Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
NOVEL LIPOGENIC INHIBITORS AND USES THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2012/112670
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention provides resveratrol-based boron-containing analog! methods of use thereof in treatment of dyslipidemias and cancer.

Inventors:
DAS, Bhaskar, C. (8 Samantha Way, West Nyack, NY, 10994, US)
YANG, Fajun (108 Hilltop Road, Ardsley, NY, 10502, US)
ZHAO, Xiaoping (1579 Rhinelander Avenue, Apt. 6TBronx, NY, 10461, US)
PESSIN, Jeffrey, E. (300 W.110th Street, New York, NY, 10026, US)
ZONG, Haihong (12 Possum Lane, East Setauket, NY, 11733, US)
JI, Jun-Yuan (706 Driver Court, College Station, TX, 77845, US)
Application Number:
US2012/025218
Publication Date:
August 23, 2012
Filing Date:
February 15, 2012
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
ALBERT EINSTEIN COLLEGE OF MEDICINE OF YESHIVA UNIVERSITY (1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY, 10461, US)
THE TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY SYSTEM (3369 Tamu, College Station, Texas, 77843-3369, US)
DAS, Bhaskar, C. (8 Samantha Way, West Nyack, NY, 10994, US)
YANG, Fajun (108 Hilltop Road, Ardsley, NY, 10502, US)
ZHAO, Xiaoping (1579 Rhinelander Avenue, Apt. 6TBronx, NY, 10461, US)
PESSIN, Jeffrey, E. (300 W.110th Street, New York, NY, 10026, US)
ZONG, Haihong (12 Possum Lane, East Setauket, NY, 11733, US)
JI, Jun-Yuan (706 Driver Court, College Station, TX, 77845, US)
International Classes:
A01N55/08; A61K31/69
Foreign References:
US20070275960A1
US20090099131A1
US20100130522A1
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

wherein Ri is , wherein the {} represents the point of attachment of Ri to the right hand aryl ring;

wherein X is either: .

wherein (i) R9 is C and Rio is N and Rn, is O or (ii) ¾; and Rio are N and R 11

wherein R8 is C, and wherein (i) R7, R!2 and Ru are N and Ru is C or (ii) R7, R12, and R are N; wherein Y is 0, C, Sor NH;

and wherein, in a) through h), ( ) represents the point of attachment to the left hand aryl ring and [ ] represents the point of attachment to the right hand aryl ring; wherein R2, R3, R4, Rs, and R« are, independently, -H, -OH, halogen, -OCH3, -O- C2H2-N(H)(Boc), -0-C2H2-NH2, -O-

C2H2NHC(=0)CH20CH20CH20C2H40C2H4NH2, C1-C6 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, heteroaryl, arylalkyl, heterocyclic, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, -N02> -OC2Hj, - O-alkyl, -SH, -S-alkyl, -NH2, or -NH-alkyi; or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or a stereoisomer thereof.

2. The compound of claim 1, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, wherein when R4 is -OCH3, then R ahd R5 are -OCH3.

3. The compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof,: of claim 1 or 2 having the structure:

4. The compound of claim 1, 2 or 3, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, wherein R2, R3, R4, R5, and Re are, independently, -H, -OH, halogen, -OCH3> -0-C2H2-N(H)(Boc), -0-C2H2-NH2, or -O- C2H2NHC(=0)CH2OCH2OCH20C2H4OC2H4NH2.

5. The compound of any of claims 1-4 or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, wherein R4 is -OH and R2, R3, R5 and R¾ are -H; or wherein R2 is -OH and R3, R4 R5 and Re are -H; or wherein R3 and R5 are halogen and R4 is -H, and R2 and R6 are, independently, -H or -OH; or wherein R¾, R4, Rj-are -OCH3 and R2 and ¾ are -H,

The compound of any of claims 1-5, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, wherein R» is -OH and R2, R3, R5 and R6 are -H. ; The compound of any of claims 1-5, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, wherein R3 and R5 are -CI and R2, R4, and Re are -H.

8. The compound of any of clai lly acceptable salt thereof or

stereoisomer thereof, wherein

9. The compound of any of claims 1-8, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or

stereoisomer thereof, wherein X is

10. The compound of any of claims 1-9, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereois X is

The compound of any of claims 1-7, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, wherein X is

12. The compound of any of ly acceptable salt thereof or

stereoisomer thereof, whe

13. The compound of any of claims 1-7, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or

14. The compound of any of claims 1 -13^. or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, wherein Rj is:

15. The compound of any of claims 1-14, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, wherein R| is:

16. The compound of any of claims 1-14. or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, wherein R| is:

17. The compound pf claim 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 or 14, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt structure:

18. The compound of claim 1 , 2, 3, 4, 7, 8 or 14, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt

:

1 9. The compound of claim 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 15 or 16, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, having the structure:

or

20. The compound of claim 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, or 14, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, hay ing the structure:

21. The compound of claim 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, or 15, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, having the structure:

represents the point of attachment of Ru to the aryl ring; wherein atom δ is C, O, N, or S,

and when atom δ is O or S, bond κ and Ri6 are absent; when atom δ is N, bond K is present and Rig is H, alkyl or aryl; when atom δ is C, bond K IS present and R|6 is H, alkyl or aryl; where R17, Rig, Rib and R20 are, independently, -H, -OH, halogen, -OCH3, -O-C2H2- NH2, C1-C6 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, heteroaryl, arylalkyl, heterocyclic, alkenyj, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl. -N02, -OC2H5, -O-alkyl, -SH, -S-alkyl, -N¾, or -NH-alkyl; or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or a stereoisomer thereof.

The compound of claim 22, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof,, wherein Rn, Rjg, R19 and R2o are, independently^ -H, -ΌΗ,, halogen, -OCH3, -O-C2H2-NH2, or -OC2H5.

24. The compound of claim 22 or 23, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, having me structure:

25. The compound of claim 22, 23 or 24, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, wherein when atom δ is N, bond K I 'S present and i6 is H, a substituted or unsubstituted Ci-Ce alkyl or a substituted or unsubstituted aryl.

26. The compound of claim 22, 23 or 24, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, wherein atom δ is S.

27. The compound of claim 22, 23 or 24, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, wherein atom δ is O.

The compound of any of claims 22-27, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, wherein Ris is:

The compound of any of claims 22-27, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof f.wherein R15 is:

The compound of any of claims 22-27, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, wherein R15 is:

32. The compound of any of claims 22, 23, 24 or 28, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, having the structure:

33. The compound of any of claims 22, 23, 24 or 30, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, having the structure:

34.

wherein the filled circle is a crosslinked, bead-formed agarose resin.

A composition, comprising the compound, pharmaceutically acceptable, 'salt stereoisomer, of any one of claims 1 -34.

The composition of claim 35, . comprising a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

38. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, of any one of claims 1-34 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

39. A method of treating a dyslipidemia in a subject comprising administering ; to the subject the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, of any one of claims 2-34 or the composition of any of claims 35-38 in an amount effective to treat the dyslipidemia in the subject.

40. The method of claim 39, wherein the dyslipidemia results from obesity.

41 The method of claim 39, wherein the dyslipidemia is excess fatty acid synthesis. 42. The method of claim 39, wherein the dyslipidemia is excess cholesterol synthesis.

43. The method of claim 39, wherein the subject has obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer or Alzheimer's disease.

44. A method of inhibiting fatty acid synthesis or cholesterol synthesis in a subject comprisin administering to the subject the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, of any one of claims 2-34 or the composition of any of claims 35-38 in an amount effective to inhibit fatty acid synthesis or cholesterol synthesis in the subject.

45. A method of inhibiting a lipogenic enzyme or cholesterolgenic enzyme in a subject comprising administering to the subject the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, of any one of claims 1 -34 or the composition of any of claims 35-38 in an amount effective to inhibit the lipogenic enzyme or the cholesterolgenic enzyme in the subject.

46. A method treating a cancer in a subject comprising administering to the subject the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, of any one of claims 1 -34 or the composition of any of claims 35-38 in an amount effective to treat the cancer in the subject.

47. A process for making the compound of any one of claims 1-33, comprising contacting a compound having the structure:

a strong base and an aldehyde and a suitable solvent under conditions permitting the formation of the compound. 48. The process of claim 47, wherein the strong base is a non-nucleophilic base.

49. The process of claim 47 or 48 wherein the strong base is sodium ier/-butoxide.

50. The process of any of claims 47-49, wherein the suitable solvent is DMF.

5 1. The process of any of claims 47-50, wherein the conditions permitting the formation of the compound comprise ^ performing the reaction at room

52. The process of any of claims 47-51 , wherein the reaction is performed under a nitrogen atmosphere.

53. The process of any of claims 47-52, wherein the aldehyde is an aryl adlehyde.

54. The process of ainy of claims 47-52, wherein the aldehyde is an α,β-unsaturated adlehyde.

55. The process of any of claims 47-54, wherein the aldehyde is one of the aldehydes set forth in Table 1 .

Description:
NOVEL LIPOGENIC INHIBITORS AND USES THEREOF

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS |0001] This application claims benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/443,426, filed February 16, 2011, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

|0002{ The present invention relates generally to novel inhibitors; of lipogenesis and their use in treating dyslipidemias and other diseases or disorders in a subject.

B ACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] Throughout this application various publications are referred to in parenthesis. Full citations for these references may be found at the end of the specification. The dis.clpsu . res of these publications are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety into the subject application to more fully describe the art to which the subject invention pertains.

[0004] Age is a major risk factor for a number of human diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. One primary metabolic change that occurs during aging is the dysregulation of lipid homeostasis, particularly increased fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis in non-adipose tissues, such as liver and skeletal muscle. Dysregulation of lipid homeostasis in humans is closely associated with major diseases, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and Alzheimer's disease, which have constituted the leading cause of death and the primary health burden in developed countries (From CDC data). Environmental factors, such as diet and life style, can affect lipid metabolism by changing the activities of genes involved in this process. Western diets, unhealthy life styles and aging are known to cause dysregulation of lipid homeostasis, although the molecular mechanisms are still unknown. One common abnormality in modern humans is excessive activation of lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis. Changing diet and life style is often recommended for preventing these diseases. However, pharmacologic approaches that can correct the aberrant lipid metabolism by inhibiting lipid biosynthesis may have beneficial effects in preventing and treating major human diseases.

[0005] Among the known lipogenic regulators, the SREBP transcription factors are master regulators of lipid homeostasis (1 1, 12). Through activating the expression of rate- limiting lipogenic and cholesterogenic genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) arid HMG- CoA reductase (HMGCR), SREBPs promote the biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol (1 1 , 12). Therefore, suppressing the SREBP pathway may efficientl inhibit lipid biosynthesis. SREBP proteins are synthesized as inactive precursors that are tethered to the ER membrane when cellular levels of sterols or fatty acids (the end products of SREBP target genes) are high. Decrease of intracellular sterols or specific fatty acids results in the transportation of SREBPs to the Golgi where they undergo proteolytic maturation. The N- terminal fragment of SREBP transcription factors then migrates into the nucleus and activates transcription of target genes (1 1,12).

[00061 Like many other transcription factors, the transcriptional activity of SREBP is precisely regulated by a number of transcriptional co-factors (13). Recent studies suggest that the putative anti-aging gene SIRTl , a NAD-dependent Class III histone deacetylase, can inhibit lipogenesis by repressing SREBP dependent gene expression (14-16). SIR2 (silent information regulator-2), the closest ortholog of mammalian SIRTl , was originally identified in yeast as a transcriptional silencer of telomeres, mating loci, and rDNA transcription (2, 3, 17,18). SIRTl can deacetylate not only histone tails, but also a range of other proteins that represent key regulators in DNA damage, cell cycle, inflammation, and nutrient metabolism (2, 3, 17, 18).

[0007] There is a need for inhibitors of SREBP-target gene expression.The present invention discloses boron-containing compounds which show potent inhibitory effects on biosynthesis of both fatty acids and cholesterol by inhibiting SREBP-target gene expression in cultured cells and in vivo.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0008] A compound having the structure:

wherein Ri is wherein the {} represents the point of attachment of R l to the right hand aryl ring;

wherein X is either: io is N and Ru is O or (ii) R9 and Rio are N and Ri 1 is O;

wherein R« is C, and wherein (i) R7, 12 and Ru are N and R| 4 is C or (ii) R7, R12, wherein Y is O, C, S or NH;

and wherein, in a) through h), ( ) represents the point of attachment to the left hand aryl ring and [ ] represents the point of attachment to the right hand aryl ring;

wherein R2, R3, R4, Rs, and R^ are, independently, -H, -OH, halogen, -OCH3, -O- C 2 H 3 -N(H)(Boc), -0-C 2 H,-NH 2 , -0-

C 2 H2NHC(=0)CH20CH20CH ; OC2H40C2H4NH 2 , C1-C6 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, heteroaryl, arylalkyl, heterocyclic, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, -N0 2 , -OC2H 5 , - O-alkyl, -SH, -S-alkyl, -NH 2 , or -NH-alkyl;

or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or a stereoisomer thereof.

A compound having the structure:

wherein R15 is: , wherein the wavy line represents the point of attachment of Ris to the aryl ring;

wherein atom δ is C, O, N, or S,

and when atom δ is 0 or S, bond κ and Ri6 are.absent; when atom δ is N, bond k is present and Rie is H, alkyl or aryl; when a ' tonrS is C, bond κ is present and Rie is H, alkyl or aryl;

where Rn, Ris, Ri9 and R20 are, independently, -H, -OH, halogen; -OGH3, -O-C2H2- NH2, C1 -C6 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, heteroaryl, arylalkyl, heterocyclic, alkenyl, G2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, -N0 2 , -OC 2 H 5 , -O-alkyl, -SH, -S-alkyl, -NH 2 , or -NH-alkyl; or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or a stereoisomer thereof.

|0010| A composition, comprising any of the instant compounds, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, of any one of the instant compounds or pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

|0011.| A pharmaceutical composition comprising any of the instant compounds, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

[0012] A method of treating a dyslipidemia in a subject comprising administering to the subject any of the instant compounds, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, or the instant composition or pharmaceutical composition in an amount effective to treat the dyslipidemia in the subject.

|0013] A method of inhibiting fatty acid synthesis or cholesterol synthesis in a subject comprising administering to the subject any of the instant compounds, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, or the instant composition or pharmaceutical composition in an amount effective to inhibit fatty acid synthesis or cholesterol synthesis in the subject.

[0014] A method of inhibiting a lipogenic enzyme or cholesterolgenic enzyme in a subject comprising administering to the subject any of the instant compounds, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, or the instant composition or pharmaceutical composition in an amount effective to inhibit the lipogenic enzyme or the cholesterolgenic enzyme in the subject.

[00151 A method treating a cancer in a subject comprising administering to the subject any of the instant compounds, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof, or the instant composition or pharmaceutical composition in an amount effective to treat the cancer in the subject.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

|0016) Fig. 1: Resveratrol and boron-containing; derivative of resveratrol.

|0017] Fig. 2: Retrosynthetic approach for pinacolylboro-nale-substituted stilbene derivative 1.

[0018] Fig. 3: Synthesis of bio-isosteres compounds of BF-102 by replacing the central double bond with different functional groups, a) amide, b) hydroxyethylene, c) alpha, beta-diketones, d) alpha hydroxyl ketones, e) oxazolidine, f) oxadiazole, g) triazole, h) tetrazole derivatives, and q,r,s,t ) epoxide, cyclopropane, thaiirane and aziridines.

|0019] Fig; 4: Synthesis of bio-isosteres compounds of BF-102 by replacing the central double bond with different functional groups, i) amide, j) Hydroxy ethylene; k) alpha, beta- diketones, 1) alpha hydroxyl ketones, m) oxazolidine, n) oxadiazole, o) triazole, and p) tetrazole, u, v, w, x) epoxide, cyclopropane, thaiirane and aziridines pinacolato ester to boronic acid and BF3K salt.

[0020J Fig. 5: Synthesis of function-oriented library of BF-102 to study the SAR

(Structure activity relationship): i) changing the hydroxyl group position in ring A, ii) 2- substituted benzofuran, Hi) 2-subslituled benzolhiaphene, iv) 2-substiluted indole, v) 1 , 2 disubstituted indole, vi- x) pinacolato ester converted to boronic acid derivatives and xi- xv) pinacolatoester converted to potassium salt of borates.

[0021] Fig. 6: Procedure for generating affinity matrices of BF 102.

[0022] Fig. 7: Procedure for generating affinity matrices; of BF62 inactive compound for control study.

[0023] Fig. 8: Relative r RNA levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) (detected by quantitative RT-PCR) in HepG2 cells after 6 hours treatment with 30μΜ of the compounds. Cyclophilin B was invariant control.

10024] Fig. 9: Relative mRNA levels of HMG-CoA reductase: (HMG-CR) in HepG2 cells after 6 hours treatment with 30μΜ of the compounds. |0025| Fig, 10: Relative rate of palmitate synthesis (deuterium enrichment method) in FAO cells after 12 hours treatment with 20μΜ of BF-102. Data is average of three independent samples. #p<0.001 vs DMSO (n - 3).

|0026| Fig. 1 1 : Relative rate of cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells after 12 hours treatment with 20μΜ of the compounds.

[0027| Fig. 12: Chemical structure of molecule BF-102 and other compounds.

|0028] Figs: 13A-13B: BF-102 inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis, 13 A, Relative mRNA levels of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) (delected by qantitative RT-PCR) in HepG2 cells treated with the indicated concentrations of BF-102 for 6 hours. Cyclophilin B was the invariant control. 13B. The synthesis rate of cholesterol (detected by the deuterium enrichment method) in FAO cells after 12 hours of treatment with BF-102 (20μΜ). 14C. Eight-week old C57BL 6J mice were fed with high-fat diet (60% fat) (HFD) for 4 weeks, then treated with BF-102 (0.3mg/g body weight per week) and HFD for a week by subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps, and mice were fasted overnight and rj-fed for 5 hours. Hepatic mRNA levels were detected by quantitative RT-PCR. Cyclophilin B was the invariant control. *p<0.01 and #p<0.001 vs DMSO (n = 3).

100291 Figs. 14A-14B: Effects of BF175 on fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene expression. 14A. Relative mRNA levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) (detected by quantitative RT-PCR) in HepG2 cells treated for 18 hours with indicated concentration of BF175. Cyclophilin B was the invariant control. #p<0.05 and *p<0.01 vs DMSO (n = 3). 14B. Treatment of primary rat hepatocytes with BF175 (ΙΟΟμΜ) overnight in the presence of ΙΟΟηΜ insulin decreased FAS protein levels by Western blots, β-tubulin served as the loading control.

[0030] Figs. 15A- 15B: BF 175 inhibits lipogenic gene expression in mouse livers in vivo. Methods: Eight-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed with high-fat diet (60% fat) (HFD) for 4 weeks, then treated with BF175 (0.3mg/g body weight per week) and HFD for a week by subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps, and mice were fasted overnight and re-fed for 5 hours. I SA. Nuclear SREBP-lc in liver extracts was determined by Western blots, β- lubulin served as the loading control. 15B. Hepatic mRNA levels were detected by quantitative RT-PCR. Cyclophilin B was the invariant control. Data represents the Mean ± SD (n=5), *p<0.01 and NS = not significant vs DMSO. (00311 Γ·8· 16A-16E: Metabolic effects: of BF 175 infection in mice. Methods: Eight-week old C57BU6J mice were: fed with high-fat diet (60% fat) (HFD) for 4 weeks, then treated with BF175 (0.3mg/g body weight per week) and HFD for a week by sub- culaneously implanted osmotic pumps, and mice were monitored in metabolic cages during the last 24 hours. 16A. Oxygen consumption. 16B. Carbon dioxide production. 16C. Energy expenditure. 16D. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) = VCO2 VO2. 16E. Total physical activity. Data represents the Mean ± SD (n=4), &p<0.()5, *p<0.01 , #p<0.001 and NS = not significant s DMSO.

[00321 Fig. 17A- 17B: BF175 decreases plasma triglyceride levels and glucose tolerance in mice. 17 A. Eight- week old C57BL/6J mice were fed with high- fat diet (60% fat) (HFD) for 4 weeks, then treated with BF175 (0.3mg g body weight per week) and HFD for a week by subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps. Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were measured. 17B. Eight-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed with high-fat diet (60% fat) (HFD) for 4 weeks, then treated with BF175 (0.2% in HFD), and glucose tolerance test was performed after 4 weeks of treatment. Data represents the Mean ± SD (n=6), &p<0.05 and NS = not significant vs control.

[0033] Figs. 18A-18E: Metabolic changes in mice fed with BF175. Methods: Eight- week old C57BL76J mice were fed with high-fat diet (60% fal) (HFD) for 4 weeks, then treated with BF175 (0.2% in HFD), and mice were monitored in metabolic cages after 5 weeks of treatment. 18 A. Oxygen consumption. 18B. Carbon dioxide production. 18C. Energy expenditure. 18D. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) = VCO2/NO2. 18E. Total physical activity. Data represents the Mean ± SD (n=4), &p<0.05, *p<0.01, #p<0.001 and NS = not significant vs control.

(0034] Figs. 19A-19B: SIRT l -dependent effects of BF175. 1 A. Wild-type (WT) or Sir2 knockout (Sir2KO) Drosophila larvae were treated with DMSO or 0.1 mM BF175 in food. Lipid levels were determined by measuring OD of isopropanol extracts at 5 lOnm after staining with Oil Red 0. Data represents the Mean ± SD (n=15), #p<0.001 vs DMSO. 19B. Effects of BF I 75 on SIRTl activity in vitro. Data represents the Mean ± SD (n=3), *p<0.01 vs DMSO.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

A compound having the structure:

wherein Ri is

, wherein the {} represents the point of attachment of Ri to the right-hand aryl ring;

wherein X is either:

wherein (i) RQ is C and Rio is N and Ru is O or (ii) R 9 and Rio are N and Ru is 0;

wherein Rg is C, and wherein (i) R7, Ru and Rn are N and Ru is C or (ii) R 7> R12,

c) wherein Y is O, C, S or NH;

and wherein, in a) through h), ( ) represents the point of attachment to the left hand aryl ring and [ ] represents the point of attachment to the right hand aryl ring; wherein R 2 , R 3 , R4, R5, and R< are, independently, -H, -OH, halogen, -OCH3, -O- C 2 H 2 -N(H)(Boc), -0-C 2 H 2 -NH 2 , -O-

C 2 H 2 NHC(=0)CH 2 OCH 2 OCH20C 2 H40C 2 H4NH2, C1 -C6 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, heteroaryl. arylalkyl, heterocyclic, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2-C6 alkynyl, -N0 2 , -OC 2 Hj, - O-alkyl, -SH, -S-alkyl, -NH 2 , or -NH-alkyl; or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or a stereoisomer thereof.

|0036] In an embodiment of the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt; thereof, or stereoisomer thereof; when R is -OCH3, then R3 and R5 are -OCH3.

|0037J In an embodiment the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, has the structure:

[0038] In an embodiment of the compound, or pharmaceuticall acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, Rj, R3, R4, R5, and R are, independently, -H, -OH, halogen, - OCH3, -0-C 2 H 2 -N(H)(Boc), -O-C2H2-NH2, or -0-

C2H 2 NHC(=0)CH 2 OCH 2 OCH 2 0C 2 H40C 2 H 4 NH2,

|0039] In an embodiment of the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, R4 is OH and R 2 , R3, R5 and Re are -H; or wherein R 2 is -OH and R 3 , R 4 , R5 and R 6 are -H; or wherein R and R5 are halogen and R 4 is -H, and R 2 and Re are, independently, -H or -OH; or wherein R3, R4, Rs are -OCH3 and 2 and R6 are -H,

|0040) In an embodiment of the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, R 4 is -OH and R2, R¾, R5 and Re are -H.

|0041] In an embodiment of the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, R3 and R5 are -CI and R 2 , R 4 , and Re are -H.

|0042] In an embodiment of the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,

or stereoisomer thereof, X is {00431 to an embodiment acceptable salt thereof,

or stereoisomer thereof, X is

[0044] In an embodiment of the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stere

[0045] In an embodiment of the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, X is

[0046] In an embodiment of the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof,

|0048| In an embodiment of the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stere

[00491 In an embodiment of the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, Rl is:

OH

/

OH .

|O0SO] In an embodiment of the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, Rl is:

[0051] In an embodiment the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereois

|0052] In an embodiment the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, has the structure:

|0053] In an embodiment the compound, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, has the structure: -14-

represents the point of attachment of Ris to the aryl ring;

wherein atom δ is C, O, N, of S,

and when atom δ is O or S, bond and Ri6 are absent; when atom δ is N, bond κ is present and Ri6 is H, alkyl or aryl; when atom δ is C, bond κ is present and i6 is H, alkyl or aryl; where Rn, Ris, R19 and R20 are, independently, -H, -OH, halogen, -OCH 3 , -O-C2H2-NH2, C1-C6 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, heteroaryi, arylalkyi, heterocyclic, alkenyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C2- C6 alkynyl, -N0 2 , -OC 2 H 5 , -O-alkyl, -SH, -S-alkyl, -NH 2 , or -NH-alkyl;

or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or a stereoisomer thereof. |0057| In an embodiment of the compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, Rn, Ris, R19 and R?o are, independently, -H, -OH, halogen, -OCH3, -0-C 2 H 2 -NH 2 , or -OC 2 H 5 .

[0058] In an embodiment the compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoi

|0059] In an embodiment of the compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, when atom δ is N, bond κ is present and Ri 6 is H, a substituted or unsubstituted CI -C6 alkyl or a substituted or unsubstituted aryl.

[0060] In an embodiment of the compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, atom δ is S.

[0061) In an embodiment of the compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, atom δ is O.

|0062] In an embodiment of the compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, R15 is:

[0063] In an embodiment of the compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or ste is:

(0064] In an embodiment of the compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, R15 is:

|0065] In an embodiment the compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, has the structure:

|00661 In an embodiment the compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, has the structure:

[0067) In an embodiment the compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoi

|0068| A compound having the structure:

wherein the filled circle is a cross! inked, bead-formed agarose resin.

[0069) A composition, comprising; of any one of the instant compounds, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof.

[0070| In an embodiment the composition comprises a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

100711 In an embodiment of the composition the compound br pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or stereoisomer thereof has the structure:

[0072] A pharmaceutical composition comprising any of the instant compounds, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. [0073] A method of treating a dyslipidemia in a subject comprising admiriisieririg to the subject , any of the instant compounds, or pharmaceutically acceptable; salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, or the instant composition or pharmaceutical composition in an amount effective to treat the dyslipidemia in the subject. In an embodiment, the dyslipidemia results from obesity. In an embodiment, the dyslipidemia is excess fatty acid synthesis. In an embodiment, the dyslipidemia is excess cholesterol synthesis. In an embodiment, the subject has obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes,- cancer or Alzheimer's disease.

[0074J A method of inhibiting fatly acid synthesis or cholesterol synthesis in a subject comprising administering to the subject any of the instant compounds, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, or the instant composition or pharmaceutical composition in an amount effective to inhibit fatty acid synthesis or cholesterol synthesis in the subject.

[0075] A method of inhibiting a lipogenic enzyme or cholesterolgenic enzyme in a subject comprising administering to the subject any of the instant compounds, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, or the instant composition or pharmaceutical composition in an amount effective to inhibit the lipogenic enzyme or the cholesterolgenic enzyme in the subject.

|0076] A method treating a cancer in a subject comprising administering to the subject any of the instant compounds, or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or stereoisomer thereof, or the instant composition or pharmaceutical composition in an amount effective to treat the cancer in the subject.

[0077] The compounds of the present invention include all hydrates, solvates, and complexes of the compounds used by this invention. If a chiral center or another form of an isomeric center is present in a compound of the present invention, all forms of such isomer or isomers, including enantiomers and diastereomers, are intended to be covered herein. Compounds containing a chiral center may be used as a racemic mixture, an enantiomerically enriched mixture, or the racemic mixture may be separated using well- known techniques and an individual enantiomer may be used alone. The compounds described in the present invention are in racemic form or as individual enantiomers. The enantiomers can be separated using known techniques, such as those described in Pure and Applied Chemistry 69, 1469-1474, (1 97) IUPAC (hereby incorporated by reference). In cases in which compounds have unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds, both the cis (Z) and trans (E) isomers are within the scope of this invention, in cases wherein compounds may exist in tautomeric forms, such as keto-enol tautomers, each tautomeric form is contemplated as being included within this invention whether existing in equilibrium or predominantly in one form.

|0078| Compounds shown in Figs. 3-5 derived from the lead compound can be synthesized from the lead compound by standard techniques in the art, for example see Modern Organic Synthesis in the Laboratory, Oxford University Press, USA (September 10, 2007), Madison Ave, NY (ISBN- 10: 0195187989) which is hereby incorporated, by reference.

[0079J When the structure of the compounds of this invention includes an asymmetric carbon atom such compound can occur as racemates, racemic mixtures, and isolated single enantiomers. All such isomeric forms of these compounds are expressly included in this invention. Each stereogenic carbon may be of the R of S configuration. It is to be understood accordingly that the isomers arising from such asymmetry (e.g., all enantiomers and diastereomers) are included within the scope of this invention, unless indicated otherwise. Such isomers can be obtained in substantially pure form by classical separation techniques and by stereochemically controlled synthesis, such as those described in "Enantiomers, Racemates and Resolutions" by J. Jacques, A. Collet arid S. Wilen, Pub. John Wiley & Sons, NY, 1981 (hereby incorporated by reference). For example, the resolution may be carried out by preparative chromatography on a chiral column.

[0080] The subject invention is also intended to include all isotopes of atoms occurring on the compounds disclosed herein. Isotopes include those atoms having the same atomic number but different mass numbers. By way of general example and without limitation, isotopes of hydrogen include tritium and deuterium. Isotopes of carbon include carbon- 13 and carbon- 14.

(0081J It will be noted that any notation of a carbon in structures throughout this application, when used without further notation, are intended to represent all isotopes of carbon, such as 12C, 13C, or 14C. Furthermore, any compounds containing 13C or 14C may specifically have the structure of any of ihe compounds disclosed herein.

[0082] It will also be noted that any notation of a hydrogen in structures throughout this application, when used without further notation, are intended to represent all isotopes of hydrogen, such as 1 H, 2H, or 3H. Furthermore, any compounds containing 2H or 3H may specifically have the structure of any of the compounds disclosed herein. [00831 Isotopically-labeled compounds can generally be prepared by conventional techniques known to those skilled in the art or by processes analogous to those described in the Examples disclosed herein using an appropriate, isotopically-labeled reagents in place of the non-labeled reagents employed.

|0084| As used herein, "alkyl" includes both branched arid straight-chain saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon groups having the specified number of carbon atoms : and may be unsubstituted or substituted, unless specified otherwise. Thus, CI -Cn as in "Cl-Cn alkyl" is defined to include groups, having 1 , 2, ..... n-1, or n carbons in a linear or branched arrangement. For example, C1-C6, as in "C1-C6 alkyl" is defined to include groups having 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 carbons in a linear or branched arrangement, and specifically includes methyl, ethyl, n- propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, t-butyl, pentyl, and hexyl. "Alkenyls" and "alkynyls" are understood similarly, mutatis mutandis, with alkenyls and alkynyls necessarily having a minimum of 2 C atoms, and a minimum of one double or one triple bond, respectively.

[0085] Where a numerical range is provided herein, it is understood that all chemically possible numerical subsets of that range, and all the individual integers contained therein, are provided as part of the invention. Thus, a C2-C6 alkenyl includes the subset of alkenyls which are C2-C5, and the subset which is C2-C4 etc. as well as a C5 alkenyl, a C3 alkenyl,, a C6 alkenyl etc.

[0086) As used herein, "aryl" is intended to mean any stable monocyclic, bicyclic or polycyclic carbon ring of up to 10 atoms in each ring, wherein at least one ring is aromatic, and may be unsubstituted or substituted. Examples of such aryl elements include phenyl, p- toluenyl (4-methylphenyl), naphthyl, tetrahydro-naphthyl, indanyl, biphenyl, phenanthryl, anlhryl or acenaphthyl. In cases where the aryl substituent is bicyclic and one ring is non- aromatic, it is understood that attachment is via the aromatic ring.

[0087| The term "substituted" refers to a functional group as described above in which one or rriore bonds to a hydrogen atom otherwise contained therein are replaced by a bond to non- hydrogen or non-carbon atoms, provided that normal valencies are maintained and that the substitution results in a stable compound. Substituted groups also include groups in which one or more bonds to a carbon (s) or hydrogen (s) atom are replaced by one or more bonds, including double or triple bonds, to a heteroatom. Examples of substituent groups include the functional groups described herein, and, in particular, halogens (i.e., F, CI, Br, and I); alkyl groups, such as methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropryl, n-butyl , lert-butyl, and trifluoromethyl; hydroxy!; alkoxy groups; such as methoxy, ethoxy, n- propoxy, and isopropoxy; aryloxy groups, such as phenoxy; arylalkyloxy, such as; benzylqxy (phenylmethoxy) and p- trifiuoromethylbenzyloxy (4-trifiuoromethylphenylmethoxy) ; heleroaryloxy groups; sulfonyl groups, such as trifluoromethanesuifonyl, methanesulfonyl, and p- toluenesulfonyl; nitro, nitrosyl; mercapto; sulfanyl groups, such as methylsulfanyl, ethylsulfanyl and propylsulfanyl; cyano; amino groups, such as amino, melhylamino, dimelhylamino, ethylamino, and diethylamino ; and carboxyl . Where multiple substituent moieties are disclosed or claimed, the substituted compound can be independently substituted by one or more of the disclosed or claimed substituent moieties, singly or plurally. By independently substituted, it is meant that the (two or more) substituents can be the same or different.

|0088| It is understood that substituents and substitution patterns on the compounds of the instant invention can be selected by one of ordinary skill in the art to provide compounds that, are chemically stable and that can be readily synthesized by techniques known in the art, as well as those methods set forth below, from readily available starting materials. If a substituent is itself substituted with more than one group, it is understood that these multiple groups may be on the same carbon or on different carbons, so long as a stable structure results.

[0089] In choosing the compounds of the present invention, one of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the various substituents, i.e: Rl , R2, etc. are to be chosen in conformity with well-known principles of chemical structure connectivity.

[0090] The various R groups attached to the aromatic rings of the compounds disclosed herein may be added to the rings by standard procedures, for example those set forth in Advanced Organic Chemistry: Part B: Reaction and Synthesis, Francis Carey and Richard Sundberg, (Springer) 5th ed. Edition. (2007), the content of which is hereby incorporated by reference.

(00911 The compounds of the instant invention may be in a salt form. As used herein, a "salt" is salt of the instant compounds which has been modified by making acid or base, salts of the compounds. In the case of compounds used for treatment of dyslipidemias and associated pathologies, the salt is pharmaceutically acceptable. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable salts include, but are not limited to, mineral or organic acid salts of basic residues such as amines; alkali or organic salts of acidic residues such as phenols. The salts can be made using an organic or inorganic acid. Such acid salts are chlorides, bromides, sulfates; nitrates, phosphates, sulfonates, formates, tartrates, maleates, malates, citrates, benzpates, salicylates, ascorbates, and the like. Phenolate salts are, the alkaline earth metal salts, sodium, potassium or lithium. The term "pharmaceuticall acceptable salt'' in this respect, refers to the relatively non-toxic, inorganic and organic acid or base addition salts of compounds of the present invention. These salts can be prepared in situ during the final isolation and purification of the compounds of the invention, or by separately reacting a purified compound of the invention in its free base or free acid form with a suitable organic or inorganic acid or base, and isolating the. salt thus formed. Representative salts include the hydrobromide, hydrochloride, sulfate, bisulfate, phosphate, nitrate, acetate, valerate, oleate, palmitate, stearate, laurate, benzoate, lactate, phosphate, tosylate, citrate, maleate, fumarate, succinate, tartrate, napthylate, mesylate, glucoheptonate, lactobionate, and laurylsulphonate salts and the like. (See, e.g., Berge et al. (1977) "Pharmaceutical Salts", J". Pharm. Sci. 66: 1-19 the content of which is hereby incorporated by reference).

[0092] The compositions of this invention may be administered in various forms, including those detailed herein. The treatment with the compound may be a component of a combination therapy or an adjunct therapy, i.e. the subject or patient in need of the drug is treated or given another drug for the disease (e.g. a statin) iri conjunction with one or more of the instant compounds. This combination therapy can be sequential therapy where the patient is treated first with one drug and then the other or the two drugs are given simultaneously. These can be administered independently by the same route or by two or more different routes of administration depending on the dosage forms employed.

[0093] As used herein, a "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" is a pharmaceutically acceptable solvent, suspending agent or vehicle, for delivering the instant compounds to the animal or human. The carrier may be liquid or solid and is selected with the planned manner of administration in mind. Liposomes are also a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

[0094J The dosage of the compounds administered in treatment will vary depending upon factors such as the pharmacodynamic characteristics of a specific chemotherapeutic agent and its mode and route of administration; the age, sex, metabolic rate, absorptive efficiency, health and weight of the recipient; the nature and extent of the symptoms; the kind of concurrent treatment being administered; the frequency of treatment with; and the desired therapeutic effect. |009S| A dosage unit of the compounds may comprise a single compound or mixtures thereof with anti-lipogenic compounds. The compounds can be administered in oral dosage forms as tablets, capsules, pills, powders,, granules, elixirs, tinctures, suspensions, syrups, and emulsions. The compounds may also be administered in intravenous (bolus or infusion), intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, or intramuscular form, or introduced directly, e.g. by injection or other methods, into the cancer, all using dosage forms well known to those of ordinary skill in the pharmaceutical arts.

|0096| The compounds can be administered in admixture with suitable: pharmaceutical diluents, extenders, excipients, or carriers (collectively referred to herein as a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier) suitably selected with respect to the intended form of administration and as consistent with conventional pharmaceutical practices. The unit will be in a form suitable for oral, rectal, topical, intravenous or direct injection or parenteral administration. The compounds can be administered alone but are generally mixed with a, pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, This, carrier can be a solid or liquid, and the, type of carrier is generally chosen based on the type of administration being used. In one embodiment the carrier can be a monoclonal antibody. The active agent can be coadministered in the form of a tablet or capsule, liposome, as an agglomerated powder or in a liquid form. Examples of suitable solid carriers include lactose, sucrose, gelatin arid agar. Capsule or tablets can be easily formulated and can be made easy to swallow or chew; other solid forms include granules, and bulk powders. Tablets may contain suitable binders, lubricants, diluents, disintegrating agents, coloring agents, flavoring agents, flow-inducing agents, and melting agents. Examples of suitable liquid dosage forms include solutions or suspensions in water, pharmaceutically acceptable fats and oils, alcohols or other organic solvents, including esters, emulsions, syrups or elixirs, suspensions, solutions and/or suspensions reconstituted from non-effervescent granules and effervescent preparations reconstituted from effervescent granules. Such liquid dosage forms may contain, for example, suitable solvents, preservatives, emulsifying agents, suspending agents, diluents, sweeteners, thickeners, and melting agents. Oral dosage forms optionally contain flavorants and coloring agents. Parenteral and intravenous forms may also include minerals and other materials to make them compatible with the type of injection or delivery system chosen.

[0097] Examples of pharmaceutical acceptable carriers and excipients that may be used to formulate oral dosage forms of the present invention are described in U. S. Pat. No. 3,903,297 to Robert, issued Sept. 2, 1975. Techniques and compositions for making dosage forms useful in the present invention are described-in, the following references: 7 Modern Pharmaceutics, Chapters 9 and 10 (Banker & Rhodes, Editors, 1979)· Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Tablets (Liebennan et al. , 1981); Ansel, Introduction to Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms 2nd Edition (1976); Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17th ed. (Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pa., 1985); Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences (David Ganderton, Trevor Jones, Eds., 1992); Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol 7. (David Ganderton, Trevor Jones, James McGinity, Eds., 1995); . Aqueous Polymeric Coatings for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms (Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences, Series 36 (James McGinity, Ed., 1989); Pharmaceutical Particulate Carriers: Therapeutic Applications: Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 61 (Alain Rolland, Ed., 1993); Drug Delivery to the Gastrointestinal Tract (Ellis Horwood Books in the Biological Sciences. Series in Pharmaceutical Technology; J. G. Hardy, S. S. Davis, Clive G. Wilson, Eds.); Modem Pharmaceutics Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 40 "" (Gilbert S. Banker, Christopher T. Rhodes, Eds ). All of the aforementioned publications are incorporated by reference herein.

[0098| Tablets may contain suitable binders, lubricants, disintegrating agents, coloring agents, flavoring agents, flow-inducing agents^ and melting agents. For instance, for oral administration in the dosage unit form of a tablet or capsule, the active drug component can be combined with ah oral, non-toxic, pharmaceutically acceptable, inert carrier such as lactose, gelatin, agar, starch, sucrose, glucose, methyl cellulose, magnesium stearate, dicalcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, mannitol, sorbitol and the like. Suitable binders include starch, gelatin, natural sugars such as glucose or beta-lactose, corn sweeteners, natural and synthetic gums such as acacia, tragacanth, or sodium alginate, carboxymeihylcellulose, polyethylene glycol, waxes, and the like. Lubricants used in these dosage forms include sodium oleate, sodium stearate, magnesium stearate, sodium benzoate, sodium acetate, sodium chloride, and the like. Disintegrators include, without limitation, starch, methyl cellulose, agar, bentonite, xanthan gum, and the like.

[0099J The compounds can also be administered in the form of liposome delivery systems, such as small unilamellar vesicles, large unilamallar vesicles, and multilamellar vesicles. Liposomes can be formed from a variety of phospholipids, such as cholesterol, stearylamine, or phosphatidylcholines. The compounds may be administered as components of tissue-targeted emulsions. (00100] The compounds may also be coupled to soluble polymers as targetabje drug carriers or as a prodrug. Such polymers include polyvinylpyrrolidone, pyran copolymer,, polyhydroxylpropylmethacrylamide-phenoi, polyhy oxyethylasparta-midephenol, or polyethylenedxide- polylysine substituted with palmitoyl residues. Furthermore, the compounds may be coupled to a class of biodegradable polymers useful in achieving controlled release of a drug, for example, polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, copolymers of polylactic and polyglycolic acid, polyepsilon caprolactone, polyhydroxy butyric acid, polyorthoesters, polyacetals, pplydihydropyrans , polycyanoacylates, and crosslinked or amphipathic block copolymers of hydrogels .

[00101) The active ingredient can be administered orally in solid dosage forms, such as capsules, tablets, and powders, or in liquid dosage forms, such as elixirs, syrups, and suspensions. It can also be administered parentally, in sterile liquid dosage forms .

[00102] Gelatin capsules may contain the active ingredient compounds and powdered carriers, such as lactose, starch, cellulose derivatives, magnesium stearate, stearic acid, and the like. Similar diluents can be used to make compressed tablets . Both tablets and capsules can be manufactured as immediate release products or as sustained release products to provide for continuous release of medication over a period of hours. Compressed tablets can be sugar coated or film coated to mask any unpleasant taste and protect the tablet from the atmosphere, or enteric coated for selective disintegration in the gastrointestinal tract.

|00103) For oral administration in liquid dosage form, the oral drug components are combined with any oral, non-toxic, pharmaceutically acceptable inert carrier such as ethanol, glycerol, water, and the like. Examples of suitable liquid dosage forms include solutions or suspensions in water, pharmaceutically acceptable fats and oils, alcohols or other organic solvents, including esters, emulsions, syrups or elixirs, suspensions, solutions and/or suspensions reconstituted from non-effervescent granules and effervescent preparations reconstituted from effervescent granules. Such liquid dosage forms may contain, for example, suitable solvents, preservatives, emulsifying agents, suspending agents, diluents, sweeteners, thickeners, and melting agents.

[00104| Liquid dosage forms for oral administration can contain coloring and flavoring to increase patient acceptance. In general, water, a suitable oil, saline, aqueous dextrose (glucose) , and related sugar solutions and glycols such as propylene glycol or polyethylene glycols are suitable carriers for parenteral solutions. Solutions for parenteral administration preferably contain a water soluble salt of the active ingredient, suitable stabilizing agents, and if necessary, buffer substances. Antioxidizing agents such as sodium bisulfite,; sodium sulfite, or ascorbic acid, either alone or combined, are suitable stabilizing agents. Also used are citric acid and its , salts and sodium EDTA. In addition, parenteral solutions can contain preservatives, such as benzalkonium chloride, methyl- or propyl-paraben, and chlorobutanol. Suitable pharmaceutical carriers are described in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishing Company, a standard reference text in this field, the content of which is hereby incorporated by reference.

[001051 The compounds of the instant invention may also, be administered in intranasal form via use of suitable intranasal vehicles, or via transdermal routes, using those forms of transdermal skin patches well known to those of ordinary skill in that art. To be administered in the form of a transdermal delivery system, the dosage administration will generally be continuous rather than intermittent throughout the dosage regimen. Parenteral and intravenous forms may also include minerals and other materials to make them compatible with the type of injection or delivery system chosen.

[00106] The compounds and compositions of the invention can be coated onto stents for temporary or permanent implantation into the cardiovascular system of a subject.

(00107J The compounds and compositions disclosed herein are useful in treating dyslipidemias, treating obesity, an inhibiting lipogenesis and/or cholesterolgeriesis.

[00108] As used herein, a "dyslipidemia" is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. cholesterol and/or fat) in the blood. Dyslipidemia is elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), or both, or a low high-density lipoprotein level that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Causes may be primary (genetic) or secondary. Diagnosis is by measuring plasma levels of total cholesterol, TGs, and individual lipoproteins. Dyslipidemias are medically-recognized (see The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, 18 ,h Edition, Merck Publishing, ISBN- 10: 091 1910182, the content of which is hereby incorporated by reference). In an embodiment the dyslipidemia results in or is caused by obesity in the subject. In an embodiment the obesity is caused by a high fat diet. In an embodiment the dyslipidemia is excess fatty acid synthesis. In an embodiment the dyslipidemia is excess cholesterol synthesis.

[00109] To "treat" a dyslipidemia as used herein means to reduce, ameliorate, arrest or reverse one or more symptoms of the dyslipidemia.

[00110] Also provided is a method of synthesizing a boron-containing stilbene derivative comprising contacting a compound having the structure: with a compound having the structure: where R represents one or more desired substi utents, for example any one or more of R 2 , R3, , R5, and R6 set forth hereinabove in the presence of a suitable solvent and sodium /ert-butoxide so as to form the boron-containing stilbene derivative. In an embodiment, the suitable solvent is DMF.

(00111] Also provided is a process for making an of the iristarit compounds, comprising " ing the structure:

a strong base and an aldehyde and a suitable solvent under conditions permitting the formation of the compound.

100112] In an embodiment, the strong base is a non-nucleophilic base. In a preferred embodiment, the strong base is sodium / rz-butoxide. In an embodiment, the suitable solvent is DMF. In an embodiment, the conditions permitting the formation of the compound comprise performing the reaction at room temperature. Room temperature is 20 to 25 degrees Celsius. In an embodiment, the reaction is performed under a nitrogen atmosphere. In an embodiment, the aldehyde is an aryl adlehyde. In an embodiment, the aldehyde is an α,β-unsaturated adlehyde. In an embodiment, the aldehyde is one of the aldehydes set forth in Table 1.

ded is a method of synthesizing a compound having the structure.:

comprising contacting a compound having the structure: with NBS (yV-Bromosuccinimide) and AIBN (Azobisisoburyronitrile) in a first suitable solvent so as to form a roduct having the structure:

the product with P suitable

solvent so as to form the compound having the structure: . In an embodiment the first suitable solvent is CCI4. In an embodiment the second suitable solvent is CH 3 CN.

|00114] All combinations of the various elements described herein are within the scope of the invention unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise, clearly contradicted by context.

[00115] This invention will be better understood from the Experimental Details, which follow. However, one skilled in the art will readily appreciate that the specific methods and results discussed are merely illustrative of the invention as described more fully in the claims that follow thereafter.

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

Preparation of Chemical Compounds

|00116| A synthetic methodology was developed to synthesize boron-containing stilbene: derivatives and this methodology was used to synthesize target compound 1 o (i.e. BF- 102) (Figure I ).

[00117] The most familiar and general strategy for synthesis of boron-containing stilbenes 1 is based on disconnection A (Figure 2) and involves the Wittig reaction of the varidus substituted benzyl phosphoniumylide 2 with the pinacol ester of boronate aldehyde 3 (4). A literature search failed to uncover any examples of pinacol: ester of borpnat phosphoniumylide. Herein is disclosed the employment of this strategy to prepare novel pinacolylboronate-substituted stilbene derivatives is disclosed. Although ittig and Horner- Wads worth- Emmons reactions have been carried out on aldehyde derivatives of boronate esters (5,6,7) the problem with this approach A (Figure 2) to synthesize boron-containing stilbene derivatives requires various substituted benzyl phosphonium ylides and boron containing aldehydes. Boron-containing aldehydes are very prone to self-dimerizatipn and oxidation and decomposed for longer storage; so this method is limited in scope. To overcome this problem, the disconnection B approach (Figure 2) was used, envisaging the use of the pinacol ester of boronato phosphonium ylide 4, which has not previously been explored.

|00118] The present methodology is more practically applicable because it contains borpnic esters and acids which are biological active. Because there is no dearth o pinacol esters of boronato phosphonium ylide 4 in the literature, the route appeared highl attractive. Compound 4 is stable in air, so different phenyl and alkyl aldehydes are easily available or can be derivatized to synthesize a library of boron-containing stilbene derivatives. Herein is disclosed the success of this new route based on disconnection B (Figure 1), the preparation of pinacol ester of boronato phosphonium ylide 4, followed by the novel synthesis of pinacolylboronate-substituted stilbene derivatives via the direct Wittig bromide (4) from the corresponding 2-|4/-(bromomethyl)phenyl]-4,4,5,5- tetramethyl-l ,3,2-dioxaborolane 6 in the presence of 1.01 equiv of triphenylphosphine in acetonitrile at reflux condition (Scheme I):

[00119] Scheme 1. Synthesis of 4-(4,4,5,5-tetrarnethyl- 1,3,2 -dioxaboratophenyl)-methyl triphenylphosphonium bromide 4.

[00120] Compound 6 (8) was prepared starting from 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-p-tolyl- 1 ,2>,2- dioxaborolane 7, NBS and A1BN in carbon tetrachloride were refluxed for 12 hours. In an initial attempt 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl- 1 ,3,2-dioxaboratophenyl)-methyl triphenylphosphonium bromide 4 was isolated as a white solid in 92% yield. The minor excess of PPh3 was removed from the product by trituration with ether 2-3 times and the product was found to be stable under normal atmospheric conditions. Subsequently, the Wittig reaction of the ylide derived from this salt using benzaldehyde (Scheme 2) was optimized.

[001

1 a; £:Z = 74: 26

r.t„ 2 h, 86%

[00122] It is noteworthy that the three equivalents of sodium /ery-butpxide in DMF at room temperature led to the highest yield of la (see Table 1 , entry 1). With this optimized condition in hand, the scope of the Wittig reaction was examined for the synthesis of pinacolylboronate-substituted stilbenes using various aryl aldehydes. The results are summarized in Table 1. All the compounds were fully characterized (1 H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS).

[00123] General Procedure for the Synthesis, of stilbenes (Table 1 ). A flask equipped with a magnetic stirring bar and a septum inlet was, charged with 4- (4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l ,3,2-dioxaboratophenyl)-methyl triphenylphosphonium bromide (4) ( 1 mmol), dry DMF (5 mL), and tBuONa (3 mmoi) under nitrogen. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5- 10 min. To this solution was added aldehyde (1 mmol) and the resulting mixture was then stirred at room temperature for 4-6 h. The reaction mixture was treated with water (20 mL) and neutralized with 1 M HC1 and the product was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 ;x 10 mL)>washed with brine and dried over Na 2 SQ 4 . The product was isolated by chromatography oyer silica gel.

100124] 4-(4,4,5,5-Telramethyl-l ,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)stilbene (la). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCb): δ 1.36 (s), 1 .38 (s), 6.59-6.68 (m), 7.10-7.30 (m), 7.33-7.40 (m), 7.50-7.58 (m), 7.67-7.70 (d, J = 9 Hz), 7.81-7.84 (d, J = 9 Hz). 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 25.3, 84.2, 126.2, 127.0, 127.6, 128.6, 129.1 , 129.3, 130.6, 131.3, 135.1 , 135.6, 137.5, 137.6,

139.5, 140.0. HRMS (ESI): rn z calcd. for C20H23BO2 [M+Na]+ 329.1689, found 329.1684. 1001251 4-Garboxyl-4/-(4,4,5,5-Tetramethyl-l,3,2-dibx (I d). I H NMR (300 MHz CDCl 3 ): 5 1.36 (s), 1.38 (s), 6.62-6.81 (m), 7.23-7.26 (d, J = 9 Hz), 7.33- 7.36 (d, J = 9 Hz), 7.51 -7.68 (m), 7.69-7.72 (d, J = 9 Hz), 7.82-7.87 (m), 7.94-7.98 (d, J = 12 Hz), 8.08-8.20 (m). 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDClj): δ 25.3, 84.4, 1267, 127.0, 128.1 ,

128.6, 129.5, 130.3, 130.8, 131.2, 132,0, 133.1 , 135,2, 135.8, 140.0, 143.3. HRMS (ESI): m z calcd. for QiHjsBd, [M-H]+ 349.161 1, found 349.1630.

[001261 4,4,5,5-Tetramethyl-2-[4-(2-thiophen-2-yl-vinyl)-phenyl]-[l ,3,2]dioxaborolane ( l i). I H NMR (300 MHz, CDCI3): δ 1 .38 (s), 6.57-6.61 (d, J = 12 Hz), 6.70-6.75 (d, J = 1 Hz), 6.86-6.92 (m), 6.96-7.05 (m), 7.08-7.1 1 (m), 7.22-7.24 (d, J = 6 Hz), 7.28-7.30 (d, J = 6 Hz), 7.34 (s), 7.39-7.42 (d, J = 9 Hz), 7.48-7.51 (d, J = 9 Hz), 7.80-7.83 (d, J = 9 Hz). 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCI3): δ 25.3, 84.2, 123.1 , 125.1 , 125.9, 126.8, 128.1 , 128.6, 135.3, 135.6, 140. 1 , 143.2. HRMS (ESI): m/z calcd. for Ci 8 H 2 ,B0 2 S [M+Na]+ 335.1253, found 335.1261.

1001271 4,4,5,5-Tetramethyl-2-[4-(4-phenyl-buta- 1 ,3-dienyl)-pheny !]- [ l ,3,2]dioxaborolane (lj). I H NMR (300 MHz, CDCIj): δ 1,38 (s), 1 .39 (s), 6.41 -6.58 (m), 6.65-6.80 (m), 6.94-7.10 (m), 7.20-7.31 (m), 7.31 -7.45 9m), 7.46-7.48 (d, J = 6 Hz), 7.79- 7.82 (d, j = 9 Hz), 7.85-7.88 (d, J = 9 Hz). 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCI3): δ 25.3, 84.2, 126.1, 126.8, 127.0, 128.1 , 128.7, 129.1 , 129.6, 130.7, 133.2, 133.8, 135.2, 135.5, 137.7, 140.5140.8. HRMS (ESI): m/z calcd. for C 2 2H 25 B02 [M+Na]+ 355.1845, found 355.1845. 100128] 4- {2-|4-(4,4,5,5-Tetramethyl-l 1 ,3,2jdioxaborolan-2-yl)-phenyl]-vinyl} -phenol ( l i).BF-l ()2: l H MR (300 MHz, CDCI3): δ 1.37 (s), 5.02 (bs), 6.72-6.75 (d, J = 9 Hz), . 6.82-6.86 (d, J = 12 Hz), 6.94-6.98 (d, J = 12 Hz), 7.10-7.29 (η 4, 1*7· 5 (d, J = 12 Hz), 7.48-7.56 (m), 7.75-7.83 (m), 7.96-7.80 (d, J = 12 Hz). 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCI3): δ 25.3, 84.2, 1 12.6, 116.1, 125.9, 126.3, 126.9, 127.8, 128.5, 129.5, 129.9, 130.6, 132.1, 135.6, 140.3, 140.7, 155.8. HRMS (ESI): m/z calcd. for C2 0 H2 3 BO 3 [M-H|+ 321.1662, found 321 .1683.

[00129] Synthesis of compound 9: Benzene- 1 ,4-dicarbaldehyde 8 (0.05 g, 037 mmol) was added to a solution of 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl- l ,3,2-dioxaboratopheriyl)-methyl triphenylphosphonium bromide (4) (0.417 g, 0.74 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (10 mL) under nitrogen atmosphere. Sodium tertbutanolate (0.214 g, 2.23 mmol) was added to the clear solution at room temperature, and the mixture was stirred for 2 h. The reaction mixture was poured into water

extracted by EtOAc (3 X 10 mL), washed with H2O and brine, dried over anhydrous a2S04 and filtered. Evaporation of the solvent followed by column chromatography oh silica gel to obtain the pure product 9. Yield: 0.169 g (85%). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDC1 3 ): δ 1.35 (s), 1.36 (s), 1.37 (s), 1.38 (s), 6.57-6.59 (d, J = 6 Hz), 6.62 (s), 7.10-7.13 (m), 7.16- 7.20 (m), 7.21 -7.30 (m), 7.36-7.39 (d, J = 9 Hz), 7.44- 7.60 (m), 7.65-7.75 (m), 7.80-7.88 (m). 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDC13): δ 25.3, 84.4, 126.2, 127,0, 127.8, 128.3, 128.9, 129.0, 129.3, 129.8, 131.0, 132.5, 132.6, 133.4, 135.1 , 136.0, 140.2, 140.8. HRMS (ESI): m/z calcd. for C34H 4 oB 2 04 [M+Na]+ 557.3010, found 557.2982.

(001301 3,5-dichloro-4/-(4,4,5,5-Tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl )stilbene (le). MD 131 3,5-Dichloro-2-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (0.1 g, 0.571 mmol) was added to a solution of 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl- 1 ,3,2-dioxaboratophenyl)-melhyl triphenylphosphonium bromide (4) (0.3 19 g, 0.571 mmol) in anhydrous DMF (10 mL) under nitrogen atmosphere. Sodium tertbutanolate (0.164 g, 1.71 mmol) was added to the clear solution at room temperature, and the mixture was stirred for 12 h. The reaction mixture was poured into water (20 mL) and neutralized with 1 M HCl. Then the resulting mixture was extracted by EtOAc (3 X 10 mL), washed with H 2 0 and brine, dried over anhydrous a SG4 and filtered. Evaporation of the le solvent followed by column chromatography on silica gel to obtain the pure product as a mixture of E Z. Yield: 0.176 g (82%). l H NMR (300 MHz, CDCI3): δ 1.3 (s), 138 (s), 6.45-6.49 (d, J = 12 Hz), 6.66-6.71 (d, J = 15 Hz), 7. 1 1 (s), 7. 12-7. 15 (m), 7.18-7.25 (m), 7.40-7.7.43 (d, J = 9 Hz), 7.48-7.53 (d, J = 15 Hz), 7.68-7.76 (m), 7.81 -7.86 (d, J = 15 Hz). 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDC ): δ 25.3, 84.3, 125.3, 126.5, 127.6, 127.8, 128.5, 128.9, 132.8, 133.0, 133.2, 135.3, 135.7, 139.8, 140.2.

[00131] The reaction proved tolerant of both electron-withdrawing groups (p-NC , p- COiMe; Table 1 , entries 1 and 3) and electron-donating groups (p-F, Table 1 , entry 2) on the phenyl ring of the aldehyde. Interestingly, methyl-4-formyl benzoate as a substrate was directly converted to the corresponding boron containing stilbene carboxylic acid I d in good yield (Table 1 , entry 3). Also, the symmetrically-substituted boron COritaining stilbene le was synthesized in good yield (Table I , entry 4). Most surprisingly, 4-formylphenyl boronic acid (Table 1, entry 5) gives corresponding product I f (one side pinacolylboronate and other side free boronic acid). The functionalized salicyldehydes also react well with the 8 and yielded the corresponding highly pinacolylboronate-substituted stilbenes with good yields (Table 1, entries 6; moderate, but changing substrates, base and solvent may increase the selectivity. To get good stereoselectivity, we tried with different aryl aldehydes containing a heteroatom such sulfur (Table 1 , entries 8), the desired products were obtained in good yield. In addition to the aromatic aldehydes, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (Table 1, entries 9 and 10) also reacted successfully and the corresponding conjugated diene functionalized boronic esters 1 j and 1 k were isolated in good yield. This method is versatile and tolerant to all substrates and reaction conditions.

[001321 Table I . Wittig reaction of 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl- 1 ,3,2-dioxaboratophenyl)- methyl triphenylphosphonium bromide (4) with various aldehydes".

'ΑΙΙ reactions were performed using 1 equivalent of aldehyde and 3 equivalents of 'BuONa in DMF for 2-12 h. b Isolated yield (mixture of E and Z) refers to aldehyde and the E/Z ratios were determined by Ή NMR.

|00133] Having established the preferred reaction conditions, this methpdolpgy was applied to synthesize a boron-containing resveratrol derivative lo (Scheme 3). Bpronate phosphonium ylide 4 readily reacted with 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde in the presence of tBuONa in DMF to yield 58% of compound lo, E:Z isomer ratio 70:30.

(00134

r.t, 12 h, 58

(00135] Also, a one-pot Wittig reaction was developed. In this case, 4-(4,4,5,5- tetramethyl-] ,3,2-dioxaboratophenyl)-methyl triphenylphosphonium bromide (4), the intermediate generated by reaction of 6 with triphenylphosphine, was reacted directly with methyl-4-formyl benzoate in the presence of a base, and the desired boron-containing stilbene carboxylic acid Id product was isolated in 75% overall yield as a one-pot Wittig reaction followed by acid hydrolysis (Scheme 4).

(00136] Scheme 4: One-pot synthesis of stilbene Id

9; 85%

(00137] After generalizing the reaction conditions, the Wittig reaction of ylide 4 with benzene- 1 ,4-dicarbaldehyde 8 to synthesize the boron capped polyene system (as useful intermediate to synthesize conjugated polyene (9) was examined and the results are depicted in Scheme 4. The boronate ylide 4 underwent Wittig reaction with benzene- 1 ,4- dicarbaldehyde 8 to provide diboronate of 1,4-distyryl-benzene 9 with good yield (85%). 100138] In conclusion,, 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l ,3,2-dioxaboratophenyl)-methyl triphenyl-phosRhpnium bromide was successfully prepared using; PPh and the corresponding 2-[4/-(bromornethyl)phenyl]-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3 ) 2-dioxaborolane in acetonitrile under refluxing conditions and this salt was used to develop a novel direct route to synthesize boron-containing stilbene derivatives via the Wittig reaction with various aldehydes, to yield 71-94%. Additionally, a one-pot protocol was developed. This methodology was used to synthesize boron containing resyeratrol analogues and boron containing' polyene chains.

Biological Example No. 1

(00139] Antibodies

Anti-Flag M2 was purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO). Anti-HA was purchased from Covance Research Products. Anti-SlRTl and anti-acelyl were purchased from Cel Signaling. Anti-beta-tubulin antibodies were obtained from Invitrogen (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA).

(00140] Tissue culture

HepG2, HE 293 cells, and MEFs were cultured at 37"C arid 5 % C0 2 in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's mediurri (DMEM; Sigma), supplemented with 100 mg/ml of penicillin- streptomycin (GIBCO-BRL), 10% (or otherwise indicated) fetal bovine serum (Hyclone), and 20 niM Glutamine.

[001411 Plasmids

Full-length human SIRT1 cDNA (wild-type or H3 3Y mutated) was subcloned into pcDNA4/TO-Flag or pGEX-2TKN. Human SREBP-Ia cDNA encoding amino acids 1-487 was subcloned into pcDNA4 TO with an N-terminal Flag-tag.

[00142] Transfection and siRNA

To over-express epitope-tagged proteins in HeLa and 293T cells, 2 ug of plasmid DNA was transfected by Lipofectamine™ 2000 (Invitrogen, Life technologies, Carlsbad, CA) into each well (4x105 cells) of six-well plates. Whole cell extracts were prepared after 24 hours of culture. Smart pool of double stranded siRNA oligonucleotides (control or S1RT1) were synthesized by Dharmacon Research, Inc. (Lafayette, CO). SiRNA oligos ( 1 ng/well) were transfected into HeLa cells in six-well plates by Lipofectamine™ 2000. After 48 hours, cells were re-plated into 24-welI plates and were tranfected with reporter vectors. Cell extracts for immuno-detection of SIRT1 and β-tubulin were generated 65 hours after siRNA transfecupn.

[00143] Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting

For immunoprecipitation, 5 μΐ of anti-Flag were incubated with 20 μΐ protein A/G beads (Pharmacia) for 1 hour nutating at room temperature. After extensive washes, 1 ml of HeLa or 293T whole cell lysates were incubated for 3 hours nutating at 4°C with the antibody- coupled protein A/G beads. The beads were washed five times with 1 ml of wash buffer containing 20 mM HEPES at pH 7.6, 250 mM KCI, 0,1 mM EDTA, 10 % glycerol, 0Λ % NP-40, 1 mM DTT, 1 mM benzamidine, 0.25 mM PMSF, and 2 μg/ml aprotinin. The interacting proteins were then eluted with binding buffer containing 10 mM Flag peptide (for Flag-tagged proteins) for 1 hour at 4°C. For immunoblotting, protein samples were resolved by SDS-PAGE and transferred to PVDF membranes. The membranes were blocked by 0.5% nonfat milk for 1 hour at room temperature and were incubated with primary antibodies overnight at 4°C. After several washes, the. membranes were incubated with HRP-conjugated secondary antibody for 1 hour at room temperature: After several washes, specific protein signals were visualised by addition of chemiluminescent substrates and exposure to X-ray films.

|00144] In vitro deacetylation assay

GST- fusion proteins (GST alone, GST-SIRTlwt, and GST-SIRT1H363Y) were expressed in E. coli (BL21) and purified from the lysates by glutathione-sepharose beads (Pharmacia). The amount of GST proteins was estimated using SDS-PAGE followed by Coomassie staining. Flag-tagged SREBP-la proteins were expressed in HeLa cells and purified by IP. The purified SREBP-la was incubated with purified GST-fusion proteins at 30°C for 1 hr either in the presence or absence of 5 mM NAD. The reactions were perfonned in a buffer containing 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 9.0), 50 mM NaCl, 4 mM MgCl 2 , 1 mM ZnCl 2 , 0.5 mM DTT, 0.2 mM PMSF, 0.02% NP-40, and 5% glycerol. The reactions were resolved on SDS- PAGE and analyzed by immunoblotting.

100145] Drosophila treatment and culture

All flies were cultured on standard cornmeal-agar-molasses medium and wl 1 18 strain was used as the wild-type control. A sir2 null allele (Sir22A-7-l 1) deletes the entire coding sequence of the sir2 gene and was generated by targeted knockout (Xie, H.B., and Golic, K.G., Gene deletions by ends-in targeting in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 168: 1477- 1489, 2004.). The homozygous mutant animals of this sir2 null allele are viable, allowing us to collect third instar mutant larvae for Oil Red O staining and qRT-PCR analyses: Early third instar larvae of sir2 mutants (wl 1 18; Sir22A-7-l 1 ; +) or control (wl 1 18; +; +) were maintained in vials containing either normal food, or 1% agarose gel in PBS for fastin treatment, for 24 hours at 25°C.

|00146| Oil Red O staining of fat bodies

The heads of ~ 20 larvae of each genotype and treatment were removed using forceps, their bodies were subsequently everted inside-out to expose the entire fat bodies. These partially dissected larvae were then fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS for 15 minutes at room temperature, followed by two rinses with distilled water. 12ml of 0.1 % Oil Red Ό in isopropanol was first mixed with 4.5ml of distilled water, then filtered through 0.45nm filter. 4ml filtered Oil Red O was then added to each sample of fixed larvae, rocking for 25 minutes at room temperature, then rinsed with distilled water twice. For quantification, Oil Red from 3-4 samples per genotype/treatment, with 5 stained larvae per sample, was extracted with 1 5ml isopropanol (rocking over night), than measured O.D. at 51 ( mm.

|00147| Quantitative RT-PCR assay

Total RNA was extracted from cells with Trizol (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) and quantified with an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, Santa Glara, CA). For mRNA quantification, 2 ug of RNA was converted to cDNA with a High Capacity cDNA Reverse

Transcription kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA), and transcript levels of relevant genes were determined by real-time, quantitative PCR with an ABI 7300 Real Time PCR machine according to the manufacturer's instructions.

[00148) Quantitative measurement of fatty acids and cholesterol synthesis

Fatty acids and cholesterol synthesis rate was determined using the deuterated water -

GC MS method as described previously.

[001491 Statistical Analysis

Results are represented as the means ± S.D. Statistical significance was determined using a paired two-tailed Student's t lest, with p < 0.05 considered significant.

100150] Results

Since the anti-aging gene SIRT1 represses SREBP-dependent functions, it was tested whether the compounds could inhibit SREBP-target gene expression. As shown in Figure 8 and 9, treating human hepatoma cells HepG2 with 0.03 mM of compounds BF-102, MD131, MBl 17 or MC45 (see Fig. 12 for structures) resulted in strong inhibition of fatty acid synthase and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA levels, although compound MB62 was less effeclive. In HepG2 and 293 cells, O. l mM BF-102 has no significant cytotoxicity, while: MG45 is toxic to those cells (data not shown). · Consistent .witliiti .¾ene expression data,,. Figure 10 and 11 show that compound BF-102 inhibits palmitate and cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells. Thus, these SIRTl activators (especially BF-102) have inhibitory effects on both fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis through repressing SREBP transcription factors. The compounds can be used to treat human diseases caused by over-production of fat and cholesterol.

Biological Example No.2

[00151] Antibodies

Anti-SREBP-1 antibody was purchased from Santa ©mi Biotechnoiogyj lric., anti-fatty acid synthase from Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. (Danvers, MA), and anti-P-tubulin antibody from Invilrogen (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA).

[00152] Tissue culture

HepG2 and FAO cells as well as primary rat hepatocytes were cultured at 37°C and 5 % COT in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM; Sigma, St. Luois, MO), supplemented with 100 mg/ml of penicillin-streptomycin (P/S, GIBCO-BRL), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Hyclpne) and 20mM gluiamine. Primary rat hepatocytes were isolated using a method as described previously (20), and plated onto collagen-coated 6-cm dishes (3x l0 6 cell/dish) in DMEM containing 10% FBS, lOOmg mL P/S, 20mM glutamine, ΙΟΟηΜ insulin and ΙμΜ dexamethasone. After 4 hours of culture, non-adherent cells were washed away with 1 *PBS. The remaining hepatocytes were cultured or treated in regular DMEM medium.

100153] Animals and Animal Care

Male C57BL/6J mice were purchased from The Jackson Laboratory at 8 weeks of age and were rendered insulin resistant by feeding an HFD (60% kcal from fat; D 12492, Research Diets) for 4 weeks. Then the treatment with BF-102 or BF175 was performed for 1 week (osmotic pumps) or several weeks (in HFD).

[00154] Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were measured with the TG kit (Sigma, St. Louis, MO). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed on overnight-fasted mice. For GTT, animals were injected intraperitoneally with dextrose (1 g kg, Hospira, Inc). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min after dextrose injection and blood glucose was measured using a One-Touch glucose-monitoring system (Lifescan). For physiological analysis, mice were individually placed in metabolic cages and monitored for 24 hours: |00155] Animals were maintained on a 12-h 12-h light/dark cycle with free access to HFD food and water. All animal procedures were in accordance with Albert Einstein College of Medicine research guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals.

[001561 Immunoblotting

Proteins were extracted in a lysis buffer containing 20. itiM HEPES at . pH 7:6, 150 ra NaCl, 0.1 mM EDTA, 10 % glycerol, 0.1 % NP-40, 1 mM DTT, 1 mM benzamidine, 0,25 itiM PMSF, and 2 g/ml aprotinin. For immunoblotting, protein samples were resolved by SDS-PAGE and transferred to PVDF membranes. The membranes were blocked by 0.5% nonfat milk for I hour at room temperature and were incubated with primary antibodies overnight at 4°C. After 3 washes (lOmin each) with 1 *TBST buffer, the membranes were incubated with HRP-conjugated secondary antibody for 1 hour at room temperature. After 3 washes (l Omin each) with j x-TB.ST buffer, specific protein signals were visualized by addition of chemiluminescent substrates and exposure to X-ray films:

100157] Quantitative RT-PCR assay

Total RNA was extracted from cells with Trizol (Invitrogen, Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) and quantified with an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. For nxRNA quantification, 2 ^ig of RNA was converted to cDNA with a High Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA), and transcript levels of relevant genes were determined by real-time, quantitative PCR with an ABI 7300 Real Time PCR machine according to the manufacturer's instructions. (PCR primer information is available upon request)

[00158] Quantitative measurement of fatty acids and cholesterol synthesis

Fatty acids and cholesterol, synthesis rate was determined using the deuterium enrichment method followed by GC/MS analysis. Briefly, cells were cultured in regular DMEM medium containing 10% 2H 2 0 for 18 hours. Fatty acids and cholesterol were purified by extraction with organic solvents chloroform/methanol and quantitatively measured by GC MS. The synthesis rates were presented as the percentage of 2 H-containing palmitate or cholesterol in total amount of palmitate or cholesterol.

|00159] Drosophila culture All flies were cultured on standard cornmeal-agar-molasses medium and wl 1 18 strain was used as the wildtype control. A sir2 null allele (Sir22A-7- I 1 ) deletes the entire coding sequence of the sir2 gene and was generated by targeted knockout (21 ). The homozygous, mutant animals of this sir2 null allele are viable, allowing us to collect third instar mutant larvae for Oil Red O staining and qRT-PCR analyses. Early third instar larvae of sir2 mutants (wl l l 8; Sir22A-7- l l ; +) or control (wl l l8; +; +) were maintained in vials containing fly food at 25°C.

100160) Oil Red O staining of Drosophila fat bodies

The heads of - 20 larvae of each genotype and treatment were removed using forceps, their bodies were subsequently inverted inside-out to expose the entire fat bodies. These partially dissected larvae were then fixed in 4% para-formaldehyde in PBS for 15 minutes at room temperature, followed by two rinses with distilled water. 12ml of 0.1 % Oil Red O in isopropanol was first mixed with 4.5ml of distilled water, then filtered through 0.45 nm filler. 4ml filtered Oil Red O was then added to each sample. of fixed larvae, rocking for 25 minutes at room temperature, then rinsed with distilled water twice. For quantification, Oil Red from 3-4 samples per genotype/treatment, with 5 stained larvae per sample, was extracted with 1.5ml isopropanol (rocking over night), than measured OD at 510nm.

1001611 In vitro analysis of SIRT1 activity

The effect of BF175 on SIRT1 activity in vitro was analyzed using a kit from Cayman Chemical (Charlotte, NC).

100162] Statistical Analyses

Data are presented as the means ± S.D. The significance of differences between two groups was evaluated using Student's t test. The p value <0.05 was considered significant.

Results

(00163] To search for lipogenic inhibitors, a library of limited number of boron- containing novel compounds were screened for their effects on FAS gene expression in human hepatoma cell-line, HepG2. Treatments with some of the compounds, including BF- 02, BF175, MD 1 17 and MC 145 as shown in Fig. 13A, at 30μΜ resulted in a significant decrease of FAS mRNA levels as measured by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) (8), although some compounds, such as MB62, were inactive in this assay (Fig. 8).Two compounds, BF-102 and BF175, were chosen for further analysis because they appeared to be not toxic to HepG2 cells at the doses used (data not shown). (00164) Since FAS is a rate-limiting enzyme in de novo lipogenesis, it was decided to determine whether inhibition of FAS gene expression by BF- 102 could result in a decrease of fatty acid synthesis. Consistent with gene expression data, using the deuterium enrichment method followed by gas chromatography massspectrometry (GC/MS), it was found that 20μΜ of BF- 102 can significantly decrease the synthesis rate of palmitate, the product of FAS, in rat hepatocytes, FAO cells in the presence of lOOnM insulin (Fig.10). Thus, BF- 102 can inhibit de novo lipogenesis.

100165) Next, whether BF-102 also affected the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway was tested. Using qRT-PCR, it was found that BF- 102 treatment can dose-dependently decrease the mRNA levels of HMGCR, a rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis and the target of well-known cholesterol lowering drug statins, in HepG2 cells (Fig. 13 A). Using the deuterium enrichment method followed by GC/MS, it was found that 20μΜ of BF-102 can dramatically decrease the synthesis rale of cholesterol in FAO cells in the presence of l OOnM insulin (Fig. I I). In view of the encouraging BF-102 data in cultured cells, its effects in vivo were tested. Initially, no apparent toxic responses were observed in male C57BL/6J mice under standard chow after one week of administrating BF-102 (total of 0.6mg/g body weight) by osmotic pumps. Then, BF-102 was tested in the well-established mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Eight-week old C56BL/6J mice were fed with high- fat diet (HFD) containing 60% fat for 4 weeks to establish a disease state and treated for 1 week of BF- 1 2 (0.3mg/g body weight) by osmotic pumps. All mice were continuously fed with HFD during the treatment. As shown in Fig. 13B, the hepatic mRNA levels of HMGCR were dramatically reduced by ~5 fold when compared with the controls that were treated with DM SO, the solvent that was used to dissolve BF-102. In addition, other lipogenic genes, such as FAS, were also significantly down regulated (data not shown). Together, the data strongly suggest that BF- 102 inhibits both lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis by down-regulating SREBP-target genes.

|001 6 J Using qRT-PCR, it was found that another boron-containing compound, BF175, which is more soluble than BF- 102, also can dose-dependently decrease the mRNA levels of FAS and other SREBP target genes in HepG2 cells (Fig. 14A and data not shown). Furthermore, BF175 treatment in isolated primary rat hepatocytes can significantly reduce the protein levels of FAS as detected by Western blots (Fig. 14B). Thus, BF175 is a potent inhibitor of lipogenic gene expression in cultured cells. (00167] The potent inhibitory effects of BF175 on lipogenic gene expression in cultured hepatocytes prompted us to test whether BF175 had any effects in treating diet-induced obesity. Similar to the experiments with BF-102, BF 175 was initially tested for a week (0.3mg/g body weight) by osmotic pumps and HFD in mice that were already fed with HFD for 4 weeks. As shown in Fig. 15A, BF175 treatment significantly reduced the protein levels of nuclear/active form of SREBP-lc and total FAS in mouse livers (data not shown). Consistent with the lower SREBP-l c protein levels, BF 175 treatment dramatically decreased the hepatic mRNA levels of SREBP-target genes, such as acetyl-CpA synthetase (ACS), FAS and HMGCR (Fig. 15B and data not shown). The in vivo effects of BF175 are likely through SREBPs, because it did not show significant effects on the mRNA levels of live-specific pyruvate kinase (L-PK), a known target of carbohydrate regulatory element binding protein (ChREBP) (19), but not a target of SREBPs (20).

(00168) The in vivo effects of BF175 on SREBP-target gene expression in HFD-induced obesity model led to determining whether this compound had any physiologic benefits to those mice. For that purpose, the treatment of BF 175 was repeated with the osmotic pump approach and on mice housed individually in metabolic cages for the last 24 hours of treatment. As shown in Fig. 17, significant changes in several readouts were observed. BF 175 treatment increased oxygen consumption (Fig. 16 A) and C(¾ production (Fig. 16B) during both the light and dark periods, consistent with the increase of energy expenditure (Fig. 16C). In addition, BF 175 treatment slightly increased the use of carbohydrates vs. fat during the dark feeding period (Fig. 16D), while there was no significant change in overall preference of energy sources. Interestingly, BF175 treatment significantly increased the overall activity in HFD-fed mice (Fig. 16E), suggesting that BF175 improves health in those animals. In addition, consistent with the hepatic gene expression data, a significant decrease of plasma triglycerides was detected after one week of BF175 treatment using osmotic pumps in HFD-induced obese models (Fig. 17 A). Together, the data suggest beneficial effects of short-term treatment with BF175 in HFD-induced obese models.

|00169] To avoid the limitation of osmotic pumps, it was decided to determine whether oral administration of BF175 had any beneficial effects in the mouse model of HFD- induced obesity. Again, eight-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD for four weeks to establish the disease models. Then, mice were treated with BF175 that was mixed in HFD. After four weeks of treatment, glucose tolerance tests were performed and BF175- treated had slightly improved, but significant, glucose tolerance when compared with the controls (Fig. 17B). After five weeks of treatment, those mice were placed individually in metabolic cages. Similar to the data observed from using osmotic pumps, dietary BF 175 treatment increased oxygen consumption (Fig. I SA) ' and CO2 production (Fig. 18B) during both the light and dark periods, consistent with the increase of energy expenditure (Fig. 18C). In addition, BF175 treatment also slightly increased the use of carbohydrates verse fat during the dark feeding period (Fig. 18D), and significantly increased the overall activity in HFD-fed mice; (Fig. 18E). Furthermore, dietar treatment with BF l 75 significantly decreased the rate of body weight gain, while there was no difference in food intake (data not shown). Together, the data suggest beneficial effects of oral treatment with BFl 75 in HFD-induced obese models.

|00170| Studies have demonstrated a critical arid conserved role , of Sir2/SIRT1 in the repressing SREBP-dependent functions in multiple organisms, including Drosophila ( 14- 16). To examine whether these boron-containing compounds; also inhibit lipid accumulation in flies, Drosophila larvae were fed with fly food containing BFl 75 or BF-102. The amount of lipids in Drosophila larvae was quantified after staining with Oil Red 0. As shown in Fig. 20A, treatment with BF175 caused a significant loss of ~20% of fat in Drosophila larvae. BF-102 had similar effects (data not shown). Importantly, this effect was observed in wild-type Drosophila larvae. In Sir2 .knockout Drosophila larvae, no difference in twelve independent experiments was observed (Fig. 1 A). Thus, it is concluded that the inhibitory effect of these compounds on SREBP-target gene expression and lipogenesis requires Sir2/SIRT1 in vivo. In fact, in vitro assays have shown that BFl 75 can weakly increase the activity of SIRT1 (Fig. 19B), suggesting that BF 175 functions through activating Sir2/SIRT1 to repress SREBP and lipogenesis in vivo.

[001711 In addition, compounds disclosed herein had an inhibitory effect on proliferation of cancer cell lines (data not shown).

|00172| In summary, herein is disclosed the synthesis of BF-102 and BF175 which are novel, bio-active boron-containing compounds which inhibit SREBP-target gene expression and biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol in cultured hepatocytes and in vivo. In addition, BFl 75 has beneficial effects in treating HFD-induced obesity in animal model. The lipid-lowering function of these compounds requires Sir2/SIRT 1. In addition, it is expected that the compounds can be used to treat cancer and/or reduce or reverse the effects of aging. REFERENCES

1. Eber!e, D., Hegarty, B., Bossard, P., Ferre, P., and Foufelle, F., SREBP transcription factors: master regulators of lipid homeostasis, Biochirnie, 86, 839 (2004):

2. Haigis, M. C, and Guarente, L. P., Mammalian sirtuins— emerging roles in physiology, aging, and calorie restriction, Genes and Development, 20, 2913 (2006).

3. Michan, S., and Sinclair, D.,, Sirtuins in mammals: insights into their biological function, Biochemical Journal, 404, 1 (2007).

4; Athar, M.; Ho Back, J.; Tang, X.; Ho im, K:; Kopelovich, L.; Bickers, D. R.; Kim, A. L. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2007, 224, 274.

5. Wittig: (a) Lautens, M.; Mancuso, J. J. Org. Chem. 2004, 69, 3478. (b) Lautens, M.; Marquardt, T. J. Org. Chem. 2004, 69, 4607. (c) Kobayashi, Y.et al.Tetrahedron Lett. 1998, 39, 7537. (d) Kobayashi, Y.; Tokoro, Y.; Watatani, K. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2000, 3825.

6. Horner- Wittig-Emmons: (a) Schmidt, U.; Leitenberger, V.; Griesser, H.; Schmidt, J.; Meyer, R. Synthesis 1992, 1248: (b) Park, k. c; Yoshino, k- Tomiyasu, H. Synthesis 1999, 2041. (c) Busnel, O.; Carreaux, F.; Carboni, B.; Pethe, S.; Goff, S. V. -L.; Mansuy, D.; Boucher, J. -L. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2005, 13, 2373. (d) Gopalarathnam, A.; Nelson, S. G. Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 7.

7. Molander, G. A.; Ham, J ; Canturk, B. Org; Lett. 2007, 9, 821.

8. Zhang, C; Zhemg, G ; Fang, L.; Li, Y. Synlett. 2006, 3, 475.

9. Iwadate, N.; Suginome, M. Org. Lett., 2009, 1 1 , 1899.

10. Osborne, T. F., and,Espenshade, P. J. (2009) Genes Dev 23, 2578 - 2591

12. Eberle, D., Hegarty, B., Bossard, P., Ferre, P., and Foufelle, F. (2004) Biochirnie 86, 839 - 848

13. Sato. R. (2009) FEBS J 276, 622 - 627

14. You, M., Liang, X., Ajmo, J. M., and Ness, G. C. (2008) Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 294, G892 - 898

15. Walker, A. K., et al., Genes Dev 24, 1403 - 1417 (2010)

16. Ponugoti, B., et al. J Biol Chem 285, 33959 - 33970 (2010)

17. Haigis, M. C, and Sinclair, D. A. Annu Rev Pathol 5, 253 - 295 (2010)

18. Michan, S., and Sinclair, D. (2007) Biochem J 404, 1 - 13 19. Ishii, S.et al. (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101, 15597-15602

20. Stoeckman, A. ., and Towle, H. C. (2002) J Biol Chem 277, 27029 - 27035

2 . Xie, H. B., and Golic, K, G, (2004) Genetics 168, 1477 ' · 489