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Title:
MULTIPLE ANTENNA RECEIVER SYSTEM AND METHOD
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2007/130578
Kind Code:
A3
Abstract:
A technique for processing received signals in multiple-antenna systems. Received signals from the different antennas (102) may be amplified by a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA, 104) and time- multiplexed by a switch (106) to form a single analog signal. The time- multiplexed analog signal is down-converted (108) and processed using a single RF chain for each signal component. This may result in an N-fold decrease in hardware in multiple antenna receiver systems.

Inventors:
REZVANI, Behrooz (5590 Satinleaf Way, San Ramon, CA, 94582, US)
FARROKHI, Farrokh (726 Bowen Court, San Ramon, CA, 94582, US)
GOLDSMITH, Andrea (913 Continental Drive, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, US)
Application Number:
US2007/010845
Publication Date:
October 02, 2008
Filing Date:
May 04, 2007
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
QUANTENNA COMMUNICATIONS, INC. (219 Moffett Park Drive, Sunnyvale, CA, 94089, US)
REZVANI, Behrooz (5590 Satinleaf Way, San Ramon, CA, 94582, US)
FARROKHI, Farrokh (726 Bowen Court, San Ramon, CA, 94582, US)
GOLDSMITH, Andrea (913 Continental Drive, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, US)
International Classes:
H04B1/00; H03D1/04; H04B1/06; H04B15/00; H04J3/02; H04Q7/00
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
AHMANN, William, F. (Perkins Coie LLP, 101 Jefferson DriveMenlo Park, CA, 94025, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS What is claimed is:

1. An apparatus for processing signals received on a multiple antenna receiver system (MARS), comprising: a switch for selecting one of a plurality of signal paths associated with a respective plurality of antennas, wherein, in operation, the switch is operable to select signal paths such that, over time, signals received from the plurality of antennas are multiplexed to form a single analog signal; a sampled digital signal processing (DSP) block, coupled to the switch, for processing signals of the signal paths to remove inter-antenna symbol interference (IASI) and inter-symbol interference (ISI).

2. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the apparatus comports with IEEE 802.1 In standards.

3. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the apparatus comports with WiMAX standards.

4. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the apparatus comports with GPS systems.

5. The apparatus of claim 1 , wherein the apparatus comports with Digital Video

Broadcasting (DVB) standards.

6. The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising a frequency translator, coupled to the switch, for processing signals into baseband in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components.

7. The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising a frequency translator, coupled to the switch, for processing signals into intermediate frequency in-phase (T) and quadrature (Q) signal components.

8. The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising a frequency translator, coupled to the switch, for providing intermediate frequency in-phase (T) and quadrature (Q) signal components, wherein the I-signal and Q-signal components are downconverted to baseband in the DSP block.

9. The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising: a frequency translator, coupled to the switch; an analog filtering module, coupled to the frequency translator; comprising one or more filters selected from a group consisting of a Butterworth filter, Chebychev filter, Elliptical filter, Bessel filter and Gaussian filter;

wherein, in operation, the frequency translator provides in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components to the analog filtering module.

10. The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), coupled to the switch, for converting in-phase (I) signal components and quadrature (Q) signal components into respective digital signals.

11. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the DSP block includes: an equalizer to filter the signals received from the antennas into filtered signals; . a multiple antenna processing module for removing IASI interference from the filtered signals; a demodulator for applying a technique selected from the group of techniques consisting of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS), complementary code keying (CCK).

12. The apparatus of claim 11, wherein the equalizer includes a tapped-delay line equalizer or non-linear equalizer.

13. The apparatus of claim 11 , wherein the filtered signals are combined via diversity or beamforming.

14. The apparatus of claim 11, wherein the multiple antenna processing module includes one or more modules selected from the group consisting of a space-time decoder, a diversity combining module, and a beamforming module.

15. The apparatus of claim 11, wherein the equalizer and the multiple antenna processing module perform tasks sequentially or jointly.

16. A method for processing signals received on a multiple antenna receiver system (MARS), comprising: receiving a plurality of signals from a plurality of antennas, each signal being associated with one of the plurality of antennas; multiplexing the signals from the plurality of antennas into a multiplexed signal; removing inter-antenna symbol interference (IASI) from the multiplexed signal.

17. The method of claim 16, further comprising removing inter-symbol interference (ISI) from the multiplexed signal.

18. The method of claim 16, further comprising transforming the multiplexed signal into an I-signal component and a Q-signal component.

19. The method of claim 16, wherein the multiplexed signal is an analog signal, further comprising converting the analog signal into a plurality of digital signals respectively associated with the plurality of antennas.

20. A method for processing signals received on a multiple antenna receiver system (MARS), comprising: receiving digitized I-signal and Q-signal components, the components having been filtered and produced from an analog signal, wherein the analog signal was formed from a plurality of signals received from a plurality of antennas; recovering the timing, phase, and frequency associated with the I-signal and Q-signal components; equalizing the I-signal and Q-signal components to compensate for inter-antenna symbol interference (IASI) and inter-symbol interference (ISI); space-time processing the I-signal and Q-signal to reproduce the plurality of signals received from the plurality of antennas.

Description:

MULTIPLE ANTENNA RECEIVER SYSTEM AND METHOD

BACKGROUND

A wireless system may be implemented as a multiple-antenna receiver system (MARS) 5 includes multiple-output (MO) communication systems. When a MO system has a single- antenna transmitter, it may be referred to as a single-input multiple-output (SIMO) system, and when the MO system has multiple-antenna transmitters, it may be referred to as a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system. A MARS employs multiple antennas for performing spatial information processing. MARS are being incorporated into several industry standards including the IEEE 802.1 In and WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) standards. MARS can also be used to improve performance of industry standards, such as Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Digital Video

Broadcasting (DVB), that do not require more than one antenna. MARS can also be used in multimode radios that can receive signals associated with multiple different systems.

The antennas of a MARS are adaptable for use in a manner that meets system performance objectives given application performance requirements, channel conditions, interference conditions, etc. Performance requirements may include specifications related to raw data rate, throughput, bit and/or packet error probability, average delay, delay jitter and/or system power consumption. MARS have the ability to adapt the way the receiver antennas are used as well as various transmission parameters such as transmit power, constellation size, channel coding scheme, frame length, etc. Using multiple antennas in wireless transceivers may be advantageous. For example, system data rates can be increased through multiplexing. For another example, system performance can be improved by increasing link robustness through space-time coding, diversity-combining or more general beamforming. For another example, directional gain can be increased and/or interference can be reduced by steering the antenna beam in a given direction via beamsteering.

Although there are advantages to systems with multiple antennas at the transmitter and/or receiver, a disadvantage is the need for multiple RF transmit and/or receive signal paths, one path for each of the antennas. There are a number (N) of RF paths in a multiple-antenna transmitter or receiver employing N antennas, which generally leads to an N-fold increase in cost, size, and power consumption as compared to systems that do not employ multiple antennas such as SISO systems which have a single RF path at both the transmitter and receiver.

The foregoing examples of the related art and limitations related therewith are intended to be illustrative and not exclusive. Other limitations of the related art will become apparent to those of skill in the art upon a reading of the specification and a study of the drawings.

SUMMARY The following embodiments and aspects thereof are described and illustrated in conjunction with systems, tools, and methods that are meant to be exemplary and illustrative, not limiting in scope. In various embodiments, one or more of the above-described problems have been reduced or eliminated, while other embodiments are directed to other improvements.

A technique for multiple antenna receiver processing involves removing inter-antenna symbol interference (IASI) and inter-symbol interference (ISI) from a signal. A method according to the technique may involve receiving a plurality of signals from a plurality of antennas, each signal being associated with one of the plurality of antennas; multiplexing the signals from the plurality of antennas into a multiplexed signal; removing inter-antenna symbol interference (IASI) from the multiplexed signal; and removing inter-symbol interference (ISI) from the multiplexed signal.

A system constructed in accordance with the technique may include a switch for selecting one of a plurality of signal paths associated with a respective plurality of antennas, wherein, in operation, the switch is operable to select signal paths such that, over time, signals received from the plurality of antennas are multiplexed to form a single analog signal; and a sampled digital signal processing (DSP) block, coupled to the switch, for processing signals of the signal paths to remove inter-antenna symbol interference (IASI) and inler-symbol interference (ISI).

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Embodiments of the inventions are illustrated in the figures. However, the embodiments and figures are illustrative rather than limiting; they provide examples of the inventions.

FIG. 1 depicts an example of an RF portion of a sampled multiple-antenna receiver system (MARS).

FIG. 2 depicts an example of a digital signal processing (DSP) block. FIGS. 3A and 3B depict examples of equalizers for use in a DSP block.

FIGS. 4A to 4D depict examples of alternative multiple antenna processing modules for use in a DSP block.

FIG. 5 depicts an alternative example of a DSP block.

FIGS. 6 A and 6B depict examples of equalizer and multiple antenna processing modules for use in a DSP block.

FIG. 7 depicts a flowchart of an example of a method for MARS signal processing.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

In the following description, several specific details are presented to provide a thorough understanding of embodiments of the invention. One skilled in the relevant art will recognize, however, that the invention can be practiced without one or more of the specific details, or in combination with other components, etc. In other instances, well-known implementations or operations are not shown or described in detail to avoid obscuring aspects of various embodiments of the invention.

FIG. 1 depicts an example of an RF portion of a sampled multiple-antenna receiver system (MARS) 100. The system 100 includes a plurality of N antennas 102, a plurality of amplifiers 104, a switch 106, an (optional) frequency translator 108, an analog filtering module 110, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) module 112, and a sampled multiple-antenna digital signal processing (DSP) block 114.

In the example of FIG. 1, the plurality of antennas 102 is used to receive electromagnetic waves. MARS may use multiple antennas 102 to perform spatial information processing. Multiple antennas in a receiving device potentially offer significant advantages in data throughput, link range, link robustness, and interference/intersymbol interference reduction, without additional bandwidth or transmit power. This may be achieved by higher spectral efficiency through spatial multiplexing, higher link reliability and robustness through diversity and more general beamforming, and/or better directionality through beamsteering.

In the example of FIG. 1, the plurality of amplifiers 104 is used to amplify weak signals captured by the antennas 102. In the example of FIG. 1, one amplifier is used per antenna 102.

In an illustrative embodiment, the amplifier being employed may be a low-noise amplifier (LNA) which may be located close to an antenna to avoid feedline losses. LNAs typically boost signal power while adding little noise or distortion.

In the example of FIG. 1, the switch 106 switches between antennas 102. This facilitates the formation of a single, time-multiplexed, analog signal. For N antennas and a switching rate of 1/T S for the switch 106, the analog signal at the i th antenna, Sj(t), is multiplexed every 1/(NT S ) second with the analog signals of the other antennas to form a single analog signal.

If the spectrum of Sj(t) is denoted by Sj(f), then multiplexing Sj(t) every 1/(NT 5 ) seconds results in a repetition of S;(f) every NT S Hertz in the frequency domain. The switch is controlled by the switch synchronization and control block that controls and synchronizes both the switching waveforms and the switch timing. In the example of FIG. 1. the frequency translator 108, which is optional, may perform analog filtering on the received signal and/or frequency translation. The frequency translation may directly convert the multiplexed signal to a baseband frequency or a very low IF, or it may convert the multiplexed signal to an intermediate frequency (IF) or a low IF. With low-IF, the RF signal is downconverted to a non-zero low or moderate intermediate frequency, typically a few megahertz. Low-IF receiver topologies have many of the desirable properties of zero-EF architectures, but avoid the DC offset and 1/f noise problems.

Translation to baseband, very low IF, low IF, or IF produces an in-phase (I) signal component from the single analog input signal through multiplication with the local oscillator (LO) which is at the carrier frequency, a frequency slightly offset from the carrier frequency, or the difference between the carrier frequency and the IF. For translation to baseband, very low

IF, or IF the frequency translation system 108 also produces a quadrature (Q) signal component from the single analog signal through multiplication with the LO shifted in phase by 90 degrees.

If the system 100 includes filtering, then the system 100 may include the optional analog filtering module 110. In a non-limiting embodiment, the frequency translator 108 may include a downconverter. In such an embodiment, an implementation is somewhat more likely to include the optional analog filtering module 110, though this is not a requirement. Each signal component (the I component, and the Q component when generated) passes through respective analog filtering in the analog filtering module 110. Alternatively, the frequency translator 108 could employ multiple stages of LO multiplication and filtering. In the example of FIG. 1, when the system 100 includes the analog filtering module

110, the filter operating on each signal component is generally quite sharp to reduce the energy of out-of-band signals prior to analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion. This filtering generally spreads out the I- and Q-signal components in time. If the time spreading exceeds the switch sampling duration of 1/T S , then inter-antenna symbol interference (IASI) results between the I- signal components sn(t) and subsequent I-signal components. Similarly, if a Q-signal component is generated, then if the time spreading exceeds the switch sampling duration of 1/T S , then IASI results between the Q- signal components Sj Q (t) and subsequent Q-signal components. This IASI could degrade the performance of the sampled multiple-antenna system 100; however, it is generally removed in the DSP 114 through equalization (discussed below). The filters of the

analog filtering module 110 may include, by way of example but not limitation, a Butterworth filter, Chebyshev filter, Elliptic filter, Bessel filter, and/or Gaussian filter.

In the example of FIG. 1, the ADC module 112 receives one or more analog signals and converts them to digital signals. The ADCs employed in the ADC module 112 receive the analog I-signal component (and Q-signal component when generated) and convert the signal(s) to digital form before they pass to the DSP block 114. The timing of the ADC is controlled by the switch synchronization and control block 116, which synchronizes the ADC timing to the switch timing. Any known or convenient component that is sufficiently precise to control the timing as indicated may be used in the switch synchronization and control block 116. In operation, antennas 102 receive N signals, one signal for each i th antenna, where i =

1 , ..., N. After being received, each signal is amplified by its respective LNA 104. Then, the amplified signals pass to the switch 106. The switch 106 is time-multiplexed causing it to operate sequentially between the N inputs to form a single analog signal. Then, the signal passes to the frequency translation system 108 which translates the signal to an IF (which may be a zero-IF, very low IF, or low IF) and generates I- and possibly Q-signal components at this IF.

The frequency translation system may also filter these IF signal component(s). Then, the signal components pass through the ADC module 112 which converts the input signal(s) into digital form. Then, the digital signal(s) pass to the DSP block 114.

FIG. 2 depicts an example of a digital signal processing (DSP) block 200. The DSP block 200 may be suitable for use as the DSP module 114 (FIG. 1). The DSP module 100 or 200 includes a pre-processing module, recovery module 202, an equalizer 204, a multiple antenna processing module 206, and a demodulator 208. The DSP block 200 performs pre-processing, recovery, equalization, multiple-antenna space-timing (ST) processing, and demodulation.

A pre-processing module is optional depending on the frequency translation system. If the frequency translation system converts the multiple-antenna signal to an IF other than zero, then this pre-processing module can perform digital downconversion to baseband or another IF frequency. If the frequency translation system converts the signal to a low IF frequency, then the input to the pre-processing system is the I-signal component, and the pre-processing module can generate the Q-signal component from this I-signal component. A Hubert transform may be used to generate the Q-signal component from the 1-signal component. In a typical embodiment the pre-processing module will have two outputs consisting of samples of the I- and Q-signal components at baseband. Alternatively, the pre-processing module may output these signals at an IF, or may output just the I-signal component and do all subsequent signal processing on just this component. In the following discussion, processing is described on both the I and Q paths,

however it is possible to perform this processing on only the I path or only the Q path, rather than both, or to have different processing on the I and Q paths.

The recovery module 202 recovers the timing, phase, and frequency of the I- and Q- signal components obtained from the multiple-antenna samples. It is possible that there is no Q component of a signal. The 'frequency and phase recovery is similar in the branches corresponding to the I- and Q-signal components. The timing recovery in each branch must be offset by the multiplexing period associated with the multiple antenna multiplexing. Timing, phase, and frequency recovery operations can employ maximum-likelihood (ML) based estimation of timing, phase, frequency, and combinations of these parameters. These ML techniques can be data-driven or based on a known preamble or training sequences.

Approximations to the ML estimator, or lower complexity estimation techniques such as minimum mean-square-error, can also be used. Phase lock loops and/or Farrow resampling can also be used for refining an initial estimate of one or more of these parameters. This list of possible timing, phase, and frequency recovery techniques is not meant to be comprehensive, and known or convenient techniques for timing, phase, and frequency recovery could be used with the multiple-antenna sampling system.

After the timing, phase, and frequency recovery of the T- and Q-signal components samples, the equalizer 204 compensates for the IASI. In an alternative embodiment, equalizers could include nonlinear equalizers such as a decision- feedback equalizer. IASI may be introduced, for example, from the analog filtering module 110 (FIG. 1). In addition to compensating for the IASI, the equalizer could also compensate for inter-symbol interference (ISI) introduced by the channel on each of the antenna branches individually. The design of the equalizer 204 could be optimized for performance subject to complexity constraints. In an embodiment, equalizers could include a tapped-delay line equalizer based on zero-forcing or minimum mean-square error (MMSE) coefficients. Advantageously, the coefficients may be designed to minimize the impact of combined ISI and IASI. After the I- and Q-signal components have been equalized, they are passed to the multiple antenna processing module 206.

The multiple antenna processing module 206 includes, for example, the processes of space-time decoding, spatial demultiplexing, and/or beamforming. In particular, we may employ common techniques for spatial decoding and/or demultiplexing such as Alamouti decoding, BLAST decoding/demultiplexing and related techniques, and decoding/demultiplexing based on a singular- value matrix decomposition of the channel and transmission along independent Eigen- dimensions. Beamforming involves multiplying the samples associated with a given antenna by

a complex gain and then summing these weighted samples of all antennas. Diversity-combining is a specific example of beamforming, and the beamforming complex gains to implement diversity-combining may include weights associated with maximal-ratio combining, equal-gain combining, selection-combining, or optimal-combining. Beamforming can also include beamsteering, whereby the complex antenna gains' shift the phase of each antenna element to point the antenna pattern of the array in a given direction. Beamforming can also include weighting to minimize the mean-square-error for the received signal, or for a combination of beamsteering and diversity-combining.

The equalizer 204 output is for the I- and Q-signal components and can be either a vector of dimension N, where each vector element corresponds to one of the antenna samples, or a stream of multiplexed samples. The multiplexed samples are shown by way of example but not limitation in the example of FIG. 2 specifically. The vector is shown by way of example but not limitation in the example of FIGS. 3A and 3B. After equalization, every N th sample of the multiplexed samples of the I-and Q-signal components, §i[n] and §Q[n], corresponds to the digitized analog sample of the i th antenna input. Specifically, §i[k], where k = jN+i, j = 1 ,2, ... , corresponds to the I-signal component of the A/D conversion of the j th time the analog switch samples Sj(t). Similarly, S Q [IC], where k = jN+i, j = 1,2, ..., corresponds to the Q-signal component of the A/D conversion of the j th time the analog switch samples Sj(t). (As has been mentioned previously, there is an embodiment where no Q-signal component is generated.) If the equalizer output is a vector, the i th element of the vector corresponds to analog switch samples of s;(t). These samples corresponding to each antenna's input can be space-time processed as if the samples were obtained from separate I and Q RF paths, one for each antenna. In other words, with approximately perfect equalization of the IASI 3 for the case of multiplexed outputs the samples §i[k], where k =jN+i, j = 1,2,..., and §Q[k], where k = jN+i,j = 1,2,..., are approximately identical to the samples that would be obtained from a multiple antenna receive system with N RF signal paths which are converted by the ADC at a sampling rate of 1/T S on each signal path. Similarly, for the case of vector outputs with approximately perfect equalization of the IASI, the samples associated with the i th vector element are approximately identical to the samples that would be obtained from a multiple antenna receive system with N RF signal paths which are converted by the ADC at a sampling rate of 1/T S on each signal path.

Advantageously, antenna sampling may collapse the requirements for N RF signal paths into one signal path without degrading system performance, thereby gaining significant space and power savings over systems that do not collapse these requirements. The multiple antenna processing module 206 may be similar to that of a multiple antenna system with n RF signal paths.

The demodulator 208 demodulates the signal. This may apply demodulation techniques for QAM, PSK, and/or FSK associated with the transmitted signal. In addition, these modulations may be combined with a second level of modulation in the transmitted signal such as multicarrier modulation or CDMA, whose benefits include ISI reduction, interference reduction, and methods for multiple access. Examples of demodulation techniques that could be employed for this second level of modulation include, but are not limited to, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) techniques, direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) techniques, frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) techniques, and complementary code keying (CCK) techniques. The multiple antenna system of Figure 1 or Figure 2 may be used to receive signals associated with multiple radio signaling formats assuming the antennas are sufficiently wideband to pass the signals associated with these multiple formats. In this case the demodulation may adapt to the particular signaling format in operation, or may demodulate signals associated with multiple formats and/or radios simultaneously. If the different radio signals are in different frequency bands, then the demodulation may apply filtering to the signal in a given frequency band to remove the signals from other bands, then demodulate the signal in the given band. Alternatively, if the signals are in the same frequency band, some form of multiuser detection may be used. This multi-user detection may entail successive interference cancellation or simultaneous interference cancellation, for example using maximum-likelihood detection of multiple signals or an approximation to this ML detection. FIG. 3 A depicts an example of an equalizer 300A for use in a DSP block, such as the

DSP block 200 (FIG. 2). In an illustrative embodiment, equalization is accomplished using a low-pass filter. In the example of FIG. 3A, the equalizer 300 includes filters 302-1 to 302 -N (referred to collectively as filters 302), which are associated with respective antennas or groups of antennas. The filters 302 remove the IASI for each antenna individually, and possibly the ISI associated with the channel as well. The filter 302 may include any known or convenient filter that is suitable for the functionality described here, such as, by way of example but not limitation, a tapped-delay line filter.

FIG. 3B depicts another example of an equalizer 300B for use in a DSP block, such as the DSP block 200 (FIG. 2). Tn the example of Figure 3B, the equalizer 300B acts as a decision- feedback equalizer, and includes forward filters 304-1 to 304-N (referred to collectively as forward filters 304) and feedback filter banks 306-1 to 306-N (referred to collectively as feedback filter banks 306). In an illustrative embodiment, the equalizer 300B uses the forward filters 304 and the feedback filter banks 306 to remove IASI and ISI. The forward filters 304 are similar to the filters 302 (FIG. 3A): they remove the IASI and possibly ISI for each antenna

individually. Thus, the output of the forward filters 304 associated with the i th antenna path is an approximation to the antenna sample without IASI or ISI. This approximation can then be passed through the feedback filter banks 306 to remove any residual IASI or ISI.

In the example of FIG. 3B, each of the feedback filter banks 306 include an ISI filter 308 and N-I IASI filters 310. The ISI filter 308 for a particular signal path is fed back into the same signal path. For example, the signal path associated with antenna 1 includes an ISI filter 308 that is fed back from the antenna 1 signal path, and N-I IASI filters 310 that are fed back from the other antenna signal paths. The feedback paths for antennas 2 to N are not depicted for illustrative simplicity. In general, the residual ISI on the i th antenna path is removed by passing the output of the i th forward filter through the i th feedback filter optimized to remove this residual

ISI. The residual IASI on the i th antenna path caused by the j th antenna path is removed by passing the output of the j th forward filter through j th feedback filter associated with antenna path i that is optimized to remove this residual IASI.

It may be noted that the equalizer 300B shows how the filters 302 (FIG. 3A) are actually processing the signals of all antennas, though this is explicitly illustrated by the feedback filter bank 306 and implicitly in FIG. 3A.

FIGS. 4A to 4D depict examples of alternative multiple antenna processing modules for use in a DSP block. FIG. 4A depicts a module 400A capable of MIMO beamforming. Weights Vi may be based on diversity combining (e.g. MRC, EGC), beam steering (weights optimized to minimize interference, point in a given direction, etc) or a combination of these. In the example of FIG. 4 A, multiple antenna space-time processing may be performed by space-time decoding and/or spatial demultiplexing. In an illustrative embodiment an equalizer is a tapped-delay line filter, which removes the IASI for each antenna individually, and possibly the ISI associated with the channel as well, then inputs the signals (antenna outputs) to the module 400A. The individual antenna outputs are then processed by the module 400A using a space-time decoder and/or spatial demultiplexer such as one that would operate on samples received from separate RF paths. Known or convenient techniques for spatial decoding and demultiplexing, such as Alamouti decoding, BLAST decoding/demultiplexing and related techniques, and decoding/demultiplexing based on a singular- value matrix decomposition of the channel and transmission along independent Eigen-dimensions, may be used.

FIGS. 4B, 4C, and 4D depict respective modules 400B, 400C, and 400D 3 which are readily understandable. In the example of FIG. 4B, the module 400B may include a space-time decoder, typically an Alamouti code, which operates on only 2 antenna outputs to produce one output or 4 antenna outputs to produce 2 outputs (2 antenna outputs are depicted in the example

of FIG. 4B, though a 4 antenna embodiment would use two such blocks so it is also captured conceptually by FIG. 4B). In the example of FIG. 4C, the module 400C may include a space- time demultiplexor, which performs a matrix multiplication on the input vector. In the example of FIG. 4D, the module 400D may include a space-time decoder and demultiplexor, which performs a matrix multiplication on the input vector and then decoding on the resulting vector.

In FIGS. 2, 3, and 4, the recovery, equalization, multiple antenna processing, and demodulation operations are performed sequentially. FIG. 5 depicts an alternative example a DSP block. The components are similar to those described with reference to FIG. 2, but the equalizer 204 and the multiple antenna processing module (206), are combined into an equalizer and multiple antenna processing module 504. This is intended to represent that, in the example of FIG. 5, equalization and multiple antenna processing are performed jointly.

Joint processing may depend on the specific multiple antenna processing technique being applied. Such techniques include, but are not limited to, spatial decoding, spatial demultiplexing, and/or beamforming. In particular, we may employ common techniques for spatial multiplexing such as Alamouti coding, BLAST and related techniques, and singular-value matrix decomposition and transmission along independent Eigen-dimensions. For beamforming we may use diversity techniques such as maximal-ratio combining, equal-gain combining, selection-combining, or optimal-combining. Alternatively, we may use phase shifting for beamsteering. Alternatively, we may use weighting for minimizing the mean-square-error (MSE) for the received signal, or a combination of beamsteering, diversity-combining, and/or weighting to minimize the signal's MSE.

FIGS. 6 A and 6B depict examples of equalizer and multiple antenna processing modules for use in a DSP block. In the examples of FIG. 6A and 6B, equalization and multiple antenna processing are performed jointly. Both tapped delay-line equalization and beamforming (including diversity-combining and beamsteering) entail multiplication of the individual antenna samples by specific weights, which can be combined for joint processing. In particular, tapped delay-line equalization applies weighting to mitigate IASI (and ISI). For example, zero-forcing equalization uses weights that remove IASI (and 1ST) without consideration of noise enhancement. Minimum mean-square-error (MMSE) equalization determines weights to balance IASI (and ISI) mitigation with noise enhancement so as to minimize the mean-square- error of the received symbol. Decision-feedback equalization uses weights for zero-forcing or MMSE based on both a linear filter and a feedback filter. For maximal-ratio combining of multiple antenna signal inputs, weights are determined to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the combined signal. In selection-combining, all weights are zero except for the weight of the

antenna with the highest signal-to-noise ratio. By multiplying the weights associated with equalization and beamforming, the joint benefits of both can be obtained. In the example of FIG. 6B, space-time decoding and/or spatial demultiplexing performed by the multiple antenna processing module generally entails a different form of processing resulting in a joint design of equalization and space-time decoding and/or demultiplexing that differs when equalization is combined with beamforming. In an embodiment, the space-time processor could perform space- time decoding and/or spatial demultiplexing directly on the received signal with IASI from other antennas.

FIG. 7 depicts a flowchart 700 of an example of a method for MARS signal processing. In the example of FIG. 7, the flowchart 700 starts at module 702 with receiving signals respectively associated with a plurality of antennas. In the example of FIG. 7, the flowchart 700 continues to module 704 with multiplexing the signals. Ih the example of FIG. 1, the flowchart 700 continues to module 706 with removing IASI from the multiplexed signal. In the example of FIG. 7, the flowchart 700 continues to module 708 with removing ISI from the multiplexed signal. In the example of FIG. 7, the flowchart 700 ends at module 710 with performing space- time processing on the multiplexed signal.

As used herein, the term "embodiment" means an embodiment that serves to illustrate by way of example but not limitation.

It will be appreciated to those skilled in the art that the preceding examples and embodiments are exemplary and not limiting to the scope of the present invention. It is intended that all permutations, enhancements, equivalents, and improvements thereto that are apparent to those skilled in the art upon a reading of the specification and a study of the drawings are included within the true spirit and scope of the present invention. It is therefore intended that the following appended claims include all such modifications, permutations and equivalents as fall within the true spirit and scope of the present invention.