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Title:
New uses of recycled sheet material
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2013/034712
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A new use of release coated cellulose or polymeric sheet material and a method for treating release coated cellulose or polymeric sheet material comprising the following steps: (a) Collecting release coated cellulose or polymeric sheet material from producers and end-users thereof, (b) Optionally preparing the collected material by mixing, separating foreign bodies like metals, etc., and feeding it to a dry-grinding station (23), (24); (c) In one or several grinding stations (23), (24) shredding and grinding the materials and (d) Optionally adding additives selected from flame retardant, hydrophobic material, pesticides, minerals nutrients and mixtures thereof and mixing them with the recycled material;

Inventors:
VAN POTTELBERGH ERIC (BE)
VERHASSELT BART (BE)
Application Number:
EP2012/067543
Publication Date:
March 14, 2013
Filing Date:
September 07, 2012
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
RECULINER (BE)
VAN POTTELBERGH ERIC (BE)
VERHASSELT BART (BE)
International Classes:
C08J11/06; B29B17/02
Domestic Patent References:
WO2011107476A22011-09-09
WO2002090682A12002-11-14
WO2005110902A12005-11-24
WO2005028111A12005-03-31
Foreign References:
EP2363544A12011-09-07
US3718536A1973-02-27
US5275855A1994-01-04
JPH07279099A1995-10-24
US6036234A2000-03-14
US5567272A1996-10-22
EP0587000A11994-03-16
DE4302678A11994-08-04
US5573636A1996-11-12
DE19653243A11998-06-25
DE4334200C11995-03-02
DE4402244A11995-07-27
DE19835090A12000-01-27
DE3641464A11988-06-16
EP0617177A11994-09-28
DE4403588A11994-09-08
US20090173464A12009-07-09
DE10336569A12005-03-03
DE202005014581U12007-02-01
US20020025421A12002-02-28
DE4331567A11995-02-09
US4182681A1980-01-08
Other References:
DATABASE WPI Week 200046, Derwent World Patents Index; AN 2000-508059, XP002687078
"Release-Liner Waste Management - More than a Burning Issue", PACKAGE PRINT. CONVERTING,, vol. 39, no. 7, 1 July 1992 (1992-07-01), pages 25 - 27, XP009146986
DATABASE WPI Week 199845, Derwent World Patents Index; AN 1998-525574, XP002687079
SASSINE ET AL., J. APP. SCI. RES., vol. 1, no. 3, 2005, pages 277
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BiiP cvba (Diegem, BE)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1 . A method for treating waste material comprising the following steps: (a) Collecting release coated cellulose or polymeric sheet material from producers and end-users thereof, (b) Optionally preparing the collected material by mixing, separating foreign bodies like metals, etc., and feeding it to a grinding station (23), (24);(c)ln one or several grinding stations (23), (24) shredding and grinding the materials and(d) Optionally adding additives selected from flame retardant, hydrophobic material, pesticides, minerals, nutrients and mixtures thereof and mixing them with the recycled material;

2. Method according to the preceding claim, wherein the release coated cellulose or polymeric sheet material is collected from producers and end-users thereof in the form of dense, bulky masses, such as rolls and stacks, which are pre-shredded into smaller, less dense masses in preparation to step (b), preferably said collected material already comprises a flame retardant, such as boric acid or any salt thereof.

3. Method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the one or several grinding operations allow, in the absence of any chemical treatment, the separation of a substantial fraction of the release coating from the sheet carrier and the two fractions are separated in a separating station (25), separating the incoming stream into a first, carrier rich fraction (26) and a second, release agent rich fraction (27). 4. Method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein at some stage the collected or treated material is blended with cellulose or polymeric sheet waste material from other origins, or with a release agent, for example from the release agent rich fraction (27) obtainable from a method according to the preceding claim.

5. Method according to claims 3 and 4, wherein the second, release agent rich fraction (27) is blended with ground cellulose or polymeric sheet waste material from other origins in order to control the content in release agent of the final material. 6. Method according to claim 3 or 4, wherein the carrier comprises essentially cellulose and the cellulose rich fraction (26) is further processed in a wet shaping station (26a) to form sheets of paper.

7. Method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein, in case the collected material does not comprise a sufficient amount of flame retardant for a given application, a flame retardant, preferably boric acid or any salt thereof is added to, and mixed with the recycled material before, during or after the grinding steps (c).

8. Method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the release coated cellulose or polymeric sheets consists of liners for holding self-adhesive labels or films, and the producers and end-users are selected from one or several of: manufacturers of self- adhesive label base material, liner manufacturers, label printers, producers of goods on which are applied self-adhesive labels. 9. Method according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the release agent is one of silicone, wax, paraffin, polyurethane or fluorinated or acrylic based material.

1 0. Use of recycled material obtained from the method of any of the preceding claims either:

(a) for insulating thermally and/or acoustically any of:

• a wall, a panel or a roof in the field of buildings,

• a panel in the field of transportation,

• a sound dampening wall along roads;

• a quilted piece of garment or blanket, or for filling

· a mattress, or upholstery, • a package in the field of packaging and storage and transportation of goods, or

(b) as casing soil or growing medium used for growing some vegetables and mushrooms, or as additive to earth to enhance the water balance and water flow in said soil or earth;

(c) hydromulching applications; or

(d) as a filler, a binding agent or a viscosity modifier in concrete, cementitious, asphalteous, clay or lime mixtures and coatings, paints and other building materials or(e) as heat storage means in applications such as hot pillows, or hot compresses to be applied onto the skin, heat capacitor for storage of goods and food, heat sink and capacitor for the culture of mushrooms.

1 1 . Insulation material comprising shredded release coated cellulose or polymeric sheet material obtainable by a method according to any of the preceding claims.

1 2. Insulation material according to the preceding claim, wherein,

(a) the cellulose sheet material is paper, preferably glassine paper or kraft paper, and

(b)the polymeric sheet material is a thermoplastic film, selected from PE, PP, or PET, the paper or thermoplastic sheet material being a liner for adhesive labels, tapes, or films, and is coated with silicone as release agent

1 3. Insulation material according to claim 1 1 or 1 2 , wherein it is in a form suitable for blowing it dry into a cavity, as loose fill onto a surface, or wet against a surface.

14. Insulation material according to claim 1 1 or 1 2, wherein it is in the form of a batt, a panel or a sheet.

Description:
New uses of recycled sheet material

Technical Field

The present invention relates to new uses of recycled cellulose or polymeric sheet material coated with a release agent, such as used as liner for self-adhesive labels and films.

Background for the invention

Self adhesive labels, films, and tapes have become very popular for their versatility and ease of use, since no extra gl ue is required to make them adhere to a su bstrate. They are used extensively in offices and by school children of course, but also large volumes are used by industries for labelling their products. The self-adhesive labels are provided attached to a release liner made of paper or a polymeric carrier and usually coated at least on one side with a release agent, most often consisting of a silicone release layer, which provides a release effect against the adhesive of the label. Other release agents are someti mes used, such as wax, paraffin, low surface energy fluorinated compounds, etc. Examples of sil icone coated liners are given in US5275855 , JP07279099, and US6036234. Silicone or other release agent coated liners are also used more generally as backing in the production of films, such as PVC fil ms. The total global consumption of release liners in 2008 is believed to be around 32 Billion square meter of coated product, which is equal to 75% of the surface area of Switzerland. Approximately 85% of this material is paper based and 1 5% is plastic based (cf. http: / /en.wikipedia.org /wiki / Release_l iner).

After use of the labels, films or tapes supported on said carriers, the liners are pure waste and must be disposed of. Considering the volumes mentioned above, this results in a great source of waste, which is coming under the scrutiny of several governments which intend to tax the disposal thereof as packaging material . The issue is rendered even more sensitive for cellulose release l iners because the cellulose carriers are usually made of virgin material which has never gone through any recycling cycle yet. Recycling paper coated with a release agent by conventional repulping methods for making printing or packaging paper is possible but difficult without loss in quality because of insufficient disintegration of the fibres and sticking of resin particles on the rolls and felts due to the release coating. Solutions to recycle silicone coated paper were proposed in US5567272 and EP587000, requiring the use of salts of phosphoric esters of fluorinated alkanols to chemically separate the silicone release agent from the cellulose sheet carrier, the latter being forwarded to a recycled paper manufacturing line. Alternatively, DE4302678 and US5573636 propose a specific release coating comprising a solid material, preferably in the form of microcapsules, which swell in contact with water and promote separation of the coating from the pulp in an aqueous medium, for repulping the cellulose fibres.

The building and transportation industries are making more and more use of cellulosic materials coming from old newspaper, cardboard, etc. to manufacture heat and acoustic insulating materials in the form of loose fibrous materials, fibrous mats with or without skins, panels of varying stiffness, and even hollow blocks; the manufacture of blocks and panels may require the use of a binder, a glue or a cement. Cellulose insulating material has a much lower "embodied energy" than e.g., glasswool or rockwool insulation, wherein the embodied energy is the sum of the energy to transport the raw material to the manufacturing facility + the energy for manufacturing the product + the energy to deliver the manufactured product. General information concerning cellulose insulating materials can be found e.g., in:

http:/ /www.ownerbuilderonline.com/ blown-cellulose-insulation.html,

http:/ /www.cellulose.org/CIMA/GreenestOfTheGreen.php;

http:/ /www.youtu be.com /watch?v=bwcblg6g 5 Cs&feature= related.

DEI 9653243 discloses a heat and acoustic insulating material made of cellulose fibres from old paper and impregnated with e.g. boric acid or salts thereof as flame retardant and against formation of mould, wherein the cellulose fibres come at least partly from sticky paper labels. DE4334200 discloses a process for producing thermally insulating materials from waste paper by means of a mild hydromechanical treatment with subsequent drying using hot air. The boards or mats formed therefrom have a very low specific density, from which a high thermal insulation value results.

WO2002090682 discloses sound insulation partitions comprising at least a substantially homogeneous self-supporting rectangular cellulose mat having a density ranging between 200 and 800 kg/m 3 , said mat essentially consisting of fibres derived from the treatment of practically lignin-free recycled papers or paperboards, the bond between the fibres within the mat being obtained at least partly during the production of the mat by wet process.

DE4402244 discloses a sound and heat insulating material made from a dried, aqueous suspension containing 1 0-50 wt% chopped waste paper and 90-1 0 wt% animal and/or plant fibres such as hairs, short wool fibres, etc. The mixed suspension is placed on a sheet former, in particular on a sieve, where the water is removed. A flat flexible mat is formed and subsequently dried and finished.

DEI 9835090 discloses a method of production of cellulose insulation materials including the control of various parameters in the mill to obtain a homogeneous material comprising additives.

DE3641 464 discloses an insulating board made of a mixture of old newspapers free from any surface treatment or fillers, natural fibres, and a glue and/or reaction promoter. EP061 71 77 discloses a skin/core building element for heat insulation and vibration damping wherein the core is made of a filler of paper like material and thin thermoplastic component to act as binder upon melting.

DE4403588 discloses heat insulation components constructed in the form of hollow blocks and prefabricated wall boards, produced, in particular, from pulped, water-resistant old paper, such as old labels, stickers, high-gloss paper, advertising posters and billboards (signs), mixed with water, cement and sand. In particu lar, a preferred mixture ranges from 50 vol% to 80 vol% of water-resistant old paper, from 1 0 vol% to 20 vol% of cement, and from 1 0 vol% to 60 vol% of sand. US2009/ 01 73464 discloses an acoustic panel comprisi ng from 1 0-40 wt% cellulosic fibres, 0-30 wt% gypsu m, 0- 1 5 wt% starch and other components. Similarly, DEI 0336569 discloses a fire-resistant gypsum fibreboard made from a mixture of 87-78% gypsum and 1 3-22% cellulose fibres made from used paper as a reinforcing component and a 35- 50% boric acid based on the fibre weight for raising the flame resistance.

In the transportation industry, DE202005501 1 4581 discloses a cellulose based insulation material for the exhaust system of a combustion engine and US2002025421 discloses a sound absorbing insulation material containing cellu lose for the cabin of a motor vehicle. DE4331 567 discloses a l ight weight fire protection element for the aircraft industry made of waste paper mixed with a special binder, resulting in an "apparently paradoxical fireproof material made of paper".

There remains in the art a need for finding routes to recycle release coated carriers of the type used as liners for labels. In paral lel, there remains a lot to do in the fields of recycled paper and of insulation materials for the buildi ng, transportation, and other industries to provide an insulation material which is cheap, and has good thermal and acoustic insulation and damping properties. The present invention proposes a solution to these and other problems in the art of recycling. Summary of the invention

The present invention concerns method for treating waste material in the form of release coated cellulose or polymeric sheets comprising the following steps :

(a) Collecting release coated cellulose or polymeric sheet material from producers and end-users thereof, (b) Optionally preparing the collected material by mixing, separating foreign bodies like metals, etc., and feeding it to a dry-grinding station ;

(c) In one or several grinding stations shredding and grinding the materials

(d) Optionally adding additives selected from flame retardant, hydrophobic material, pesticides, nutrients, minerals and mixtures thereof and mixing them with the recycled material;

The overall efficacy of the new use in accordance with the present invention is further facilitated if the release coated cellulose or polymeric sheet material is collected from producers and end-users thereof in the form of dense, bulky masses, such as rolls and stacks, which are pre-shredded into smaller, less dense masses in preparation to step (b). New uses such as the fields of insulation materials and filling for upholstery which will be discussed more in detail below can be reached if said collected material already comprises a flame retardant, such as boric acid or any salt thereof. The flame retardant would be added to the sheet carrier by the sheet manufacturer, thus anticipating and promoting the recycling of the produced material.

The present method is highly advantageous as it is possible for certain release agent coated sheets to mechanically separate, during the primary and /or secondary grinding operations, a substantial fraction of the release coating from the sheet carrier, in the absence of any chemical treatment. If dry -grinding is chosen as the grinding method , the two fractions may then be separated in a separating station, separating the incoming stream into a first, carrier rich fraction and a second, release agent rich fraction. The separating station may comprise one or more of a cyclone, a filter, and an ultrasonic or an electrostatic separation means. This embodiment is very advantageous as it permits the use of the carrier rich fraction to be further processed to produce either insulation materials, e.g., in the form of insulation batts or sheets; or to incorporate a conventional repulping process in an aqueous medium for producing recycled paper. Note that insulation materials need not necessarily be formed from a carrier rich fraction, and is advantageously obtained directly from the comminuted release coated cellulose or polymeric sheet material, possibly blended with e.g., comminuted waste paper such as newspaper, to yield insulation materials of different grades, qualities, and prices. Alternatively, the cellulose and/or the release agent rich fractions may further be treated to become suitable for use as a filler, a binding agent or a viscosity modifier in concrete, cementitious, asphalteous, clay or lime mixtures and coatings, paints and other building materials.

Also comminuted self-adhesive label material originating from a certain percentage of self- adhesive labels still adhered to the release coated sheet material prior to grinding or brought into the production stream at any stage thereafter can contribute to obtain or enhance the desired properties of the final material.

At any stage of the recycling, the collected or treated material may be blended with cellulose or polymeric sheet waste material from other origins, or with a release agent, for example from the release agent rich fraction obtainable from the separation discussed supra. Alternatively, the second, release agent rich fraction separated from the carrier material can be blended with ground cellulose or polymeric sheet waste material from other origins in order to control the content in release agent of the final material.

In case of a carrier comprising essentially cellulose which can be separated from the release coating by dry-grinding as discussed above, the cellulose rich fraction thus obtained may be further processed in a wet shaping station to form sheets of paper.

Some applications, such as in the building industry or upholstery, require the use of a flame retardant. In case the collected material does not comprise a sufficient amount of flame retardant for one such application, a flame retardant, preferably boric acid or any salt thereof may be added to, and mixed with the recycled material before, during or after the grinding steps (c).

As an alternative or complement to adding chemical flame retardants, beneficial flame retardant effects can be obtained by adding fungal tissue preferably the mycelium to the waste material prior, during or after the grinding process. Alternatively, the waste material can be inoculated with a suitable fungal species prior to the grinding process, allowing the fungal tissue to form itself prior or after the grinding process. Yet another alternative could be the inoculation of the ground material in its final application allowing the in situ creation of flame retardancy by the fungal growth. Spent oyster mushroom substrate (Ostreatus pleurotus) has been identified as a possible source for the above application. In some cases, this spent oyster mushroom substrate may not only be used as an additive, but also in its pure form, allowing to obtain a flame retardant mass that can be used for different purposes equal or similar to the ones based on the sources of release coated cellulose or polymeric sheet material mentioned below. This flame retardant mass can either be used as such or alternatively ground and/or compressed thus obtaining different application possibilities.

A preferred source of release coated cellulose or polymeric sheet material is liners for holding self-adhesive labels or films. They can conveniently be collected at the liner manufacturers, the self-adhesive label base material manufacturers, the label printers, the producers of goods on which are applied self-adhesive labels, and so on, all of them generating large volumes of such liners. The release agent is generally one of silicone, wax, paraffin, or fluorinated material.

Other sources of release coated cellulose or polymeric sheet material is liners used for the production of cast polymeric materials, self-adhesive tapes etc.

Recycled material obtained from the method discussed above can be used in various application. First, the thermal and acoustic insulating properties thereof can advantageously be used for insulating thermally and/or acoustically any of:

· a wall, a panel or a roof in the field of buildings,

• a panel in the field of transportation,

• a sound dampening wall along roads;

• a quilted piece of garment or blanket, or for filling

• a mattress, or upholstery,

· a package in the field of packaging and storage and transportation of goods. Alternatively the recycled release coated cellulose material may be used for the production of recycled paper in a conventional wet process. Another field of applications of release coated cellulose sheet material is casing soil or growing medium used for growing some vegetables and mushrooms, or as additive to earth to enhance the water balance and water flow in said soil or earth. Preliminary results have shown that the treated material offered an optimal water buffering effect for the growth, e.g., of mushrooms. Furthermore, the material seems to act as a heat capacitor, absorbing heat, which it gradually releases in time. This property may also partly explain the excellent growth of mushrooms observed with the present material. This property makes the material suitable for other applications such as hot pillows, or hot compresses to be applied onto the skin. Similarly, if a packaged good must be maintained at a high temperature, such as food, the heat capacitive properties of the material can be used to this effect, by e.g., lining the walls of the packaging with the present material, preferably sandwiched between two walls of the packaging.

Hydromulching / hydroseeding is another application wherein the present material shows excellent potential. Hydromulching is applying a slurry of water, wood fibre mulch, and often a tackifier, to prevent soil erosion. Hydroseeding, often used as synonym of hydromulching, is a method for planting seeds, e.g., in the field of grass planting, comprising the steps of mixing mulch, seed, fertilizer, and water in the tank of a hydromulching machine. The mixed material is then pumped from the tank and sprayed onto the ground. The material is often referred to as a slurry, much like a soupy batch of green papier-mache. Once applied to the soil, the material enhances initial growth by providing a microenvironment beneficial to seed germination. The use of traditional recycled paper cellulose fibre material in hydromulching/hydroseeding applications is known. The use of recycled release coated cellulose sheet material treated according to the present invention instead of traditional recycled paper cellulose fibre seems advantageous in that the present material has a significantly lower tendency to create a dry crust as well as clogging together. Without wishing to be bound by any theory, it is believed that the release coating material present in the material contributes to this effect.

The present invention also concerns an insulation material comprising shredded recycled material, flame retardant, and optionally other components. In particular, it is preferred that the paper or thermoplastic sheet material is a liner for adhesive labels, tapes, or films, and is preferably coated with sil icone as release agent and the carrier is as follows:

(a) the cellulose sheet material is paper, preferably glassine paper or kraft paper, or, alternatively,

(b) the polymeric sheet material is a thermoplastic film, preferably selected from PE, PP, or PET.

The insulation material of the present invention is preferably in a form suitable for blowing it dry into a cavity, as loose fill onto a surface, or wet against a surface. Alternatively, it can be in the form of a batt or a sheet.

Brief description of the Figures For a fuller understanding of the nature of the present invention , reference is made to the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which :

Figure 1 : shows a transversal cut of a release coated carrier, typically used as liner for adhesive labels and the l ike.

Figure 2A: shows a schematic representation of a first embodi ment of the method of the present invention.

Figure 2B: shows a schematic representation of a second embodi ment of the method of the present invention.

Figure 3: shows three embodiments for the appl ication of an insulating material in a building or means of transportation ; Figure 4: is a flowchart illustrating the complete life cycle of a release coated sheet material form production, use thereof as liner, to recycling thereof, in case (a) of no flame retardant in the original sheet carrier, and (b) of an original sheet carrier comprising flame retardant. Detailed description of the invention

The present invention offers a new and advantageous solution to the d ifficult problem of recycling release coated sheet carriers (1 ), in particular silicone coated carriers which are widely used e.g., as liners for self adhesive labels, tapes, films and the like. As illustrated in Figure 1 , such liners comprise a carrier (2) wh ich is often a cellulose material , such as glassine paper or kraft paper, or alternatively, the carrier (2) can be a thermoplastic film, made of a polyolefin like PE or PP, or of a polyester such as PET, PEN, etc. In the present context, the term "sheet" is used to designate "a wide expanse or thin piece of something" (The Chambers Dictionary (2000)), which can be continuous or in d iscreet pieces of regular or irregular geometry, presented in any form such as rolled, stacked, or even crumpled. The carrier (2) is coated on one or two sides with a release agent (3), which provides a release effect against any type of sticky material such as the adhesive on a label . The release agents (3) most widely used on liners for adhesive labels, tapes, fil ms, and the like, are crosslinkable silicones, but other release agents such as wax, paraffin, polyurethane or a fluorinated or acrylic based material may also be fou nd. Depending on the type of release agent and the intended use of the coated sheet material, the release agent is generally applied in an amount of the order 0.2 to 1 0.0 g / m 2 , wh ich is enough to degrade the quality of paper recycled with such cellulose based liners by traditional wet paper repulping processes, because the disintegration of the fibres is insufficient and the resin particles tend to stick on the rolls and felts. This is a major inconven ience because unlike newspapers and the like, paper used for liners is generally prod uced from virgin material, which has never gone throug h any recycling cycle and has therefore a high ecological value. As reviewed above, solutions exist to overcome this d rawback associated with conventional wet repul ping processes, but they require additional treatment steps and chemicals. The problem is even more acute when the carrier is a thermoplastic film since the generally crosslinked release coating cannot be easily separated from the carrier and may not be melted and reprocessed therewith .

The present invention provides particularly advantageous new uses of recycled both cellulose and thermoplastic based release coated carriers (1 ) such as li ners. In accordance with the present invention, the release coated carrier may be processed to form a novel and advantageous insulating material (1 0) suitable for the sound and thermal insulation of buildings and of sound barriers along the roads, as well as of means of transportation such as automotive vehicles, trains, airplanes, and the like. It can also be used to fill quilted garments and blankets, or upholstery. Other applications are possible, such as growing medium for mushrooms, vegetables, plants, etc. , or as heat capacitor in heated pillows or compresses to be applied on the skin.

In some cases of cellulose sheets coated with a release agent, it is possi ble to mechanically separate a sufficient amount of release agent from the cellulose carrier during a mechanical grinding step (23), (24). In this case, a cellulose rich fraction may be separated from a release agent rich fraction. Each fraction can be treated separately in conventional recycling processes, or combined with other sources of materials for further processing. The waste material can be collected from the producers and end users of for example adhesive labels, etc. like offices and administrations, but it is preferably collected from industries generating large amounts of waste liners. In particular, the waste material can be collected from liner manufacturers, self-adhesive labels manufacturers, label printers, producers of goods on which are applied self-adhesive labels, and the like. These represent a particularly advantageous source of "clean" waste release coated carriers, available in large quantities. Another group are the producers and /or users of cast polymeric sheet materials or self-adhesive tapes whereby the liner is being used as a support during the cast or coating process and is optionally being removed prior to selling the material to the end users. Liner manufacturers will of course generate some waste, be it for i nsufficient quality of a particular product batch or at start or end of a roll. The manufacturers of self-adhesive label base material combine large rolls of release coated material with corresponding rolls of label base material to form a 4-layer laminate comprising the carrier, the release coating, the adhesive, and the label support. The thus produced laminate is then slit to the desired width of the labels, thus generating large amounts of waste. The same applies with label printers, if different from the former, as they may be in charge of the final cutting of the labels. Finally, the producers of goods on which are applied self-adhesive labels will generate as much liner waste as self-adhesive labels are applied on their goods. The amount of waste liner material thus generated can be huge and these industries are usually equipped with automated collecti ng means for collecting the waste liners, as described e.g. , in WO2005 1 1 0902. In most cases, the huge amou nts of waste liners thus collected are in the form of dense, bulky masses, usually rolls or stacks.

As illustrated in Figures 2(a) and 2(b), the collected release coated sheet waste material may be conveyed with supplying means (21 0), such as a conveying belt, to a supply station (2 1 ). If the collected material is in the form of dense, bulky masses (29a), such as rolls or stacks of liners, which cannot be ground as such in, for example, conventional dry-grinding lines, the material is first supplied from supply station (21 ) to a pre-shredding station (22), breaking the dense masses of sheet material into looser chunks and lumps of smaller sizes suitable for being ground in dry conventional grinding stations. Pre-shredding stations suitable for the purpose of the present invention can be found, as illustrative purpose and in no way being restricted thereto, in the catalogue of the company SSI Shredding Systems (cf. e.g. , www.ssiworld.com/watch / industrial_paper.htm and www.ssiworld.com /watch / printers- waste.htm). At this stage, the thus pre-shredded chunks of waste material are comparable in size and texture with more traditional sources of household waste sheet material comprising newspapers, magazines, packaging, etc., and may from here on be blended with other such sources of waste material. The release coated waste material, blended or not with other sources of waste material, can be prepared for pri mary grinding by mixing it and removing all foreign bodies such as metal clips, staples, plastic sheets in case of cellulose waste material, and the like. At this stage, the material can be wet or dry-shredded and wet or dry-ground into particulate material in a grinding station (23), (24). It is often preferred to use several grinders, which can be grouped as a primary, coarser grinder (23) and a secondary, finer grinder (24). In the primary grinder (23), which may itself be composed of a cascade of several grinders (23a), (23b), (23c), the thus prepared waste material is shredded into small pieces, preferably into stripes of an average length comprised between 5 and 30 mm, more preferably, between 7 and 20 mm, most preferably between 1 0 and 1 5 mm. For some applications, this size is sufficiently small and the material needs no further comminution steps. The primary grinding station (23) may be connected to an additive supply means (28a) to add additives such as flame retardants, hydrophobic materials, pest repellents, and the like. The material may also be blended with other sources of waste material in the primary grinding station (23). The stripes thus obtained may also undergo a crimping process to yield an insulating material with higher specific volume. For many applications, however, it is preferred to further reduce the size of the particles to lower than 1 0 mm.

In these cases, the stripes of waste material may be transferred to a secondary grinding station (24). Like the primary grinding station (23) the secondary grinding station (24) may be composed of a cascade of several grinders (24a), (24b), (24c). In the secondary grinding station (24), the size of the stripes is further reduced to an average particle size smaller than 4 mm, preferably smaller than 2 mm; more preferably smaller than 1 mm. Here again, the secondary grinding station (24) may be connected to an additive supply means (28b) to add additives. Suitable primary and secondary grinding stations may be found, for example, in

WO2005 /0281 1 1 and in www.scribd.com/full/27498804?access_key=key-

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The dry -grinding is a grinding process whereby only a limited amount of liquid is added onto the material, such as flame retardant, and other additives, whereas wet-grinding includes the formation of a suspension of the treated material in a liquid as in conventional paper repulping processes. Preferably, at all time during the shredding and processing the treated material is in a solid form. As illustrated in Figure 2(a), from the end of the primary grinding station (23c) or, if it applies, of the secondary grinding station (24c), the particulate material 26(b) is transferred to a treating station (26c) for e.g., shaping the material into sheets, panels, batts, etc. and/or for packaging. The treating station (26c) may be connected to an additive supply means (28c) to supply e.g., water, an organic or mineral binder (e.g., cement), flame retardant, a dye, or the like. Treating station (26c) may comprise any means for shaping the recycled particles in any desired form, such as a press to form e.g., panels, means for dewatering the slurry to form sheets, in case water was added after dry-grinding the material, curing means, such as convection, induction or IR-ovens, UV-station, etc, in case a binder is used, and the like. The recycled material (1 0) can then be removed with conveying means (21 1 ) and is ready for commercialisation as insulating material as dry particulate, sheets, panels, batts, and the like, as is discussed below. Alternatively, the comminuted material may be advantageously used as a filler, a binding agent or a viscosity modifier in concrete, cementitious, asphalteous, clay or lime mixtures and coatings, paints and other building materials Another possible application for the thus recycled material (1 0) is in hydro mulching or hydro seeding applications, with enhanced results compared with similar applications with conventional paper, in particular, with respect to dry crust formation and clogging observed with conventional paper.

The comminuted release coated material can also be used as casing soil in replacement of, or complement to peat casing soil used for growing some vegetables and mushrooms. A study has been carried out with general waste paper with some encouraging, though not concluding results (cf. Sassine et a/., J. App. Sci. Res., 1 , (3): 277 (2005)). Some preliminary tests suggest that some of the problems mentioned in Sassine's paper could be solved with the material (1 0) produced from the present method thanks to the presence of the release agent, which yields a proper degree of hydrophobicity without affecting the moisture buffering effect of cellulose. For such end-applications, the treating station (26c) could include composting means and the additive supply means (28c) may include a source of nitrogen and possibly a source of a hydrophobic material. Composting and nitrogenation are preferably carried out off-line from the grinding line, as illustrated by the broken line (26b). It can also be taken profit of the advantageous behaviour of the materials produced with the method of the present invention by using it as additive to earth, to enhance the water balance and water flow in said earth and soil.

The treated material shows a relatively high heat capacity, storing energy that it releases gradually to ambient. This property could partly explain the excellent results obtained with mushrooms. The compost layer is the layer containing fermented manure, straw and some different additives, and acts as feeding stock for the growth of the mushrooms. This compost layer is covered by casing soil onto which the mushrooms start growing. The current problem with this system is the initial rising of the temperature of the compost in the first days of the process. This leads to too fast and uncontrolled mycelium growth. The traditional way of solving this problem is to cool down the whole atmosphere in the room. Besides costing a lot of energy, the negative effect of the cooling is a slowing down of the entire growth cycle by several days. In the recent years, techniques have been developed to only cool down the compost layer and not the entire atmosphere of the room anymore. This necessitates cooling tubes to be integrated in the mushroom beds which are a costly exercise investment wise. The relatively high specific heat of the present material allows to reduce the temperature increase of the compost in the first days, thus replacing the use of a cooling system. The thermal energy accumulated by the present material during the first days of growth is released to the system in the following days thus enhancing growth of the mushrooms. Additional benefit of the cellulose fibres added to the compost would be the increase of water content so that the nutrients become more easily available for the mushroom growth.

The property of the present material to act as a heat capacitance, absorbing thermal energy that it releases gradually in time can advantageously be used in heated pillows and compresses to be applied on the skin, or to not only passively insulate a piece of good contained in a package, but actually actively heating it. In some cases it is possible that a substantial fraction of the release coating is mechanically released from the carrier during the primary or secondary grinding stages (23), (24). This may happen in particular when dry-grinding is used as grinding process in that dry-grinding generates intense shear stresses that may provoke cohesive failure in the carrier material, close and parallel to the interface between carrier and release coating. This phenomenon is observed in particular with cellulose carrier material of rather low density, wherein the hydrogen bonds between not so closely packed cellulose fibres are weaker than the interfacial bond between the release agent and the cellulose carrier. Cohesive failure is less likely to happen with thermoplastic carriers, but some separation of the release coating was observed nonetheless with some particular materials combinations, in particular when low surface energy thermoplastic carriers were used, such as polyolefins. In this case, however, the failure was more interfacial. Regardless of the nature of the failure, if a substantial fraction of the release agent may be separated from the carrier material, it may be interesting, as illustrated in Figure 2(b), to profit of this debonding to actually separate the material stream in two fractions: a carrier rich fraction (26) and a release agent rich fraction (27) in a separating station (25). The separating station may comprise any known means for separating two bodies having differing physical and chemical properties, such as, for example, a cyclone, a floatation station, a filter, and ultrasonic or electrostatic separation means, and any combinations thereof.

The release agent rich fraction (27) may further be processed in a treating station (27a) to to be suitable for use as a filler or a binding agent in concrete, cementitious asphalteous, clay or lime mixtures and coatings. Alternatively, the release agent rich fraction (27) may be added to a stream of cellulose insulation material based on waste paper other than release coated, such as newspapers, magazines, packaging material, and the like, to enhance the properties thereof.

The carrier rich fraction (26) may further be processed in a treating station (26a) to produce, as discussed above in respect of station (26c) in Figure 2(a), an insulating material of more accurately controlled composition or, alternatively, to produce recycled paper by methods well known in the art in case of cellulose carriers. The recycled product (1 0a) can then be removed with conveying means (21 1 ). The further treatment of both fractions in treating stations (26a), (27a), in particular if it concerns producing recycled paper with the cellulose rich fraction, needs not necessarily be carried out continuously in the same production apparatus but, as illustrated by the broken lines (26), (27), it may be carried out in another plant.

As illustrated schematically in Figure 3, the treated material can be used as insulating material (1 0) to be applied in different forms and different ways to a surface; As shown in Figure 3(a) the insulating material (1 0) may be blown in a dry form with a gun (20) into a cavity (1 3) formed by two panels or walls or any retainer (1 ). In old houses, the material can be blown through a hole drilled on top of the outer panel of a wall. The insulation material (1 0) must be blown until it reaches the appropriate density. With this form of application settling is observed and may reach as much as 20% with state of the art cellulose insulation materials. It is usually observed that a lower degree of settling occurs with higher initial densities. The level of settling is very much reduced with the insulation material of the present invention since the silicone acts somewhat like a loose binder that stabilizes the structure. A similar stabilizing effect can also be obtained as the result of the presence of ground self-adhesive label material originating from a certain percentage of self-adhesive labels still adhered to the release coated sheet material prior to grinding or brought into the production stream at any stage thereafter. After settling of the material, the front panel may be withdrawn if desired as, depending on the degree of compaction thereof, the material will remain in place. The application of the insulating material (1 0) by dry blowing has the advantages of minimizing air gaps especially around inserts or intricate regions. It is, however, recommended to call an experienced installer for dry blowing the insulation material as the control of the density, settling, and pressure applied on the panels must all be controlled carefully. The insulating material (1 0) in a particulate form may also be sprayed in place with a gun (20) against a wall (1 ) or even a horizontal ceiling by mixing it with a fluid like water. Upon drying the material will remain in place thanks to the hydrogen bonds between cellulose hydroxyl groups created by the fluid such as water. In some cases, in particular—albeit not exclusively— when the carrier (2) is a thermoplastic material, the use of a binder may be necessary in this type of applications. This technique of wet spraying is schematically illustrated in Figure 3(b) and it has the advantage over dry blowing of requiring no cavity (1 3) to fill, of generating substantially less dust upon application, and of settling much less. Air gaps are minimized with this technique, thus enhancing the insulation properties of the material. Here again, calling an experienced installer is highly recommended.

As an alternative to supplying the insulation material (1 0) in a particulate form for blowing/spraying, it can be supplied as preforms (1 0A) such as batts, sheets, mats, tiles, or even bricks. Here again, the use of a binder may be necessary, but not mandatory, as with cellulose materials sufficient integrity of the preforms may be obtained through a wet process. If a binder is used, it can be organic, like a glue or a resin, or mineral like cement, gypsum, etc. Fillers like sand, talc, etc. may be used too. Alternatively, the preforms (1 0A) may have a sandwich structure with two skins holding a central core made of the insulating material (1 0). In some instances, a single skin may be sufficient. The role of the skins is not restricted to mechanical integrity of the preforms (1 0A), but may advantageously act as a barrier against moisture, gas, radiations, etc. and can therefore be useful when a binder is used too.

As illustrated in Figure 3(c), such preforms can then simply be applied and fixed to a wall by means well known in the art. This solution has the advantage of being very simple and of requiring no particular expertise for its implementation, and it also generates virtually no dust in situ. On the other hand, air gaps are more difficult to avoid then with blowing/spraying techniques. Figure 3 illustrates embodi ments of applications in the insulation of a building. The insulation material of the present invention can be used in other fields such as the transportation industry, e.g., in applications as disclosed e.g., in DE202005501 1 581 and US200202542 1 for the automotive industry and in DE4331 567 for the aircraft industry. It can also be used on sound dampening wall along roads. Other applications can be found in the textile industry, as fill for quilted garments and blankets or even for upholstery and mattresses.

When cellulose insulation material has a lower "embodied energy" than e.g., glass fibres or rockwool insulation materials, the insulation material of the present invention has an even lower embodied energy than most traditional cellulose insu lation materials for the following reasons. Traditional cellu lose material is generally made of recycled paper of various origins, including newspapers, printed matter, wrapping papers, etc., which may need an additional treatment to eliminate inks and volatile components before being reprocessed into insulation material. This additional treatment usually involves a thermal treatment with chemicals, which is not necessary with waste liners collected from industrial end users, as the material is homogeneous and devoid of any printed matter. Another advantage of the insulation material of the present invention is that packaging volume can be reduced with respect to most traditional cellulose insulation materials on the market. Particulate cellulose insulation material is generally su pplied in 1 0- 1 5 kg packages with a degree of compaction which is lim ited by the ability of the compacted material to fluff up to the desired density upon dry blowing thereof. Generally, the degree of compaction of the packaged materiel is about double of the desired density of the insulation material in place when applied d ry, i.e., with one package of volu me Vi , a cavity of volume of the order of 2 x Vi can be filled . It has been found that insulation material according to the present invention could be dry blown to a desired density even when the material was packaged with a degree of compaction of three or four (i.e., down to a volume of the order of ½ Vi). Without being bound by any theory, it is believed that this is explained by the fact that cellu lose liners being produced from virgin material, the cellulose fi bres are longer and stiffer than the ones of recycled newspapers and the like. Hence the particulate material obtained by grinding used l iners has a higher spring force than most traditional cellulose insulation materials which allows it to recover a high degree of fluffiness after compaction to at least 400% in a package. The higher degree of compaction is, of course, highly advantageous for storage and distribution of the products. These two advantages: no thermal and chemical deinking stage required and higher degree of compaction of the packaged material lowers substantially the embodied energy of the insulation material of the present invention in both the energy required to manufacture the material and in the energy to deliver it.

Beside providing a cheap and easy recycling option for the problematic release coated sheet carriers, the insulation material obtained with the method of the present invention is advantageous over other similar materials of the prior art, even without separation of the release coating from the carrier, because the presence of the generally crosslinked release agent such as silicone gives the particulate material a cohesion which cannot be found in the prior art materials without the addition of a separate binder. This cohesion is advantageous in dry blow applications (cf. Figure 3(a)) because it reduces substantially the amount of dust upon blowing, and it especially reduces substantially the level of settling of the material, yielding an insulation layer stable in time and homogeneous throughout the height of the insulated wall. In wet spraying applications (cf. Figure 3(b)), a higher mechanical integrity of the sprayed layer is reached thanks to the release agent. For the manufacture of preforms (1 0A) such as batts, sheets, etc. (cf. Figure 3(c)), less to no binder is needed to yield self supporting preforms. In all cases, the presence of silicone particles dispersed within the bulk of the insulating material confers a degree of water repellence, which contributes to preserving the material from moisture. Furthermore, traditional insulation materials are made of recycled paper, of different origins (landfills) and of unknown nature (newspaper, packaging, etc.). For this reason and in spite of any thermal treatments discussed above, such insulation materials may still contain an undesired amount of VOC (volatile organic compounds) which contribute to indoor air pollution ; and may be responsible for the development of allergies (cf. e.g., http:/ /www.healthyhouseinstitute.com/a_688- Cellulosejnsulation). With the present invention, it is possible to obtain an insulation material which, apart from the flame retardants, is virtually free of any VOC. In particular, since large volumes of release coated sheet material can be recovered directly from companies, a control on the quality of the waste material to be recycled never afforded to date is possible, thus allowing to provide a "premium version" of VOC-free insulation material. In some cases it also provides a very efficient solution to the production of recycled paper from waste release coated sheet material.

In applications requiring the use of a flame retardant, as in the fields of building, transportation, and filled furniture, the addition of a flame retardant, such as boric acid may be required. This step increases substantially the overall cost of production and use of such materials for the following reasons. An additional flame retardant dosing station with metering means must be provided in the material treatment apparatus, prior to packing and shipping the material. This additional investment can easily be absorbed by a high production line, producing centrally material to be distributed over a rather large area for use by the operators. The finer the material is comminuted, however, the higher the packaging volume, with direct consequences on the cost of transportation. For this reason, it would seem more cost effective to shred the collected material in a central production line, into stripes down to an average length comprised between 5 and 30 mm, pack them compactly and ship them to the end-users or to local distributors, where the stripes can be comminuted down to their final size. Small scale grinding apparatuses for comminuting a limited volume of fine stripes are unexpensive and easy to transport in situ. This, however, becomes impossible in case a flame retardant must be added. It is clear that it could be added centrally onto the shredded fine stripes, but the amount of flame retardant required to treat stripes is higher than with smaller size particles because the surface of material exposed to the flame retardant is lower.

For this reason it was proposed that the liner producers (1 00) treat their liners with flame retardant to yield flame retarded liners (FR-liners (1 01 b) (cf. Figure 4). The amount of flame retardant for treating a given amount of liner material is less if applied directly to the pulp by the liner producer, upstream of the life cycle of the material, than if added at any stage after collection of the liner waste material. Furthermore, since the flame retardant is more homogeneously distributed at the level of the cellulose fibres, it is likely that higher fire resistance classes can be reached by the paper producer with the same amount of flame retardant. These FR-liners would be sold at a higher cost to the printer (1 02b) who would sell their labels applied on flame treated liners to the end users (1 03b) to an overall higher cost, comprising the non refundable price of a label applied on a non flame treated liner + a refundable, recycling deposit for recycling the liner. After use of the labels (1 07) the waste FR-liners are collected as described above, and the recycling deposit is refunded to the end user, by the recycling operator, who can save money in flame retardant, and transportation. The material needs only be dry-ground to the desired particle size prior to being used as insulating material in the building, transportation, furniture, or apparel industries (1 08) without the need of adding any additional flame retardant.

Even if the recycling deposit amounted exactly to the costs saved by the absence of a flame treatment step during the recycling process, this operation would be beneficial to environment, because less flame retardant would be needed, less lorries would be needed to transport the same weight of material, but with a reduced volume, and it would guarantee that the quasi totality of the liners would be recycled. This approach is unique in the involvement of the liner manufacturer, totally upstream of the life cycle of the produced liners, anticipating the second life of the liner as insulating material or filler in a piece of furniture or apparel. It also offers a new approach to the blowing/spraying method of insulating material in that fine comminuting and blowing/spraying could be operated in situ by the same operator, with a small transportable grinder coupled to a blowing/spraying gun, thus reducing substantially the cost of the material. For not flame retardant treated liners (1 01 a), the same steps (1 02 a- 1 06a) as illustrated in Figure 5 would apply as with flame retardant treated liners, apart from the costs being reduced by the amount of the recycling deposit. At the recycling processing stage, a flame retardant may be added for applications (1 08) requiring its presence, or not for applications (1 09) requiring no flame retardant, such as in vegetal growth applications. An insulating material according to the present invention is particularly advantageous because, on the one hand, it offers a solution for recycling huge volumes of release coated sheet material such as liners, which is otherwise very difficult to recycle and, on the other hand, because the properties of this material, in particular volumetric stability in time, are superior to most existing comparable products in the market, obtained from other sources of sheet materials.

The insulating material (1 0) of the present invention comprises shredded and ground particles of recycled release coated sheet material admixed with additives to control the resistance to flame, moisture, and pests, such as insects, bugs, rodents, etc. as discussed supra. For example, boric acid or any salt thereof is the most commonly used flame retardant and is particularly advantageous, since not only does it provide the required resistance to flame but it also provides moisture, mould, and microbial resistance and acts as a repellent against pests of different kinds. Salts of boric acid that can be used are for example, borax with different levels of hydratation, such as borax penthahydrate and borax decahydrate. Boric acid or salts thereof may be applied in an amount comprised between 1 and 50 wt%, preferably between 1 0 and 45 wt%, more preferably between 25 and 40 wt%. It can be added to the recycled material as dry powder but is in some cases mixed with water and wet sprayed into the recycled material. Other flame retardants, however, may be used instead of or additionally with the boric acid or salt thereof, such as mono- or diammonium sulphate, aluminium sulphate, aluminium hydroxide, soda ash, anhydrous silica gel, diammonium phosphate, sodium tetraborate, ferrous sulfate, zinc sulfate, and mixtures thereof, as disclosed, e.g., in US41 82681 . As an alternative or complement to adding chemical flame retardants, beneficial flame retardant effects can be obtained by adding fungal tissue preferably the mycelium to the waste material prior, during or after the grinding process. Alternatively, the waste material can be inoculated with a suitable fungal species prior to the grinding process, allowing the fungal tissue to form itself prior or after the grinding process. Yet another alternative could be the inoculation of the ground material in its final application allowing the in situ creation of flame retardancy by the fungal growth. Spent oyster mushroom substrate (Ostreatus pleurotus) has been identified as a possible source for the above application. In some cases, this spent oyster mushroom substrate may not only be used as an additive, but also in its pure form, allowing to obtain a flame retardant mass that can be used for different purposes equal or similar to the ones based on the sources of release coated cellulose or polymeric sheet material mentioned below. This flame retardant mass can either be used as such or alternatively ground and/or compressed thus obtaining different application possibilities.

The mixture of recycled material and additives (e.g., flame retardant) can then be used as such for blowing/spraying dry or with addition of some water to enhance adhesion to non horizontal walls (cf. Figure 3(a)&(b)) or, alternatively, can be formed into a sheet, batt, or the like by pressing optionally with admixture of a binder and/or sandwiched between two sheets. Other additives or fillers may of course be added as well known by the persons skilled in the art.

EXPERIMENTAL TESTS

In order to demonstrate some of the superior properties of insulating material obtained by treating release coated sheet material, the following tests were carried out.

(a) Clogging test

Material clogging in a hose is a major issue when blowing/spraying the insulation material in place. This is particularly sensitive when there is a reduction of the tube diameter, e.g., for allowing access to thinner cavities. In this case, a tube reduction connector is used to connect two hoses of different diameter, as can be found, e.g., in http:/ /www.x- floc.com/en/zubehoer/schlaueche-zub.html. Clogging often occurs at such reduction connectors when the blowing/spraying is resumed after an interruption. Clogging is to be avoided, not only because it is time consuming for the operator to stop the blowing/spraying, disconnect the hoses and clean them, before connecting them again and resuming the blowing/spraying, but also because the filling of a cavity with insulating material to a homogeneous density is better achieved if the blowing/spraying of material is continuous, and becomes very difficult to achieve if made in several blowing/spraying shots.

In order to assess the flowing properties of the insulating material according to the present invention, two 1 5 m long hoses were connected with a reduction connector with an inlet diameter of 65 mm and an outlet diameter of 40 mm, corresponding to the diameters of the two hoses. The hose system was then linked to a blowing machine (Zellofant M95 from X-Floc)

The test carried out intends to simulate a blowing situation wherein, at the end of cavity filling, the operator gives a last extra shot of material to prevent settling. At that moment, pressure continues to build up in the hose while there is hardly any material flowing out anymore and material density builds up in the hose. After 20 seconds, the operator finally switches off the machine and inserts the hose into another, empty cavity. At that moment, the flow in the connecting part between the 2 hoses is very critical, and if not sufficiently high, clogging occurs.

Two materials were tested:

• INVENTION: silicone coated cellulose liners ground to an average particle length of about 4 mm.

• COMPARATIVE: one of the major cellulose brands available on the Belgian market with an average particle length of about 4 mm.

Tests were performed 5 times with each material by filling a first cavity of dimensions 1 000 X 400 X 1 00 mm, continuing blowing for 20 s after filling of the cavity to build up the pressure within the hose and switching off the pump. After 30 s, the pump was activated again with the hose introduced into a new, empty cavity. The comparative cellulose material clogged 4 times out of 5 when started again, requiring the manual unclogging of the reduction connector, whilst the silicone coated cellulose material according to the present invention started flowing again immediately in all five repetitions of the test.

(b) Settling test

The same insulation materials as described in point (a) supra were used for testing the settling properties according to ISO/CD 1 8393, method B, wherein insulation material filling a cavity as described in point (a) supra is vibrated and the density of the material before and after vibrating is determined.

At initial densities > 60 kg / m 3 , no settling was observed neither for the inventive, nor the comparative cellulose insulating materials. At a lower initial density of 45 kg / m 3 , however, the level of the comparative material dropped by a height comprised between 4 and 6 cm, yielding a degree of settling of 4 to 6 vol.%, which is acceptable yet detrimental, whilst the inventive cellulose material did not settle.

These two examples illustrate two major advantages of the insulating material according to the present invention over conventional insulating material. The enhanced flowability of the material resulting in substantially less clogging during dispensing of the material is clearly attributable to the presence of the release coating which reduces the frictions between particles during flow. The dimensional stability of the blown material, even at low degrees of compaction such as 45 kg / m 3 , can also be attributed, at least partly, to the presence of the release coating.

The present invention therefore not only offers an economically and ecologically viable solution to the recycling of release coated liners, which are particularly difficult to recycle, but also provides an alternative insulating material with enhanced properties over the conventional insulating materials available in the market.