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Title:
NON-SPHERICAL MICROCAPSULE
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/129454
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Disclosed is a non-spherical microcapsule comprising a core comprising fatty ester having a melting point of at least 30°C and a benefit agent; a shell comprising nanoparticles having a diameter of 10 to 300 nm.

Inventors:
JIN, Huajin (Unilever Investing Company, 66 Lin Xin Road Linkong Economic Development Zon, Shanghai Changning District 5, 200335, CN)
PAN, Xiaoyun (Unilever Investing Company, 66 LinXin Road Linkong Economic Development Zon, Shanghai Changning District 5, 200335, CN)
Application Number:
EP2018/082683
Publication Date:
July 04, 2019
Filing Date:
November 27, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNILEVER N.V. (Weena 455, 3013 AL Rotterdam, 3013 AL, NL)
UNILEVER PLC (a company registered in England and Wales under company no. of Unilever House, 100 Victoria Embankment, London Greater London EC4Y 0DY, EC4Y 0DY, GB)
CONOPCO, INC., D/B/A UNILEVER (700 Sylvan Avenue, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 07632, US)
International Classes:
A61K8/37; A61K8/02; A61K8/11; C11D3/20; C11D3/50; C11D7/26; C11D17/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2017134179A12017-08-10
Foreign References:
US20170224849A12017-08-10
US20160168509A12016-06-16
Other References:
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
FIJNVANDRAAT, Arnoldus, Cornelis et al. (Unilever Patent Group, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, 3133 AT Vlaardingen, 3133 AT, NL)
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Claims:
Claims

1 A non-spherical microcapsule comprising:

a) a core comprising fatty ester having a melting point of at least 30°C and a benefit agent; and,

b) a shell comprising nanoparticles having a diameter of 10 to 300 nm.

2 The microcapsule according to claim 1 wherein the fatty ester has a melting point of 40 to 120 °C, preferably the fatty ester is hydrogenated vegetable oil.

3 The microcapsule according to claim 1 or 2 wherein the nanoparticle comprises polysaccharide, preferably cellulose derivative, more preferably ethyl cellulose.

4 The microcapsule according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the microcapsule has rod-like or ellipsoid-like shape.

5 The microcapsule according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the microcapsule has an average length of 0.5 to 100 microns, preferably 1 to 65 microns.

6 The microcapsule according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the microcapsule has an aspect ratio of 1.3:1 to 20:1 , preferably from 1.5:1 to 5:1.

7 The microcapsule according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the the diameter of the nanoparticle is 20 to 250 nm, more preferably 40 to 200 nm.

8 The microcapsule according to any one of the preceding claims wherein the benefit agent is selected from fragrance, pro-fragrance, organic sunscreen, skin lightening agent or a mixture thereof, more preferably the benefit agent is a fragrance.

9 A process for preparing the microcapsule of any one of the preceding claims comprising steps of:

a) liquefying the fatty ester; b) mixing the fatty ester with the benefit agent;

c) forming an oil-in-water non-spherical emulsion by nanoparticles; and d) solidifying the fatty ester. A home or personal care composition comprising microcapsules of any one of the preceding claims 1 to 8, preferably the microcapsule is present in amount of 0.01 to 2% by weight of the composition. The composition according to claim 10 wherein the composition comprises a cleansing surfactant. The composition according to claim 10 or 11 wherein the composition is a skin cleansing composition.

Description:
NON-SPHERICAL MICROCAPSULE

Field of the invention

The present invention relates to non-spherical microcapsule. In particular, the present invention is related to a non-spherical microcapsule comprising (a) a core comprising fatty ester having a melting point of at least 30 °C and a benefit agent; and (b) a shell comprising nanoparticles having a diameter of 10 to 300 nm.

Background of the invention

Many home care and personal care products seek to deliver benefit agents to substrates such as textiles, hard surfaces, hair and skin. To achieve a long-lasting benefit agent release performance, encapsulation of the benefit agent in microcapsules has been proposed as a means, in particular for the perfume. When applied, the microcapsules may be deposited onto the substrates, for example onto clothes, and broken by action of pressure and/or rubbing when consumers get dressed. The perfume is released and brings superior sensory to the consumers.

However, there is still much room for improvement from many aspects. One aspect is to improve the efficiency of the deposition of microcapsule. Deposition aid is one way to improve the deposition efficiency. The use of deposition aids is however not always desired.

We have recognized that another alternative way to improve the deposition efficiency is to provide a non-spherical microcapsule. However, it is difficult to obtain non-spherical microcapsule. In addition, the ingredient in the home care or person care products, for example surfactant, may affect the stability of the microcapsules. Therefore, the present inventors developed a non-spherical microcapsule comprising a core comprising fatty ester having a melting point of at least 30 °C and a benefit agent; a shell comprising nanoparticles having a diameter of 10 to 300 nm. It was surprisingly found that the non- spherical microcapsule is capable of being generated only when the core comprising fatty ester having a melting point of at least 30 °C and the non-spherical microcapsule of the present invention is capable of being stable even in the presence of surfactant. Summary of the invention

In a first aspect, the present invention is directed to a non-spherical microcapsule comprising (a) a core comprising fatty ester having a melting point of at least 30 °C and a benefit agent; and (b) a shell comprising nanoparticles having a diameter of 10 to 300 nm.

In a second aspect, the present invention is directed to a process for preparing the microcapsule of the present composition comprising steps of (a) liquefying the fatty ester; (b) mixing the fatty ester with the benefit agent; (c) forming an oil-in-water non-spherical emulsion by the nanoparticles; and (d) solidifying the fatty ester.

In a third aspect, the present invention is directed to a home or personal care composition comprising microcapsules of the present invention. All other aspects of the present invention will more readily become apparent upon considering the detailed description and examples which follow.

Detailed description of the invention

Except in the examples, or where otherwise explicitly indicated, all numbers in this description indicating amounts of material or conditions of reaction, physical properties of materials and/or use may optionally be understood as modified by the word“about”.

All amounts are by weight of the composition, unless otherwise specified. It should be noted that in specifying any range of values, any particular upper value can be associated with any particular lower value.

For the avoidance of doubt, the word“comprising” is intended to mean“including” but not necessarily“consisting of or“composed of”. In other words, the listed steps or options need not be exhaustive.

The disclosure of the invention as found herein is to be considered to cover all embodiments as found in the claims as being multiply dependent upon each other irrespective of the fact that claims may be found without multiple dependency or redundancy.

“Melting point” refers to the temperature at which it changes from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure for single compound.“Melting point” refers to slip melting point when it is used for melting point of a mixture. The slip melting point is an index of the temperature at which fat softens and becomes sufficiently fluid to slip in an open capillary tub. The slip melting point may be measured according to AOCS Cc 3-25. “ON” as used herein refers to fatty acid triglyceride.

“Diameter” as used herein refers to diameter in non-aggregated state unless otherwise stated. For polydisperse samples having particulate with diameter no greater than 1 pm, diameter means the z-average microcapsule diameter measured, for example, using dynamic light scattering (see international standard ISO 13321 ) with an instrument such as a Zetasizer™ (Malvern Instruments Ltd, UK). For polydisperse samples having particulate with diameter greater than 1 pm, diameter means the apparent volume median diameter (D50, also known as x50 or sometimes d(0.5)) of the microcapsules measurable for example, by laser diffraction using a system (such as a Mastersizer™ 2000 available from Malvern Instruments Ltd) meeting the requirements set out in ISO

13320.

“Aspect ratio” as used herein refers to the ratio of the length to width of the microcapsule. Both length and width may be measured by optical microscopy, for example Leica DM2500P.“Length” as used herein refers to the longest measurable distance of the microcapsule in the optical image. “Width” as used herein refers to the longest measurable distance of the microcapsule along the direction perpendicular to the length of the microcapsule in the optical image. It should be noted that the microcapsule of the present invention is not an emulsion droplet. Preferably, the microcapsule is a single core microcapsule. The shape of the microcapsule can be any shape but preferably the microcapsule has rod-like or ellipsoid- like shape. Preferably, the microcapsule has an aspect ratio of 1.3:1 to 20:1 , more preferably from 1.4:1 to 10:1 , even more preferably from 1.5:1 to 5:1 and still even more preferably from 1.8:1 to 4:1.

The microcapsule has an average length of 0.5 to 100 pm, more preferably from 1 to 65 pm, even more preferably from 3 to 50 pm, still even more preferably from 7 to 35 pm and most preferably from 12 to 25 pm.

The fatty ester preferably comprises ester of C4-30 fatty acid, more preferably ester of C10- 24 fatty acid, even more preferably ester of C14-20 fatty acid. Preferably, the fatty ester comprises glyceride, more preferably triglyceride, even more preferably triglyceride of C4-30 fatty acid, and still even more preferably triglyceride of C12-24 fatty acid.

To form a stable non-spherical microcapsule, the fatty ester preferably has a melting point of at least 35°C. More preferably, the fatty ester has a melting point of 40 to 120°C. Even more preferably the fatty ester has a melting point of 45 to 80 °C. In the event that the fatty ester is a mixture of different fatty esters, the melting point refers to the melting point of the mixture. Preferably, the fatty ester is palm oil, cocoa butter, hydrogenated vegetable oil or a mixture thereof. More preferably, the fatty ester is hydrogenated vegetable oil.

The shell comprises nanoparticles having a diameter of 10 to 300 nm. The nanoparticle may be inorganic nanoparticle such as calcium carbonate, or polymeric microcapsule. It is preferable that the nanoparticle is a polymeric microcapsule. Preferably, the nanoparticle comprises polysaccharide, more preferably cellulose derivative, even more preferably ethyl cellulose and most preferably the nanoparticle is ethyl cellulose nanoparticle. Preferably, the nanoparticle is spherical or quasi-spherical in shape.

The degree of substitution of the ethyl cellulose is preferably 2 to 3, more preferably 2.2 to 2.8. The degree of substitution refers to the average number of the hydroxyl group substituted per anhydroglucose unit (the‘monomer’). The maximum theoretical number of degree of substitution is 3 if all three hydroxyls are replaced. Suitable polysaccharide (preferably ethyl cellulose) preferably has a dynamic viscosity of 5 to 300 cP at a concentration of 5 wt% in tolune/ethanol (80:20 by weight), more preferably between 30 to 230 cP, and even more preferably 60 to 150 cP at such conditions.

Preferably the diameter of the nanoparticle is 20 to 250 nm. More preferably, the diameter of the nanoparticle is 40 to 200 nm. Even more preferably, the diameter of the nanoparticle is 50 to 160 nm. Various benefit agents can be incorporated into the microcapsules. The benefit agents may comprise fragrance, pro-fragrance, organic sunscreen, skin lightening agent, anti- aging agent or a mixture thereof. More preferably the benefit agent is selected from fragrance, pro-fragrance, organic sunscreen, skin lightening agent or a mixture thereof. Even more preferably the benefit agent is a fragrance, a pro-fragrance or a mixture thereof. Most preferably the benefit agent is a fragrance.

Typically, the fragrance comprises components having a boiling point of less than 300, more preferably 100-250 Celsius, measured at one atmosphere. It is also advantageous to comprises components which have a LogP of less than 3.0 (i.e. those which will be partitioned into water).

The pro-fragrance can, for example, be a food lipid. Food lipids typically contain structural units with pronounced hydrophobicity. The majority of lipids are derived from fatty acids. In these‘acyl’ lipids the fatty acids are predominantly present as esters and include mono-, di-, triacyl glycerols, phospholipids, glycolipids, diol lipids, waxes, sterol esters and tocopherols.

The fragrance is typically present in an amount of from 10-85% by total weight of the microcapsule, preferably from 15 to 75% by total weight of the microcapsule. The fragrance suitably has a molecular weight of from 50 to 500 Dalton. Pro-fragrances can be of higher molecular weight, being typically 1-10k Dalton. The weight ratio of the nanoparticle to the fatty ester is preferably from 1 :1 to 1 :100, more preferably from 1 :3 to 1 :50, and even more preferably from 1 :6 to 1 :15. The weight ratio of the fatty ester to the benefit agent is preferably from 1 :5 to 40:1 , more preferably from 1 :2 to 20:1 , and even more preferably from 1 :1 to 7:1.

To further improve the deposition efficiency, it is preferable that the microcapsule further comprises a deposition aid at the outside of the surface. The deposition aid is preferably a polysaccharide. It should be noted that the polysaccharide as deposition aid is chemically different from the polysaccharide which may be comprised in the nanoparticle.

Preferably the polysaccharide is a cellulose, a cellulose derivative, or another b-1 ,4- linked polysaccharide having an affinity for cellulose, preferably mannan, glucan, glucomannan, xyloglucan, galactomannan and mixtures thereof. More preferably, the polysaccharide is selected from the group consisting of xyloglucan and galactomannan, cellulose and derivatives thereof. Most preferably, the deposition polymer is selected from locust bean gum, xyloglucan, guar gum or mixtures thereof. Preferably, the polysaccharide has only b-1 ,4 linkages in the polymer backbone.

Alternatively, or additionally, the polysaccharides may be selected from the group consisting of hydroxyl-propyl cellulose, hydroxy-propyl methyl cellulose, hydroxy-ethyl methyl cellulose, hydroxy-propyl guar, hydroxy-ethyl ethyl cellulose and methyl cellulose.

The preferred molecular weight of the polysaccharide deposition aid is in the range of from about 5 kDa to about 500 kDa, preferably 10 kDa to 500 kDa, more preferably 20 kDa to 300 kDa. Preferably, the deposition aid is present at levels such that the ratio of polymer: microcapsule solids is in the range 1 :500 to 3:1 , preferably 1 :200 to 1 :3. The deposition aid is preferably bonded to the shell by means of covalent bond and/or strong adsorption, more preferably by covalent bond. The microcapsule may be prepared in any suitable process. However, it is preferred that the process comprises:

(a) liquefying the fatty ester;

(b) mixing the fatty ester with the benefit agent; (c) forming an oil-in-water non-spherical emulsion by solid microcapsules; and

(d) solidifying the fatty ester.

In order to achieve microcapsule having a higher aspect ratio, it is preferable to add a water-insolvable thickener in step (a) or (c). Preferably, the thickener comprises gum, starch derivative, cellulose derivatives, carboxyvinyl polymer, or a mixture thereof. More preferably the thickener is a gum. Preferably, the gum is a non-ionic gum. Even more preferably the thickener comprises gum Arabic, guar gum, locust bean gum, beta-glucan, glucomannan, xanthan gum, or a mixture thereof. Still even more preferably, the thickener is guar gum, locust bean gum, xanthan gum or a mixture thereof. Most preferably, the thickener is locust bean gum.

To form a more stable emulsion, it is preferred to include an electrolyte and/or cationic polymer in step (b) or (c). The cationic polymer is preferably a poly amino acid, polyquaternium and more preferably to include a polylysine in step (b) or (c).

The end-product compositions of the invention may be in any physical form but preferably an aqueous-based liquid. The microcapsule of the invention may be advantageously incorporated into personal care or home care compositions but preferably a personal care composition. The home care composition is preferably an aqueous laundry detergent or an aqueous fabric conditioner. The composition is preferably a skin cleansing composition containing a cleansing surfactant.

Typically, the composition comprises the microcapsules at levels of from 0.001 % to 10%, more preferably from 0.005% to 7.55%, more preferably from 0.01 to 5%, and most preferably from 0.1% to 2% by weight of the total composition.

The composition preferably comprises a cleansing surfactant. More than one cleansing surfactant may be included in the composition. The cleaning surfactant may be chosen from soap, non-soap anionic, cationic, non-ionic, amphoteric surfactant and mixtures thereof. Many suitable surface-active compounds are available and are fully described in the literature, for example, in "Surface-Active Agents and Detergents", Volumes I and II, by Schwartz, Perry and Berch. The preferred surface-active compounds that can be used are soaps, non-soap anionic, non-ionic surfactant, amphoteric surfactant or a mixture thereof.

Suitable non-soap anionic surfactants include linear alkylbenzene sulphonate, primary and secondary alkyl sulphates, particularly Cs to C15 primary alkyl sulphates; alkyl ether sulphates; olefin sulphonates; alkyl xylene sulphonates; dialkyl sulphosuccinates; fatty acid ester sulphonates; or a mixture thereof. Sodium salts are generally preferred.

Most preferred non-soap anionic surfactant are linear alkylbenzene sulphonate, particularly linear alkylbenzene sulphonates having an alkyl chain length of from Cs to C15. It is preferred if the level of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate is from 0 wt% to 30 wt%, more preferably from 1 wt% to 25 wt%, most preferably from 2 wt% to 15 wt%, by weight of the total composition. Nonionic surfactants that may be used include the primary and secondary alcohol ethoxylates, especially the Cs to C2 0 aliphatic alcohols ethoxylated with an average of from 1 to 20 moles of ethylene oxide per mole of alcohol, and more especially the C1 0 to C15 primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols ethoxylated with an average of from 1 to 10 moles of ethylene oxide per mole of alcohol. Non ethoxylated nonionic surfactants include alkylpolyglycosides, glycerol monoethers, and polyhydroxyamides (glucamide). It is preferred if the level of non-ionic surfactant is from 0 wt% to 30 wt%, preferably from 1 wt% to 25 wt%, most preferably from 2 wt% to 15 wt%, by weight of a fully formulated composition comprising the microcapsules of the invention. Suitable amphoteric surfactants preferably are betaine surfactants. Examples of suitable amphoteric surfactants include, but are not limited to, alkyl betaines, alkylamido betaines, alkyl sulfobetaines, alkyl sultaines and alkylamido sultaines; preferably, those having 8 to about 18 carbons in the alkyl and acyl group. It is preferred that the amount of the amphoteric surfactant is 0 to 20 wt%, more preferably from 1 to 10 wt%, by weight of the composition.

It is also possible to include certain mono-alkyl cationic surfactants. Cationic surfactants that may be used include quaternary ammonium salts of the general formula R 1 R 2 R 3 R 4 N + X wherein the R groups are long or short hydrocarbon chains, typically alkyl, hydroxyalkyl or ethoxylated alkyl groups, and X is a counter-ion (for example, compounds in which R 1 is a C8-C22 alkyl group, preferably a Cs-Cio or C12-C14 alkyl group, R 2 is a methyl group, and R 3 and R 4 , which may be the same or different, are methyl or hydroxyethyl groups); and cationic esters (for example, choline esters).

Water-soluble skin benefit agents may optionally be formulated into the compositions of the invention. A variety of water-soluble skin benefit agents can be used and the level can be from 0.1 to 50% but preferably from 1 to 30% by weight of the composition. These materials include, but are not limited to, polyhydroxy alcohols. Preferred water-soluble skin benefit agents are glycerin, sorbitol and polyethylene glycol.

Water-insoluble skin benefit agents may also be formulated into the compositions as conditioners and moisturizers. Examples include silicone oils; hydrocarbons such as liquid paraffins, petrolatum, microcrystalline wax, and mineral oil; and vegetable triglycerides such as sunflowerseed and cottonseed oils.

Some compositions may include thickeners. These may be selected from cellulosics, natural gums and acrylic polymers but not limited by this thickening agent types. Among the cellulosics are sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and combinations thereof. Suitable gums include xanthan, pectin, karaya, agar, alginate gums and combinations thereof. Among the acrylic thickeners are homopolymers and copolymers of acrylic and methacrylic acids including carbomers such as Carbopol 1382, Carbopol 982, Ultrez, Aqua SF-1 and Aqua SF-2 available from the Lubrizol Corporation. Amounts of thickener may range from 0.01 to 3% by weight of the active polymer (outside of solvent or water) in the compositions.

Preservatives can desirably be incorporated into the compositions of this invention to protect against the growth of potentially harmful microorganisms. Suitable traditional preservatives for compositions of this invention are alkyl esters of para-hydroxybenzoic acid. Other preservatives which have more recently come into use include hydantoin derivatives, propionate salts, and a variety of quaternary ammonium compounds. Particularly preferred preservatives are phenoxyethanol, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, imidazolidinyl urea, sodium dehydroacetate and benzyl alcohol. The preservatives should be selected having regard for the use of the composition and possible incompatibilities between the preservatives and other ingredients. Preservatives are preferably employed in amounts ranging from 0.01% to 2% by weight of the composition.

A variety of other optional materials may be formulated into the compositions. These may include: antimicrobials such as 2-hydroxy-4,2’,4’-trichlorodiphenylether (triclosan), 2,6-dimethyl-4-hydroxychlorobenzene, and 3,4,4’-trichlorocarbanilide; scrub and exfoliating microcapsules such as polyethylene and silica or alumina; cooling agents such as menthol; skin calming agents such as aloe vera; and colorants.

In addition, the compositions of the invention may further include 0.5 to 10% by weight of sequestering agents, such as tetra sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), EHDP or mixtures; opacifiers and pearlizers such as ethylene glycol distearate, titanium dioxide or Lytron 621 (Styrene/Acrylate copolymer); all of which are useful in enhancing the appearance or properties of the product.

Preferably the composition comprises water in an amount of at least 5% by weight of the composition, more preferably at least 25%, even more preferably 40 to 90% and still even more preferably at least 60 to 85% by weight of the composition.

The following examples are provided to facilitate an understanding of the invention. The examples are not intended to limit the scope of the claims.

Examples

Materials

Example 1

This example demonstrates the preparation of microcapsules.

10 g of ethyl cellulose (EC) powder was dissolved in 1000 ml. of acetone under shearing at 700 rpm for 15 minutes, followed by adding 1000 ml. of water very quickly and shearing at 700 rpm for another 5 minutes. The acetone and part of water were removed by rotary evaporation to obtain a water dispersion of EC nanoparticle (6 wt%). The diameter of EC nanoparticles is around 130 nm, and zeta potential is around -40 mV, measured by Malvern Zeta sizer Nano ZS 2000 equipment at 25 °C.

The preparation procedures of microcapsules were described as follows by taking coconut oil as an example. 3.33 g of water dispersion of EC nanoparticle (6 wt%) was mixed with 4 g of water dispersion of locust bean gum (LBG, 2 wt%) and 12.66 g of deionized water followed by shearing at about 2000 rpm for 3 minutes. 75 mI_ of water dispersion of polylysine (1 wt%) was added into the mixture, and the temperature of resultant mixture was raised to and kept at 40°C for 5 minutes. 2 g of melted coconut oil (40°C) and 75 mI_ of damascone stained by 1 wt% of Nile red were added into above mixture separately. The resultant mixture was homogenized at about 20,000 rpm for 3 minutes at 40°C and then was cooled down naturally.

The samples using other oils were prepared in a similar manner as described above, except that the temperatures for melted oil and for mixture during the adding process of melted oil are different as indicated in Table 1 Optical microscopy (DM2500P, Leica, Germany) equipped with a fluorescence light was used to observe the morphology. The length (L) and weight (W) were obtained by averaging the values for at least 10 microcapsules in the images. The aspect ratios were calculated by L/W.

It was surprisingly found that when the core contains fatty ester having a melting point of at least 30°C, non-spherical microcapsules are capable of being obtained. In contrast, when a core does not contain fatty ester, spherical microcapsules were obtained (Sample 4).

Example 2

This example demonstrates the stability of the microcapsules in the presence of surfactant.

Water dispersion of sample 2 (10 wt%) was observed by optical microscopy (Leica DM2500P, Germany). 1 g of water dispersion of sample 2 (10 wt%) was mixed with 1 g of water solution of sodium laureth sulfate (SLES, 26 wt%) by stirring. After 10 minutes, the mixture was observed by optical microscopy (Leica DM2500P, Germany). Similar experiments were conducted for sample 3 to observe the effect of the presence of SLES to the samples.

It was observed that sample 2 was rod in shape. The shape of sample 2 was unchanged after mixing with SLES solution. In contrast, sample 3 was ellipsoidal. But the shape of sample 3 was changed to spherical after mixing with SLES solution. Example 3

This example demonstrates the deposition efficiency of microcapsules.

Table 2

The deposition efficiency of microcapsule was measured. Formulation I in Table 2 was prepared and diluted 10 times. The light absorbance at 600 nm of the diluted formulation I were measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Cary 100, available from Agilent Technologies, USA). The value of the absorbance was recorded as E o . Two pieces (5 cm x 5 cm) of polycotton were immersed into the diluted formulation I for 20 hours at room temperature. The light absorbance at 600 nm of the remaining diluted formulation I was measured again, and the value was recorded as Ei. The deposition efficiency was calculated by equation of: deposition efficiency = (Eo - Ei)/E 0 c 100%. The measurement of deposition efficiency of the microcapsules was repeated at least three times. The deposition efficiency for sample 2 was calculated as 20.6 ± 2.7%.