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Title:
NOVEL M3 MUSCARINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2005/087236
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Muscarinic Acetylcholine receptor antagonists and methods of using them are provided.

Inventors:
Budzik, Brian W. (1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA, 19426, US)
Cooper, Anthony W. J. (Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, GB)
Corbett, David Francis (Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, GB)
Jin, Jian (1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA, 19426, US)
Laine, Dramane I. (709 Swedeland Road, King of Prussia, PA, 19406, US)
Wang, Yonghui (1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA, 19426, US)
Moore, Michael Lee (1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA, 19426, US)
Rivero, Ralph A. (1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA, 19426, US)
Shi, Dongchuan (1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA, 19426, US)
Wang, Feng (1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA, 19426, US)
Xie, Haibo (709 Swedeland Road, King of Prussia, PA, 19406, US)
Zhu, Chongjie (709 Swedeland Road, King of Prussia, PA, 19406, US)
Application Number:
PCT/US2005/008302
Publication Date:
September 22, 2005
Filing Date:
March 11, 2005
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
GLAXO GROUP LIMITED (Glaxo Wellcome House, Berkeley Avenue Greenford, Middlesex UB6 0NN, GB)
Budzik, Brian W. (1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA, 19426, US)
Cooper, Anthony W. J. (Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, GB)
Corbett, David Francis (Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, GB)
Jin, Jian (1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA, 19426, US)
Laine, Dramane I. (709 Swedeland Road, King of Prussia, PA, 19406, US)
Wang, Yonghui (1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA, 19426, US)
Moore, Michael Lee (1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA, 19426, US)
Rivero, Ralph A. (1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA, 19426, US)
Shi, Dongchuan (1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA, 19426, US)
Wang, Feng (1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, PA, 19426, US)
Xie, Haibo (709 Swedeland Road, King of Prussia, PA, 19406, US)
Zhu, Chongjie (709 Swedeland Road, King of Prussia, PA, 19406, US)
International Classes:
A61K31/407; A61K31/495; A61K31/496; C07D207/14; C07D209/42; C07D211/56; C07D213/81; C07D213/82; C07D215/48; C07D215/50; C07D243/08; C07D273/02; C07D277/62; C07D295/135; C07D295/155; C07D307/68; C07D307/84; C07D317/62; C07D319/14; C07D321/10; C07D333/38; C07D333/70; C07D401/06; C07D401/12; C07D403/12; C07D405/12; C07D409/12; C07D453/02; C07D487/04; (IPC1-7): A61K31/495; A61K31/407; A61K31/496; C07D295/155; C07D401/06; C07D487/04
Foreign References:
US20050131236A1
Other References:
See also references of EP 1725236A1
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Simon, Soma G. (GlaxoSmithKline, Corporate Intellectual Property UW 2220, 709 Swedeland Road, P.O. Box 153, King of Prussia PA, 19406-0939, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
What is claimed is:
1. A compound of formula I as indicated below: (R1)P ,R6 Λ> Λx. R3^ '^ "N∏Λ /> 1AArr,^ 2 '\^(/XJm R.
2. (D wherein Ar1 and Ar.
3. are independently selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted phenyl and optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl; R6 is NR7R8, or an optionally substituted saturated or partially unsaturated 410 membered ring system in which one or more rings contain one or more secondary or tertiary nitrogens, and optionally contain one or more O, or S; X is C(R1)p, or C(O); wherein, when X is C(R1)p, m is an interger from 0 to 3; when X is C(O), m is 1; p is an interger from O to 2; ' n is an interger from O to 3; Y is C(O), S(O)q, HNC(O), or OC(O); wherein, q is 1 or 2; R1 and R.
4. are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted CjCio a'kyl> optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted heterocylic, optionally substituted heterocyclicalkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aryl alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl; R.
5. s selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted CjC)n alkyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted aryl alkyl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl; wherein, when substituted, a group is substituted by one or more radicals selected from the group consisting of halogen, cyano, hydroxy, hydroxy substituted Ciioalkyl. C11O a'koxy, S(O)1Ti1 C110 alkyl, C(O)R4, C(O)NR4R5; C(O)OH; S(O)2NR4Rs, NHC(O)RJ, NHS(O)2R4, C|1O alkyl, alkenyl, halosubstituted C110 alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl, wherein these aryl or heteroaryl moieties may be substituted one to two times by halogen, hydroxy, hydroxy substituted alkyl, C110 alkoxy, S(O)[T11Ci. 10 alkyl, Ci_io alkyl, or halosubstituted C110 alkyl; and m' is 0, 1, or 2; R4 and R5 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C110 alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3C1υ cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aryl alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl; or R4 and R5 together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 5 to 7 member ring which may optionally comprise an additional heteroatom selected from O, and S; R7 and R8 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C110 alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclic, and optionally substituted heterocyclicalkyl; or R7 and Rs together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 5 to 7 member ring which may optionally comprise an additional heteroatom selected from O, N and S; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
6. 2 A. compound according to claim 1 selected from the group consisting of: Ar1 and Ar2, are independently, selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted phenyl and optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl; R6 is an optionally substituted saturated or partially unsaturated 410 membered ring system in which one or more rings contain one or more secondary or tertiary nitrogens; X is C(R1)p, m is an interger from 0 to 3; P is 2; n is an interger from 1 to 3; Y is C(O), or S(O)q; wherein, q is 1 or 2; R1 is hydrogen R2 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C1C10 alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted heterocylic, optionally substituted heterocyclicalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aryl alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl; R3 is selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C^C^o alkyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl, and optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl alkyl; wherein, when substituted, a group is substituted by one or more radicals selected from the group consisting of halogen, cyano, hydroxy, hydroxy substituted C| ioalkyl, C|_io alkoxy, S(O)nT C110 alkyl, C(O)FM1 C(O)NR4Rδ; C(O)OH; S(O)2NR4Rδ, NHC(O)R4, NHS(O)2R4, C110 alkyl, alkenyl, halosubstituted C110 alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl, wherein these aryl or heteroaryl moieties may be substituted one to two times by halogen, hydroxy, hydroxy substituted alkyl, C1 10 alkoxy, S(O)m'Ci_ 10 alkyl, C|io alkyl, or halosubstituted C110 alkyl; and m' is O, 1 , or 2; R4 and R5 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C110 alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aryl alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl; or R4 and R5 together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 5 to 7 member ring which may optionally comprise an additional heteroatom selected from O, and S; R7 and Rδ are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C110 alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclic, and optionally substituted heterocyclicalkyl; or R7 and Rs together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 5 to 7 member ring which may optionally comprise an additional heteroatom selected from O, N and S; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
7. 3 A. compound according to claim 1 selected from the group consisting of: Aii and Ar2, are independently, selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted phenyl and optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl; R6 is an optionally substituted saturated or partially unsaturated 58 membered ring system in which one or more rings contain one or more secondary or tertiary nitrogens; X is C(R1)p; R1 is hydrogen p is 2; m is 1 ; n is 1 ; Y is C(O), or S(O)q; wherein, q is 1 or 2; R2 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C| Cio alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3C|o cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted heterocylic, optionally substituted heterocyclicalkyl, optionally substituted aryl alkyl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl; R3 is selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C \ C 10 alkyl optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl, and optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl alkyl; wherein, when substituted, a group is substituted by one or more radicals selected from the group consisting of halogen, cyano, hydroxy, hydroxy substituted Ciioalkyl, Cjio alkoxy, S(O)nV C110 alkyl, C(O)R4, C(O)NR4R5; C(O)OH; S(O)2NR4R5, NHC(O)R4, NHS(O)2R4, C110 alkyl, alkenyl, and halosubstituted C|_io alkyl; wherein m' is O, 1 , or 2; R4 and R5, are independently, selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C110 alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aryl alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl; or R4 and R5 together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 5 to 7 member ring which may optionally comprise an additional heteroatom selected from O, and S; R7 and Rδ, are independently, selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted Cjio alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclic, and optionally substituted heterocyclicalkyl; or R7 and Rs together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 5 to 7 member ring which may optionally comprise an additional heteroatom selected from O, N and S; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
8. A. compound according to claim 1 selected from the group consisting of: Λ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3biphenylyl)methyl]3 oxo2,3dihydro1 Windene5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3biphenylyl)methyl]3 propanoylbenzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3acetylΛ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyI}3biphenylyl)methyl]3 (2oxopropyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3(ethyloxy)Λ/({6fluoro3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3acetylΛ/[(3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3acetylΛ/[(6(methyloxy)3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/[(3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/({3'[(1 S,4S)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept2ylmethyl]6fluoro3 biphenylyl}methyl)1 ,3benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3(ethyloxy)Λ/({6(methyloxy)3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/[(3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3biphenylyl)methyl]1 ,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3acetylΛ/({3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3acetylΛ/[(3'{[(3f?)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); ^{[βfluoroS'CIpiperazinylmethylJSbiphenylyllmethyljI .Sbenzodioxole 5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); methyl 3{[({3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3 biphenylylJmethyOaminolcarbonylJbenzoate bisCtrifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/({3'[(1.S,4S)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept2ylmethyl]6fluoro3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/({3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3acetylΛ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoN[(6(methyloxy)3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3(ethyloxy)Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylnnethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/{[6fluoro4'(methyloxy)3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); yV({3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3biphenylyl}methyl)1 ,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/{[6fluoro4'(methyloxy)3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}1,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3(ethyloxy)Λ/({3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3acetylΛ/({3I[(1 S,4S)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept2ylmethyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/({3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3biphenylyl}methyl)2,1 ,3 benzoxadiazole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}2,1,3benzoxadiazole5 carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/{[4',6difluoro3l(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}1 ,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3(methyloxy)Λ/({3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/{[4l,6difluoro3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/{[6(methyloxy)3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); methyl 3[({[3'(1 piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}amino)carbonyl]benzoate bis(trifluoroacetate); 3(methylsulfonyl)Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/[3(4methyl1piperazinyl)propyl]Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}octanamide tetrakis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/{[3'(1pipera2inylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}1 ,3benzodioxole5 carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); methyl 3{[({3'[(1 S,4S)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept2ylmethyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoate bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/{[3'[(1 S,4S)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept2ylmethyl]6 (methyloxy)3biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/({3'[(1 S,4S)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept2ylmethyl]3biphenylyl}methyl) 3(ethyloxy)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/{[6(methyloxy)3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}1 ,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/({3'[(1 S,4S)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1 ]hept2ylmethyl]3biphenylyl}methyl) 2, 1 ,3benzoxadiazole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/({3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3biphenylyl}methyl)3 (methylsulfonyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/{[3'(1 piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}3 (trifluoromethyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3(methyloxy)Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/{[3'[(1S,4S)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept2ylmethyl]6(methyloxy)3 biphenylylJmethylϊI .SbenzodioxoleScarboxamide bisCtrifluoroacetate); A/[(3'{[(3f?)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3biphenylyl)methyl]1 ,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyano/V[(3'{[(3R)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/({3'[(1S,4S)2,5cliazabicyclo[2.2.1]hθpl2ylmθlhyl]3biphθnylyl}methyl) 1 ,3benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); ^({S'fCIS^SJ^.δdiazabicyclofa^.ilhept^ylmethyllSbiphenylyljmethyl) 3(methylsulfonyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3chloro/V{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); (£)2phenylΛ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}ethenesulfonamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/({3'[(1R4/?)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept2ylmethyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/({3'[(1 S,4S)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept2ylmethyl]3biphenylyl}methyl) 3(methyloxy)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/{[3'(hexahydro1 H1 ,4diazepin1 ylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}1 ,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 4(methyloxy)Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzenesulfonamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/({3'[(4acetyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3biphenylyl}methyl)1 ,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide trifluoroacetate; Λ/({3'[(2,5dimethyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3biphenylyl}methyl)1,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); A/({3'[(3amino1pyrrolidinyl)methyl]3biphenylyl}methyl)1 ,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/({3'[(2,5dimethyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/({3'[(3pyrrolidinylamino)methyl]3biphenylyl}methyl)1 ,3benzodioxole5 carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/({3'[(4methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3biphenylyl}methyl)1 ,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3biphenylyl)methyl]3 (phenylcarbonyl)benzamide; 3(ethyloxy)Λ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; 3acetylA/[(4fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; 3(ethyloxy)A/[(4fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; Λ/[(4fluoro3'{[(3S)3nnethyl1piperazinyl]nnethyl}3biphenylyl)methyl]3 (phenylcarbonyl)benzamide; Λ/[(4fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3biphenylyl)methyl] 1 ,3benzodioxole5carboxamide; 3(2oxo1pyrrolidinyl)A/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; methyl 2[({[3'(1 piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}amino)carbonyl]benzoate; 3[(4chloro1 Hpyrazol1 yl)methyl]Λ/{[3'(1 piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 1 methylΛ/{[3'(1 piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}1 H1 ,2,3 benzotriazole6carboxamide; 3[(2hydroxyethyl)oxy]Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3[acetyl(methyl)amino]Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3[(3,4dichlorophenyl)carbonyl]Λ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1 piperazinyl]methyl}3biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; 3ethylΛ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; /V[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide trifluoroacetate; 3[(2,5dioxo4imidazolidinyl)methyl]Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; methyl {3[({[3'(1 piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}amino)carbonyl]phenyl}acetate; 3(3amino4,5dihydro1/7pyrazol1yl)Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide trifluoroacetate; 2'methylΛ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}3 biphenylcarboxamide; 3[(methylamino)sulfonyl]Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; yVmethylΛ/'{[3'(1pipera2inylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}1,3 benzenedicarboxamide; 3(3,5dimethyl4isoxazolyl)Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3[(methylsulfonyl)amino]Λ/{[3'(1 piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3cyanoA/[(4fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}2(3pyridinyl)1,3thiazole 4carboxamide; 3acetylΛ/{[3(6{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}2 pyridinyl)phenyl]methyl}benzamide trifluoroacetate; Λ/{[3(6{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}2pyridinyl)phenyI]methyl}3 (phenylcarbonyl)benzamide trifluoroacetate; 3acetylΛ/{[3(5{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}2 thienyl)phenyl]methyl}benzamide trifluoroacetate; Λ/{[3(6{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}2pyridinyl)phenyl]methyl}1 ,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide trifluoroacetate; 3(hydroxymethyl)Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3(ethyloxy)Λ/{[3(6{[(3S)3methyi1piperazinyl]methyl}2 pyridinyl)phenyl]methyl}benzamide trifluoroacetate; Λ/{[3'(1 piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}1 ,3 benzenedicarboxamide; Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}8quinolinecarboxamide; 3(aminosulfonyl)Λ/{[3l(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3[(3,4dichlorophenyl)carbonyl]Λ/{[3(6{[(3S)3methyl1 piperazinyl]methyl}2pyridinyl)phenyl]methyl}benzamide trifluoroacetate; Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}6(1 Hpyrrol1 yl)3 pyridinecarboxamide; and 3[(aminocarbonyl)amino]Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; or any other pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or nonsalt form thereof.
9. A compound according to claim 1 selected from the group consisting of: Λ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3biphenylyl)methyl]3 oxo2,3dihydro1 Hindene5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); ^[(θfluoroS'IICSSJSmethylipiperazinyllmethylJSbiphenylyOmethy∏S propanoylbenzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3acetylΛ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); /VfCΘfluoroS'^CSSJSmethylipiperazinylJmethylJSbiphenylyOmethylJS (2oxopropyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3(ethyloxy)Λ/({6fluoro3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3acetylΛ/[(3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3acetylΛ/[(6(methyloxy)3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/[(3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/({3'[(1 S,4S)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1 ]hept~2ylmethyl]6fluoro3 biphenylyl}methyl)1 ,3benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3(ethyloxy)Λ/({6(methyloxy)3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/[(3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3biphenylyl)methyl]1 ,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3acetylΛ/({3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3acetylΛ/[(3'{[(3R)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/{[6fluoro3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}1 ,3benzodioxole 5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); methyl 3{[({3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoate bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyano/V({3'[(1 S,4S)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept2ylmethyl]6fluoro3 biphenylyl}methy!)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoW({3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3acetylΛ/{[3l(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/[(6(methyloxy)3l{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3(ethyloxy)Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/{[6fluoro4'(methyloxy)3'(1piperazinylnnethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/({3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3biphenylyl}methyl)1 ,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); A/{[6fluoro4'(methyloxy)3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}1 ,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3(ethyloxy)Λ/({3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3acetylΛ/({3'[(1 S,4S)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept2ylmethyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/({3'[(3methyl1piperazinyl)methyl]3biphenylyl}methyl)2,1 ,3 benzoxadiazole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}2,1 ,3benzoxadiazole5 carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/{[4l,6difluoro3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}1 ,3 benzodioxole5carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); SCmethyloxyJAZ^S'fCSmethylipiperazinyOmethyllS biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/{[4',6difluoro3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyano/V{[6(methyloxy)3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); methyl 3[({[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}amino)carbonyl]benzoate bis(trifluoroacetate); 3(methylsulfonyl)Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/[3(4methyl1piperazinyl)propyl]Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylnnethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}octanamide tetrakis(trifluoroacetate); A/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}1 ,3benzodioxole5 carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); methyl 3{[({3'[(1 S,4S)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1 ]hept2ylmethyl]3 biphenylyl}methyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoate bis(trifluoroacetate); 3cyanoΛ/{[3'[(1S,4S)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept2ylmethyl]6 , (methyloxy)3biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); /V({3'[(1 S,4S)2,5diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept2ylmethyl]3biphenylyl}methyl) 3(ethyloxy)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyI1piperazinyl]methyl}3biphenylyl)methyl]3 (phenylcarbonyl)benzamide; 3(ethyloxy)Λ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; 3acetylΛ/[(4fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; 3(ethyloxy)Λ/[(4fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; A/[(4fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3biphenylyl)methyl]3 (phenylcarbonyl)benzamide; A/[(4fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3biphenylyl)methyl] 1 ,3benzodioxole5carboxamide; 3(2oxo1pyrrolidinyl)Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; methyl 2[({[3'(1 piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}amino)carbonyl]benzoate; 3[(4chloro1 Wpyrazol1yl)methyl]Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 1 methylΛ/{[3'(1 piperazinylmethyl)3biphenylyl]methyl}1 HA ,2,3 benzotriazole6carboxamide; 3[(2hydroxyethyl)oxy]Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3[acetyl(methyl)amino]Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3[(3,4dichlorophenyl)carbonyl]Λ/[(6fluoro3l{[(3S)3methyl1 piperazinyl]methyl}3biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; 3ethylΛ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; Λ/[(6fluoro3'{[(3S)3methyl1piperazinyl]methyl}3 biphenylyl)methyl]benzannide trifluoroacetate; and 3[(2,5dioxo4imidazolidinyl)methyl]Λ/{[3'(1piperazinylmethyl)3 biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; or any other pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or nonsalt form thereof.
10. A Pharmaceutical composition for the treatment of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediated diseases comprising a compound according to claim 1 and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier thereof.
11. A method of inhibiting the binding of acetylcholine to its receptors in a mammal in need thereof comprising administering a safe and effective amount of a compound according to claim 1.
12. A method of treating a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediated disease, wherein acetylcholine binds to said receptor, comprising administering a safe and effective amount of a compound according to claim 1.
13. A method according to claim 8 wherein the disease is selected from the group consisting of chronic obstructive lung disease, chronic bronchitis, asthma, chronic respiratory obstruction, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary emphysema and allergic rhinitis.
14. A method according to claim 9 wherein administration is via inhalation via the mouth or nose.
15. A method according to claim 10 wherein administration is via a medicament dispenser selected from a reservoir dry powder inhaler, a multidose dry powder inhaler or a metered dose inhaler.
16. A method according to claim 11 wherein the compound is administered to a human and has a duration of action of 12 hours or more.
17. A method according to claim 12 wherein the compound has a duration of action of 24 hours or more.
18. A method according to claim 13 wherein the compound has a duration of action of 36 hours or more.
Description:
Novel M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Antagonists

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to novel derivatives of biaryl amines, pharmaceutical compositions, processes for their preparation, and use thereof in treating M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediated diseases.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Acetylcholine released from cholinergic neurons in the peripheral and central nervous systems affects many different biological processes through interaction with two major classes of acetylcholine receptors - the nicotinic and the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) belong to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors that have seven transmembrane domains. There are five subtypes of mAChRs, termed M1-M5, and each is the product of a distinct gene. Each of these five subtypes displays unique pharmacological properties. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are widely distributed in vertebrate organs where they mediate many of the vital functions. Muscarinic receptors can mediate both inhibitory and excitatory actions. For example, in smooth muscle found in the airways, M3 mAChRs mediate contractile responses. For review, please see Caulfield (1993 Pharmac. Ther. 58:319-79). In the lungs, mAChRs have been localized to smooth muscle in the trachea and bronchi, the submucosal glands, and the parasympathetic ganglia. Muscarinic receptor density is greatest in parasympathetic ganglia and then decreases in density from the submucosal glands to tracheal and then bronchial smooth muscle. Muscarinic receptors are nearly absent from the alveoli. For review of mAChR expression and function in the lungs, please see Fryer and Jacoby (1998 Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158(5, pt 3) S 154-60). Three subtypes of mAChRs have been identified as important in the lungs, M1 , M2 and M3 mAChRs. The M3 mAChRs, located on airway smooth muscle, mediate muscle contraction. Stimulation of M3 mAChRs activates the enzyme phospholipase C via binding of the stimulatory G protein Gq/11 (Gs), leading to liberation of phosphatidyl inositol-4,5-bisphosphate, resulting in phosphorylation of contractile proteins. M3 mAChRs are also found on pulmonary submucosal glands. Stimulation of this population of M3 mAChRs results in mucus secretion. M2 mAChRs make up approximately 50-80% of the cholinergic receptor population on airway smooth muscles. Although the precise function is still unknown, they inhibit catecholaminergic relaxation of airway smooth muscle via inhibition of cAMP generation. Neuronal M2 mAChRs are located on postganglionic parasympathetic nerves. Under normal physiologic conditions, neuronal M2 mAChRs provide tight control of acetylcholine release from parasympathetic nerves. Inhibitory M2 mAChRs have also been demonstrated on sympathetic nerves in the lungs of some species. These receptors inhibit release of noradrenaline, thus decreasing sympathetic input to the lungs. M1 mAChRs are found in the pulmonary parasympathetic ganglia where they function to enhance neurotransmission. These receptors have also been localized to the peripheral lung parenchyma, however their function in the parenchyma is unknown. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor dysfunction in the lungs has been noted in a variety of different pathophysiological states. In particular, in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), inflammatory conditions lead to loss of inhibitory M2 muscarinic acetylcholine autoreceptor function on parasympathetic nerves supplying the pulmonary smooth muscle, causing increased acetylcholine release following vagal nerve stimulation (Fryer et al. 1999 Life Sci 64 (6-7) 449- 55). This mAChR dysfunction results in airway hyperreactivity and hyperresponsiveness mediated by increased stimulation of M3 mAChRs. Thus the identification of potent mAChR antagonists would be useful as therapeutics in these mAChR-mediated disease states. COPD is an imprecise term that encompasses a variety of progressive health problems including chronic bronchitis, chronic bronchiolitis and emphysema, and it is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Smoking is the major risk factor for the development of COPD; nearly 50 million people in the U.S. alone smoke cigarettes, and an estimated 3,000 people take up the habit daily. As a result, COPD is expected to rank among the top five as a world-wide health burden by the year 2020. Inhaled anti-cholinergic therapy is currently considered the "gold standard" as first line therapy for COPD (Pauwels et al. 2001 Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 163:1256-1276).

Despite the large body of evidence supporting the use of anti-cholinergic therapy for the treatment of airway hyperreactive diseases, relatively few anti¬ cholinergic compounds are available for use in the clinic for pulmonary indications. More specifically, in United States, Ipratropium Bromide (Atrovent©; and Combivent©, in combination with albuterol) is currently the only inhaled anti¬ cholinergic marketed for the treatment of airway hyperreactive diseases. While this compound is a potent anti-muscarinic agent, it is short acting, and thus must be administered as many as four times daily in order to provide relief for the COPD patient. In Europe and Asia, the long-acting anti-cholinergic Tiotropium Bromide (Spiriva©) was recently approved, however this product is currently not available in the United States. Thus, there remains a need for novel compounds that are capable of causing blockade at mAChRs which are long acting and can be administered once-daily for the treatment of airway hyperreactive diseases such as asthma and COPD. Since mAChRs are widely distributed throughout the body, the ability to apply anti-cholinergics locally and/or topically to the respiratory tract is particularly advantageous, as it would allow for lower doses of the drug to be utilized. Furthermore, the ability to design topically active drugs that have long duration of action, and in particular, are retained either at the receptor or by the lung, would allow the avoidance of unwanted side effects that may be seen with systemic anti¬ cholinergic use.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This invention provides for a method of treating a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) mediated disease, wherein acetylcholine binds to an M3 mAChR and which method comprises administering an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. This invention also relates to a method of inhibiting the binding of acetylcholine to its receptors in a mammal in need thereof which comprises administering to aforementioned mammal an effective amount of a compound of Formula (I). The present invention also provides for the novel compounds of Formula (I), and pharmaceutical compositions comprising a compound of Formula (I), and a pharmaceutical carrier or diluent. Compounds of Formula (I) useful in the present invention are represented by the structure: (R1)p

,^Nl -Λ /n Ar1 ^(X)m «b I R2 (D wherein Ar1 and Ar2, are independently, selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted phenyl and optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl; R6 is NR7R8, or an optionally substituted saturated or partially unsaturated 4-10 membered ring system in which one or more rings contain one or more secondary or tertiary nitrogens, and optionally contain one or more O, or S; X is C(R1)p, or C(O); wherein, when X is C(R1)p, m is an interger from O to 3; when X is C(O), m is 1 ; p is an interger from O to 2; n is an interger from O to 3; Y is C(O), S(OJq1 HNC(O), or OC(O); wherein, q is 1 or 2; R1 and R2 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C<|-Cio alkyl, optionally substituted C3-C-]n cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted heterocylic, optionally substituted heterocyclicalkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aryl alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl; R3 is selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C-|-C-|o alkyl, optionally substituted C3-C<io cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3-C-10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted aryl alkyl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl; wherein, when substituted, a group is substituted by one or more radicals selected from the group consisting of halogen, cyano, hydroxy, hydroxy substituted Ci-ioalkyl, C1-10 alkoxy, S(0)m' C1-10 alkyl, C(O)R4, C(0)NR4Rδ; C(O)OH; S(O)2NR4R5, NHC(0)R4, NHS(O)2R4, O∏o alkyl, alkenyl, halosubstituted Ci_io alkyl. optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl, wherein these aryl or heteroaryl moieties may be substituted one to two times by halogen, hydroxy, hydroxy substituted alkyi, Ci_io alkoxy, S(O)m'Ci- 10 alkyl, C1-10 alkyl, or halosubstituted C1-10 alkyl; and m1 is 0, 1 , or 2; R4 and Rs1 are independently, selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C1-10 a'M. optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3-C-10 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3-C-10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aryl alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl; or R4 and R5 together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 5 to 7 member ring which may optionally comprise an additional heteroatom selected from O, and S; . R7 and R8, are independently, selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C1-10 alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3-C<|o cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclic, and optionally substituted heterocyclicalkyl; or R7 and Rs together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 5 to 7 member ring which may optionally comprise an additional heteroatom selected from O, N and S; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present invention includes all hydrates, solvates, complexes and prodrugs of the compounds of this invention. Prodrugs are any covalently bonded compounds that release the active parent drug according to Formula I in vivo. If a chiral center or another form of an isomeric center is present in a compound of the present invention, all forms of such isomer or isomers, including enantiomers and diastereomers, are intended to be covered herein. Inventive compounds containing a chiral center may be used as a racemic mixture, an enantiomerically enriched mixture, or the racemic mixture may be separated using well-known techniques and an individual enantiomer may be used alone. In cases in which compounds have unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds, both the cis (Z) and trans (E) isomers are within the scope of this invention. In cases wherein compounds may exist in tautomeric forms, such as keto-enol tautomers, each tautomeric form is contemplated as being included within this invention whether existing in equilibrium or predominantly in one form. The meaning of any substituent at any one occurrence in Formula I or any subformula thereof is independent of its meaning, or any other substituent's meaning, at any other occurrence, unless specified otherwise. Abbreviations and symbols commonly used in the peptide and chemical arts are used herein to describe the compounds of the present invention. In general, the amino acid abbreviations follow the IUPAC-IUB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature as described in Eur. J. Biochem., 158, 9 (1984). For use herein the term "the aryl, heteroaryl, and heterocyclic containing moieties" refers to both the ring and the alkyl, or if included, the alkenyl rings, such as aryl, arylalkyl, and aryl alkenyl rings. The term "moieties" and "rings" may be interchangeably used throughout. As used herein, "optionally substituted" unless specifically defined shall mean such groups as hydrogen; halogen, such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine; cyano; hydroxy; hydroxy substituted Ci_ioalkyl; C1-10 alkoxy, such as methoxy or ethoxy; S(O)nV C1-1O alkvl> wherein m1 is O, 1 or 2, such as methyl thio, methyl sulfinyl or methyl sulfonyl; amino, mono & di-substituted amino, such as in the NR7R8 group; NHC(O)R7; C(O)NRyRs; C(O)R7; C(O)OH; S(O^NRyRs; NHS(0)2Ry, C-] -10 alkyl, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, or t-butyl; alkenyl, such as ethenyl, 1-propenyl, 2-propenyl, or 2-methyl-1-propenyl; halosubstituted C-j -10 alkyl, such CF3; an optionally substituted aryl, such as phenyl, or an optionally substituted arylalkyl, such as benzyl or phenethyl, optionally substituted heterocylic, optionally substituted heterocyclic alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl, wherein these aryl , heteroaryl, or heterocyclic moieties may be substituted one to two times by halogen; hydroxy; hydroxy substituted alkyl; C1-10 alkoxy; S(0)m'Ci_io alkyl; amino, mono & di- substituted alkyl amino, such as in the NRyRs group; C1-10 alkyl, or halosubstituted C1-10 alkyl, such as CF3. Suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts are well known to those skilled in the art and include basic salts of inorganic and organic acids, such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, methane sulphonic acid, ethane sulphonic acid, acetic acid, trifluoroacetic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, lactic acid, oxalic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, maleic acid, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, phenylacetic acid and mandelic acid. The following terms, as used herein, refer to: • "halo" or "halogen" - chloro, fluoro, bromo and iodo. • "C-|_inalkyr or "alkyl" - both straight and branched chain moieties of 1 to 10 carbon atoms, unless the chain length is otherwise limited, including, but not limited to, methyl, ethyl, A7-propyl, /so-propyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, /so-butyl, terf-butyl, /7-pentyl and the like. • "Ci_C-|o alkoxy" includes straight and branched chain radicals of the likes of -O-CH3, -O-CH2CH3, and the n-propoxy, isopropoxy, n-butoxy, sec-butoxy, isobutoxy, terf-butoxy, pentoxy, and hexoxy, and the like. • " C3.C10 cycloalkyl" is used herein to mean cyclic moiety, including but not limited to cyclopropyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, and the like. • "alkenyl" is used herein at all occurrences to mean straight or branched chain moiety of 2-10 carbon atoms, unless the chain length is limited thereto, including, but not limited to ethenyl, 1-propenyI, 2-propenyl, 2-methyl-1-propenyl, 1- butenyl, 2-butenyl and the like. • "aryl" - phenyl and naphthyl; • "heteroaryl" (on its own or in any combination, such as "heteroaryloxy", or "heteroaryl alkyl") - a 5-10 membered aromatic ring system in which one or more rings contain one or more heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of N, O or S, such as, but not limited, to pyrrole, pyrazole, furan, thiophene, quinoline, isoquinoline, quinazolinyl, pyridine, pyrimidine, oxazole, tetrazole, thiazole, thiadiazole, triazole, imidazole, or benzimidazole. • "heterocyclic" (on its own or in any combination, such as "heterocyclicalkyl") - a saturated or partially unsaturated 4-10 membered ring system in which one or more rings contain one or more heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of N, O, or S; such as, but not limited to, pyrrolidine, piperidine, piperazine, morpholine, tetrahydropyran, thiomorpholine, or imidazolidine. Furthermore, sulfur may be optionally oxidized to the sulfone or the sulfoxide. • "secondary nitrogen" is used herein to mean a nitrogen directly connected to one hydrogen, one optionally substituted carbon, and one optionally substituted carbon, C(O), or S(0)m'; where in m1 is 1 or 2. • "tertiary nitrogen" is used herein to mean a nitrogen directly connected to two independent optionally substituted carbons, and one optionally substituted carbon, C(O), or S(O)rτϊ; where in nϊ is 1 or 2. • "quaternary ammonium nitrogen" is used herein to mean a nitrogen directly connected to four independent optionally substituted carbons. • "arylalkyl" or "heteroarylalkyl" or "heterocyclicalkyl" is used herein to mean C-| _io alkyl, as defined above, attached to an aryl, heteroaryl or heterocyclic moiety, as also defined herein, unless otherwise indicated. • "sulfinyl" - the oxide S (O) of the corresponding sulfide, the term "thio" refers to the sulfide, and the term "sulfonyl" refers to the fully oxidized S(O)2 moiety.

The preferred compounds of Formula I include those, compounds wherein: Ar1 and Ar2, are independently, selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted phenyl and optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl; R6 is an optionally substituted saturated or partially unsaturated 4-10 membered ring system in which one or more rings contain one or more secondary or tertiary nitrogens; X is C(R1)p, m is an intergerfrom O to 3; p is 2; ! n is an interger from 1 to 3; Y is C(O), or S(O)q; wherein, q is 1 or 2; R1 is hydrogen R2 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C<| -Cio alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted heterocylic, optionally substituted heterocyclicalkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aryl alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl; R3 is selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted CI-C-I Q a'kyl. optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl, and optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl alkyl; wherein, when substituted, a group is substituted by one or more radicals selected from the group consisting of halogen, cyano, hydroxy, hydroxy substituted C-i-inalkyl, C-j-io alkoxy, S(O)nT C1-10 alkyl, C(O)R4, C(O)NR4R5; C(O)OH; S(O)2NR4R5, NHC(O)R4, NHS(O)2R4, CMO alkyl, alkenyl, halosubstituted C1-10 alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl, wherein these aryl or heteroaryl moieties may be substituted one to two times by halogen, hydroxy, hydroxy substituted alkyl, C1-10 alkoxy, S(O)m'Ci_ 10 alkyl, C1-10 alkyl, or halosubstituted C-|_io alkyl; and m' is O, 1 , or 2; R4 and R5_ are independently, selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C1-10 alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aryl alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl; or R4 and R5 together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 5 to 7 member ring which may optionally comprise an additional heteroatom selected from O, and S; R7 and R8, are independently, selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C-|_io alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3-C-|o cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclic, and optionally substituted heterocyclicalkyl; or R7 and Rs together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 5 to 7 member ring which may optionally comprise an additional heteroatom selected from O, N and S; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Even more preferred are those compounds where: Ar1 and Ar2, are independently, selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted phenyl and optionally substituted monocyclic heteroaryl; R6 is an optionally substituted saturated or partially unsaturated 5-8 membered ring system in which one or more rings contain one or more secondary or tertiary nitrogens; X is C(R1)p; R1 is hydrogen P is 2; m is 1 ; n is 1 ; Y is C(O)1 or S(O)q;wherein, q is 1 or 2; R2 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C-i-C-io alky'> optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3-C-10 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted heterocylic, optionally substituted heterocyclicalkyl, optionally substituted aryl alkyl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl; R3 is selected from the group consisting of optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C-i-C-jn alkyl, optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl, and optionally substituted C3-C-10 cycloalkyl alkyl; wherein, when substituted, a group is substituted by one or more radicals selected from the group consisting of halogen, cyano, hydroxy, hydroxy substituted Ci-inalkyl, Ci_io alkoxy, S(0)m' C-|_io alkyl, C(O)R4, C(O)NR4R5; C(O)OH; S(O)2NR4Rs, NHC(O)R4, NHS(O)2R4, C1-10 alkyl, alkenyl, and halosubstituted C1-10 alkyl; wherein m1 is O, 1 , or 2; R4 and Rs1 are independently, selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C1-10 alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3-C-10 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted aryl alkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, and optionally substituted heteroaryl alkyl; or R4 and R5 together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 5 to 7 member ring which may optionally comprise an additional heteroatom selected from O, and S; R7 and R8, are independently, selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, optionally substituted C1-10 alkyl, optionally substituted alkenyl, optionally substituted C3-C10 cycloalkyl, optionally substituted C3-C-jn cycloalkyl alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted arylalkyl, optionally substituted heteroaryl, optionally substituted heteroarylalkyl, optionally substituted heterocyclic, and optionally substituted heterocyclicalkyl; or R7 and Rs together with the nitrogen to which they are attached form a 5 to 7 member ring which may optionally comprise an additional heteroatom selected from O, N and S; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The preferred compounds are selected from the group consisting of: Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3-bi phenylyl)methyl]-3- oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 H-indene-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3-bi phenylyl)methyl]-3- propanoylbenzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-acetyl-Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]met hyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3-bi phenylyl)methyl]-3- (2-oxopropyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-(ethyloxy)-Λ/-({6-fluoro-3'-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)meth yl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-acetyl-Λ/-[(3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]meth yl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-acetyl-Λ/-[(6-(methyloxy)-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperaziny l]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-[(3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-({3'-[(1 S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1 ]hept-2-ylmethyl]-6-fluoro-3- biphenylyl}methyI)-1 ,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-(ethyloxy)-Λ/-({6-(methyloxy)-3'-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl )methyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); ' Λ/-[(3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1 -piperazinyl]methyl}-3-biphenylyl)methyl]-1 ,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-acetyl-Λ/-({3'-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-acetyl-Λ/-[(3'-{[(3R)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-{[6-fluoro-3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl} -1,3-benzodioxole- 5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); methyl 3-{[({3'-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoate bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-({3'-[(1 S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ylmethyl]-6-fluoro-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-({3'-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-acetyl-/V-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}b enzamicle bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-[(6-(methyloxy)-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl ]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-(ethyloxy)-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]met hyl}benzannide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-{[6-fluoro-44methyloxy)-341-piperazinylmethyl)-3 - biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-({3'-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-3-biphenylyl}methy l)-1 ,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); ^-{[β-fluoro^'-CmethyloxyJ-S'-CI-piperazinylnnethyO-S-biphe nylyllmethylJ-I .S- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-(ethyloxy)-Λ/-({3'-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)nriethyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-acetyl-Λ/-({3l-[(1 S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ylmethyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-({3'-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-3-biphenylyl}methy l)-2,1 ,3- benzoxadiazole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-2, 1 ,3-benzoxadiazole-5- carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-{[4',6-difluoro-3'-(1 -piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-1 ,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-(methyloxy)-Λ/-({3'-[(3-methyl-1 -piperazinyl)methyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-{[4',6-difluoro-3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-{[6-(methyloxy)-3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); methyl 3-[({[3'-(1 -piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}amino)carbonyl]benzoate bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-(methylsulfonyl)-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-[3-(4-methyl-1-pipera2inyl)propyl]-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazin ylmethyl)-3- biphenylyllmethylJoctanamide tetrakisCtrifluoroacetate); ^-{[S'-CI-piperazinylmethyO-S-biphenylyljmethylJ-I .S-benzodioxole-δ- carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); methyl a-fl^'-KIS^SJ^.δ-diazabicyclop.a.ilhepl^-ylmethyll-S- biphenylyl}methyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoate bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-{[3'-[(1 S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ylmethyl]-6- , (methyloxy)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); ^-({^-[(IS^SJ^.S-diazabicyclop^.ilhept^-ylmethyll-S-biphenyl ylJmethyl)- 3-(ethyloxy)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-{[6-(methyloxy)-3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]me thyl}-1 ,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); ^-({^-[(IS^SJ^.δ-diazabicyclop^.ilhept^-ylmethy∏-S-biphen ylylJmethyl)- 2,1 ,3-benzoxadiazole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-({3'-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-3-biphenylyl}methy l)-3- (methylsulfonyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyI]methyl}b enzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-3- (trifluoromethyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-(methyloxy)-Λ/-{[3l-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]me thyl}benzannide bis(trifluoroacetate); A/-{[3'-[(1S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ylmethyl]-6-( methyloxy)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}-1 ,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-[(3l-{[(3R)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3-biphenylyl) methyl]-1 ,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-[(3'-{[(3f?)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-({3'-[(1 S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1 ]hept-2-ylmethyl]-3-biρhenylyl}methyl)- 1 ,3-benzodioxole~5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); /V-^'-fCIS^SJ^.S-diazabicyclop^.ilhept^-ylmethyO-S-biphenyly lJmethyl)- 3-(methylsulfonyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); S-chloro-Λ/^fS'-CI-piperazinylmethyO-S-biphenylylJmethylJbe nzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); (£)-2-phenyl-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}ethenesulfonamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-({3l-[(1f?,4R)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ylm ethyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-({3'-[(1 S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1 ]hept-2-ylmethyl]-3-biphenylyl}methyl)- 3-(methyloxy)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-{[3'-(hexahydro-1 H- 1 ,4-diazepin-1 -ylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-1 ,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 4-(methyloxy)-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzenesulfonamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-({3'-[(4-acetyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-3-biphenylyl}methy l)-1 ,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide trifluoroacetate; /V-({3'-[(2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-3-biphenylyl}me thyl)-1 ,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); A/-({3'-[(3-amino-1-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-3-biphenylyl}methyl )-1 ,3- benzodioxoIe-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-({3'-[(2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-({3'-[(3-pyrrolidinylamino)methyl]-3-biphenylyl}nnethyl) -1 ,3-benzodioxole-5- carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-({3'-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-3-biphenylyl}methy l)-1 ,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3-bi phenylyl)methyl]-3- (phenylcarbonyl)benzamide; 3-(ethyloxy)-Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl ]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; 3-acetyl-A/-[(4-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]meth yl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; 3-(ethyloxy)-Λ/-[(4-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl ]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; Λ/-[(4-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]nnethyl}-3-b iphenylyl)methyl]-3- (phenylcarbonyl)benzamide; A/-[(4-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3-bip henylyl)methyl]- 1 ,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxamide; 3-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; methyl 2-[({[3'-(1 -piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}amino)carbonyl]benzoate; 3-[(4-chloro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methyl]-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinyl methyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 1 -methyl-Λ/-{[3'-(1 -piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-1 f/-1 ,2,3- benzotriazole-6-carboxamide; 3-[(2-hydroxyethyl)oxy]-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3-[acetyl(methyl)amino]-Λ/-{[3'-(1 -piperazinylmethyl)~3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)carbonyl]-Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3- methyl-1- piperazinyl]methyl}-3-biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; 3-ethyl-A/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methy l}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide trifluoroacetate; 3-[(2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)methyl]-Λ/-{[3l-(1-piperazin ylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; methyl {3-[({[3'-(1 -piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}amino)carbonyl]phenyl}acetate; 3-(3-amino-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazi nylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide trifluoroacetate; 2'-methyl-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl }-3- biphenylcarboxamide; 3-[(methylamino)sulfonyl]-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; Λ/-methyl-Λ/l-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyI)-3-biphenylyl]meth yl}-1 ,3- benzenedicarboxamide; S-CS^-dimethyl^-isoxazolyO-AZ-p'-CI-piperazinylmethyO-S- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3-[(methylsulfonyl)amino]-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3-cyano-Λ/-[(4-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]meth yl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; Λ/-{[3I-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-2-(3-pyr idinyl)-1 ,3-thiazole- 4-carboxamide; 3-acetyl-Λ/-{[3-(6-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-2- pyridinyl)phenyl]methyl}benzamide trifluoroacetate; Λ/-{[3-(6-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-2-pyridinyl )phenyl]methyl}-3- (phenylcarbonyl)benzamide trifluoroacetate; 3-acetyl-Λ/-{[3-(5-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-2- thienyl)phenyl]methyl}benzamide trifluoroacetate; Λ/-{[3-(6-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-2-pyridinyl )phenyl]methyl}-1,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide trifluoroacetate; 3-(hydroxymethyl)-A/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3-(ethyloxy)-Λ/-{[3-(6-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl }-2- pyridinyl)phenyl]methyl}benzamide trifluoroacetate; Λ/-{[3'-(1 -piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-1 ,3- benzenedicarboxamide; A/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-8-quinoli necarboxamide; 3-(aminosulfonyl)-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)carbonyl]-Λ/-{[3-(6-{[(3S)-3-methyl- 1- piperazinyl]methyl}-2-pyridinyl)phenyl]methyl}benzamide trifluoroacetate; Λ/-{[3'-(1 -piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-6-(1 H-pyrrol-1 -yl)-3- pyridinecarboxamide; and 3-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]-Λ/-{[3l-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; or any other pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or non-salt form thereof.

The most preferred compounds are selected from the group consisting of: Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3-bi phenylyl)methyI]-3- oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 H-indene-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3-bi phenylyl)methyl]-3- propanoylbenzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-acetyl-Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]met hyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3-bi phenylyl)methyl]-3- (2-oxopropyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-(ethyloxy)-Λ/-({6-fluoro-3l-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)meth yl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-acetyl-Λ/-[(3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyaήo-Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]met hyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-acetyl-Λ/-[(6-(methyloxy)-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperaziny l]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-A/-[(3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-({3'-[(1S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ylmethyl]-6- fluoro-3- biphenylyl}methyl)-1 ,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-(ethyloxy)-Λ/-({6-(methyloxy)-3'-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl )methyI]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-[(3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3-biphenylyl) methyl]-1 I3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-acetyl-/V-({3'-[(3-methyl-1 -piperazinyl)methyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-acetyl-Λ/-[(3'-{[(3/R)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-{[6-fluoro-3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl} -1 ,3-benzodioxole- 5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); methyl 3-{[({3'-[(3-methyl-1 -piperazinyl)methyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoate bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-({3'-[(1 S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1 ]hept-2-ylmethyl]-6-fluoro-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-({3'-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-acetyl-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl} benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-[(6-(methyloxy)-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-pipera2inyl ]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-(ethyloxy)-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]met hyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-{[6-fluoro-4I-(methyloxy)-3'-(1-piperazinylmethy l)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); /\Z-({3'-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-3-biphenylyl}methy l)-1 ,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); A/-{[6-fluoro-4'-(methyloxy)-3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biph enylyl]methyl}-1 ,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-(ethyloxy)-Λ/-({3'-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-acetyl-Λ/-({3'-[(1 S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1 ]hept-2-ylmethyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-({3'-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-3-biphenylyl}methy l)-2,1,3- benzoxadiazole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-2,1 ,3-benzoxadiazole-5- carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); /V-l^'.e-difluoro-S'-CI-piperazinylmethylJ-S-biphenylyllmeth ylJ-i^- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-(methyloxy)-Λ/-({3'-[(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)nnethyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-A/-{[4',6-difluoro-3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-{[6-(methyloxy)-3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); methyl 3-[({[3'-(1 -piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}amino)carbonyl]benzoate bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-(methylsulfonyl)-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperaziny!methyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-[3-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)propyl]-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazin ylmethyl)-3- biphenylylJmethylJoctanamide tetrakisCtrifluoroacetate); Λ/-{[3'-(1 -piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-1 ,3-benzodioxole-5- carboxamide bis(trifluoroacetate); methyl 3-{[({3'-[(1 S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1 ]hept-2-ylmethyl]-3- biphenylyl}methyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoate bis(trifluoroacetate); 3-cyano-Λ/-{[3l-[(1 S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ylmethyl]-6- (methyloxy)-3-biphenyIyl]methyl}benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-({3'-[(1 S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ylmethyl]-3-biphenylyl}m ethyl)- 3-(ethyloxy)benzamide bis(trifluoroacetate); Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3-bi phenylyl)methyl]-3- (phenylcarbonyl)benzamide; 3-(ethyloxy)-Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl ]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; 3-acetyl-Λ/-[(4-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]met hyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; 3-(ethyloxy)-Λ/-[(4-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl ]methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; • A/-[(4-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3-bip henylyl)nnethyl]-3- (phenylcarbonyl)benzamide; Λ/-[(4-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl}-3-bi phenylyl)methyl]- 1 ,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxamide; 3-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl)-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; methyl 2-[({[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}amino)carbonyl]benzoate; 3-[(4-chloro-1 H-pyrazol-1 -yl)methyl]-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 1 -methyl-Λ/-{[3'-(1 -piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-1 HA ,2,3- benzotriazole-6-carboxamide; 3-[(2-hydroxyethyl)oxy]-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3-[acetyl(methyl)amino]-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; 3-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)carbonyl]-/V-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-m ethyl-1- piperazinyl]methyI}-3-biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; 3-ethyl-Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]meth yl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide; Λ/-[(6-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]πnethyl}-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide trifluoroacetate; and 3-[(2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)methyl]-Λ/-{[3'-(1-pipera2in ylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide; or any other pharmaceutically acceptable salt, or non-salt form thereof.

Methods of Preparation

Preparation The compounds of Formula (I) may be obtained by applying synthetic procedures, some of which are illustrated in the Schemes below. The synthesis provided for these Schemes is applicable for producing compounds of Formula (I) having a variety of different R1 , R2, and R3, which are reacted, employing substituents which are suitable protected, to achieve compatibility with the reactions outlined herein. Subsequent deprotection, in those cases, then affords compounds of the nature generally disclosed. While some Schemes are shown with specific compounds, this is merely for illustration purpose only. Preparation 1 As shown in Scheme 1 , bromo benzylamines 1 were loaded onto 2,6- dimethoxy-4-polystyrenebenzyloxy-benzaldehyde (DMHB resin) via reductive amination. The resin-bound amines 2 were reacted with various sulfonyl chlorides to yield sulfonamides 3, which underwent Suzuki coupling with substituted formyl phenyl boronic acids to give biphenylaldehydes 4. Reductive alkylation of 4 with amines, followed by cleavage with 20% of trifluoroacetic acid in dichoroethane, afforded desired products 5. Scheme 1 Conditions: a) DMHB resin, Na(OAc)3BH, diisopropylethylamine, acetic acid, 1- methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, rt; b) RISO2CI, pyridine, dichloroethane, rt; c) substituted formyl phenyl-boronic acid, Pd(PPh3)4, K2CO3, dimethoxyethane, 8O0C; d) NHR2R3, Na(OAc)3BH, Na2SO4, dichloroethane, rt; e) 20% of trifluoroacetic acid in dichoroethane, rt.

SYNTHETIC EXAMPLES

The invention will now be described by reference to the following Examples which are merely illustrative and are not to be construed as a limitation of the scope of the present invention. Most reagents and intermediates are commercially available or are prepared according to procedures in the literature. The preparation of intermediates not described in the literature is illustrated below.

Flash column chromatography was carried out using Merck 9385 silica unless stated otherwise.

LC/MS analyses were conducted under the following conditions unless stated otherwise.

• Column: 3.3cm x 4.6mm ID, 3um ABZ+PLUS • Flow Rate: 3ml/min • Injection Volume: 5μl • Temp: Room temperature • Solvents: A: 0.1% Formic Acid + IOmMolarAmmonium Acetate. B: 95% Acetonitrile + 0.05% Formic Acid Gradient: Time A% B% 0.00 100 0 0.70 100 0 4.20 0 100 5.30 0 100 5.50 100 0

The Mass Directed Automated Preparative (MDAP) was conducted under the conditions described in System A or in System B unless stated otherwise. System A: Formate salts • The preparative column used was a Supelcosil ABZplus (1 Ocm x 2.12cm internal diameter; particle size 5m) • UV detection wavelength : 200-32OnM • Flow rate : 20ml/min • Injection Volume: 0.5ml • Solvent A : 0.1 % formic acid • Solvent B : 95% acetonitrile + 0.05% formic acid

System B TFA salts

• The preparative column used was a Supelcosil ABZplus (10cm x 2.12cm internal diameter; particle size 5m) • UV detection wavelength : 200-320 nM

• Flow rate : 20 ml/min • Injection Volume: 0.5 ml • Solvent A : water + 0.1 % trifluoroacetic acid • Solvent B : acetonitrile + 0.1 % trifluoroacetic acid

The Gilson preparatory HPLC was conducted under the following conditions unless stated otherwise.

• Column: 75 x 33mm I. D. , S-5um, 12nm • Flow rate: 30mL/min • Injection Volume: 0.800 ml_ • Room temperature • Solvent A: 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid in water • Solvent B: 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile Example 1 Preparation of 4-(methyloxy)-ΛMr3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylv∏methvDbenzenesulfonamide a) DMHB resin-bound 3-bromo-benzylamine To a 250 mL shaker vessel was added 2,6-dimethoxy-4- polystyrenebenzyloxy-benzaldehyde (DMHB resin) (10 g, 1.5 mmol/g, 15 mmol) and 150 mL of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP). 3-Bromo-benzylamine HCI salt (17 g, 75 mmol), diisopropylethylamine (DIEA) (13 mL, 75 mmol), acetic acid (HOAc) (15 mL), and Na(OAc)3BH (19.1 g, 90 mmol) were then added. The resulting mixture was shaken at rt for overnight, and was then washed with NMP (150 mL x 2), dichloromethane (DCM) (150 mL x 2), MeOH (150 mL x 2) and DCM (150 mL x 2). The resulting resin was dried in vacuum oven at 35 0C for overnight to yield DMHB resin-bound 3-bromo-benzylamine (15 mmol).

b) 4-(Methyloxy)-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]me thyl} benzenesulfonamide To a mixture of the above resin-bound 3-bromo-benzylamine (1a, 2 g, 1.2 mmol/g (theoretical loading), 2.4 mmol) in 80 mL of dichloroethane (DCE) was added 4-methoxybenzenesulfonyl chloride (5.0 g, 24 mmol) and pyridine (13 mL, 160 mmol). The mixture was shaken at rt for overnight, and was then washed with DCM (100 mL x 2), MeOH (100 mL x 2) and DCM (100 mL x 2). The resulting resin was dried in vacuum oven at 35 0C for overnight. An analytical amount of the resin was cleaved with 20% of trifluoroacetic acid in DCE for 10 min. The resulting solution was concentrated in vacuo and dissolved in 0.5 mL of MeOH. MS (ESI): 356 [M+H]+. To a mixture of the above resin-bound Λ/-[(3-bromophenyl)methyl]-4- (methyloxy)benzenesulfonamide (3.38 g, 0.99 mmol/g (theoretical loading), 3.35 mmol) in 83 mL of dimethoxyethane (DME) was added 3-formylphenyl boronic acid (1.49 g, 9.93 mmol), 2 M K2CO3 aqueous solution (5 mL, 9.93 mmol) and Pd(PPh3)4 (0.19 g, 0.17 mmol). After purged with argon for 5-10 min, the mixture was heated at 80 0C for 10 h under argon. The resin was then washed with tetrahydrofuran (THF) (100 mL x 2), THRH2O (1 :1 , 100 mL x 2), H2O (100 mL x 2), THF:H2O (1:1 , 100 mL x 2), THF (100 mL x 2), DCM (100 mL x 2), and dried in vacuum oven at 35 0C for overnight. An analytical amount of the resin was cleaved with 20% of TFA in DCE for 10 min. The resulting solution was concentrated in vacuo and dissolved in 0.5 mL of CH3CN. MS (ESI): 382 [M+H]+. To a mixture of the above resin-bound Λ/-[(3'-formyl-3-biphenylyl)methyl]-4- (methyloxy)benzenesulfonamide (400 mg, 0.97 mmol/g (theoretical loading), 0.388 mmol) in 17 mL of DCE was added Na2SO4 (0.24 g, 1.68 mmol) and 1,1- dimethylethyl 1-piperazinecarboxylate (0.31 g, 1.68 mmol). After shaking at rt for 10 min, Na(OAc)3BH (0.43g, 2.02mmol) was added. The mixture was shaken at rt for overnight, and was then washed with THF (100 mL x 2), THF:H2O (1:1, 100 mL x 2), H2O (100 mL x 2), THF:H2O (1:1 , 100 mL x 2), THF (100 mL x 2), DCM (100 mL x 2). The resulting resin was dried in vacuum oven at 35 0C for overnight and was cleaved with 6 mL of 20% of TFA in DCE for 30 min and treated again with 6 mL of 20% of TFA in DCE for 30 min. The combined cleavage solution was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in DMSO and purified using a Gilson semi-preparative HPLC system with a YMC ODS-A (C-18) column 50 mm by 20 mm ID, eluting with 10% B to 90% B in 3.2 min, hold for 1 min where A = H2O (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) and B = CH3CN (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) pumped at 25 mL/min, to produce 4-(methyloxy)-Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzenesulfonamide as a bis-trifluoroacetate salt (white powder, 80 mg, 46% over 5 steps). MS (ESI): 452 [M+H]+.

Proceeding in a similar manner, but replacing 4-methoxybenzene sulfonyl chloride with the appropriate sulfonyl chlorides, and/or replacing 1,1-dimethylethyl 1-piperazinecarboxylate with the appropriate amines, the compounds listed in Tables 1 and 2 were prepared. Table 1 Example NR2R3 MS [M+H]+ 2 pyrrolidin-1-yl 437 3 hexahydro-azepin-1-yl 465 4 4-methyl-piperazin-1 -yl 466 5 4-methyl-hexahydro-1 ,4-diazepin-1 -yl 480 6 4-ethyl-piperazin-1 -yl 480 7 3-amino-pyrrolidin-1 -yl 452 8 Λ/,Λ/-diethyl-amino 439 9 Λ/-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl],Λ/-methyl-amino 468 10 hexahydro-1 ,4-diazepin-1 -yl 466 11 (1 S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1 ]hept-2-yl 464 12 Λ/-piperidin-3-yl-amino 466 13 Λ/-pyrrolidin-3-yl-amino 452 14 piperidin-1-yl 451 Table 2 Example R1 MS [M+H]+ 15 2,3-dihydro-1 ,4-benzodioxin-6-yI 480 16 3,4-methylenedioxy-phenyl 466 17 (7£)-2-phenyl-ethen-1 -yl 448 18 4-(1-methylethyl)-phenyl 464 19 4-n-propyl-phenyl 464 20 3-chloro-phenyl 456 21 2-naphthyl 472 22 5-(Λ/,Λ/-dimethylamino)-1-naphthyl 515 23 3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl 482 24 3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl 490 25 4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl 490 26 4-(trifluoromethoxy)-phenyl 506 27 4-biphenyl 498 28 8-quinolinyl 473 29 1-naphthyl 472 30 2-fluoro-phenyl 440 31 4-chloro-2,5-dimethyl-phenyl 484 32 2,4,6-trimethyl-phenyl 464 33 2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl 490 34 2,5-dimethoxy-phenyl 482 35 4-fluoro-phenyl 440

Preparation 2 The resin-bound bromobenzylamines 2 were reacted with acids to yield amides 6, which underwent Suzuki coupling with substituted formyl phenyl boronic acids to give biphenylaldehydes 7 (Scheme 2). Reductive alkylation of 7 with amines, followed by cleavage, afforded desired products 8. Scheme 2

x

Conditions: a) RICO2H, 1 ,3-diisopropylcarbodiimide (DIC), DCM:dimethylforamide (DMF) = 1 :1 , rt; b) various formyl phenyl-boronic acids, Pd(PPh3)4, K2CO3, DME, 8O0C; c) NHR2R3, Na(OAc)3BH, Na2SO4, DCM, rt; d) 20% of TFA in DCE, rt

Example 36 Preparation of N-f F3'-(1 -piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenyly∏methyl)-1 ,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide a) DMHB resin-bound Λ/-[(3-bromophenyl)methyl]-1 ,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxamide To a mixture of DMHB resin-bound 3-bromo-benzylamine (1a, 2 g, 1.2 mmol/g (theoretical loading), 2.4 mmol) in DCE/DMF (1 :1 , 80 ml.) was added piperonylic acid (4.0 g, 24 mmol) and DIC (3.7 mL, 24 mmol). The mixture was shaken at rt for overnight and was then washed with DMF (100 mL x 2), DCM (100 mL x 2), MeOH (100 mL x 2) and DCM (100 mL x 2). The resulting resin was dried in vacuum oven at 35 0C for overnight to yield DMHB resin-bound Λ/-[(3- bromophenyi)methyl]-1 ,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxamide (2.4 mmol). An analytical amount of the resin was cleaved with 20% of TFA in DCE for 10 min. The resulting solution was concentrated in vacuo and dissolved in 0.5 mL of MeOH. MS (ESI): 334 [M+H]+.

b) Λ/-{[3'-(1 -piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-1 ,3-benzodioxole-5- carboxamide To a mixture of DMHB resin-bound Λ/-[(3-bromophenyl)methyl]-1 ,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide (36a, 3.03 g, 1.0 mmol/g (theoretical loading), 3.03 mmol) in 76 mL of DME was added 3-formylphenyl boronic acid (1.36 g, 9.09 mmol), 2 M K2CO3 aqeous solution (4.5 mL, 9.09 mmol), and Pd(PPh3)4 (0.18 g, 0.15 mmol). After purged with argon for 5-10 min, the mixture was heated at 80 0C under argon for 10 h. The resulting resin was washed with THF (100 ml_ x 2), THF:H2O (1:1 , 100 mL x 2), H2O (100 mL x 2), THF:H2O (1 :1, 100 mL x 2), THF (100 mL x 2), DCM (100 mL x 2), and dried in vacuum oven at 35 0C for overnight. An analytical amount of the resin was cleaved with 20% of TFA in DCM for 10 min. The resulting solution was concentrated in vacuo and dissolved in 0.5 mL of CH3CN. MS (ESI): 360 [M+H]+. To a mixture of the above resin (400 mg, 0.99 mmol/g, 0.40 mmol) in 17 mL of DCE was added Na2SO4 (0.24 g, 1.7 mmol) and 1 ,1-dimethylethyl 1- piperazinecarboxylate (0.32 g, 1.7 mmol). After shaking for 10min, Na(OAc)3BH (0.43 g, 2.04 mmol) was added. After shaken at rt for overnight, the resin was washed with THF (100 mL x 2), THF:H2O (1:1, 100 mL x 2), H2O (100 mL x 2), THF:H2O (1 :1, 100 mL x 2), THF (100 mL x 2), DCM (100 mL x 2) and dried in vacuum oven at 350C for overnight. The resulting resin was cleaved with 8 mL of 20% of TFA in DCE for 30 min and treated again with 8 mL of 20% of TFA in DCE for 30 min. The combined cleavage solution was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in DMSO and purified using a Gilson semi-preparative HPLC system with a YMC ODS-A (C-18) column 50 mm by 20 mm ID, eluting with 10% B to 90% B in 3.2 min, hold for 1 min where A = H2O (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) and B = CH3CN (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) pumped at 25 mL/min, to produce Λ/-{[3'-(1- piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-1,3-benzodioxole-5-c arboxamide as a bis- trifluoroacetate salt (white powder, 100 mg, 58% over 5 steps). MS (ESI): 430 [MH-H]+.

Proceeding in a similar manner, but replacing piperonylic acid with the appropriate acids, and/or replacing 1 ,1-dimethylethyl 1-piperazinecarboxylate with the appropriate amines, and/or replacing 3-bromo-benzylamine with appropriate bromobenzylamines, and/or replacing 3-formylphenyl-boronic acid with appropriate formylphenyl boronic acids, the compounds listed in Tables 3 - 13 were prepared. Table 3 Example NR2R3 MS [M+Hf 37 pyrrolidin-1-yl 415 38 hexahydro-azepin-1-yl 443 39 4-methyl-piperazin-1 -yl 444 40 4-methyl-hexahydro-1 ,4-diazepin-1-yl 458 41 4-acetyl-piperazin-1 -yl 472 42 4-ethyl-piperazin-1 -yl 458 43 3-amino-pyrrolidin-1 -yl 430 44 Λ/,Λ/-diethy-lamino 417 45 4-methyl-piperidin-1 -yl 443 46 hexahydro-1 ,4-diazepin-1-yl 444 47 3-amino-piperidin-1 -yl 444 48 (1 S,4S)-2,5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl 442 49 Λ/-methyl,Λ/-butyl-amino- 431 50 Λ/-piperidin-3-yl-amino 444 51 Λ/-piperidin-4-yl-amino 444 52 Λ/-(hexahydro-azepin-4-yl)-amino 458 53 Λ/-pyrrolidin-3-yl-amino 430 54 Λ/-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl],Λ/-methyl-amino 460 55 piperidin-1-yl 429 56 4-formylpiperazin-1 -yl 458 Table 4 Example R1 MS[M+H]+ 57 3,4-dimethoxy-phenyl 446 58 3,4-dichloro-phenyl 454 59 2-naphthyl 436 60 2-quinolinyl 437 61 3-quinolinyl 437 62 4-quinolinyl 437 63 4-pyridinyl 387 64 3-pyridinyl 387 65 2-pyridinyl 387 66 benzofuran-2-yl 426 67 benzothiophen-2-yl 442 68 1 H-indoI-2-yl 425 69 1 H-indol-3-yl 425 70 2-furanyl 376 71 thiophen-3-yl 392 72 3-furanyl 376 73 2-methoxy-phenyl 416 74 2-cyano-phenyl 411 75 2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl 454 76 2-chloro-phenyl 420 77 3-methoxy-phenyl 416 78 3-cyano-phenyl 411 79 3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl 454 80 3-chloro-phenyl 420 81 4-methoxy-phenyl 416 82 4-cyano-phenyl 411 83 4-trifluoromethyl-phenyl 454 84 4-chloro-phenyl 420 85 cyclopropyl 350 86 cyclohexyl 392 87 1-naphthyl 436 88 2,3-methylenedioxy-phenyl 430 89 4-biphenyl 462 90 4-(1 , 1 -dimethylethyl)-phenyl 442 91 4-(but-1-yl)-phenyl 442 92 1 -propyl 352 93 1 -butyl 366 94 1-pentyl 380 95 1-hexyl 394 96 1-heptyl 408 97 thiophen-2-yl 392 98 3-acetyl-phenyl 428 99 3-ethoxy-phenyl 430 100 3-(methoxycarbonyl)-phenyl 444 101 3-methylsulfonyl-phenyl 464 102 2,2-difluoro-benzo[1 ,3]dioxol-5-yl 466 103 benzothiazol-6-yl 443 104 3,4-dihydro-2 H-henzo[b][1 ,4]dioxepin-7-yl 458 105 benzo[1 ,2,5]oxadiazol-5-yl 428 106 2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-6-yl 444 107 2,3-dihydro-benzofuran-5-yl 428 108 3-(phenylcarbonyl)-phenyl 490 109 3-methyl-phenyl 400 110 3-acetylamino-phenyl 443 111 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl 432 112 3-ethyl-phenyl 414 113 3-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl 470 114 3-fluoro-phenyl 404 115 3-(toluene-4-sulfonylamino)-phenyl 555 116 3-hydroxy-phenyl 402 117 3-phenoxy-phenyl 478 118 3 /-/-benzoimidazol-5-yl 426 119 4-methoxy-3-hydroxy-phenyl 432 120 phenyl 386 121 phenoxymethyl 416 122 2-methyl-propen-1 -yl 364 123 2-phenyl-ethen-1-yl 412 124 4-nitro-phenyl 431 NH

Table 5 Example R1 MS [M+H]+ 125 3-acetyl-phenyl 442 126 3-ethoxy-phenyl 444 127 3-(methoxycarbonyl)-phenyl 458 128 3-methylesulfonyl-phenyl 478 129 2,2-difluoro-benzo[1 ,3]dioxol-5-yl 480 130 benzothiazol-6-yl 457 131 3,4-dihydro-2 /-/-benzo[6][1 ,4]dioxepin-7-yl 472 132 benzo[1 ,2,5]oxadiazol-5-yl 442 133 2,3-dihydro-benzo[1 ,4]dioxin-6-yl 458 134 2 , 3-dihydro-benzofu ran-5-yI 442 135 3-(phenylcarbonyl)-phenyl 504 136 3-methyl-phenyl 414 137 3-acetylamino-phenyl 457 138 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl 446 139 3-ethyl-phenyl 428 140 3-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl 484 141 3-fluoro-phenyl 418 142 3-(toluene-4-sulfonylamino)-phenyl 569 143 3-hydroxy-phenyl 416 144 3-phenoxy-phenyl 492 145 3 W-benzoimidazol-5-yl 440 146 4-methoxy-3-hydroxy-phenyl 446 Table 6 Example R1 MS [M+H]+ 147 3-acetyl-phenyl 440 148 3-ethoxy-phenyl 442 149 3-(methoxycarbony)-phenyl 456 150 3-methylsulfonyl-phenyl 476 151 2,2-difluoro-benzo[1 ,3]dibxol-5-yl 478 152 benzothiazol-6-yl 455 153 3,4-dihydro-2 H-benzo[b][1 ,4]dioxepin-7-yl 470 154 benzo[1 ,2,5]oxadiazol-5-yl 440 155 2,3-dihydro-benzo[1 ,4]dioxin-6-yl 456 156 2,3-dihydro-benzofuran-5-yl 440 157 3-(phenylcarbonyl)-phenyl 502 158 3-methyl-phenyl 412 159 3-acetylamino-phenyl 455 160 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl 444 161 3-ethyl-phenyl 426 162 3-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl 482 163 3-fluoro-phenyl 416 164 ■ 3-(toluene-4-sulfonylamino)-phenyl 567 165 3-hydroxy-phenyl 414 166 3-phenoxy-phenyl 490 167 3 H-benzoimidazol-5-yl 438 168 4-methoxy-3-hydroxy-phenyl 444 O

Table 7 Example R1 NR2R3 MS [M+H]+ 169 3-cyano-phenyl (1S,4S)-2,5- 423 diazabicyclo[2.2.1 ]hept-2-yl 170 3-methoxy-phenyl (1S,4S)-2,5- 428 diazabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl 171 . 3,4-methylenedioxy-phenyl 1 -azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl 470 172 3-cyano-phenyl 1 -azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl 451 173 3-cyano-phenyl hexahydro-1 ,4-diazepin-i-yl 425 174 3-methoxy-phenyl hexahydro-1 ,4-diazepin-1-yl 430 175 3,4-methylenedioxy-phenyl 2,5-dimethyl-piperazin-1-yl 458 176 3-cyano-phenyl 2,5-dimethyl-piperazin-1 -yl 439 177 3-methoxy-phenyl 2,5-dimethyl-piperazin-1 -yl 444 178 3,4-methylenedioxy-phenyl 3-methyl-piperazin-1-yl 444 179 3-cyano-phenyl 3-methyl-piperazin-1 -yl 425 180 3-methoxy-phenyI 3-methyl-piperazin-1 -yl 430 181 3,4-methylenedioxy-phenyl 3,5-dimethyl-piperazin-1-yl 458 182 3-cyano-phenyl 3,5-dimethyl-piperazin-1 -yl 439 183 3-methoxy-phenyl 3,5-dimethyl-piperazin-1 -yl 444

O

Table 8 Example R1 R2 MS [M+H]+ 184 hydrogen 4'-methoxy 441 185 hydrogen 6'-fluoro 429 186 hydrogen 6'-methoxy 441 O

Table 9 Example R1 R2 MS [M+H]+ 187 hydrogen 4'-methoxy 460 188 hydrogen 6'-fluoro 448 189 hydrogen 6'-methoxy 460

H

. H "

Table 10 Example R1 R2 MS [M+H]+ 190 hydrogen 4'-methoxy 453 191 hydrogen 6'-fluoro 441 192 hydrogen 6'-methoxy 453

H

H

Table 11 Example R1 R2 MS [M+H]+ 193 hydrogen 4'-methoxy 472 194 hydrogen 6'-fluoro 460 195 hydrogen 6'-methoxy 472 Table 12

Example Compound MS [M+H]+

196 NC. 411

O NH

197 430

k/NH

198 >%>>H NH 460

199 NH

NC 423

200 NH

442

Table 13 Example Compound MS [M+H]+

201

442

202

425 203 O 444

204 O 474

205 474 O

206 472

207 O O 442

208 O 425

209 444

O O 210 460 O O 211 472 OMe

O 212 443

O 213 455 OMe

214 EtO 462

215 EtO 474

OMe

6-Carboxy-1-indanone used as the starting material of example 206 was prepared according to the following procedure: 3-(4-carboxyphenyl)propionic acid (5 g, 0.026 mol), frash AICI3 (25 g, 7.2 eq, 0.187 mol), and NaCI (2.5 g, 10% w/w of AICI3 used) were loaded into a 100 mL flask fitted with a condenser and internal thermometer going to the bottom of the flask. The flask was shaken briefly to mix the solids, then heated in an oil bath set to 190 °C. Internal temperature was held at or above 180° C for 1 h (reaction will fuse to form a dark brown liquid), then the mixture was cooled, and washed with water into a 2000 mL beaker containing ice. 180 mL of 6 M HCI and 250 mL of EtOAc were added. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer extracted with EtOAc (3 x 200 mL). Combined organic layers were washed with 2 M HCI, water, and brine, dried with MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to yield 6-carboxy-1-indanone (4.1O g, 90%) as a light brown solid directly used for the next step synthesis. Preparation 3 Chloro substituted benzylamines 9 were loaded onto the DMHB resin (Scheme 3). The resin-bound amines 10 were reacted with acids to yield amides 11 , which underwent Suzuki coupling (using different conditions from preparation 2) to give biphenylaldehydes 7. Reductive alkylation of 7 with amines, followed by cleavage, afforded the desired products 8.

Conditions: a) DMHB resin, Na(OAc)3BH, HOAc, NMP, rt; b) RICO2H, DIC, DCM:DMF=1 :1 , rt; c) various formyl phenyl-boronic acids, Pd(OAc)2, 2-(di-tert- butylphosphino)- biphenyl, KF, THF, 65 0C; d) NHR2R3, Na(OAc)3BH, Na2SO4, DCE, rt; e) 50% of TFA in DCE, rt.

Example 216 Preparation of 3-cyano-/V-( r6-fluoro-2'-(methyloxy)-5'-(1 -piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenvlv∏methyllbenzamide

To a 50 ml_ shaker vessel was added 2,6-dimethoxy~4- polystyrenebenzyloxy-benzaldehyde (DMHB resin) (2 g, 1.5 mmol/g, 3 mmol) and 25 mL of NMP. 3-Chloro-4-fluorobenzylamine (1.92 g, 12 mmol), HOAc (2.5 mL, 10%), and Na(OAc)3BH (3.18 g, 15 mmol) were then added. The mixture was shaken at rt for overnight. The resutling resin was washed with NMP (25 mL x 2), DCM (25 mL x 2), MeOH (25 mL x 2) and DCM (25 mL x 2) and dried in vacuum oven at 35 0C for overnight to yield DMHB resin-bound 3-chloro-4- fluorobenzylamine. To amixture of the above resin (0.07 g, 1.2 mmol/g (theoretical loading), 0.084 mmol) in DCE:DMF (1:1 , 3 mL) was added 3-cyanobenzoic acid (0.124 g, 0.84 mmol) and DIC (131 uL, 0.84 mmol). The mixture was shaken at rt for overnight. The resulting resin was washed with DMF (2 mL x 2), DCM (2 ml_ x 2), MeOH (2 mL x 2) and DCM (2 mL x 2), and dried in vacuum oven at 35 0C for overnight. An analytical amount of the resin was cleaved with 50% of TFA in DCE for 30 min. The resulting solution was concentrated in vacuo and dissolved in 0.5 mL of MeOH. MS (ESI): 289 [M+H]+. To a mixture of the above resin-bound Λ/-[(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)methyl]- 3-cyanobenzamide (0.081 g, 1.04 mmol/g (theoretical loading), 0.084 mmol) in 3 mL of THF was added Pd(OAc)2 (0.015 g, 0.0672 mmol), 2-(di-tert- butylphosphino)biphenyl (0.04O g, 0.134 mmol), (5-formyl-2-methoxyphenyl)boronic acid (0.181 g, 1.01 mmol) and potassium fluoride (0.117 g, 2.016 mmol). The resulting mixture was purged with argon for 10 min and was then shaken at 65 0C for 16 h. The resin was washed with THF (2 mL x 2), THF:H2O (1 :1, 2 mL x 2), H2O (2 mL x 2), THRH2O (1 :1 , 2 mL x 2), THF (2 mL x 2), DCM (2 mL x 2), and dried in vacuum oven at 35 0C for overnight. An analytical amount of the resin was cleaved with 50% of TFA in DCE for 30 min. The resulting solution was concentrated in vacuo and dissolved in 0.5 mL of CH3CN. MS (ESI): 389 [M+H]+. To a mixture of the above resin-bound 3-cyano-Λ/-{[6-fluoro-5'-formyl-2'- (methyloxy)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide (0.079 g, 0.94 mmol/g (theoretical loading), 0.084 mmol) in DCE (4 mL) was added Na2SO4 (0.06 g, 0.42 mmol) and 1 ,1-dimethylethyl 1-piperazinecarboxylate (0.078 g, 0.42 mmol). After shaking for 10 min, Na(OAc)3BH (0.107 g, 0.504 mmol) was added. The mixture was shaken at rt for overnight. The resulting resin was washed with THF (2 mL x 2), THF:H2O (1 :1 , 2 mL x 2), H2O (2 mL x 2), THF:H2O (1 :1 , 2 mL x 2), THF (2 mL x 2), DCM (2 mL x 2), and dried in vacuum oven at 35 0C for overnight. The resin was cleaved with 2 mL of 50% of TFA in DCE for 30 min and treated again with 2 mL of 50% of TFA in DCE for 30 min. The combined cleavage solution was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in DMSO and purified using a Gilson semi- preparative HPLC system with a YMC ODS-A (C-18) column 50 mm by 20 mm ID, eluting with 10% B to 90% B in 3.2 min, hold for 1 min where A = H2O (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) and B = CH3CN (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) pumped at 25 mL/min, to produce 3-cyano-Λ/-{[6-fluoro-2'-(methyloxy)-5'-(1-piperazinylmethy l)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}benzamide as a bis-trifluoroacetate salt (white powder, 2.3 mg, 6% over 5 steps). MS (ESI): 459 [M+H]+. Proceeding in a similar manner, but replacing 3-cyanobenzoic acid with the appropriate acids, and/or replacing 1 ,1-dimethylethyl 1-piperazinecarboxylate with the appropriate amines, and/or replacing 3-chloro-4-fluorobenzylamine with appropriate chlorobenzylamines, and/or replacing 5-formyl-2-methoxyphenylboronic acid with appropriate formylphenyl boronic acids, the compounds listed in Tables 14 - 17 were prepared.

Table 14 Example R1 R2 MS [M+H]+ 217 4-fluoro 4'-methoxy 459 218 4-fluoro θ'-fluoro 447 219 4-fluoro 6'-methoxy 459 220 4-methoxy hydrogen 441 221 4-methoxy 4'-methoxy 471 222 4-methoxy 6'-fluoro 459 223 4-methoxy δ'-methoxy 471 224 6-methyl hydrogen 425 225 6-fluoro hydrogen 429 226 6-fluoro 4'-methoxy 459 227 6-fluoro 6'-fluoro 447 228 6-fluoro 6'-methoxy 459 229 2-fluoro hydrogen 429

5 R1 Table 15 Example R1 R2 MS [M+H]+ 230 4-fluoro hydrogen 448 231 4-fluoro 4'-methoxy 478 232 4-fluoro 6'-fluoro 466 233 4-fluoro 6'-methoxy 478 234 4-methoxy hydrogen 460 235 4-methoxy 6'-fluoro 459 236 4-methoxy β'-methoxy 490 237 6-methyl hydrogen 444 238 6-fluoro hydrogen 448 239 2-fluoro hydrogen 448 240 2-fluoro 6'-methoxy 478

H

H

Table 16 Example R1 R2 MS [M+H]+ 241 4-fluoro hydrogen 441 242 4-methoxy hydrogen 453 243 6-fluoro hydrogen 441 244 4-fluoro 6'-fluoro 459 245 4-methoxy 4'-methoxy 483 246 4-methoxy 6'-fluoro 471 247 4-methoxy δ'-methoxy 483 248 6-fluoro 4'-methoxy 471 249 6-fluoro 6'-fluoro 549 250 6-fluoro 6'-methoxy 471 H O

Table 17 Example R1 R2 MS [M+H]+ 251 4-fluoro hydrogen 460 252 4-methoxy hydrogen 472 253 6-methyl hydrogen 456 254 6-fluoro hydrogen 460 255 2-fluoro hydrogen 460 256 4-fluoro 4'-methoxy 490 257 4-fluoro 6'-fluoro 478 258 4-methoxy δ'-fluoro 490 259 6-fluoro 4'-methoxy 490

Preparation 4 Resin-bound bromo benzylamides 6 underwent Suzuki coupling with dihydroxyboranyl benzoic acids to give biaryl acides 12 (Scheme 4). Amide formation of 12 with amines, followed by cleavage, yielded the desired biaryl amides 13.

Scheme 4

O Rr X. N DMHB

Conditions: a) dihydroxyboranyl benzoic acids, 10% Pd(PPh3)4, Cs2CO3, DMF, 80 0C; b) NHR2R3, PyBOP, DIEA, NMP, rt; c) 20% of TFA in DCM, it. Example 260 Preparation of -V-<T3'-(1 -piperazinylcarbonyl)-3-biphenylv∏methyl>-1.3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide

To a mixture of DMHB resin-bound Λ/-[(3-bromophenyl)methyl]-1,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide (36a, 1.3 g, 1.0 mmol/g (theoretical loading), 1.3 mmol) in 30 ml_ of DMF was added 3-(dihydroxyboranyl) benzoic acid (1.3 g, 7.8 mmol), 2 M CsCO3 aqeous solution (1.95 mL, 3.9 mmol), and Pd(PPh3)4 (0.15 g, 0.13 mmol). The mixture was purged with argon for 5 min and was then heated at 80 0C for overnight. The resin was washed with DMF (50 mL), THF (50 mL x 2), THFiH2O (1:1 , 50 mL x 2), H2O (50 mL x 2), THF:H2O (1:1, 50 mL x 2), THF (50 mL x 2), DCM (50 mL x 2), and dried in vacuum oven at 35 0C for overnight. An analytical amount of the resin was cleaved with 20% of TFA in DCM for 10 min. The resulting solution was concentrated in vacuo and dissolved in 0.5 mL of MeOH. MS (ESI): 376 [M+H]+. To a mixture of the above resin bound 3'-{[(1,3-benzodioxol-5- ylcarbonyl)amino]methyl}-3-biphenylcarboxylic acid (80 mg, 0.97mmol/g (theoretical loading), 0.078 mmol) in 2.5 mL of NMP was added 1 ,1-dimethylethyl 1- piperazinecarboxylate (0.14 g, 0.75 mmol), DIEA (0.13 mL, 0.75 mmol), and PyBOP (0.2 g, 0.376 mmol). The mixture was shaken at rt for overnight. The resin was washed with NMP (1O mL x 2), DCM (1O mL x 2), MeOH (1O mL x 2), DCM (10 mL x 2), and dried in vacuum oven at 35 0C for overnight. The resin was cleaved with 2 mL of 20% of TFA in DCE for 30 min and treated againwith 2 mL of 20% of TFA in DCE for 30 min. The combined cleavage solution was concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in DMSO and purified using a Gilson semi- preparative HPLC system with a YMC ODS-A (C-18) column 50 mm by 20 mm ID, eluting with 10% B to 90% B in 3.2 min, hold for 1 min where A = H2O (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) and B = CH3CN (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) pumped at 25 mLΛnin, to produce Λ/-{[3'-(1-piperazinylcarbonyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-1 ,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide as a mono-trifluoroacetate salt (white powder, 8.5 mg, 25% over 5 steps). MS (ESI): 444 [M+H]+. Proceeding in a similar manner, but replacing 1 ,1-dimethylethyl 1- piperazinecarboxylate with the appropriate amines, the compounds listed in Table 18 were prepared.

Table 18 Example Compound MS [M+H]+ 261 458

262 472 V_Λ

263 458

Preparation 5 1-(3-Bromobenzyl)piperazine (15) was loaded on activited Wang-resin 14 to form resin-bound bromide 16 which upon Suzuki coupling with 3-formyl benzeneboronic acid gave aldehyde 17 (Scheme 5). Reductive alkylation of 17 with primary amines afforded benzylamines 18. Amide formation with acid chlorides, followed by resin cleavage, yielded N-alkylated benzylamides 19.

Scheme 5 ^Λ Br- "N Wang-O >=N Wang-O^^N^^ O 14 O 16

NHR, . Wang-O^^N Wang-θv_^N O T 17 T 18 Conditions: a) DCM, rt; b) 3-formylbenzeneboronic acid, 8% Pd(PPh3)4) Na2CO3, DME, 80 0C; c) NH2RI, Na(OAc)3BH, Na2SO4, DCE, rt; d) R2COCI, triethylamine (TEA), DCM, rt; e) 20% of TFA in DCM, rt

Example 264 Preparation of Λlcvclopropyl-Λ^re'-M-piperazinylmethvn-S- biphenyly∏methylloctanamide To a solution of N-Boc-piperazine (18.6 g, 0.1 mol) in dry dichloromethane (250 mL) was added with stirring 3-bromobenzaldehyde (19.43 g, 0.105 mol). After stirring under argon for 30 min, acetic acid (6.3 g, 0.105 mol) was added followed by solid sodium triacetoxyborohydride (25.4 g, 0.12 mol) portionwise over 20 min. to prevent excess warming and effervescence. The mixture was then stirred under argon for 18 h. Saturated NaHCO3 solution was added cautiously with stirring until effervescence ceased, and the organic phase was separated, washed with NaHCO3 solution and brine, then dried (MgSO4) and evaporated in vacuo. The oily product was dissolved in DCM (135 mL), and water (5 mL) was added. The solution was stirred whilst adding trifluroacetic acid (70 mL) portionwise with caution. Stirring was continued for 3.5 h, and the solution was then evaporated in vacuo. The residue was redissolved in DCM and stirred with saturated NaHCO3 solution until effervescence ceased, and more NaHCO3 solution was added until the solution became basic. The organic phase was separated, washed with NaHCO3 solution, 2 M NaOH solution and brine, dried (MgSO4) and evaporated in vacuo to produce 1-(3-Bromobenzyl)piperazine (15) as a pale brown oil (21.4 g, 84% over 2 steps); 1H NMR, δ (CDCI3) 1.84 (br s), 2.41 and 2.89 (each 4H, m) 3.45 (2H, s) 7.10-7.49 (4H, m). MS (ESI), 255 [M+H]+. Wang resin (15.9 g, 1.7 mmol.g'1, 27 mmol) was suspended in anhydrous DCM and di-2-pyridylcarbonate and triethylamine were added. The mixture was shaken overnight under argon. The resin was filtered and washed 4 times with DCM then dried at room temperature in vacuo and used without further characterization. Wang 2-pyridyl carbonate resin (14, 80 mmol) obtained from above was suspended in dry DCM (400 mL) and a solution of 1-(3-bromobenzyl)piperazine (15, 40.8 g, 160 mmol) in DCM (200 mL) was added. The mixture was shaken under argon for 24 h. The resin was filtered, washed with DCM (300 mL x 3), THF (300 mL x 3), DCM (30OmL x 3), and ether (300 mL). The product resin was dried in vacuo. A sample of the resin (16, 50 mg) was shaken with trifluoroacetic acid (0.2 ml_) and DCM (0.8 mL) for 2 h. The resin was filtered and washed with DCM and methanol, and the filtrate evaporated to give the bis-trifluoroacetate salt of the amine 15 (26 mg, 93%); 1H NMR, δ (CD3OD) 3.05 (4H, m), 3.37(4H, m), 3.95 (2H, s), 7.35 (2H, m), 7.54 (1H1 dd, J 1.5 and 6.2 Hz), 7.64 (1 H, d, J 1.5 Hz). MS (ESI), 255 [M+H]+. The above resin 16 (22.0 g, 25.3 mmol) was suspended in 1,2- dimethoxyethane (DME) (500 mL) in a 3-neck 2 L flask fitted with an overhead stirrer. Argon was bubbled through the mixture for 30 min before adding tetrakis(triphenylphosphine) palladium (2.34 g, 2.03 mmol). 3- Formylbenzeneboronic acid (11.4 g, 76 mmol) was added followed by more DME (190 mL). A solution of Na2CO3 (16.1 g, 152 mmol) in water (76 mL) was then added and the mixture heated to 80 0C, whilst stirring under an argon atmosphere. After 16 h, the reaction mixture was cooled and the black resin product was filtered and washed with THF (500 mL), water (3 x 500 mL), THF:water (1 :1 , 2 x 500 mL), THF (3 x 500 mL), DCM (3 x 500 mL) and ether (2 x 500 mL). It was then dried at 40 0C in vacuo to afford product resin 17 (23.4 g). The reductive alkylation reaction was performed in IRORI™ kans in a combinatorial process. The formyl resin 17 (30 mg) was placed in a kan containing a radiofrequency tag. In a mixture with other kans containing formyl resins, the kan was placed in a flask with 1 ,2-dichloroethane (1 mL/kan) and vacuum was applied and released to ensure that solvent filled the kan. 5 Equivalents each of sodium sulfate, cyclopropylamine and acetic acid were added to the flask which was purged with argon and then shaken for 3 h. Solid sodium triacetoxyborohydride was then added and shaking continued for a further 22 h. The kans were filtered and washed with THF, THF-water (1:1), water (x 2), THF-water (1 :1), THF, water, DMF, methanol, THF (x 3) and DCM (x 3), and then dried in vacuo at 40 0C. The kan containing resin bound product 18 (R1 = cyclopropyl) was identified by reading the radiofrequency tag. The kan containing resin product 18 (R1 = cyclopropyl) was reacted combinatorially in a mixture with kans containing other related amine resins. The kan was suspended in dry DCM (1 mL/kan) and vacuum applied and released to ensure filling of the kan with solvent. Triethylamine (12 eq) and octanoyl chloride (10 eq) were added and the mixture was shaken for 22 h. The kans were filtered and washed with DCM (x 2), THF, THF:water (1 :1), THF (x 2) and DCM (x 3), and then dried at 40 0C in vacuo. The kan containing the resin-bound product 19 (R1 = cyclopropyl, R2 = heptyl) was identified by reading the radiofrequency tag. The kan containing the resin-bound product 19 (R1 = cyclopropyl, R2 = heptyl) was placed in a well of a cleavage block, and treated with a solution of 20% trifluoroacetic acid, 3% water, 77% DCM (2 ml_). The block was gently agitated for 2 h, and the solution drained into a vial. The kan was washed with DCM:methanol (1 :1 , 1 mL), and the solution again drained into the vial. The solution in the vial was evaporated in a Genevac to produce N-cyclopropyl-N-{[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}octanamide as a bis-trifluoroacetate salt (7.6 mg, 28% over 5 steps). MS (ESI), 448 [M+Hf.

Proceeding in a similar manner, but replacing cyclopropylamine with the appropriate amines, and/or replacing octanoyl chloride with the appropriate acid chlorides, the compounds listed in Table 19 were prepared.

Table 19 Example R1 R2 MS [M+H]+ 265 2-(1 -pyrrolidinyl)-ethyl 1 -heptyl 505 266 2-(4-morpholinyl)-ethyl 1 -heptyl 521 267 3-pyridinyl-methyl 1 -heptyl 499 268 1 -(phenylmethyl)-4- 1 -heptyl 581 piperidinyl 269 benzyl 1 -heptyl 498 270 3,4-dichloro-benzyl 1 -heptyl 566 271 4-methoxy-benzyl 1 -heptyl 528 272 2-(Λ/,Λ/-dimethyIamino)- 1 -heptyl 479 ethyl 273 3-phenylprop-1-yl 1 -heptyl 526 274 3-(4-methyl-1 -piperazinyl)- 1 -heptyl 548 prop-1-yl 275 3-(methyloxy)-prop-1-yl 1 -heptyl 480 276 2-(2-thiophenyl)-ethyl 1 -heptyl 518 277 3-(hydroxy)-3-oxo-prop-1- ' 1-heptyl 480 yi 278 2-bromo-benzyl 1-heptyl 576 279 tetrahydro-2-furanyl-methyl 1-heptyl 492 280 cyclopropyl 3,4-methylenedioxy- 470 phenyl 281 2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-ethyl 3,4-methylenedioxy- 527 phenyl 282 1 -naphthyl-methyl 3,4-methylenedioxy- 570 phenyl 283 2-(4-morpholinyl)-ethyl 3,4-methylenedioxy- 543 phenyl 284 3-pyridinyl-methyl 3,4-methylenedioxy- 521 phenyl 285 3-(trifluoromethyl)-benzyl 3,4-methylenedioxy- 588 phenyl 286 2-(Λ/,Λ/-dimethylamino)- , 3,4-methylenedioxy- 501 ethyl phenyl 287 1 -butyl 3,4-methylenedioxy- 486 phenyl 288 3-(4-methyl-1 -piperazinyl)- 3 ,4-methylenedioxy- 570 prop-1-yl phenyl 289 3-(methyloxy)-prop-1-yl 3,4-methylenedioxy- 502 phenyl 290 3-(hydroxy)-3-oxo-prop-1 - 3,4-methylenedioxy- 502 yi phenyl 291 2-bromo-benzyl 3,4-methylenedioxy- 598 phenyl 292 3-methoxy-phenethyl 3,4-methylenedioxy- 564 phenyl 293 tetrahydro-2-furanyl-methyl 3,4-methylenedioxy- 514 phenyl Preparation 6 The 4-fluoro-derivatives of general structure 24 were prepared in solution phase following the route outlined in Scheme 6. Firstly, the boronic acid 20 underwent a Suzuki palladium coupling with the bromide 21 to give the 4-fluoro- biphenyl derivative 22. Further reduction of the nitrile moiety with borane yielded the primary amine 23. Subsequent coupling of 23 to the appropriate benzoic acids gave the respective products 24.

Scheme 6 Boo

Boo

24 23 Conditions: a) Pd(PPh3)4, Na2CO3, DME, 78 0C; b) BH3, THF; c) HATU, RCO2H, DIPEA, DMF; d) HCI.

Example 294 Preparation of 3-cvano-ΛK(4-fluoro-3Vr(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinv∏methyl} -3- biphenvlvDmethv∏benzamide

1, 1-Dimethylethyl (2S)-4-[(3'-cyano-4 '-fluoro-3-biphenylyl)methyl]-2-methyl-1- piperazinecarboxylate To a solution of (3-cyano-4-fluorophenyl)boronic acid (0.983 g, 5.96 mmol) in DME (40 ml_) was added 1 ,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-4-[(3-bromophenyl)methyl]-2- methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylate (2.20 g, 5.96 mmol) followed by Na2CO3 (17 mL, 2M in H2O, 34.0 mmol). The reaction vessel was flushed with argon, and tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (2.06 g, 1.78 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was placed in an oil bath at 78 C under argon for overnight. The reaction was diluted with EtOAc (600 mL) and washed with H2O (250 mL). The water layer was extracted with EtOAc (1 x 100 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO^ filtered, and concentrated under vacuum. Purification of the crude residue by flash chromatography (20% EtOAc / 80% hexane) on silica gel gave the title compound (1.77 g, 73.1%). EI-MS m/z 410(M-H)+.

1, 1 -Dimethylethyl (2S)-4-{[3'-(aminomethyl)~4'-fluoro-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-2-m ^ 1-piperazinecarboxylate A solution of 1 , 1-dimethylethyl (2S)-4-[(3'-cyano-4'~fluoro-3- biphenylyl)methyl]-2-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylate (2.29 g, 5.59 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was flushed with argon. Borane (19 mL, 1M in THF, 19 mmol) was slowly added and the reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature overnight. The reaction was quenched slowly with water, diluted with water (175 mL) and then extracted with EtOAc (2 x 250 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over MgSOφ filtered, and concentrated under vacuum. The crude residue was placed onto a SPE silica cartridge (20 g) using 50% hexane/ 50% EtOAc, and then eluted with the following sequence: 50% hexane/ 50% EtOAc, 10% MeOH/ 90% DCM, 30% MeOH/ 70% DCM. The product fractions were combined and concentrated to give the title compound (1.48 g, 64.1%). EI-MS m/z 414(M-H)+.

General procedure for amide formation and Boc deprotection 3-cyano-N-[(4-fluoro-3'-{[(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinyl]methyl }-3- biphenylyl)methyl]benzamide To a solution of 1 ,1 -dimethylethyl (2S)-4-{[3'-(aminomethyl)-4'-fluoro-3- biphenylyl]methyl}-2-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylate (0.100 g, 0.242 mmol) in DMF (2.5 mL) were added 3-cyanobenzoic acid (0.038 g, 0.260 mmol), HATU (0.102 g, 0.268 mmol), and diisopropylethylamine (0.10 mL, 0.574 mmol). The reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature for 2 days. The reaction was diluted with EtOAc (75 mL), washed with 1N HCI (2 x 20 mL), saturated NaHCO3 (3 x 20 mL), then brine (2 x 20 mL). The organic layer was dried over MgSO^., filtered, and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was taken up in MeOH (4 mL) and HCI (4N in 1,2-dioxane, 2.5 mL) was added. The reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature overnight. The reaction was concentrated under vacuum, and the residue was taken up in 1 mL DMSO/ 1 mL MeOH and purified via MDAP (10-90% CH3CN/ H2O/ (0.1% TFA)). The desired fractions were isolated, and then taken up in DCM (8 ml_) and 1N NaOH (8 ml_) and allowed to stir for 1 hour. The DCM was isolated using a phase separator and then concentrated under vacuum to give the title compound (96 mg, 90%). EI-MS m/z 443(M-H)+.

Example 295 Preparation of Λ^r(4-fluoro-3'-rø3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinv∏methyl}-3- biphenylyl)methv∏-3-(phenylcarbonyl)benzamide Following the general procedure outlined in Example 294, 1 ,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-4-{[3'-(aminomethyl)-4'-fluoro-3-biphenylyl]methyI}-2-m ethyl-1- piperazinecarboxylate (0.095 g, 0.231 mmol), 3-(phenylcarbonyl)benzoic acid (0.058 g, 0.255 mmol), HATU (0.102 g, 0.268 mmol), and diisopropylethylamine (0.10 ml_, 0.574 mmol) in DMF (2.5 ml_) were reacted to give the desired product (0.045g, 37.4%). EI-MS m/z 522(M-H)+.

Example 296 Preparation of ΛMY4-f luoro-3'-{r(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinv∏methyll-3- biphenylyl)methv∏-1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxamide Following the general procedure outlined in Example 294, 1 ,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-4-{[3'-(aminomethyl)-4'-fluoro-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-2-m ethyl-1- , piperazinecarboxylate (0.098 g, 0.235 mmol), 1 ,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid (0.039 g, 0.235 mmol), HATU (0.107 g, 0.280 mmol), and diisopropylethylamine (0.10 ml_, 0.574 mmol) in DMF (2.5 ml.) were reacted to give the desired product (0.043g, 40.1%). EI-MS m/z 462(M-H)+.

Example 297 Preparation of 3-tethyloxy)-ΛK(4-fluoro-3'-fr(3S)-3-methyl-1- piperazinv∏methyl)-3-biphenylyl)methv∏benzamide Following the general procedure outlined in Example 294, 1 ,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-4-{[3'-(aminomethyl)-4'-fluoro-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-2-m ethyl-1- piperazinecarboxylate (0.099 g, 0.240 mmol)i 3-(ethyIoxy)benzoic acid (0.042 g, 0.253 mmol), HATU (0.103 g, 0.271 mmol), and diisopropylethylamine (0.10 mL, 0.574 mmol) in DMF (2.5 mL) were reacted to give the desired product (0.037g, 33.7%). EI-MS m/z 462(M-H)+. Example 298 Preparation of 3-acetyl-ΛM(4-fluoro-3'-ITf3Si-3-methyl-1 -piperazinv∏methyl)-3- biphenylvDmethy∏benzamide Following the general procedure outlined in Example 294, 1 ,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-4-{[3'-(aminomethyI)-4'-fluoro-3-biphenylyl]methyl}-2-m ethyl-1- piperazinecarboxylate (0.100 g, 0.242 mmol), 3-acetylbenzoic acid (0.044 g, 0.269 mmol), HATU (0.104 g, 0.274 mmol), and diisopropylethylamine (0.10 mL, 0.574 mmol) in DMF (2.5 mL) were reacted to give the desired product (0.039g, 35.4%). EI-MS m/z 460(M-H)+.

Example 299 Preparation of 3-r(3.4-dichlorophenyl)carbonvn-yV-r(4-fluoro-3'-fr(3S)-3-me thyl- 1-piperazinv∏methyl}-3-biphenylyl)methy∏benzamide Following the general procedure outlined in Example 294, 1 ,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-4-{[3l-(amin'omethyl)-4'-fluoro-3-biphenylyl]methyI}-2- methyl-1- piperazinecarboxylate (0.108 g, 0.261 mmol), 3-[(3,4- dichlorophenyl)carbonyl]benzoic acid (0.074 g, 0.251 mmol), HATU (0.110 g, 0.290 mmol), and diisopropylethylamine (0.10 mL, 0.574 mmol) in DMF (2.5 mL) were reacted to give the desired product (0.1095g, 76.0%). EI-MS m/z 590(M-H)+.

Preparation 7 Scheme 7 outlines a solution phase route to synthesize compounds with structure 31. Reductive amination of the benzaldehyde 25 with the BOC-protected pierazine 26 gave the tertiary amine 27. Boronation using trimethyl borate led to the boronic acid 28. Further Suzuki coupling of 28 with the commercially available bromide 29 produced compound 30, which in turn could be coupled with the appropriate carbocylic acid R1CO2H or acyl halide and deptrotected to furnish the products 31. Scheme 7

o 26r 27

d, e

R1

31 Conditions: a) NaB(OAc)3H, DCM, rt, b) nBuLi, B(OMe)3, -78 0C to rt; c) (3-bromo-4- fluorophenyl)methyl amine (29), Pd(PH3)4, K2CO3, mw, 150 0C, 20 min.; d) R1CO2H, TEA, EDC, TEA, HOBt in CHCI3 or R1COCI, TEA, DCM; e) TFA.

Intermediate 26 1 A -dimethylethyl (2S)-2-methyl-1 -piperazinecarboxylate

HN N-Boc M A solution of (S)-2-methyl piperazine (2 g, 20 mmol) in THF (200 mL) was mixed with n-BuLi (25 mL, 1.6 M in hexane, 40 mmol) at rt. The solution was stirred for 30 min before TBDMSCI (3.04 g, 20 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred for an additional hour and (Boc)20 (5.2 g, 24 mmol) was added to the solution. The resulting mixture was stirred for another hour and diluted with H2O (50 mL). The organic layer was separated, washed with brine (50 mL), dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated under vacuum. Flash chromatography on silica (5% MeOH / 2% NH4OH / 93% CH2CI2) then provided the title compound as a yellow oil (3.7 g, 93%). LC/MS: m/z, 201(M+H); 1HNMR(CDCI3) 1.26(3H, d), 1.49(9H, s), 2.1 (1H, s), 2.7(1 H, m), 2.85(1H, m), 3.0 (3H, m), 3.8 (1H, m), 4.2(1H, m). Intermediate 27 1.1 -dimethylethyl (2S)-4-r(3-bromophenyl)methv∏-2-methyl-1 -pjperazine carboxylase

Br' A solution of 1 ,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-2-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylate (Intermediate 26, 100 mg, 0.5 mmol) in CH2CI2 (5 ml.) was mixed with 3-bromo benzaldehyde (0.06 ml_, 0.5 mmol) and NaB(OAc)3H (0.16 g, 0.75 mmol). The resulting mixture was stirred for 12 hours, diluted with dichloromethane (30 mL) and washed with brine (50 mL). The organic layer was collected, dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated. Separation via a combiflash system then afforded the title compound (150 mg, 81%). LC/MS: m/z, 369 (M+H); 1HNMR(MeOD) 1.26(3H, d), 1.47(9H, s), 2.0(1 H, m), 2.1(1 H, m), 2.6(1H, m), 2.8(1 H, m), 3.1 (1H, m), 3.3(2H, s), 3.4(1 H, m), 3.5(1 H, m), 3.8(1 H, m), 4.2(1 H, m), 4.88(1 H, s), 7.25(1 H, m), 7.3(1 H, m), 7.4(1 H, m), 7.55(1 H, s).

Intermediate 28 f3-r((3S)-4-(r(1.1-dimethylethyl)oxy1carbonyl)-3-methyl-1- piperazinvDmethv∏phenyl) boronic acid ,Boc

A solution of 1,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-4-[(3-bromophenyl)methyl]-2-methyl-1- piperazine carboxylate (Intermediate 27, 1.8 g, 4.9 mmol) in THF (4.9 mL) was mixed with /7-BuLi (3.7 mL, 1.6 M in Hexane, 5.9 mmol) at -78 0C and stirred for 30 min before B(OMe)3 (2.2 mL, 19.6 mmol) was added. After addition, the resulting solution was warmed up to room temperature within 2 hours. The mixture was then mixed with saturated aqueous NH4CI solution (10 mL), stirred for 25 minutes at room temperature, diluted with H2O (5 mL) and extracted with Et2O (2 X 30 mL). The organic layers were combined, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to afford the crude title compound (1.7 g, quantitative yield). LC/MS: m/z 335 (M+H); 1H-NMR(MeOD) δ 1.24 (d, 3H), 1.46 (s, 9H), 2.00 (m, 1H), 2.13 (m, 1H), 2.68 (d, 1H), 2.82 (d, 1 H), 3.12 (m, 1 H), 3.44 (m, 1H), 3.56 (m, 1 H), 3.80 (d, 1 H), 4.18 (m, 1H), 7.33 (m, 1H), 7.38 (m, 1H), 7.51 (d, 1H), 7.59 (s, 1H). Intermediate 30 1.1-dimethylethyl(2S)-4-(r5'-(aminomethvn-2'-fluoro-3-biphen ylv∏methyl>-2- methvl-1-piperazinecarboxvlate

To a solution of [(3-bromo-4-fluorophenyl)methyl]amine hydrochloride (1.68 g, 7 mmol) in dioxane/H20 (10 mL/3.3 mL) were added {3-[((3S)-4-{[(1 ,1- dimethylethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-methyl-1 -piperazinyl)methyl]phenyl} boronic acid (intermediate 28, 2.33 g, 7 mmol), K2CO3 (4.83, 35 mmol) and Pd(PPh3)4 (405 mg, 0.35 mmol). The resulting mixture was heated at 150 0C in a pressure vessel for 2 hours, then cooled to rt and diluted with EtOAc (50 mL). The organic layer was collected and the aqueous layer was extracted by EtOAc (30 mL). The organic layers were combined, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by Gilson preparatory HPLC, eluting with acetonitrile/water/0.1%TFA (10/90 to 90/10, v/v, over 12 min), to give the title compound (1.08 g, 37%). LC/MS: m/z, 414 (M+H), 1.83 min.

Example 300 Λ/-r(6-fluoro-3'-(rf3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinv∏methylV3- biphenvlvQmethv∏benzamide

O

To a solution of 1 ,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-4-{[5'-(aminomethyl)-2'-fluoro-3- biphenylyl]methyl}-2-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylate (Intermediate 30, 60 mg, 0.145 mmol) in 5 mL of DCM, was added benzoyl chloride (55 mg, 0.16 mmol), followed by addition of TEA (0.05 mL, 0.3 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h, and quenched by addition of 0.5 mL of saturated Na2CO3. The organic layer was isolated via a hydrophobic frit followed by addition of 0.5 mL of TFA. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h. After removal of the solvent, the residue was purified by Gilson reverse phase HPLC, eluting with acetonitrile/water/0.1%TFA (10/90 to 70/30, v/v, over 12 min), to give the title compound (16 mg, 12%). LC/MS: m/z, 417 (M+H), 1.58 min.

Example 301 3-r(3,4-dichlorophenyl)carbonvn-/V-r(6-fluoro-3'-fr(3S)-3-me thyl-1- piperazinv∏methyl}-3-biphenylyl)methv∏benzamide

To a solution of [(3,4-dichlorophenyl)carbonyl]benzoic acid (36 mg, 0.121 mmol in CHCI3 (2.0 ml.) were added 1,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-4-({6-[3- (aminomethyl)phenyl]-2-pyridinyl}methyl)-2-methyl-1-piperazi necarboxylate (Intermediate 30, 50 mg, 0.13 mmol), TEA (0.04 ml, 0.3 mmol), EDC (36 mg, 0.19 mmol) and HOBt (18 mg, 0.14 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h, then 0.5 ml. of a saturated Na2CO3 solution was added. The organic layer was isolated via a hydrophobic frit followed by addition of 0.5 mL of TFA, and stirred at room temperature for 1 h. After removal of the solvent, the residue was purified by Gilson reverse phase HPLC, eluting with acetonitrile/water/0.1%TFA (10/90 to 70/30, v/v, over 12 min.), to give the title compound (26 mg, 36%). LC/MS: m/z, 590 (M+H), 1.66 min.

Example 302 yV-r(6-fluoro-3'-fr(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinv∏methyl>-3 -biphenylyl)methvn-3- (phenvlcarbonvl)benzamide

To a solution of 1 ,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-4-({6-[3-(aminomethyl)phenyl]-2- pyridinyl}methyl)-2-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylate (Intermediate 30, 50 mg, 0.13 mmol) in CHCI3 (5 mL) were added 3-(phenylcarbonyl)benzoic acid (1.5eq), EDC (12 mg, 0.06 mmol), HOBT (1 mg, 0.006 mmol) and diisopropyl ethyl amine (0.1 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred for 12 hours and then concentrated in vacuo. Separation via a combiflash system then provided the desired amide. The amide was dissolved in CH2CI2 (2 mL) and the solution was mixed with TFA (0.7 mL) at 0 0C. The mixture was stirred at ambient temperature overnight, diluted with Et3N (0.1 imL) at -78 0C and concentrated. Separation via a Gilson reverse phase HPLC then provided the title compound (60 mg, 99%). LC/MS(ES) m/z 523 (M+H)+; 1HNMR(MeOD) 1.37(3H1 d), 3.05(1 H, m), 3.24(1 H, m), 3.46(1H1 m), 3.66(4H, m), 4.37(2H, s), 4.62(2H, s), 7.19(1 H, t), 7.43(1 H, m), 7.56(5H, m), 7.66(3H1 m), 7.72(1H,s), 7.78(2H, d), 7.93(1H, d), 8.14(1H, d), 8.3(1 H, s).

The compounds listed in Table 20 were prepared proceeding in a similar manner to Example 302, but replacing 3-(phenylcarbonyl)benzoic acid with the appropriate acids.

Table 20 Example R MS [MH]+ NMR 303 462 1HNMR(MeOD) 1.41(6H1 m), 3.13(1 H1 t), 3.33(1H1 m), 3.45(1 H, m), 3.68(4H1 m), 4.07(2H, q), 4.40(2H1 s), 4.60(2H, S), 7.08(1H, t), 7.19(1H, t), 7.43(4H, m), 7.53(3H1 m), 7.66(1H1 m), 7.73(1H1 S).

304 1HNMR(MeOD) 1.28(3H, t), 447 1.39(3H1 d), 2.72(2H, t), 3.08(1H1 m), 3.25(1H1 m), 3.46(1 H, m), 3.67(4H1 m), 4.36(2H1 S)1 4.61(2H1 s), 7.20(1H1 t), 7.44(3H1 m), 7.55(3H, m), 7.66(2H, m), 7.72(2H1 m). Preparation 8 The thiophene derivatives of general structure 36 were prepared as depicted in Scheme 8. Reductive amination of the thiophene carboxaldehyde derivative 32 with the BOC-protected pierazine 26 gave the tertiary amine 33. Further palladium coupling of 33 with the commercially available boronic acid 34 produced compound 35, which in turn could be coupled with the appropriate carboxylic acids RiCO2H to furnish the products 36.

Scheme 8 ,,BoC Br' >^ HN^x I I n ,Boc Br 'Sw 32 26 33 34

Boc

H,N' r r

35 36 Conditions: a) NaB(OAc)3H, DCM, rt, b)Pd(PH3)4, K2CO3, mw, 150 0C, 20 min.; c) R1CO2H, TEA, EDC, TEA, HOBt in CHCI3 then TFA.

Intermediate 33 1,1-Dimethylethyl (2S)-4-r(5-bromo-2-thienyl)methv∏-2-methyl-1- piperazinecarboxylate Br O

Following the standard procedure outlined for intermediate 27, 1 ,1- dimethylethyl (2S)-2-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylate 26 (1.0 g, 5 mmol) was reacted with 5-bromo-2-thiophenecarbaldehyde 32 (0.96 g, 5 mmol) to give the title compound (1.43 g, 76%). LCMS: m/z, 375 (M+H), 1.63 min. Intermediate 35 1.1-dimethylethyl f 2S)-A-H 5-r3-(aminomethyl)phenv∏-2-thieny|}methyl)-2- methvl-1 -piperazinecarboxvlate

Γ

To the solution of [3-(aminomethyl)phenyl]boronic acid hydrochloride 34 (325 mg, 1.2 mmol) in dioxane/H20 (10 mL/3.3 mL) was added (2S)-4-[(5-bromo-2- thienyl)methyl]-2-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylate (intermediate 33, 450 mg, 1.2 mmol), K2CO3 (828 mg, 6.0 mmol) and Pd(PPh3)4 (70 mg, 0.06 mmol). The resulting solution was irradiated in a microwave reactor at 150 0C for 20 minutes and diluted with EtOAc (5 mL). The organic layer was collected and the aqueous layer was extracted by EtOAc (2 X 5 mL). The organic layers were combined, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by Gilson HPLC, eluting with acetonitrile/water/0.1%TFA (10/90 to 90/10, v/v, over 12 min), to give the title compound (200 mg, 42%). LC/MS: m/z, 402 (M+H), 1.24 min.

Example 305 Λ/-fr3-(5-fr(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinvnmethyl)-2-thienyl)ph env∏methyl}-1,3- benzodioxole-5-carboxamide

To a solution of 1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid (12 mg, 0.075 mmol) in CHCI3 (3.0 mL) were added 1 ,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-4-({5-[3-(aminomethyl)phenyl]-2- thienyl}methyl)-2-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylate (intermediate 35, 30 mg, 0.075 mmol), TEA (0.05 ml, 0.4 mmol), EDC (22 mg, 0.113 mmol) and HOBt (11 mg, 0.083 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 15 h, followed by addition of 1 mL of saturated Na2CO3. The organic layer was dried over Na2SO4 and filtered. The filtrate was mixed with 1 mL of TFA, and stirred at room temperature for 1 h. After removal of the solvent, the residue was purified by Gilson reverse phase HPLC, eluting with acetonitrile/water/0.1%TFA (10/90 to 70/30, v/v, over 12 min), to give the title compound (31 mg, 73%). LC/MS: m/z, 350 (M+H), 1.58 min.

The compounds listed in Table 21 were prepared proceeding in a similar manner to Example 305, but replacing I .S-benzodioxole-δ-carboxylic acid with the appropriate acids.

R N

Table 21 Example R MS[MH]+ Rt(min) 306 510 1.74

307 450 1.62

308 O 448 1.48

Preparation 9 The pyridine derivatives of general structure 40 were prepared as depicted in Scheme 9. Reductive amination of the pyridine carboxaldehyde derivative 37 with the BOC-protected pierazine 26 gave the tertiary amine 38. Further palladium coupling of 38 with the commercially available boronic acid 34 produced compound 39, which in turn could be coupled with the appropriate carboxylic acid R1CO2H to furnish the products 40. Scheme 9 Boo ^Boc Br N ^Ss HN. Br' 37 26 38 34 Boo r r

Conditions: a) NaB(OAc)3H, DCM, rt, b)Pd(PH3)4, K2CO3, mw, 150 0C, 20 min.; c) R1CO2H, TEA, EDC, TEA, HOBt in CHCI3 then TFA.

Intermediate 38 1,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-4-r(6-bromo-2-pyridinyl)methv∏-2-methyl-1- piperazinecarboxylate o

Following the standard procedure outlined for intermediate 27, 1 ,1- dimethylethyl (2S)-2-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylate 26 (1.0 g, 5 mmol) was reacted with 5-bromo-2-thiophenecarbaldehyde 37 (0.96 g, 5 mmol) to give the title compound (1.43 g, 76%). LC/MS: m/z, 375 (M+H), 1.63 min.

Intermediate 39 1,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-4-(f6-r3-(aminomethyl)phenv∏-2-pyridinyl>methyl)-2 - methyl-1 -piperazinecarboxylate

Following the standard procedure outlined for intermediate 35, 1 ,1- dimethylethyl (2S)-4-[(6-bromo-2-pyridinyl)methyl]-2-methyl-1 - piperazinecarboxylate (Intermediate 38, 430 mg, 1.16 mmol) was reacted with [3- (aminomethyl)phenyl]boronic acid 34 (314 mg, 1.16 mmol) to give the title compound (420 mg, 92%). LC/MS: m/z, 397 (M+H), 1.22 min. Example 309 3-acetyl-yV-fr3-f6-fr(3S)-3-methyl-1-piperazinv∏methylV2- pyridinv∏pheny∏methvDbenzamide

To a solution of 3-acetylbenzoic acid (21 mg, 0.13 mmol) in CHCI3 (2.0 mL) were added 1 ,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-4-({6-[3-(aminomethyl)phenyl]-2- pyridinyl}methyl)-2-methyl-1-piperazinecarboxylate (intermediate 39, 50 mg, 0.13 mmol), TEA (0.04 mL, 0.3 mmol), EDC (36 mg, 0.19 mmol) and HOBt (18 mg, 0.14 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 h, followed by addition of 0.5 mL of saturated Na2CO3. The organic layer was isolated via a hydrophobic frit followed by addition of 0.5 mL of TFA, and stirred at room temperature for 1 h. After removal of the solvent, the residue was purified by Gilson reverse phase HPLC, eluting with acetonitrile/water/0.1%TFA (10/90 to 70/30, v/v, over 12 min), to give the title compound (10 mg, 10%). LC/MS: m/z, 443 (M+H), 1.20 min.

The compounds listed in Table 22 were prepared proceeding in a similar manner to Example 309, but replacing 3-acetylbenzoic acid with the appropriate acid.

Table 22 Example R MS [MH]+ Rt (mm) 310 445 1.22

311 O 573 1.72 312 426 1.20

313 O 505 1.46

314 446 1.44

Preparation 10 The derivatives of general structure 45 were prepared as depicted in Scheme 10. Mono-aikylation of the BOC-protected piperazine 42 with the benzyl bromide derivative 41, followed by boration of the resulting bromide with trimethyl borate under strong basic conditions gave the corresponding boronic acid 43. Further palladium coupling of 43 with 3-bromobenzonitrile, followed by reduction of the nitrile moiety produced compound 44. In turn, compound 44 could be coupled with the appropriate carboxylic acids R1CO2H and deprotected to furnish the products 45.

Scheme 10 Boc ^Boc a, b o, d HN 41 42

Boc

Conditions: a) TEA, CH3CN, reflux, 16 h; b) n-BuLi, B(OMe)3, THF, -70 0C; c) Pd(PHs)4, K2CO3, dioxan/water, mw, 150 0C, 15 min.; d) BH3, THF, reflux, 1h; e) R1CO2H, PyBOP or HATU then TFA. Intermediate 40: 1.1-dimethylethyl 4-r(3-bromophenyl)methyr)-1- piperazinecarboxylate

O

Br' A solution of 3-bromobenzyl bromide (6 g, 24 mmol) and Boc piperazine (4.06 g, 12 mmol) in acetonitrile (30 mL) was treated with triethylamine (3.36 ml_, 24 mmol). The resulting mixture was heated at reflux for 16 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was treated with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (20 mL), then extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 30 mL). The organic phases were combined, dried with MgSO4 and concentrated under vacuum. The residue was purified by chromatography on silica (100 g) eluting with ethyl acetate / cyclohexane to give the title compound (6.95g, 81.25%). LC/MS: m/z, 355, 357 (M+H), 2.40 min.

Intermediate 41: f3-F(4-(r(1.1-dimethylethyl)oxy1carbonyl)-1- piperazinv∏methy∏phenvDboronic acid

To a solution of 1 ,1-dimethylethyl 4-[(3-bromophenyl)methyl]-1- piperazinecarboxylate (6.55 g, 18.5 mmol) in THF (20 mL) at -700C was added dropwise n-butyl lithium (15.4 mL, 2.5 M solution in hexane, 38.5 mmol) over 10 minutes. After stirring for 30 mins at that temperature, the resulting orange solution was treated with trimethylborate (8.02 g, 77 mmol). The reaction mixture was then allowed to warm up to room temperature and quenched with saturated ammonium chloride (15 mL). The solvent was removed under vacuum and the residue was partitioned between ethyl acetate (20 mL) and water (20 mL). The aqueous phase was separated and further extracted with ethyl acetate (20 mL). The organic phases were combined, dried with MgSO4 and evaporated under vacuum to give the title compound (5g, 84%) which was used directly for the preparation of 1 ,1- dimethylethyl 4-[(3'-cyano-3-biphenylyl)methyl]-1-piperazinecarboxylate without further purification. LC/MS: m/z, 321 (M+H), 1.91 min.

Intermediate 42: 1,1-dimethylethyl 4-r(3'-cvano-3-biphenylyl)methv∏-1- piperazinecarboxylate

Λ

A mixture of {3-[(4-{[(1 ,1-dimethylethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-1- piperazinyl)methyl]phenyl}boronic acid (1 g, 3.1 mmol), 3-bromobenzonitrile (0.56 g, 3.1 mmol), potassium carbonate (1.725 g, 12.5 mmol) and tetrakis triphenylphosphine palladium (180 mg) in dioxan/water (3:1 , 4 ml.) was sealed in a tube and heated at 150°C for 15 minutes in a microwave vessel. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was then diluted with water (25 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 25 mL). The combined organic phases were dried with MgSO4 and concentrated under vacuum. The resulting crude residue was further purified by flash column chromatography on silica (100 g) to give the title compound (0.9 g, 76%) (purity ca 75%). LC/MS: m/z, 378 (M+H), 2.57 min.

Intermediate 43 1,1-dimethylethyl 4-(r3'-(aminomethyl)-3-biphenylv∏methyl>-1- piperazinecarboxvlate

A solution of 1 ,1 -dimethylethyl 4-[(3'-cyano-3-biphenylyl)methyl]-1- piperazinecarboxylate (4.5 g, 11.9 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was treated with borane in THF (47.7 mL, 1 M in THF, 47.7 mmol) and the resulting mixture was heated at reflux for 1 hour. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was quenched with saturated ammonium chloride solution (20 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 30 mL). The combined organics were dried (MgSO4), concentrated under vacuum to give a residue which was purified by flash chromatography on silica (100 g) to yield the title compound (Hg1 24.2%). LC/MS: m/z, 382 (M+H), 1.86 min.

Example 315: 3-(aminosulfonyl)-Λ/-fr3'-(1-piperazinylmethvh-3- biphenylv∏methvDbenzamide A mixture of PyBOP (0.08 mmol in 200 ml. of DMF), {[3'-(1- piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}amine (44 mmol in 200 ml_ of DMF) and DIPEA (30 ml_) were added to 3-(aminosulfonyl)benzoic acid (70 mmol). The resulting mixture was stirred for 16 hours at room temperature, then the solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in methanol and purified by loading onto a SPE cartridge (SCX, 500 mg), washing with MeOH, and eluting with a 2M solution of NH3 in MeOH. The NH3 fraction was collected and evaporated under vacuum to give a gum which was dissolved in 1 :1 CHCI3 / TFA (0.5 mL). After stirring for 2 hours, the solvent was removed under vacuum and the residue was dissolved in MeOH. The free base of the compound was obtained by loading the solution onto a SPE cartridge (SCX, 500 mg), washing with MeOH, and eluting with 2M NH3/MeOH. The ammonia fraction was collected and the solvent was removed under vacuum to give the title compound (14.3 mg, 70%). LC/MS: m/z, 465 (M+H), 2.29 min.

The compounds listed in Table 23 were prepared proceeding in a similar manner to Example 315, but replacing 3-(aminosulfonyl)benzoic acid with the appropriate acids.

R N

Table 23 Example R MS Rt [MH]+ 316 473 2.51 317 457 2.3

318 422 2.01 NH-Λ/ 319 386 2.4 320 380 2.09 321 443 2.26

322 396 2.19 323 o 458 2.33 324 486 2.38

325 410 2.2 326 479 2.37 oIl 327 441 2.34 \\ 328 430 2.41 329 452 2.64 ^N 330 435 2.08 o 331 o 409 2.01 Λ 332 429 2.17 H2N 333 o*. '/ 479 2.31 -N' H 334 430 2.37 o 335 476 2.81 336 458 2.37 o 337 481 2.53

338 500 2.54

339 411 2.07

y-NH

340 498 2.21

341 416 2.2

342 431 2.03

343 H H0N. -N 444 2.2

344 469 2.31

Example 345: 2-(4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1 ,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-/V-{r3'-(1 - piperazinylmethvD-S-biphenylv∏methvDacetamide trifluoroacetate To a solution of (4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1 ,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)acetic acid (0.1 mmol) in DMF (200 mL) was added a solution of HATU (0.1 mmol) in DMF (100 mL) followed by DIPEA (50 mL). After stirring for 10 minutes at room temperature, the mixture was treated with a solution of {[3'-(1-piperazinylmethyl)-3- biphenylyl]methyl}amine (0.075 mmol) in DMF (200 ml_). After stirring for 3 days, the solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in methanol and purified by loading onto a SPE cartridge (SCX, 500 mg), washing with MeOH (5 mL), and eluting with a 2M solution of NH3 in MeOH (5 ml_). The solvent was removed under vacuum and the resulting gum was dissolved in 1 :1 CHCI3 / TFA (0.5 mL). After stirring for 2 hours, the solvent was removed under vacuum to give a crude residue which was further purified by MDAP to afford the title compound as a TFA salt (3.8 mg, 10%). LC/MS: m/z, 408 (M+H), 2.18 min.

The compounds listed in Table 24 were prepared proceeding in a similar manner to Example 345, but replacing (4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1 ,2,5-oxadiazol-3- yl)acetic acid with the appropriate acids.

Table 24 Example R MS[MH]+ Rt 346 O 443 2.33

K

347 437 1.86

348 O 437 2.1 Example 349: N-(IT-H -piperazinylmethyl)-3-biphenylv∏methyl)-2-(1 H-1.2.3- triazol-1 -vDacetamide A mixture of PyBOP (0.08 mmol in 200 mL of DMF), {[3'-(1- piperazinylmethyI)-3-biphenylyl]methyl}amine (44 mmol in 200 mL of DMF) and DIPEA (30 mL) were added to 1 H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl acetic acid (0.07 mmol). The resulting mixture was stirred for 16 hours at room temperature, the solvent was then removed under vacuum. The residue was re-dissolved in methanol and purified by loading onto a SPE cartridge (SCX, 500 mg), washing with MeOH (5 mL), and eluting with a 2M solution of NH3 in MeOH (5 mL). The NH3 fraction was collected and evaporated under vacuum to give a gum which was re-dissolved in 1:1 CHCI3 / TFA (0.5 mL). After stirring for 2 hours, the solvent was removed under vacuum and the residue was purified by MDAP to give the desired compound as a TFA salt. The free base of the compound was obtained by loading the salt onto a SPE cartridge (SCX, 500 mg), washing with MeOH, and eluting with 2M NH3/MeOH. , The ammonia fraction was collected and the solvent was removed under vacuum to give the title compound (11.1 mg, 65%). LC/MS: m/z, 391 (M+H), 2.04 min.

The compounds listed in Table 25 were prepared proceeding in a similar manner to Example 349, but replacing 1 H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl acetic acid with the appropriate acids.

R N

Table 25 Example R MS[MH]+ Rt 350 391 2.04

351 446 2.25

352 370 2.15 353 444 \ 2.43

O Il 354 444 2.39

O Il 355 r 422 2.21

356 444 2.42 ■ CX

357 437 2.5

358 457 2.21

359 409 2.04 Il O

Abbreviations

BOC tert-butyloxycarbonyl DCM Dichlromethane DIC 1 ,3-Dissopropylcarbodiimide DIPEA Diisopropylethylamine DMAP Dimethylaminopyridine DME Dimethoxyethane DMF Dimethylformamide DMHB 2,6-dimethoxy-4-polystyrenebenzyloxy-benzaldehyde DMSO Dimethylsulfoxide , EDCI 1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride EDC 1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride ESI Electrospray ionization EI-MS Electrospray ionization-Mass spectrometry HATU 0-(7-Azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate HOAc Acetic acid HOBt Hydroxybenzotriazole HPLC High pressure liquid chromatography LC/MS Liquid chromatography/Mass spectrometry MDAP Mass directed automated preparative mw Microwave NMP 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone NMR Nuclear magnetic resonance rt Room temperature SPE Solid phase extraction TEA Triethylamine TFA Trifluoroacetic acid THF Tetrahydrofuran

BIOLOGICAL EXAMPLES

The inhibitory effects of compounds at the M3 mAChR of the present invention are determined by the following in vitro and in vivo assays:

Analysis of Inhibition of Receptor Activation by Calcium Mobilization:

1) 384-well FLIPR assay A CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cell line stably expressing the human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is grown in DMEM plus 10% FBS, 2 mM Glutamine and 200 ug/ml G418. Cells are detached for maintenance and for plating in preparation for assays using either enzymatic or ion chelation methods. The day before the FLIPR (fluorometric imaging plate reader) assay, cells are detached, resuspended, counted, and plated to give 20,000 cells per 384 well in a 50 ul volume. The assay plates are black clear bottom plates, Becton Dickinson catalog number 35 3962. After overnight incubation of plated cells at 37 degrees C in a tissue culture incubator, the assay is run the next day. To run the assay, media are aspirated, and cells are washed with 1x assay buffer (145mM NaCI, 2.5mM KCI, 1 OmM glucose, 1OmM HEPES, 1.2 mM MgCI2, 2.5mM CaCI2, 2.5mM probenecid (pH 7.4.) Cells are then incubated with 5OuI of Fluo-3 dye (4uM in assay buffer) for 60 - 90 minutes at 37 degrees C. The calcium- sensitive dye allows cells to exhibit an increase in fluorescence upon response to ligand via release of calcium from intracellular calcium stores. Cells are washed with assay buffer, and then resuspended in 5OuI assay buffer prior to use for experiments. Test compounds and antagonists are added in 25 ul volume, and plates are incubated at 37 degrees C for 5 -30 minutes. A second addition is then made to each well, this time with the agonist challenge, acetylcholine. It is added in 25 ul volume on the FLIPR instrument. Calcium responses are measured by changes in fluorescent units. To measure the activity of inhibitors / antagonists, acetylcholine ligand is added at an EC80 concentration, and the antagonist IC50 can then be determined using dose response dilution curves. The control antagonist used with M3 is atropine.

2) 96-well FLIPR assay Stimulation of mAChRs expressed on CHO cells were analyzed by monitoring receptor-activated calcium mobilization as previously described. CHO cells stably expressing M3 mAChRs were plated in 96 well black wall/clear bottom plates. After 18 to 24 hours, media was aspirated and replaced with 100 μl of load media (EMEM with Earl's salts, 0.1% RIA-grade BSA (Sigma, St. Louis MO), and 4 μM Fluo-3-acetoxymethyl ester fluorescent indicator dye (Fluo-3 AM, Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR) and incubated 1 hr at 37° C. The dye-containing media was then aspirated, replaced with fresh media (without Fluo-3 AM), and cells were incubated for 10 minutes at 37° C. Cells were then washed 3 times and incubated for 10 minutes at 37° C in 100 μl of assay buffer (0.1% gelatin (Sigma), 120 mM NaCI, 4.6 mM KCI, 1 mM KH2 PO4, 25 mM NaH CO3, 1.0 mM CaCI2, 1.1 mM MgCI2, 11 mM

glucose, 2OmM HEPES (pH 7.4)). 50 μl of compound (1x10"1 1 - 1x10'5 M final in the assay) was added and the plates were incubated for 10 min. at 37° C. Plates were then placed into a fluorescent light intensity plate reader (FLIPR, Molecular Probes) where the dye loaded cells were exposed to excitation light (488 nm) from a 6 watt argon laser. Cells were activated by adding 50 μl of acetylcholine (0.1-10 nM final), prepared in buffer containing 0.1% BSA, at a rate of 50 μl/sec. Calcium mobilization, monitored as change in cytosolic calcium concentration, was measured as change in 566 nm emission intensity. The change in emission intensity is directly related to cytosolic calcium levels . The emitted fluorescence from all 96 wells is measured simultaneously using a cooled CCD camera. Data points are collected every second. This data was then plotting and analyzed using GraphPad PRISM software.

Methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction Airway responsiveness to methacholine was determined in awake, unrestrained BaIbC mice (/? = 6 each group). Barometric plethysmography was used to measure enhanced pause (Penh), a unitless measure that has been shown to correlate with the changes in airway resistance that occur during bronchial challenge with methacholine . Mice were pretreated with 50 μl of compound (0.003-10 μg/mouse) in 50 μl of vehicle (10% DMSO) intranasally, and were then placed in the plethysmography chamber. Once in the chamber, the mice were allowed to equilibrate for 10 min before taking a baseline Penh measurement for 5 minutes. Mice were then challenged with an aerosol of methacholine (10 mg/ml) for 2 minutes. Penh was recorded continuously for 7 min starting at the inception of the methacholine aerosol, and continuing for 5 minutes afterward. Data for each mouse were analyzed and plotted by using GraphPad PRISM software.

The present compounds are useful for treating a variety of indications, including but not limited to respiratory-tract disorders such as chronic obstructive lung disease, chronic bronchitis, asthma, chronic respiratory obstruction, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary emphysema, and allergic rhinitis. FORMULATION-ADMINISTRATION

Accordingly, the present invention further provides a pharmaceutical formulation comprising a compound of formula (I), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, or physiologically functional derivative (e.g., salts and esters) thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient, and optionally one or more other therapeutic ingredients. Hereinafter, the term "active ingredient" means a compound of formula (I), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate, or physiologically functional derivative thereof.

Compounds of formula (I) will be administered via inhalation via the mouth or nose. Dry powder compositions for topical delivery to the lung by inhalation may, for example, be presented in capsules and cartridges of for example gelatine, or blisters of for example laminated aluminium foil, for use in an inhaler or insufflator. Powder blend formulations generally contain a powder mix for inhalation of the compound of the invention and a suitable powder base (carrier/diluent/excipient substance) such as mono-, di- or poly-saccharides (e.g., lactose or starch), organic or inorganic salts (e.g., calcium chloride, calcium phosphate or sodium chloride), polyalcohols (e.g., mannitol), or mixtures thereof, alternatively with one or more additional materials, such additives included in the blend formulation to improve chemical and/or physical stability or performance of the formulation, as discussed below, or mixtures thereof. Use of lactose is preferred. Each capsule or cartridge may generally contain between 20μg~10mg of the compound of formula (I) optionally in combination with another therapeutically active ingredient. Alternatively, the compound of the invention may be presented without excipients, or may be formed into particles comprising the compound, optionally other therapeutically active materials, and excipient materials, such as by co-precipitation or coating. Suitably, the medicament dispenser is of a type selected from the group consisting of a reservoir dry powder inhaler (RDPI), a multi-dose dry powder inhaler (MDPI), and a metered dose inhaler (MDI). By reservoir dry powder inhaler (RDPI) it is meant as an inhaler having a reservoir form pack suitable for comprising multiple (un-metered doses) of medicament in dry powder form and including means for metering medicament dose from the reservoir to a delivery position. The metering means may for example comprise a metering cup or perforated plate , which is movable from a first position where the cup may be filled with medicament from the reservoir to a second position where the metered medicament dose is made available to the patient for inhalation. By multi-dose dry powder inhaler (MDPI) is meant an inhaler suitable for dispensing medicament in dry powder form, wherein the medicament is comprised within a multi-dose pack containing (or otherwise carrying) multiple, define doses (or parts thereof) of medicament. In a preferred aspect, the carrier has a blister pack form, but it could also, for example, comprise a capsule-based pack form or a carrier onto which medicament has been applied by any suitable process including printing, painting and vacuum occlusion. The formulation can be pre-metered (eg as in Diskus, see GB 2242134 or Diskhaler, see GB 2178965, 2129691 and 2169265) or metered in use (eg as in Turbuhaler, see EP 69715). An example of a unit-dose device is Rotahaler (see GB 2064336). The Diskus inhalation device comprises an elongate strip formed from a base sheet having a plurality of recesses spaced along its length and a lid sheet hermetically but peelably sealed thereto to define a plurality of containers, each container having therein an inhalable formulation containing a compound of formula (I) preferably combined with lactose. Preferably, the strip is sufficiently flexible to be wound into a roll. The lid sheet and base sheet will preferably have leading end portions which are not sealed to one another and at least one of the said leading end portions is constructed to be attached to a winding means. Also, preferably the hermetic seal between the base and lid sheets extends over their whole width. The lid sheet may preferably be peeled from the base sheet in a longitudinal direction from a first end of the said base sheet. In one aspect, the multi-dose pack is a blister pack comprising multiple blisters for containment of medicament in dry powder form. The blisters are typically arranged in regular fashion for ease of release of medicament therefrom. In one aspect, the multi-dose blister pack comprises plural blisters arranged in generally circular fashion on a disk-form blister pack. In another aspect, the multi- dose blister pack is elongate in form, for example comprising a strip or a tape. Preferably, the multi-dose blister pack is defined between two members peelably secured to one another. US Patents Nos. 5,860,419, 5,873,360 and 5,590,645 describe medicament packs of this general type. In this aspect, the device is usually provided with an opening station comprising peeling means for peeling the members apart to access each medicament dose. Suitably, the device is adapted for use where the peelable members are elongate sheets which define a plurality of medicament containers spaced along the length thereof, the device being provided with indexing means for indexing each container in turn. More preferably, the device is adapted for use where one of the sheets is a base sheet having a plurality of pockets therein, and the other of the sheets is a lid sheet, each pocket and the adjacent part of the lid sheet defining a respective one of the containers, the device comprising driving means for pulling the lid sheet and base sheet apart at the opening station. By metered dose inhaler (MDI) it is meant a medicament dispenser suitable for dispensing medicament in aerosol form, wherein the medicament is comprised in an aerosol container suitable for containing a propellant-based aerosol medicament formulation. The aerosol container is typically provided with a metering valve, for example a slide valve, for release of the aerosol form medicament formulation to the patient. The aerosol container is generally designed to deliver a predetermined dose of medicament upon each actuation by means of the valve, which can be opened either by depressing the valve while the container is held stationary or by depressing the container while the valve is held stationary. Spray compositions for topical delivery to the lung by inhalation may for example be formulated as aqueous solutions or suspensions or as aerosols delivered from pressurised packs, such as a metered dose inhaler, with the use of a suitable liquefied propellant. Aerosol compositions suitable for inhalation can be either a suspension or a solution and generally contain the compound of formula (I) optionally in combination with another therapeutically active ingredient and a suitable propellant such as a fluorocarbon or hydrogen-containing chlorofluorocarbon or mixtures thereof, particularly hydrofluoroalkanes, e.g. dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, dichlorotetra-fluoroethane, especially 1 ,1 ,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1 ,1 ,2,3,3,3-heptafluoro-n-propane or a mixture thereof. Carbon dioxide or other suitable gas may also be used as propellant. The aerosol composition may be excipient free or may optionally contain additional formulation excipients well known in the art such as surfactants eg oleic acid or lecithin and cosolvents eg ethanol. Pressurized formulations will generally be retained in a canister (eg an aluminium canister) closed with a valve (eg a metering valve) and fitted into an actuator provided with a mouthpiece. Medicaments for administration by inhalation desirably have a controlled particle size. The optimum aerodynamic particle size for inhalation into the bronchial system for localized delivery to the lung is usually 1-10μm, preferably 2- 5μm. The optimum aerodynamic particle size for inhalation into the alveolar region for achieving systemic delivery to the lung is approximately .5-3 μm, preferably 1-3 μm. Particles having an aerodynamic size above 20μm are generally too large when inhaled to reach the small airways. Average aerodynamic particle size of a formulation may measured by, for example cascade impaction. Average geometric particle size may be measured, for example by laser diffraction, optical means.

To achieve a desired particle size, the particles of the active ingredient as produced may be size reduced by conventional means eg by controlled crystallization, micronisation or nanomilling The desired fraction may be separated out by air classification. Alternatively, particles of the desired size may be directly produced, for example by spray drying, controlling the spray drying parameters to generate particles of the desired size range. Preferably, the particles will be crystalline, although amorphous material may also be employed where desirable. When an excipient such as lactose is employed, generally, the particle size of the excipient will be much greater than the inhaled medicament within the present invention, such that the "coarse" carrier is non-respirable. When the excipient is lactose it will typically be present as milled lactose, wherein not more than 85% of lactose particles will have a MMD of 60-90μm and not less than 15% will have a MMD of less than 15μm. Additive materials in a dry powder blend in addition to the carrier may be either respirable, i.e., aerodynamically less than 10 microns, or non- respirable, i.e., aerodynamically greater than 10 microns.

Suitable additive materials which may be employed include amino acids, such as leucine; water soluble or water insoluble, natural or synthetic surfactants, such as lecithin (e.g., soya lecithin) and solid state fatty acids (e.g., lauric, palmitic, and stearic acids) and derivatives thereof (such as salts and esters); phosphatidylcholines; sugar esters. Additive materials may also include colorants, taste masking agents (e.g., saccharine), anti-static-agents, lubricants (see, for example, Published PCT Patent Appl. No. WO 87/905213, the teachings of which are incorporated by reference herein), chemical stabilizers, buffers, preservatives, absorption enhancers, and other materials known to those of ordinary skill. Sustained release coating materials (e.g., stearic acid or polymers, e.g. polyvinyl pyrolidone, polylactic acid) may also be employed on active material or active material containing particles (see, for example, Patent Nos. US 3,634,582, GB 1 ,230,087, GB 1,381 ,872, the teachings of which are incorporated by reference herein).

Intranasal sprays may be formulated with aqueous or non-aqueous vehicles with the addition of agents such as thickening agents, buffer salts or acid or alkali to adjust the pH, isotonicity adjusting agents or anti-oxidants.

Solutions for inhalation by nebulation may be formulated with an aqueous vehicle with the addition of agents such as acid or alkali, buffer salts, isotonicity adjusting agents or antimicrobials. They may be sterilised by filtration or heating in an autoclave, or presented as a non-sterile product. Preferred unit dosage formulations are those containing an effective dose, as herein before recited, or an appropriate fraction thereof, of the active ingredient.

All publications, including but not limited to patents and patent applications, cited in this specification are herein incorporated by reference as if each individual publication were specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference herein as though fully set forth. The above description fully discloses the invention including preferred embodiments thereof. Modifications and improvements of the embodiments specifically disclosed herein are within the scope of the following claims. Without further elaboration, it is believed that one skilled in the art can, using the preceding description, utilize the present invention to its fullest extent. Therefore the Examples herein are to be construed as merely illustrative and not a limitation of the scope of the present invention in any way. The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows.