketone resins (PEEK), poiyetherimide resins, ethylene/vinyl alcohol copolymer-based resins, polyphenylene sulfide resins, polybutylene naphthaiafe resins, polybutylene terephthalate resins, polyphthalamides (PPA), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), and a combination or copolymer thereof. In certain desirable embodiments, the non-fiuorinated polymer is a polyamide resin.

[0043] As the person of ordinary skill in the art would appreciate, a number of other additives may be present in the layers, such as leftover polymerization agent (i.e., from the polymerizations of the thermoplastic polyurethane and/or the fluoropolymer), antioxidants, flame retardants, acid scavengers, anti-static agents and processing aids such as melt flow index enhancers.

[0044] The tie layer can be formed in variety of thicknesses. But the inventors have unexpectedly found that the tie layer need not be significantly thicker than the fluoropolymer layer. Thus, in certain embodiments of the tubings as otherwise described herein, the tie layer has a thickness in the range of about 0.010 mm to about 0.200 mm. For example, the tie layer has a thickness in the range of about 0.01 Q mm to about 0.150 m, or about 0.010 mm to about 0.130 , or about 0.010 mm to about 0.100 , or about 0.010 mm to about 0.075 mm, or about 0 030 mm to about 0.200 mm, or about 0 030 mm to about 0.150 mm, or about 0.030 to about 0.130 mm, or about 0.030 mm to about 0 100 mm, or about 0.030 to about 0.075 mm, or about 0.050 m to about 0.200 mm, or about 0.050 m to about 0.150 mm, or about 0 050 mm to about 0.130 mm, or about 0 050 mm to about 0.100 mm, or about 0.050 mm to about 0.075 mm, or about 0.100 mm to about 0.200 m , or about 0.100 mm to about 0.150 mm, or about 0.100 mm to about 0.130 mm, or about 0.150 mm to about 0.200 mm, or about 0.170 mm to about 0.200 mm.

[0045] The tubings of the present disclosure can be made in a wide variety of lengths in certain embodiments, the length of a length of flexible tubing as otherwise described herein is at least 5 cm. In various embodiments as otherwise described herein, the length of the length of flexible tubing is at least 10 cm, at least 20 cm, at least 30 cm, or even at least 50 cm. In various embodiments as otherwise described herein, the length of the length of flexible tubing is at least 1 m, at least 2 m, at least 3 m, at least 5 m, or even at least 10 m.

[0046] The tubings of the present disclosure can be made in a variety of sizes. For example, in certain embodiments of the tubings as otherwise described herein, the inner diameter of the annular cross-section is in the range of 0.5 mm to 40 m . in various particular embodiments of the flexible tubing as otherwise described herein, the inner diameter of the annular cross-section is in the range of 0.5 mm to 30 mm, or 0.5 mm to 20 m, or 0.5 mm to 15 mm, or 0.5 m to 10 mm, or 0.5 mm to 5 mm, or 1 mm to 40 m, or 1 mm to 30 m , or 1 mm to 20 mm, or 1 mm to 15 mm, or 1 mm to 10 mm, or 5 mm to 40 mm, or 5 to 30 mm, or 5 mm to 20 mm, or 5 mm to 15 mm, or 5 mm to 10 mm, or 10 mm to 40 mm, or 10 mm to 30 mm, or 10 mm to 20 mm. Similarly, in certain embodiments of the tubings as otherwise described herein, the wail thickness of the annular cross-section is in the range of 0.5 mm to 25 mm. In various particular embodiments of the flexible tubing as otherwise described herein, the wall thickness of the annular cross-section is in the range of 0.5 m to 15 mm, or 0.5 mm to 10 mm, or 0.5 mm to 8 mm, or 0 5 mm to 5 m, or 0 5 mm to 3 mm, or 0.5 mm to 2 mm, or 1 mm to 25 mm, or 1 mm to 15 , or 1 mm to 10 mm, or 1 m to 8 mm, or 1 mm to 5 mm, or 1 m to 3 mm, or 2 mm to 25 mm, or 2 m to 15 mm, or 2 mm to 1 Q mm, or 2 mm to 8 mm, or 2 mm to 5 m, or 5 mm to 25 mm, or 5 mm to 15 mm, or 5 mm to 10 mm, or 5 mm to 8 mm, or 10 mm to 25 mm, or 10 mm to 15 mm, or 15 mm to 25 mm.

[0047] The description of the tubings herein imply an interface between the layers, (i.e., at the outer surface of the fluoropolymer layer and the inner surface of the thermoplastic polyurethane layer; or the outer surface of the fluoropolymer layer and the inner surface of the tie layer; or the outer surface of the tie layer and the inner surface of the thermoplastic polyurethane layer). As the person of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate, in many real- world samples there will be some intermingling of the materials at the interface. The person of ordinary skill in the art will nonetheless be able to discern where one layer ends and the other begins

[0048] The person of ordinary skill in the art can otherwise prepare the tubings of the disclosure using conventional methods. For example, in certain embodiments, the length of tubing is formed by co-extruding the various layers (e.g., the fluoropolymer layer with the thermoplastic polyurethane layer). Conventional extrusion methods, such as those described in U.S. Patents nos. 7,866,348 and 8,092,881 , can be used to provide the length of flexible tubing

[0049] The use of a fluoropolymer layer, e.g., using a CPT polymer, can provide the tubings described herein with excellent resistance to permeation of hydrocarbon fuel vapor. For example, in certain embodiments as otherwise described herein, the tubing has a permeation rating of no more than 15 g/m 2 /day, e.g., no more than 10 g/m 2 /day, 7 g/m 2 /day, or 5 g/m 2 /day, for CE10 at 4G°C using test SAE J1737 conditions in certain other embodiments as otherwise described herein, the tubing (e.g., such as tubing for use in marine applications) has a permeation rating of no more than 5 g/m 2 /day, e.g., no more than 4.9 g/m 2 /day, 4.5 g/m 2 /day, or 4 g/m 2 /day, for GE10 at 40°C using test SAE J1527 conditions.

[0050] The tubings described herein show exceiient flexibility, such as fiexibiiity required for handheld power equipment and marine applications For example, in certain embodiments as otherwise described herein, the tubing has a composite flexural modulus of no more than 20,000 psi, e.g., no more than 15,000 psi, 10,000 psi, or even no more than 5000 psi, as measured by ASTM D790.

[0051] The flexible tubings as described herein are especially useful in the transmission of hydrocarbon fuels. Accordingly, another aspect of the disclosure is a method for transmitting a hydrocarbon fuel, including providing a flexible tubing as described herein, and flowing the hydrocarbon fuel through the tubing from a first end to a second end thereof. A wide variety of hydrocarbon fuels can be used with the tubings of the disclosure, e.g , gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene.

[0052] The tubings described herein can be used to transfer gasoline and other hydrocarbon fuels in engines, such as non-automotive engines. The present disclosure provides a low-permeation design which can be configured to meet the permeation performance requirements of US ERA that requires particularly stringent permeation performance. Thus, another aspect of the disclosure is a fuel-powered device comprising a fuel tank, a fuel-powered engine, and a length of tubing of the present disclosure fluidly connecting the fuel tank with the fuel-powered engine (i.e., configured so as to transmit fuel from the fuel tank to the engine). The engine can be a marine device, such as a boat, or a jet-ski. The engine can be a hand-operated device, such as a lawn tractor, a string trimmer, a !eafbiower, a snowblower, a lawnmower, a tiller, or a chain saw. The engine can also be an automotive device, such as an automobile, a motorcycle, or a 4-wheel or other recreational vehicles.

[0053] Various aspects of the tubings and methods of the disclosure are further described with respect to the non-iimiting examples described below.

[0054] Example 1

[0055] A three-layer tubing structure having a 3/32” ID and 3/18” OD was prepared by conventional co-extrusion methods. The tubing was arranged as presented in FIG 3, with the an annular fluoropolymer layer being the most inner layer, an annular tie layer disposed on the outside surface of the fluoropolymer layer, and the thermoplastic polyurethane layer disposed on the outside surface of the tie layer. The fluoropolymer layer was NEGFLON™ CRT LP-103G purchased from Daikin Industries Ltd. and averaged 0 102 to 0.127 mm in thickness. The tie layer was Polyamide 11 (PA1 1) purchased from Arkema and averaged 0.102 to 0.127 mm in thickness. The thermoplastic polyurethane layer was Desmopan 385A purchased from Covestro and averaged 0.84 to 1.09 mm in thickness.

[0056] Additional aspects of the disclosure are provided by the following numbered embodiments, which can be combined and permuted in any number and in any fashion that is not logically or technically inconsistent.

Embodiment 1 A length of tubing having an annular cross-section, the annular cross- section having an inner surface and an outer surface, the annular cross-section comprising: an annular fluoropolymer layer formed from at least 75 wt% of a CRT polymer, the fluoropolymer layer having an outer surface and an inner surface; and an annular thermoplastic layer disposed about the fluoropolymer layer, the

thermoplastic layer having an inner surface and an outer surface.

Embodiment 2 The length of tubing of embodiment 1 , wherein the inner surface of the thermoplastic layer is In contact with the outer surface of the fluoropolymer layer.

Embodiment 3 The length of tubing of embodiment 2, wherein the only two continuous polymeric layers of the tubing are the inner fluoropolymer layer, in contact with the outer thermoplastic layer. Embodiment 4. The length of tubing of embodiment 1 , further comprising an annular tie layer having an outer surface and an inner surface, wherein the inner surface of the annular layer is in contact with the outer surface of the f!uoropolymer layer.

Embodiment 5. The length of tubing of embodiment 1 , further comprising an annular tie layer having an outer surface and an inner surface, wherein the outer surface of the annular tie layer is in contact with the inner surface of the thermoplastic layer.

Embodiment 6. The length of tubing of embodiment 5, wherein the only three continuous polymeric layers of the tubing are an inner fluoropolymer layer, an outer thermoplastic layer, and a tie layer disposed between them and contacting both.

Embodiment 7. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1-6, wherein the fluorinated layer is disposed at the inner surface of the tubing.

Embodiment 8. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1-7, wherein the fluoropolymer layer is formed from at least 80 wt% of a CPT polymer, e.g., at least 85 wt% of a CPT polymer, or at least 90 wt% of a CPT polymer.

Embodiment 9. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1-7, wherein the fluoropolymer layer is formed from at least 95 wt% of a CPT polymer, e.g., at least 98 wt% of a CPT polymer.

Embodiment 10. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1-9, wherein the fluoropolymer layer further comprises a PVDF polymer, a FEP polymer, a PEA polymer, an ETFE polymer, an EFEP polymer, an ECTFE polymer, a PCTFE polymer, a THV polymer, or a combination or copolymer thereof.

Embodiment 11. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1 -9, wherein the fluoropolymer layer consists essentially of fluoropolymer (e.g., a CPT polymer).

Embodiment 12. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1-11 , wherein the fluoropolymer layer has a thickness in the range of about Q.010 mm to about 0.200 mm, e.g., about 0.010 m to about 0.150 m , or about 0.010 m to about 0.130 m , or about 0.010 m to about 0.100 m, or about 0.010 m to about 0.075 m.

Embodiment 13. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1-11 , wherein the fluoropolymer layer has a thickness in the range of about 0.030 mm to about 0.200 mm, e.g., or about 0.030 m to about 0.150 mm, or about 0.030 m to about 0.130 mm, or about 0.030 mm to about 0.100 , or about 0.030 mm to about 0.075 m .

Embodiment 14. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1-11 , wherein the fluoropolymer layer has a thickness in the range of about 0.050 mm to about 0.200 m , or aboui 0.050 mm to about 0.150 mm, or about 0.050 m to about 0.130 m , or about Q.Q50 mm to about 0.100 mm, or about 0.050 mm to about 0.075 .

Embodiment 15. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1-11 , wherein the fluoropolymer layer has a thickness in the range of about Q.100 mm to about 0.200 mm, or about 0.100 mm to about 0.150 mm, or about 0.100 m to about 0.130 mm, or about 0.150 mm to about 0.200 mm, or about 0.170 mm to about 0.200 .

Embodiment 16. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1-11 , wherein the fluoropolymer layer has a thickness in the range of about Q.010 mm to about 0.100 mm, or about 0.010 mm to about Q.Q75 mm, or about 0.030 m to about 0.100 mm, or about 0.030 mm to about 0.075 mm, or about 0.050 mm to about 0.100 mm, or about 0.050 mm to about 0.075 mm.

Embodiment 17. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1-16, wherein the thermoplastic layer is a thermoplastic polyurethane layer formed from at least 75 wt% thermoplastic polyurethane.

Embodiment 18. The length of tubing of embodiment 17, wherein the thermoplastic polyurethane layer is formed from at least 80 wt% thermoplastic polyurethane (e.g., at least 80 wt% of a polyether-type thermoplastic polyurethane), for example, at least 85 wt% thermoplastic polyurethane, or at least. 90 wi.% thermoplastic polyurethane.

Embodiment 19. The length of tubing of embodiment 17, wherein the thermoplastic polyurethane layer is formed from at least 95 wt% thermoplastic polyurethane, or at least 98 wt% thermoplastic polyurethane.

Embodiment 20. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 17-19, wherein the thermoplastic polyurethane of the thermoplastic polyurethane layer is a polyether-type thermoplastic polyurethane, a polyester-type thermoplastic polyurethane, or a combination or copolymer thereof.

Embodiment 21 . The length of tubing of embodiment 17, wherein the thermoplastic polyurethane layer of the thermoplastic polyurethane layer consists essentially of thermoplastic polyurethane (e.g., a polyether-type thermoplastic polyurethane).

Embodiment 22. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1-21 , wherein the thermoplastic layer has a thickness in the range of about 0.5 mm to about 20 mm, e.g., 0.5 mm to 10 mm, or Q.5 m to 5 , or 0.5 mm to 3 mm, or 0.5 mm to 2 mm.

Embodiment 23. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1-21 , wherein the thermoplastic layer has a thickness in the range of 1 mm to 20 mm, e.g., 1 mm to 10 mm, or 1 mm to 5 m , or 1 mm to 3 mm, Embodiment 24. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1-21 , wherein the thermoplastic iayer has a thickness in the range of 2 m to 20 mm e.g., 2 m to 10 mm, or 2 mm to 7 mm, or 2 mm to 5 mm.

Embodiment 25. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1-21 , wherein the thermoplastic iayer has a thickness in the range of 5 mm to 20 mm, or 5 mm to 15 mm, or 5 mm to 10 m , or 10 mm to 20 mm.

Embodiment 26. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 4-25, wherein the tie iayer is formed from at least 75 wt% non-fiuorinated polymer.

Embodiment 27. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 4-25, wherein the tie Iayer is formed from at least 80 wt% non-fiuorinated polymer, or at least 85 wt% non-fiuorinated polymer, or at least 90 wt% non-fiuorinated polymer, or at least 95 wt% non-fiuorinated polymer, or at least 98 wt% non-fiuorinated polymer.

Embodiment 28. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 4-25, wherein the tie Iayer consists essentially of non-fiuorinated polymer.

Embodiment 29. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 26-28, wherein the non- fiuorinated polymer is selected from polyamide resins, polyester resins, ethylene acrylic acid and methacryiic acid copolymer resins, polyolefin resins, vinyl chloride-based resins, polyurethane resins, polyaramid resins, polyimide resins, po!yamideimide resins, polyphenylene oxide resins, polyacetal resins, polyetheretherketone resins (PEEK), po!yetherimide resins, ethylene/vinyl alcohol copolymer-based resins, polyphenylene sulfide resins, polybutylene naphthaiaie resins, polybutylene terephthalate resins, polyphthalamides (PPA), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), and a combination or copolymer thereof.

Embodiment 30. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 26-28, wherein the non- fiuorinated polymer is a polyamide resin.

Embodiment 31. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 4-30, wherein the tie Iayer has a thickness in the range of about Q.010 mm to about 0.200 mm, e.g., in the range of about 0.010 mm to about 0.150 mm, or about 0.010 mm to about 0.130 mm, or about 0.010 to about 0.100 mm, or about 0.010 to about 0.075 mm.

Embodiment 32. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 4-30, wherein the tie Iayer has a thickness in the range of about 0.030 mm to about 0.200 mm, e.g., in the range of about 0.030 mm to about 0.150 mm, or about 0.030 m to about 0.130 mm, or about 0.030 m to about 0.100 mm, or about 0.030 m to about 0.075 mm.

Embodiment 33. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 4-30, wherein the tie Iayer has a thickness in the range of about 0.050 mm to about 0.200 mm, or about 0.050 mm to aboui 0.150 m, or about 0.05Q mm to about 0.130 m , or about 0.050 mm to about 0.100 mm, or about 0.050 mm to about 0.075 mm.

Embodiment 34. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 4-30, wherein the tie layer has a thickness in the range of about Q.100 m to about 0.200 mm, or about Q.100 mm to about 0.150 mm, or about 0.100 mm to about 0.130 m , or about 0.150 mm to about 0.200 mm, or about 0.170 mm to about 0.200 mm.

Embodiment 35. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1 -34, having an inner diameter in the range of 0.5 mm to 40 mm.

Embodiment 36. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1 -34, having an inner diameter in the range of 0.5 m to 30 mm, or 0.5 mm to 20 mm, or 0.5 m to 15 m, or 0.5 mm to 10 mm, or Q.5 mm to 5 m , or 1 mm to 40 mm, or 1 mm to 30 m , or 1 mm to 20 mm, or 1 m to 15 mm, or 1 m to 10 mm, or 5 mm to 40 mm, or 5 mm to 30 mm, or 5 mm to 20 mm, or 5 mm to 15 mm, or 5 m to 10 , or 10 m to 40 mm, or 10 to 30 m, or 10 m to 20 mm.

Embodiment 37. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1 -36, wherein the wall thickness of the annular cross-section is in the range of 0.5 mm to 25 mm.

Embodiment 38. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1 -36, wherein the wall thickness of the annular cross-section is in the range of0.5 m to 15 m , or 0.5 mm to 10 mm, or 0.5 m to 8 mm, or 0.5 mm to 5 m , or 0.5 mm to 3 mm, or 0.5 m to 2 mm, or 1 mm to 25 mm, or 1 mm to 15 mm, or 1 mm to 10 m , or 1 mm to 8 mm, or 1 mm to 5 mm, or 1 m to 3 mm, or 2 m to 25 mm, or 2 mm to 15 mm, or 2 mm to 10 mm, or 2 mm to 8 m , or 2 mm to 5 mm, or 5 mm to 25 mm, or 5 mm to 15 mm, or 5 mm to 10 mm, or 5 mrn to 8 rn, or 10 mm to 25 mm, or 10 mm to 15 mrn, or 15 mrn to 25 mm.

Embodiment 39. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1 -38, having a length of at least 5 cm, e.g., at least 10 cm, at least 20 cm, at least 30 cm, or even at least 50 cm.

Embodiment 40. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1 -38, having a length of at least 1 m, e.g., at least 2 m, at least 3 m, at least 5 m, or even at least 1 Q m.

Embodiment 41 . The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1 -40, wherein the length of tubing exhibits CE10 fuel permeation at 4Q C ’C of no more than 15 g/m 2 /day, e.g., no more than 10 g/nr/day, 7 g/m 2 /day, or 5 g/m 2 /day,.

Embodiment 42. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1 -40, wherein the length of tubing exhibits CE10 fuel permeation at 4Q C ’C of less than 5 g/m 2 /day, e.g., no more than 4.9 g/m 2 /day, 4.5 g/nr/day, or 4 g/m 2 /day. Embodiment 43. The length of tubing of any of embodiments 1-42, wherein the tubing has a composite flexural modulus of no more than 20,000 psi, e.g., no more than 15,000 psi, 10,000 psi, or even no more than 5000 psi, as measured by AST D790.

Embodiment 44. A method for transporting a hydrocarbon fuel, comprising

providing a length of tubing according to any of embodiments 1-43; and

flowing the hydrocarbon fuel through the flexible tubing from a first end to a second end thereof.

Embodiment 45. A fuel-powered device comprising a fuel tank, a fuel-powered engine, and a length of tubing according to any of embodiments 1 -43 fluidly connecting the fuel tank with the fuel-powered engine.

Embodiment 46. The fuel-powered device of embodiment 45, in the form of a marine device, such as a boat, or a jet-ski.

Embodiment 47. The fuel-powered device of embodiment 45, in the form of a hand- operated device, such as a lawn tractor, a string trimmer, a !eafblower, a snowblower, a lawn mower, a tiller, or a chain saw.

Embodiment 48. The fuel-powered device of embodiment 45, in the form of an automotive device, such as an automobile, a motorcycle, or a 4-whee! or other recreational vehicles.

[0057] It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications and variations can be made to the processes and devices described here without departing from the scope of the disclosure. Thus, it is intended that the present disclosure cover such modifications and variations of this invention provided they come within the scope of the appended claims and their equivalents.