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Title:
NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITIONS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/004564
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
In some aspects, the disclosure relates to compositions useful for the dietary management of inborn errors of metabolism (e.g., PKU, MSUD, HCU, IVA, and MMA/PA). In some embodiments, the disclosure provides a composition comprising a protein source, a fat source, a carbohydrate source, at least one vitamin, and at least one mineral, wherein the protein source comprises at least six free amino acids. In some aspects the disclosure relates to compositions that support bone health.

Inventors:
GINGRICH, Susan (51 Greenbrook Road, Hamilton, MA, 01982, US)
OLSON, Kurt (3060 W. Armitage Avenue #304, Chicago, IL, 60647, US)
Application Number:
US2016/040780
Publication Date:
January 05, 2017
Filing Date:
July 01, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CAMBROOKE THERAPEUTICS, INC. (4 Copeland Drive, Ayer, MA, 01432, US)
International Classes:
A23L33/15; A23L33/155; A23L33/175
Foreign References:
US20100317562A12010-12-16
US20150174080A12015-06-25
US20070065456A12007-03-22
US4066794A1978-01-03
US20110165291A12011-07-07
US6506422B12003-01-14
US20060147495A12006-07-06
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GRANAHAN, Patricia (Wolf, Greenfield & Sacks P.C.,600 Atlantic Avenu, Boston MA, 02210-2206, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A composition comprising: Vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, and Vitamin K, wherein the Vitamin D is between about 500 IU and about 770 IU of the total weight of the composition, calcium is between about 36% and about 56% of the total weight of the composition, phosphorus is between about 31% and about 48% of the total weight of the composition, zinc is between about 0.25% and about 0.40% of the total weight of the

composition, magnesium is between about 8% and about 13% of the total weight of the composition, and Vitamin K is between about 1.2% and about 3.5% of the total weight of the composition.

2. A composition comprising Vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, and Vitamin K, wherein in about 1.5 g to about 4.0 g of composition, Vitamin D is between about 500 IU and 770 IU, calcium is between about 500 mg and about 840 mg, phosphorus is between about 475 mg and about 720 mg, zinc is between about 4 mg and about 6 mg, magnesium is between about 125 mg and about 195 mg, and Vitamin K is between about 20 μg and about 50

3. The composition of claim 1 or 2, wherein Vitamin K is a combination of Vitamin Kl and Vitamin K2.

4. The composition of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the weight ratio in grams of Vitamin Kl to Vitamin K2 is 1: 1.

5. The composition of any one of claims 1 to 4, further comprising inulin.

6. The composition of claim 5, wherein the inulin is between about 0% and about 72% of the total weight of the composition.

7. The composition of claim 5 or 6, wherein from about 0 g to about 2.5 g inulin is present in 3.5 g of the composition.

8. The composition of any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the composition is a powder.

9. The composition of any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the composition is a liquid. 10. A composition comprising the composition of claim 1 or claim 2 and a protein source, wherein Vitamin D is between about 500 IU per 20 g Protein Equivalent (PE) and 770 IU per 20 g PE, calcium is between about 500 mg per 20 g PE and about 840 mg per 20 g PE, phosphorus is between about 475 mg per 20 g PE and about 720 mg per 20 g PE, zinc is between about 4 mg per 20 g PE and about 6 mg per 20 g PE, magnesium is between about 125 mg per 20 g PE and about 195 mg per 20 g PE, and the Vitamin K is between about 20 μg per 20 g PE and about 50 μg per 20 g PE.

11. The composition of claim 10, wherein the protein source comprises at least six amino acids selected from the group consisting of: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

12. A nutritional composition for dietary management of an inborn error of metabolism comprising: a protein source, a fat source, a carbohydrate source, and the composition of claim 1, and, wherein the protein source comprises at least six free amino acids.

13. The nutritional composition of claim 12, wherein the pH of the composition is from about pH 5.0 to about pH 6.0.

14. The nutritional composition of claim 12 or 13, wherein the at least six free amino acids are selected from the group consisting of: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

15. The nutritional composition of claim 14, further comprising at least one amino acid selected from the group consisting of glycine, alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cystine, glutamic acid, glutamine, proline, serine, and tyrosine.

16. The nutritional composition of any one of claims 12 to 15, wherein glycine ranges from about 85 mg/20 g PE to about 2510 mg/20 g PE, alanine ranges from about 360 mg/20 g PE to about 5000 mg/ 20 g PE, arginine ranges from about 435 mg/20 g PE to about 2500 mg/ 20 g PE, asparagine ranges from about 0 mg/20 g PE to about 2070 mg/ 20 g PE, aspartic acid ranges from about 0 mg/20 g PE to about 2900 mg/ 20 g PE, cystine ranges from about 190 mg/20 g PE to about 865 mg/ 20 g PE, glutamic acid ranges from about 0 mg/20 g PE to about 400 mg/ 20 g PE, glutamine ranges from about 195 mg/20 g PE to about 2870 mg/ 20 g PE, histidine ranges from about 510 mg/20 g PE to about 1450 mg/ 20 g PE, isoleucine ranges from about 0 mg/20 g PE to about 1570 mg/ 20 g PE, leucine ranges from about 0 mg/20 g PE to about 4710 mg/ 20 g PE, lysine ranges from about 775 mg/20 g PE to about 2300 mg/ 20 g PE, methionine ranges from about 0 mg/20 g PE to about 600 mg/ 20 g PE, phenylalanine ranges from about 0 mg/20 g PE to about 1500 mg/ 20 g PE, proline ranges from about 500 mg/20 g PE to about 2160 mg/ 20 g PE, serine ranges from about 380 mg/20 g PE to about 1485 mg/ 20 g PE, threonine ranges from about 0 mg/20 g PE to about 1600 mg/ 20 g PE, tryptophan ranges from about 195 mg/20 g PE to about 615 mg/ 20 g PE, tyrosine ranges from about 375 mg/20 g PE to about 2260 mg/ 20 g PE, and valine ranges from about 0 mg/20 g PE to about 1800 mg/ 20 g PE.

17. The nutritional composition of any one of claims 12 to 16, further comprising at least one component selected from the group consisting of carnitine, taurine, and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

18. The nutritional composition of any one of claims 12 to 17, further comprising at least one vitamin selected from the group consisting of: Vitamin A, Vitamin E, biotin, folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid, Vitamin B l, Vitamin B 12, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin C. 19. The nutritional composition of claim 18, wherein Vitamin A ranges from about 950

IU/20 g PE to about 1450 IU/20 g PE, Vitamin D ranges from about 500 IU/20 g PE to about 770 IU/20 g PE, Vitamin E ranges from about 7 IU/20 g PE to about 12 IU/20 g PE, biotin ranges from about 8 μg/20 g PE to about 13 μg/20 g PE, folic acid ranges from about 0.14 mg/20 g PE to about 0.23 mg/20 g PE, niacin ranges from about 5.25 mg/20 g PE to about 7.95 mg/20 g PE, pantothenic acid ranges from about 1.9 mg/20 g PE to about 2.9 mg/20 g

PE, Vitamin B l ranges from about 0.43 mg/20 g PE to about 0.65 mg/20 g PE, Vitamin B 12 ranges from about 0.75 μg/20 g PE to about 1.2 μg/20 g PE, Vitamin B2 ranges from about

0.425 mg/20 g PE to about 0.65 mg/20 g PE, Vitamin B6 ranges from about 0.425 mg/20 g PE to about 0.65 mg/20 g PE, Vitamin C ranges from about 35 mg/20 g PE to about 55 mg/20 g PE, and Vitamin K ranges from about 20 μg/20 g PE to about 13 μg/20 g PE.

20. The nutritional composition of any one of claims 12 to 19, further comprising at least one mineral is selected from the group consisting of: chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, selenium, and sodium.

21. The nutritional composition of claim 20, wherein calcium ranges from about 550 mg/20 g PE to about 840 mg/20 g PE, chromium ranges from about 13.5 μg/20 g PE to about 20.9 g/20 g PE, copper ranges from about 0.15 mg/20 g PE to about 0.25 mg/20 g PE, iodine ranges from about 60 μg/20 g PE to about 91.5 μg/20 g PE, iron ranges from about 6 mg/20 g PE to about 9.75 mg/20 g PE, magnesium ranges from about 125 mg/20 g PE to about 195 mg/20 g PE, manganese ranges from about 0.75 mg/20 g PE to about 1.25 mg/20 g PE, molybdenum ranges from about 15 μg/20 g PE to about 25 μg/20 g PE, phosphorus ranges from about 475 mg/20 g PE to about 720 mg/20 g PE, potassium ranges from about 375 mg/20 g PE to about 520 mg/20 g PE, selenium ranges from about 21 μg/20 g PE to about 32 μg/20 g PE, sodium ranges from about 100 mg/20 g PE to about 200 mg/20 g PE, and zinc ranges from about 4 mg/20 g PE to about 6 mg/20 g PE. 22. A nutritional composition for dietary management of an inborn error of metabolism as shown in Table 5.

23. The nutritional composition of claim 22, wherein the amino acid blend is selected from the group consisting of: Blend 1, Blend 2, Blend 3, Blend 4, and Blend 5 in Table 4.

24. The nutritional composition of claim 22, wherein the amino acid blend is selected from the group consisting of: Blend 1, Blend 2, Blend 3, Blend 4, and Blend 5 in Table 9.

25. The nutritional composition of claim 22, wherein the amino acid blend is selected from the group consisting of: Blend 1, Blend 2, Blend 3, Blend 4, and Blend 5 in Table 10.

26. The nutritional composition of any one of claims 22 to 25, wherein the vitamin and mineral blend is shown in Table 2 or Table 7.

27. The nutritional composition of any one of claims 22 to 26, wherein the nutritional composition provides at least 15 g protein equivalent (PE) per 8.5 fluid oz. 28. The nutritional composition of claim 27, wherein the nutritional composition comprises per 8.5 fluid oz., about 16 g PE, about 17 g PE, about 18 g PE, about 19 g PE, about 20 g PE, or about 21 g PE.

29. The nutritional composition of any one of claims 22 to 28, wherein the pH of the nutritional composition is between about pH 5.0 and about pH 6.0.

30. The nutritional composition of any one of claims 22 to 29, wherein the inborn error of metabolism is selected from the group consisting of: Phenylketonuria (PKU), Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD), Homocystinuria (HCU), Isovaleric acidaemia (IVA), and

Methylmalonic acidaemia/ Propionic acidaemia (MM A/PA).

Description:
NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITIONS

RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. 119(e) of U.S. provisional patent application USSN 62/188,208, filed on July 2, 2015, entitled "Nutritional Compositions", and U.S. provisional patent application USSN 62/189,145, filed on July 6, 2016, entitled

"Nutritional Compositions." The teachings of both applications are incorporated by reference herein.

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

Inborn errors of metabolism are a group of inherited disorders characterized by defective function of one or more metabolic enzymes. Several inborn errors of metabolism are related to enzymes that metabolize amino acids. In these disorders, a lack of enzymatic activity causes an inability to fully metabolize proteins or peptides, leading to an accumulation of toxic byproducts and reduced ability to synthesize essential compounds. For example, Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by a mutation that reduces or abrogates activity of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Impaired metabolism leads to a toxic buildup of phenylalanine (Phe) in the brain, resulting in intellectual disability and seizures. Inborn errors of metabolism are also often related to secondary medical issues, such as low bone mineral density.

Inborn errors of metabolism related to amino acid metabolism can be managed by a controlled diet that reduces or excludes the amino acid that the patient is unable to break down (e.g., a diet lacking or low in Phe for a PKU patient). Generally, the protein source provided by these diets is a mixture of elemental amino acids. Controlled diets can be administered in the form of nutritional formulas, which can be reconstituted from powdered mixes or provided in a ready to drink (RTD) liquid format. However, patient compliance with controlled diets based on nutritional formulas is an issue, with some patients citing unacceptable taste of nutritional formulas as a reason for non-compliance.

Accordingly, there is a need to develop novel nutritional formulas having acceptable palatability and improved nutrient profiles for the dietary management of inborn errors of metabolism.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

Described herein are compositions (e.g., amino acid-based formulas) that are useful for the dietary management of inborn errors of metabolism. In some embodiments, the compositions are nutritionally complete, support patient bone health and have an acceptable taste.

In some aspects, the disclosure relates to compositions for the support of bone health (bone health composition) in patients with inborn errors of metabolism. Bone health

compositions can be solid (e.g. , a powder) or liquid. In some embodiments, bone health compositions comprise Vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, and Vitamin K. In some embodiments, Vitamin K is a combination of Vitamin Kl and Vitamin K2. In some embodiments, equal amounts (e.g. , by gram weight) of Vitamin Kl and Vitamin K2 are present in the composition. In some embodiments, bone health compositions further comprise a dietary fiber. In some embodiments, the dietary fiber is inulin.

The amount of each component in a bone health composition can be expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the bone health composition or as the weight of each component in the amount of bone health composition that is included per serving of nutritional composition. Typically the amount of bone health composition is from about 1.5 g to about 4.0 g per serving. The percentage of bone health blend in a total serving ranges from about 0.43 to about 0.68. In some embodiments, bone health compositions further comprise a protein source and the amount of each component in the composition is expressed as weight per g protein equivalent (PE) (e.g., per 20 g PE). In some embodiments, a protein source comprises one or more amino acids selected from the group consisting of: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. Examples of ranges for each component of a bone health composition are described in Table 1. In some embodiments, a bone health composition is a component in a vitamin and mineral mixture, for example as shown in Table 2 or Table 7.

In some aspects, the disclosure provides nutritional compositions for dietary

management of inborn errors of metabolism comprising components described herein. The inborn error of metabolism can be Phenylketonuria (PKU), Maple Syrup Urine Disease

(MSUD), Homocystinuria (HCU), Isovaleric acidaemia (IVA), and Methylmalonic acidaemia/ Propionic acidaemia (MMA/PA). In some embodiments, nutritional compositions comprise a protein source, a fat source, a carbohydrate source, the bone health composition, wherein the protein source comprises at least six free amino acids. The nutritional compositions are liquids and in some embodiments, the pH of a nutritional composition is between about pH 5.0 and about pH 6.0. In some embodiments, the at least six free amino acids are selected from the group consisting of: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. In some embodiments, nutritional compositions further comprise at least one amino acid selected from the group consisting of glycine, alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cystine, glutamic acid, glutamine, proline, serine, and tyrosine. In some embodiments, the protein source is a mixture of amino acids (e.g. , a blend of amino acids), for example as shown in Table 4 or Table 10.

The amount of each amino acid in a nutritional composition can be expressed as weight per g protein equivalent (PE) (e.g., per 20 g PE), or as weight of each component per serving. In some embodiments, a serving of liquid nutritional composition is about 8.5 fluid oz (i.e., about 250 mL).

The liquid nutritional formula may contain additional components, for example carnitine, taurine, Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), alone or in combination (e.g. , carnitine and taurine; carnitine, taurine, and DHA; carnitine and DHA; or taurine and DHA).

In some embodiments, the nutritional composition comprises: Vitamin A, Vitamin D,

Vitamin E, biotin, folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid, Vitamin B l, Vitamin B 12, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, and Vitamin K and calcium, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, and zinc. In some embodiments, the nutritional composition includes a vitamin and mineral blend, for example as represented in Table 2 or Table 7. The amount of each vitamin or mineral in a nutritional composition for dietary management of inborn errors of metabolism can be expressed as a percentage of the total weight of the composition, the weight of each vitamin or mineral per serving, or the weight of each vitamin or mineral per g PE (e.g. , per 20 g PE).

In some aspects, the disclosure relates to a nutritional composition for dietary

management of an inborn error of metabolism, comprising the components set forth in Table 5. In some embodiments, the amino acid blend is selected from the blends in Table 4 or Table 10. In some embodiments, the amino acid blend is selected from the group consisting of Blend 1, Blend 2, Blend 3, Blend 4 or Blend 5 in Table 4, and Blend 1, Blend 2, Blend 3, Blend 4 or Blend 5 in Table 10. In some embodiments, a nutritional composition for dietary management of an inborn error of metabolism provides (per 8.5 fluid oz.) about 15, about 16 g PE, about 17 g PE, about 18 g PE, about 19 g PE, about 20 g PE, or about 21 g PE. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Fig. 1 shows non-limiting embodiments of nutritional compositions for dietary management of inborn errors of metabolism comprising components described by the disclosure. Fig. 2 shows non-limiting embodiments of nutritional compositions for dietary management of inborn errors of metabolism comprising components described by the disclosure.

Fig. 3 shows non-limiting embodiments of nutritional compositions for dietary management of inborn errors of metabolism comprising components described by the disclosure.

Fig. 4 shows a non-limiting embodiment of a nutritional composition for dietary management of Homocystinurea (HCU).

Fig. 5 shows a non-limiting embodiment of a nutritional composition for dietary management of Isovaleric Acidemia (IV A). Fig. 6 shows a non-limiting embodiment of a nutritional composition for dietary management of Phenylketonuria (PKU).

Fig. 7 shows a non-limiting embodiment of a nutritional composition for dietary management of Methylmalonic Acidemia and Propionic Acidemia (MM A/PA).

Fig. 8 shows a non-limiting embodiment of a nutritional composition for dietary management of Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD).

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION

The disclosure relates to compositions for dietary management of inborn errors of metabolism. Compositions for support bone health of subjects having inborn errors of metabolism, provide a source of complete nutrition to subjects having inborn errors of metabolism, or support bone health and provide source of complete nutrition to subjects having inborn errors of metabolism. The term "nutritionally complete" refers to a composition having a complete nutritional profile of macro and micronutrients (e.g., containing carbohydrates, protein, fats, vitamins and minerals) for subjects 1 year of age and older. Inborn Errors of Metabolism

In some aspects, the disclosure relates to compositions for dietary management of inborn errors of metabolism. As used herein the term "inborn error of metabolism" refers to a disease or disorder characterized by defective function of a metabolic enzyme. Generally, an inborn error of metabolism is inherited (e.g., a congenital disease or disorder). Inborn errors of metabolism can be divided into several types, including disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (e.g., glycogen storage disease), disorders of amino acid metabolism, urea cycle disorders (e.g., carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency), disorders of organic acid metabolism (e.g., alcaptonuria), disorders of mitochondrial metabolism (e.g., Leigh syndrome), disorders of fatty acid oxidation (e.g., Medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency), and lysosomal storage disorders (e.g., Gaucher' s disease).

In some embodiments, compositions described by the disclosure are for dietary management of disorders of amino acid metabolism, which are characterized by the inability of a subject to metabolize a particular amino acid. Examples of disorders of amino acid metabolism and the gene(s) associated with each disease include phenylketonuria (PKU;

phenylalanine hydroxylase), Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD; branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex), Homocystinuria (HCU; cystathionine beta synthase), Isovaleric acidaemia (IVA; isovaleric acid-CoA dehydrogenase), and Methylmalonic acidaemia/ Propionic acidaemia (MMA/PA; methylmalonyl-CoA mutase/ propionyl-CoA carboxylase).

Nutritional Formulas for Dietary Management of Inborn Errors of Metabolism

In some aspects, the disclosure provides a nutritional composition for dietary

management of an inborn error of metabolism comprising: a protein source, a fat source, a carbohydrate source, and a bone health composition, wherein the protein source comprises at least six free amino acids. In some embodiments, the nutritional composition is nutritionally complete.

The protein source is a mixture of free amino acids. As used herein, the term "free amino acid" refers to a single amino acid that does not require digestion or metabolism.

Generally, a free amino acid is to the L-isomer of the amino acid (e.g., L-alanine) as opposed to the D-isomer of the amino acid (e.g., D-alanine). However, in some embodiments, a free amino acid is the D-isomer of the amino acid. In some embodiments, a protein source comprises a mixture of free amino acids (e.g. , a blend of amino acids). Such a mixture of amino acid comprises essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids. The essential amino acids are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. The amino acids present in a particular amino acid mixture of a protein source will be determined by the inborn error of metabolism to be managed by administration of the nutritional composition. For example, a composition for the management of phenylketonuria will have, at most, a minimal amount of phenylalanine. In some embodiments, a protein source (e.g., a blend of amino acids) comprises at least six free amino acids. In some embodiments, the at least six free amino acids are selected from the group consisting of: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. Examples of protein source blends are shown in Table 3, Table 4, Table 6, Table 8, Table 9, and Table 10.

Amino acid content affects the pH of nutritional compositions. In some embodiments, the pH of a nutritional composition described by the disclosure ranges from about pH 3.0 to about pH 7.0. In some embodiments, the pH of a nutritional composition described by the disclosure ranges from about pH 4.0 to about pH 6.0. In some embodiments, the pH of a nutritional composition described by the disclosure ranges from about pH 5.0 to about pH 6.0. In some embodiments, the pH of a nutritional composition described by the disclosure is about pH 4.0, pH 4.1, pH 4.2, pH 4.3, pH 4.4, pH 4.5, pH 4.6, pH 4.7, pH 4.8, pH 4.9, pH 5.0, pH 5.1, pH 5.2, pH 5.3, pH 5.4, pH 5.5, pH 5.6, pH 5.7, pH 5.8, pH 5.9, or pH 6.0. In some

embodiments, the pH of a nutritional composition is less than pH 5.0.

The nutritional compositions as described herein comprise a fat source, which can be a single type of fat, or a combination of more than one type of fat. A fat source may comprise saturated fats, unsaturated fats or a combination of saturated fats and unsaturated fats. Fat can comprise long chain fatty acids, short chain fatty acids or a combination of long chain fatty acids and short chain fatty acids. In some embodiments, fat comprises triglycerides, such as short- chain triglycerides, long-chain triglycerides, medium-chain triglycerides or a combination of two or three of the foregoing (e.g., short-chain triglycerides, long-chain triglycerides and medium-chain triglycerides; short-chain triglycerides and long-chain triglycerides; short-chain triglycerides and medium-chain triglycerides; medium-chain triglycerides and long-chain triglycerides). Examples of fat sources include but are not limited to: butter, animal fat (for example beef or chicken fat), vegetable oil (for example avocado, corn, and soybean), olive oil, canola oil, coconut oil, cocoa butter, fish oil, nuts (for example macadamia and peanut) and nut oils.

In some embodiments, the fat source is between about 1.8% and about 2.8% of the total weight of the composition. In some embodiments, the fat source is about 1.8%, about 1.9%, about 2.0%, about 2.1%, about 2.2%, about 2.3%, about 2.4%, about 2.5%, about 2.6%, about 2.7%, or about 2.8% of the total weight of the composition. In some embodiments, the fat source is at a concentration of between about 19 g/L and about 29 g/L.

Emulsifiers can be used to improve stability and texture of nutritional compositions described herein. In some aspects, the nutritional compositions comprise an emulsifier or emulsifying agent (e.g., a surfactant), such as sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL), lecithin, starches, gums and biopolymeric emulsifiers. In some embodiments, the emulsifier is a modified starch, such as octenyl succinate starch (e.g., OS A starch) or other modified starch, that interferes with interaction of fat and protein source in the formula, such as by binding of the octenyl moiety of the starch to fat globules.

Nutritional compositions comprise a carbohydrate source, such as starch, gum and/or fiber. In some embodiments, carbohydrate acts as a food stabilizer. A carbohydrate source can be a single type of carbohydrate, or a combination of several types of carbohydrate. In some embodiments, carbohydrate is less than about 2.1 % of the total weight of the composition. In some embodiments, carbohydrate is a gum. In some embodiments, carbohydrate comprises carboxymethyl cellulose, carrageenan or carboxymethyl cellulose and carrageenan.

In some embodiments, the composition contains supplemental dietary fiber. Dietary fiber can be a single type of fiber or a combination of more than one type of fiber. In some embodiments, the dietary fibers are soluble fibers, non-soluble fibers, or dietary fibers and non- soluble fibers. In some embodiments, the fiber comprises very low density lipoprotein (vldl)- and low density lipoprotein (ldl) -reducing soluble fibers. In some embodiments, the fiber is one or more selected from the group consisting of inulin, pectin, cellulose gum (carboxymethyl cellulose) and carrageenan.

In some embodiments, nutritional compositions further comprise at least one (one or more) sweetener, such as acesulfame potassium, sucralose, aspartame, lo han guo, stevia, erythritol, xylitol, maltitol, sorbitol, other nutritive or non-nutritive sources. In some embodiments, the composition does not contain artificial or nutritive sweeteners.

The nutritional compositions described herein comprise at least one vitamin and at least one mineral. In some embodiments, the at least one vitamin is selected from the group consisting of Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Biotin, folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid, Vitamin B l, Vitamin B 12, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, and Vitamin K. Examples of vitamin sources include: palmitates, beta-carotene, ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol, dl-alpha tocopheryl acetate, d-alpha tocopheryl acetate, dl-alpha tocotrienols, calcium panthothenate, pantothenol, pantothenic acid, cyanocobalamin, methylcobalamin, sodium ascorbate, calcium ascorbate, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine hydrochloride, pyridoxal 5 'phosphate, riboflavin, thiamin, folic acid, phylloquinone, phytomenadione, phytonadione, menaquinones (e.g. , MK-4 and MK- 7) and biotin. Any combination of vitamins can be included in the nutritional compositions. In some embodiments, a nutritional composition comprises at least one vitamin in an amount listed in Table 2 or Table 7. In some embodiments, a nutritional composition comprises all of the vitamins in Table 2 or Table 7, such as the vitamins listed in the quantities listed in Table 2 or Table 7.

In some embodiments, the nutritional composition comprises at least one mineral selected from the group consisting of: calcium, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, and zinc. Examples of mineral sources include calcium lactate, calcium gluconate, calcium pantothenate, calcium lactate gluconate, calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, calcium phosphate, magnesium phosphate, potassium phosphate, choline chloride, phosphatidylcholine, choline bitartrate, lecithin, magnesium chloride, magnesium oxide, magnesium gluconate, magnesium phosphate, magnesium malate, magnesium citrate, magnesium fumarate, inositol hexanicotinate, nicotinamide, niacinamine, zinc carbonate, zinc citrate, zinc sulfate, zinc gluconate, zinc bisglycinate, zinc fumarate, manganese chloride, manganese gluconate, manganese sulfate, manganese picolinate, monosodium sulfate, monopotassium phosphate, iron sulfate, iron citrate, iron gluconate, ferrous fumarate, cupric oxide, copper gluconate, copper sulfate, copper carbonate, chromium picolinate, chromium chloride, chromium polynicotinate, chromium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, manganese chloride, choline chloride, potassium chloride, potassium citrate, potassium iodide, potassium sodium tartrate, potassium bisulfite, potassium iodide, sodium selenite, selenomethionine, sodium selenite, potassium molybdate, sodium molybdate, sodium chloride, sodium citrate, or amino acid chelates (e.g., zinc chelate, magnesium chelate) of any of the foregoing. Any combination of minerals can be included in the nutritional compositions. In some embodiments, a nutritional composition comprises at least one mineral in an amount listed in Table 2 or Table 7. In some embodiments, a nutritional composition comprises all of the minerals listed in Table 2 or Table 7, such as the minerals in the quantities listed in Table 2 or Table 7.

The addition of certain minerals, such as zinc, copper and/or iron, to food products is known to contribute to fat rancidity in food products. Chelation of sensitive minerals may therefore reduce fat rancidity by preventing minerals associated with fat rancidity from interacting with fats that are present in a composition. In some embodiments, the nutritional compositions comprise a chelating agent, such as phosphates or phosphonates, EDTA and sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP). In some embodiments, the chelating agent is sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP). Other methods of reducing fat rancidity, such as the addition of antioxidants, are also known in the art. In some embodiments, nutritional compositions described herein comprise at least one antioxidant, such as ascorbate, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), cysteine and tocopherols.

Several embodiments of a nutritionally complete nutritional composition for dietary management of an inborn error of metabolism are shown in Table 5. Table 5 provides ranges of each component of a nutritional composition. In some embodiments, the amino acid blend of the composition is selected from the amino acid blends listed in Table 4 or Table 10. The amino acid blend of the composition is determined by the inborn error of metabolism to be managed by the composition. For example, if the condition to be managed is MSUD, Blend #2 from Table 4 or Blend #2 from Table 10 can be used. In some embodiments, the vitamin and mineral blend referred to Table 5 comprises the vitamin and mineral blend represented in Table 2 or Table 7.

Compositions Supporting Bone Health

In some aspects, the disclosure relates to compositions that support bone health in subjects having inborn errors of metabolism. Subjects having certain types of inborn errors of metabolism have increased risk of bone abnormalities {e.g. , reduced bone mineral density).

Accordingly in some embodiments, the disclosure provides compositions that support the bone health of subjects having inborn errors of metabolism. Bone health compositions can be solid {e.g., a powder) or liquid.

Bone health compositions described herein comprise vitamins and minerals. In some embodiments, bone health compositions comprise Vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium, and Vitamin K. For example, the amount of each component in about 1.5 g (without inulin) to about 4.0 g (with inulin) of bone health composition described by the disclosure is shown in Table 1. The amount of bone health composition included in a serving of nutritional composition ranges from about 0.5 g to about 5.0 g. In some embodiments, the amount of bone health composition included in a serving of nutritional composition ranges from about 1.0 g to about 4.0 g. In some embodiments, the amount of bone health composition included in a serving of nutritional composition ranges from about 1.5 g to about 3.5 g. In some embodiments, the amount of bone health composition included in a serving of nutritional composition ranges from about 2.0 g to about 3.0 g. In some embodiments, the amount of bone health composition included in a serving of nutritional composition is about 1.5 g, about 1.6 g, about 1.7 g, about 1.8 g, about 1.9 g, about 2.0 g, about 2.1 g, about 2.2 g, about 2.3 g, about 2.4 g, about 2.5 g, about 2.6 g, about 2.7 g, about 2.8 g, about 2.9 g, about 3.0 g, about 3.1 g, about 3.2 g, about 3.3 g, about 3.4 g, about 3.5 g, about 3.6 g, about 3.7 g, about 3.8 g, about 3.9 g, or about 4.0 g.

In some embodiments, bone health compositions are added to supplement nutritional formulas and compositions for dietary management of inborn errors of metabolism. For example, a bone health composition may be combined with a protein source. In some embodiments, the protein source comprises one or more amino acids selected from the group consisting of: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. In some embodiments, the protein source comprises at least six amino acids selected from the group consisting of: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.

Table 1: Ranges of Components in Bone Health Compositions

Table 2: Examples of Ranges of Vitamins and Minerals in Nutritional Compositions

Table 3: Examples of Free Amino Acid Ranges in Nutritional Compositions

AA Blend/Serving (8.5 fl oz.) Minimum Maximum

mg/serving mg/serving

Glycine (mg) 85 2510

L- Alanine (mg) 360 5000

L-Arginine (mg) 435 2500

L-Asparagine (mg) 0 2070

L-Aspartic Acid (mg) 0 2900 L-Carnitine (mg) 15 1140

L-Cystine (mg) 190 865

L-Glutamic Acid (mg) 0 400

L-Glutamine (mg) 195 2870

L-Histidine (mg) 510 1450

L-Isoleucine (mg) 0 1570

L-Leucine (mg) 0 4710

L-Lysine (mg) 775 2300

L-Methionine (mg) 0 600

L-Phenylalanine (mg) 0 1500

L-Proline (mg) 500 2160

L-Serine (mg) 380 1485

L- Threonine (mg) 0 1600

L- Tryptophan (mg) 195 615

L-Tyrosine (mg) 375 2260

L- Valine (mg) 0 1800

Taurine 35 80

Table 4: Examples of Amino Acid Blends

Amino Acid/ Blend 1 (PKU) Blend 2 (MSUD) Blend 3 (HCU) Blend 4 (MMA/PA) Blend 5 (IVA)

8 fl oz.serving MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX MIN MAX

Glycine (mg) 551.2 827 216 324 1200 1800 781.6 1172.4 1745.6 2618

L-Alanine (mg) 338.4 508 864 1296 856 1284 1816 2724 3479.2 5219

L-Arginine (mg) 760.8 1141 408 612 1240 1860 1742.4 2613.6 1522.4 2284

L-Asparagine (mg) 0 0 464 696 0 0 0 0 0 0

L-Aspartic Acid (mg) 1408.8 2113 0 0 1549.6 2324 2320 3480 894.4 1342

L-Carnitine (mg) 14.4 21.6 16 24 16.8 25.2 16 24 910.4 1366

L-Cystine (mg) 621.6 932 176 264 648 972 689.6 1034.4 178.4 268

L-Glutamic Acid (mg) 0 0 280 420 0 0 0 0 0 0

L-Glutamine (mg) 184.8 277 2296 3444 1025.6 1538 964 1446 1496 2244

L-Histidine (mg) 705.6 1058 568 852 744 1116 1162.4 1743.6 480 720

L-lsoleucine (mg) 1256 1884 0 0 1146.4 1720 54.4 81.6 509.6 764

L-Leucine (mg) 3765.6 5648 0 0 1965.6 2948 2504 3756 0 0

L-Lysine (mg) 1468 2202 728 1092 1296 1944 1826.4 2739.6 1159.2 1739

L-Methionine (mg) 461.6 692 240 360 0 0 0 0 344.8 517

L-Phenylalanine (mg) 0 0 704 1056 864 1296 1142.4 1713.6 988.8 1483

L-Proline (mg) 1364.8 2047 472 708 1408 2112 822.4 1233.6 1725.6 2588

L-Serine (mg) 980.8 1471 360 540 1005.6 1508 1186.4 1779.6 933.6 1400

L-Threonine (mg) 1276.8 1915 576 864 914.4 1372 0 0 840 1260

L-Tryptophan (mg) 385.6 578 424 636 386.4 580 490.4 735.6 183.2 275

L-Tyrosine (mg) 1804.8 2707 704 1056 1128 1692 1142.4 1713.6 993.6 1490

L-Valine (mg) 1440.8 2161 0 0 1250.4 1876 0 0 573.6 860 Table 5: Example of a Nutritional Composition

Table 6: Examples of Amino Acid Blends in Nutritional Compositions L- Tryptophan (mg) 482 530 483 613 229 480

L-Tyrosine (mg) 2256 880 1410 1428 1242 440

L- Valine (mg) 1801 0 1563 0 717 500

Taurine 75 60 50 57 43 80

Table 7: Examples of Ranges of Vitamins and Minerals in Nutritional Compositions

Table 8: Examples of Free Amino Acid Ranges in Nutritional Compositions

Table 9: Examples of Amino Acid Blends in Nutritional Compositions

Blend

AA Blend/Serving (8.5 fl oz.) Blend 1 Blend 2 3 Blend 4 Blend 5

(PKU) (MSUD) (HCU) (MMA/PA) (IVA)

Glycine (mg) 689 1416 1500 107 2180

L- Alanine (mg) 423 2591 1070 2270 4340

L-Arginine (mg) 951 2085 1550 2178 1900

L-Asparagine (mg) 0 1477 0 0 0

L-Aspartic Acid (mg) 1761 0 1930 2900 1110

L-Carnitine (mg) 18 40 21 20 1030

L-Cystine (mg) 245.4 565 393.2 277.6 161.9

L- Glutamic Acid (mg) 0 0 0 0 0

L-Histidine (mg) 882 1475 930 1450 600

L-Isoleucine (mg) 1570 0 1430 68 630

L-Leucine (mg) 4700 0 2450 3130 0 L-Lysine (mg) 1830 1808 1620 2280 1440

L-Methionine (mg) 570 677 0 0 431

L-Phenylalanine (mg) 0 1533 1080 1420 1230

L-Proline (mg) 1700 2551 1760 1020 2150

L-Serine (mg) 1220 1607 1250 1480 1160

L-Threonine (mg) 1590 1734 1140 0 1050

L-Tryptophan (mg) 480 1614 480 613 229

L-Tyrosine (mg) 1549.7 1658 786.4 971.5 994.6

L- Valine (mg) 1800 0 1560 0 717

Taurine 75 748 50 57 43

Table 10: Examples of Amino Acid Blends

L-Threonine

(mg) 1272 1908 1387 2081 912 1368 0 0 840 1260

L-Tryptophan

(mg) 384 576 1291 1937 384 576 490.4 735.6 183.2 274.8

L-Tyrosine

(mg) 1239.8 1859.6 1326 1990 629.12 943.68 777.2 1165.8 795.7 1193.5

L- Valine (mg) 1440 2160 0 0 1248 1872 0 0 573.6 860.4

Taurine 60 90 598.4 897.6 40 60 45.6 68.4 34.4 51.6