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Title:
NATURAL RUBBER OR SYNTHETIC RUBBER ELASTOMER-BASED EARTHQUAKE ISOLATOR WITH RIGID POLYURETHANE CORE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/193328
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A high performance "rubber-based earthquake isolator (A) with rigid polyurethane core", which resists the dynamic and static vertical column loads (P) and the earthquake shear forces (Q) in the horizontal direction generated by an earthquake during its duration of action and experienced by the structures, thereby absorbing the forces as well as the accelerations generated by an earthquake and thus eliminating the damaging effects of the earthquake, wherein said isolator does not fully transmit the earthquake to the structure, i.e. partially absorbs said forces, and thus protects the buildings from the damaging effects of the earthquake, wherein the steel plates (1) and the natural or synthetic rubber material layers (2) are arranged one on top of the other and are securely adhered and laminated together and a "rigid polyurethane core (6)" is placed into the isolator (A) on the vertical axis, thereby forming said isolator (A) with a composite structure.

Inventors:
TOKER, Mehmet (Armagan Evler Mah, Harman Sok. No:51 AUmraniye, Istanbul, TR)
Application Number:
TR2014/000196
Publication Date:
December 04, 2014
Filing Date:
May 29, 2014
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
TOKER, Mehmet (Armagan Evler Mah, Harman Sok. No:51 AUmraniye, Istanbul, TR)
International Classes:
E01D19/04; E04B1/36; E04B1/98; E04H9/02
Foreign References:
US5765322A
JP2006029433A
US5201155A
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
UZAN, Ugur (Erkpatent Marka Ve Fikri Haklar Dan. LTD. STI, Halk Sok. Golden Plaza B Blok K:5 D:11Sahrayicedi, Kadikoy Istanbul, TR)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1. The invention relates to the earthquake isolators (A) characterized in that

- they comprise a structure reinforced in the vertical direction with steel metal derivative reinforcement plates (1) between the steel loading plates (3) and/or steel assembly plates (4) and laminated by way of adhering the natural rubber or synthetic rubber material layers (2) to said steel plates (1), wherein rigid polyurethane elastomer core/cores (6) is/are placed at the center of the isolator (A) on the vertical axis, and the isolator (A) comprises the side surface covering members (10), which entirely surround the outer side surface of the isolator (A) in the vertical direction and which enable the same to be covered with natural rubber or synthetic rubber or rigid polyurethane material.

2. Rubber earthquake isolator (A) with rigid polyurethane core according to Claim characterized in that

- it comprises the steel assembly plates (4) and in addition, the anchor members (7), which are placed under the head (9) of the column (8) joining the basement of the building desired to be protected against the damaging effects of the earthquake with the first floor thereof, and the assembly connection members (5), which enable the earthquake isolator (A) to be mounted to the building.

3. Rubber earthquake isolator (A) with rigid polyurethane core according to any one of the preceding claims characterized in that

- it comprises rigid polyurethane- or rubber-based surface covering members (10) and at least one rigid polyurethane core (6), which enable the isolator to absorb the energy and damp the dynamic and static vertical column loads (P) that the structures experience during an earthquake and the earthquake shear forces (Q) generated by the earthquake in the horizontal direction.

4. Rubber earthquake isolator (A) with rigid polyurethane core according to any one of the preceding claims characterized in that

- it comprises a structure reinforced in the vertical direction with steel metal derivative plates (1) between the steel loading plates (3) and/or steel assembly plates (4) and laminated by way of adhering the natural rubber or synthetic rubber material layers (2) to said steel plates (1), wherein a rigid polyurethane elastomer core (6) is placed at the center of the isolator (A) on the vertical axis, and the isolator (A) comprises the side surface covering members (10), which entirely surround the outer side surface of the isolator (A) in the vertical direction and which enable the same to be covered with natural rubber or synthetic rubber or rigid polyurethane material, and/or

- said isolator comprises the building column (8) and the under-column head (9) on the basement above the foundation, to which the steel assembly plates (4) are assembled via the anchor members (7) and the assembly connection members (5).

5. Rubber earthquake isolator (A) with rigid polyurethane core according to any one of the preceding claims characterized in that

- it comprises the rigid polyurethane core (6), which is connected by way of adhering the same to the center of the earthquake isolator (A) along said isolator on the vertical axis, wherein a cavity with a structure made hollow according to the envisaged dimensions of the rigid polyurethane core (6) on the vertical axis is provided so that said rigid polyurethane core (6) may be placed into the isolator (A).

6. Rubber earthquake isolator (A) with rigid polyurethane core according to any one of the preceding claims characterized in that

- it comprises the rigid polyurethane core (6), steel metal derivative plates (1) and the rubber-based material layers (2) and the side surface covering members (10) made of rigid polyurethane or rubber material, which entirely surround and cover the outer side surface of said earthquake isolator, and,

the steel loading plates (3) where the rubber earthquake isolator (A) with a rigid polyurethane core is adhered and laminated to the natural rubber or synthetic rubber layers (2) at the bottom and the top sections.

Description:
DESCRIPTION

NATURAL RUBBER OR SYNTHETIC RUBBER ELASTOMER-BASED

EARTHQUAKE ISOLATOR WITH RIGID POLYURETHANE CORE

Description of the Technical Field

The invention relates to the earthquake isolators. The invention relates in particular to a high performance rubber-based earthquake isolator, wherein said isolator is developed in order to protect the engineering structures such as reinforced concrete or steel constructions as well as the highways, railway bridges, viaducts, petrochemical tanks, nuclear plants against the destructive and damaging effects of the earthquakes and to ensure the security of life and property, wherein the natural or synthetic rubber-based material layers, which are reinforced with plates made of steel metal derivatives, are adhered to and laminated with steel plates, wherein the isolator comprises a structure with rigid polyurethane core placed at the center thereof on the vertical axis and/or a structure manufactured by placing additional peripheral elastomeric cores in addition to the central axial core.

Description of the State of the Art

Earthquake, tremor or quake is a phenomenon of the development of seismic waves resulting from the sudden release of energy in the earth's crust and the shaking of the ground by these waves. The term seismic activity refers to the frequency, destructive effects, type and size of an earthquake over an area where it is experienced.

Earthquakes are measured using the seismometers. The science that studies these events is called Seismology. The intensity of the earthquakes is determined with the moment magnitude (or with the Richter scale formerly used). According to this scale, the earthquakes with a magnitude of 3 and lower are usually imperceptible, while the earthquakes with a magnitude of 7 and over may have destructive effects. The intensity of shaking is measured with Mercalli intensity scale. The depth of the point where the earthquake occurs also affects the destructive power and the earthquakes occurring at a point closer to the ground cause more damage.

At the earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. Sometimes, when a large earthquake occurs at a point close to the surface, it may cause a tsunami. These shakings may also trigger landslides and volcanic activities.

In general, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event that either develops as a natural phenomenon or is caused by humans and that generates seismic waves. Earthquakes are usually caused suddenly by the rupture of the faults (fault lines) in the earth's crust. Earthquakes may also result from the volcanic activities, landslides, mine blasts or nuclear tests.

The first application of the seismic isolators (earthquake isolators), intended for ensuring that various structures are not influenced by the forces they experience during an earthquake, dates back to 1900s B.C.

For the production of the earthquake isolators according to prior art, only the natural rubber or synthetic rubber is used as the material, and the production is completed by placing a lead core at the center of the rubber-based earthquake isolators on the vertical axis in order to improve and increase the insufficient mechanical properties of such rubber-based earthquake isolators. However, the lead core also has its disadvantages. These disadvantages are as follows: When the lead core becomes deformed as a result of the massive earthquake shear forces generated by the earthquake in a direction parallel to the earth's crust, it is not able to recover its original properties, its strength is reduced to the levels of 10% of the original and it becomes out of function.

In other words, it becomes necessary to dismantle the isolator and remove the deformed lead core and replace the same with a new core. If this replacement is not undertaken, the isolator becomes unable to exhibit its protective and isolating feature during the future earthquakes.

Due to the insufficient physical and chemical properties of the rubber, the natural and synthetic rubber-based earthquake isolators of the prior art lack the adequate performance in terms of isolation of the massive and destructive earthquakes.

According to the patent application no. TR 2011/08180 entitled "Multi directional torsional hysteretic damper", the invention relates to the devices providing earthquake resistance, in particular the seismic hysteretic dampers used for protecting the structures in cases of massive earthquake. These devices are mounted to the locations such as the bridge deck and between the abutment joints (capping beam) where substantial displacements are expected due to the oscillation movements of an earthquake.

According to the patent application no. TR 2010/04524 entitled "System for protecting the buildings against the earthquakes and method for forming said system", the invention relates to the basement bed system for protecting the buildings against the earthquakes, which is applied between the footing block and basement block of the existing buildings or newly constructed buildings, which enables the horizontal motion energy of the earthquake reaching the building bases to be eliminated and which enables the building to return to the plumb state in case it becomes out of plumb in any way, as well as to the methods associated with said system. The system according to the invention comprises the building vertical plumbing device, the inverse and normal members in U-shape for horizontal expansion, the pillows for damping the vertical knocks and the lower and upper joints applied on free columns.

Considering the problems and applications attempted to be described above, it has become necessary to develop a novel solution. Description of the Objects of the Invention

Based on the mentioned state of the art, the object of the invention is to develop a rubber earthquake isolator with rigid polyurethane core, which overcomes the problems in the existing embodiments and provides many additional advantages.

Another object of the invention is to eliminate the disadvantages and deficiencies of the rubber earthquake isolators with and without lead core of the prior art, and provide the isolators with novel additional advantages.

Another object of the invention is to use the "rigid polyurethane core and/or cores" instead of the lead core in the rubber earthquake isolators. Thus, the object of the invention is to render the structures where such earthquake isolators are used resistant to the massive earthquakes, owing to the high mechanical strength and high ability of earthquake absorption of the rigid polyurethane core and/or cores improving the earthquake resistance of the rubber-based earthquake isolators made with rigid polyurethane core material.

Another object of the invention is to enable the earthquake isolators with rigid polyurethane core having high strength properties to become resistant to repeated and massive earthquakes and to have a long life without showing the signs of aging.

Another object of the invention is to improve the strength of the rubber-based earthquake isolators without lead core that are otherwise unable to exhibit adequate and desired strength when subject to great earthquakes, thereby eliminating their drawbacks and increasing their performance.

Another object of the invention is to develop an earthquake isolator, which is resistant to the static and dynamic column loads (P) that the structures experience during an earthquake and the earthquake shear forces (Q) in the horizontal directions resulting from the earthquake as well as the earthquake accelerations, wherein said isolator absorbs said forces and accelerations to render the same harmless. Another object of the invention is to form a composite structure prepared by laminating and adhering to each other many overlapped steel metal derivative sheets and rubber layers and positioning a rigid polyurethane core at the center of the isolator on the vertical axis. In other words, the object of the invention is to develop "an earthquake isolator with rigid polyurethane core", which has a form made using the steel metal derivative sheets increasing the rigidity on the vertical axis and using the rubber material and a rigid polyurethane core for absorbing the energy generated by the earthquake on the horizontal axis and thus damping the earthquake.

In order to achieve the objects of the invention, an earthquake isolator with rigid polyurethane core has been developed.

Description of the Figures

Figure-1 : A sectional view of a preferred representative embodiment of the invention in a state assembled under the building columns.

Figure-2: A sectional view of a preferred representative embodiment of the invention. Figure-3: A perspective disassembly view of a preferred representative embodiment of the invention.

Reference Numbers

A Earthquake isolator 5 Assembly connection 10 Rigid polyurethane member or rubber material side surface covering member

1 Steel, metal 6 Rigid polyurethane P Column load in derivative plate/sheet elastomeric core vertical direction (reinforcement plate)

2 Natural rubber or 7 Anchor member Q Earthquake shear synthetic rubber layer force in horizontal direction

3 Steel loading plate 8 Column

4 Steel assembly plate 9 Under-column head on the basement over the

foundation

Detailed Description of the Invention

Owing to "the rubber earthquake isolators (A) with rigid polyurethane core according to the invention", said earthquake isolator according to the invention has been provided with an extended lifetime and performance that are considerably improved compared to the existing rubber-based earthquake isolators with or without lead core, in terms of resistance to repeated earthquakes.

Due to the inadequate mechanical properties and the short useful lifetime of maximum 50 years of the natural rubber or synthetic rubber, it has not been possible to make long-life earthquake isolators having a high capacity of absorption. Unlike the rubber earthquake isolators of the prior art having a low capacity in terms of absorption of earthquake forces and earthquake acceleration, the earthquake isolators according to the present invention have been provided with increased resistance to great earthquakes owing to the improvement of the mechanical strength performance brought about by the addition of rigid polyurethane core.

Whereas the natural rubber employed in the manufacture of the rubber-based earthquake isolators has a Young's modulus between E=0.76 MPa and 1.98 MPa and a shear modulus between G=0.35 MPa and 0.98 MPa, the rigid polyurethane material employed in the manufacture of the rigid polyurethane core has a Young's modulus between E=10 MPa and 120 MPa and a shear modulus between G=3.33 and 40 MPa, and it is possible to perform the manufacture according to desired values. Owing to this feature, the rigid polyurethane material has considerably improved the earthquake resistance and the earthquake isolation capability of the rubber earthquake isolators (A). Owing to said properties, the rigid polyurethane core (6) also eliminates the drawbacks of the existing rubber earthquake isolators with lead core and increases the resistance of the structures to the repeated earthquakes.

Whereas the lead core becomes deformed and suffers permanent damage due to the horizontal earthquake shear forces (Q) and loses its mechanical strength, such a performance loss is out of question in a rigid polyurethane core and thus the malfunction of the isolator (A) is not possible. Said rubber earthquake isolators (A) with rigid polyurethane core (6) according to the present invention may be reliably used for many years.

The steel metal derivative reinforcement sheets (reinforcement plates) (1), which are placed in a parallel manner one on top of another at certain intervals and are in circular, square, rectangular and other geometric shapes, are adhered and laminated to the mass of natural rubber or synthetic rubber layers (2) with prism or pyramidal shape and to the loading plates (3) from the bottom and the top. The rigid polyurethane core (6) is placed into the axial cavity of the earthquake isolator which is made hollow on the vertical axis.

By means of the rigid polyurethane- or natural or synthetic rubber-based side surface covering member (10), which covers the side surfaces of the mass of natural rubber or synthetic rubber layer (2) and of the steel plates and which protects the isolator from the external effects, the outer surface of the isolator (A) is covered.

The steel loading plates (3), which are present as the last steel plate respectively at the bottom and top portions of the earthquake isolator (A), and the steel assembly plates (4), which are used to connect the earthquake isolator with the structure, with the basement of the building or with the column of the building, are connected by means of the assembly connection members (5), and in this manner, the earthquake isolator (A) is formed. Said steel assembly plates (4) present in the earthquake isolator (A) are connected via the anchor members (7) and the assembly connection members (5) with the location under the column head (9) of the column (8) that joins the basement of the structure aimed to be protected from the damaging effects of the earthquake with the first floor thereof, thereby securing the earthquake isolator (A) to the building. In this manner, "the rubber earthquake isolator (A) with rigid polyurethane core" is secured to the structure aimed to be protected from the earthquake.

The rubber-based earthquake isolator (A) with rigid polyurethane elastomer core absorbs the energy of the dynamic and static vertical column loads (P) experienced by the structures during an earthquake and the earthquake shear forces (Q) also resulting from the earthquake, and thus it damps said forces.

The isolator is strengthened with steel metal derivate plates (1) in the vertical direction and laminated by way of adhering the natural rubber or synthetic rubber layers (2) with these steel plates (1), wherein a rigid polyurethane elastomer core (6) is placed at the center of the isolator (A) on the vertical axis and the earthquake isolator (A) is formed with the side surface covering members (10), which enable the isolator (A) to be covered with the natural rubber or synthetic rubber or rigid polyurethane material that entirely surrounds the outer side surface of the isolator (A) in the vertical direction.

The rigid polyurethane elastomer core (6) is formed, the connection of which is provided by way of adhering the same to the center of the earthquake isolator (A) along said isolator on the vertical axis.

In order for said rigid polyurethane elastomer core (6) to be positioned into the isolator, the interior of the isolator (A) is made hollow on the vertical axis according to the envisaged dimensions of the rigid polyurethane core (6) and the rigid polyurethane core (6) is cast in liquid form into said hollow or it is placed at a later time into the core hole. The earthquake isolator has been developed as an industrial product of engineering, said isolator being formed by the rigid polyurethane elastomer core (6), the steel metal derivative plates (1) and rubber-based material layers (2) and the side surface covering members (10) made of rigid polyurethane or rubber material to entirely surround the outer side surface of said earthquake isolator.

The rubber earthquake isolator (A) with rigid polyurethane core is laminated by way of adhering to the steel loading plates (3) at the bottom and top portions thereof and the natural rubber or synthetic rubber or rigid polyurethane layers.

There is provided a covering member (10) with rigid polyurethane or rubber material, which is adhered to the outer side surfaces of said isolator (A).

The steel assembly plates (4), which serve to connect said earthquake isolator (A) with the building column (8) and which are used to secure the earthquake isolator (A) to the building via their assembly to the steel loading plates (3) at the bottom and top portions of the isolator (A), are mounted to the building by means of the assembly connection members (5).

In order to protect the buildings from the destructive and damaging effects of the earthquakes, the earthquake isolator (A), placed under the column (8) head or in the middle of the column (8) or in the head of the column (8) on the basement of the building desired to be protected, is secured to the building by means of the anchor members (7) and the assembly connection members (5).

The rubber-based earthquake isolator (A) with a rigid polyurethane core, which is positioned at the desired locations of the structures, i.e. the buildings or the bridges, performs the absorption of energy against the static and dynamic vertical column loads (P) resulting from the earthquake, against the earthquake shear forces (Q) formed in a horizontal direction parallel to the basement of the building, against the earthquake accelerations generated by the earthquake and against the ground displacements in the horizontal direction, thereby eliminating the damaging and destructive effects of the earthquake; in short, damping and isolating the earthquake. In this way, the earthquake isolator (A) protects the structure where it is mounted against the earthquake.