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Title:
OCULAR IMPLANT AND DELIVERY SYSTEM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/106517
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An illustrative method for reducing intraocular pressure in a patient may comprise deploying an ocular implant adapted to reside at least partially in a portion of Schlemm's canal of an eye and administering a therapeutic agent comprising a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor to the patient. The ocular implant may be configured to lower the intraocular pressure from an initial to a second pressure within a first range and the therapeutic agent may lower an intraocular pressure to a third pressure within a second range, the third pressure lower than the second pressure.

Inventors:
SCHIEBER, Andrew, T. (38 Discovery, Suite 150Irvine, CA, 92618, US)
EUTENEUER, Charles, L. (38 Discovery, Suite 150Irvine, CA, 92618, US)
VAN METER, David, T. (38 Discovery, Suite 150Irvine, CA, 92618, US)
GALT, Kenneth, M. (38 Discovery, Suite 150Irvine, CA, 92618, US)
Application Number:
US2016/066957
Publication Date:
June 22, 2017
Filing Date:
December 15, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
IVANTIS, INC. (38 Discovery, Suite 150Irvine, CA, 92618, US)
International Classes:
A61F2/16; A61F9/00; A61F9/007; A61M1/00; A61M5/00; A61M25/00
Foreign References:
US8529494B22013-09-10
US6673812B12004-01-06
US8529622B22013-09-10
US6981958B12006-01-03
US8414518B22013-04-09
US8372026B22013-02-12
US8287482B22012-10-16
US20110098809A12011-04-28
US8629161B22014-01-14
US8647659B22014-02-11
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
THOMAS, Justin et al. (Shay Glenn LLP, 2755 Campus Drive Suite 21, San Mateo CA, 94403, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1 . A method for reducing intraocular pressure in a patient, the method comprising;

deploying an ocular implant adapted to reside at least partially in a portion of Schlemm's canal of an eye, the implant comprising:

a tubular body having an inner surface and an outer surface, the tubular body extending in a curved volume whose longitudinal axis forms an arc of a circle; and

a plurality of open areas and strut areas formed in the tubular body, the strut areas surrounding the plurality of open areas; and

the tubular body having a diameter of between 0.005 inches and 0.04 inches;

wherein the ocular implant is configured to lower the intraocular pressure from an initial to a second pressure within a first range; and

administering a therapeutic agent comprising a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor to the patient to lower an intraocular pressure to a third pressure within a second range, the third pressure lower than the second pressure.

2. The method of claim 1 , wherein deploying the ocular implant comprises:

inserting a distal end of a cannula through an incision in the eye and into an anterior chamber of the eye;

placing the distal opening of the cannula into fluid communication with Schlemm's canal such that the cannula enters Schlemm's canal in a substantially tangential orientation;

advancing the ocular implant distally through the cannula with a delivery tool engaged with the ocular implant, a proximal portion of the ocular implant engaging the delivery tool proximal to a distal portion of the delivery tool; and

disengaging the ocular implant and the delivery tool when the proximal portion of the ocular implant reaches distal opening of the cannula.

3. The method of claim 1 , wherein the first range is approximately 20 to 30 mm Hg.

4. The method of claim 3, wherein the first range is approximately 23 to 28 mm Hg.

5. The method of claim 1 , wherein the second range is approximately 13 to 23 mm Hg. 6. The method of claim 5, wherein the second range is approximately 15 to 20 mm Hg.

7. The method of claim 1 , wherein the implant further comprises a first pressure sensor disposed on the inner surface of the tubular body.

8. A method for reducing intraocular pressure in a patient, the method comprising;

deploying an ocular implant adapted to reside at least partially in a portion of Schlemm's canal of an eye, the implant comprising:

a tubular body having an inner surface and an outer surface, the tubular body extending in a curved volume whose longitudinal axis forms an arc of a circle; and

a plurality of open areas and strut areas formed in the tubular body, the strut areas surrounding the plurality of open areas; and

the tubular body having a diameter of between 0.005 inches and 0.04 inches;

wherein the ocular implant is configured to lower the intraocular pressure to a second pressure less than the initial pressure; and

administering a therapeutic agent comprising a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor to the patient to lower an intraocular pressure from an initial to a third pressure, the third pressure less than the second pressure.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein deploying the ocular implant comprises:

inserting a distal end of a cannula through an incision in the eye and into an anterior chamber of the eye;

placing the distal opening of the cannula into fluid communication with Schlemm's canal such that the cannula enters Schlemm's canal in a substantially tangential orientation;

advancing the ocular implant distally through the cannula with a delivery tool engaged with the ocular implant, a proximal portion of the ocular implant engaging the delivery tool proximal to a distal portion of the delivery tool; and

disengaging the ocular implant and the delivery tool when the proximal portion of the ocular implant reaches distal opening of the cannula.

10. The method of claim 8, wherein the second pressure is approximately 65 to 95% of the initial pressure. 1 1. The method of claim 10, wherein the second pressure is approximately 75 to 85% of the initial pressure.

12. The method of claim 8, wherein the third pressure is approximately 65 to 95% of the second pressure.

13. The method of claim 8, wherein the third pressure is approximately 75 to 85% of the second pressure.

14. The method of claim 8, wherein the implant further comprises a first pressure sensor disposed on the inner surface of the tubular body.

15. A kit for reducing intraocular pressure in a patient, the kit comprising:

an ocular implant adapted to reside at least partially in a portion of Schlemm's canal of an eye; a cannula defining a passageway extending from a proximal end to a distal end, the cannula having a distal opening extending through a side wall and the distal end of the cannula to form a trough, a curved distal portion, a curved intermediate portion, and a proximal portion; and

a delivery tool having a distal interlocking portion engaging a complementary interlocking portion of the ocular implant;

a therapeutic agent comprising a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor.

16. The kit of claim 15, further comprising a therapeutic agent delivery device. 17. The kit of claim 15, wherein the therapeutic agent delivery device comprises an eye dropper.

18. The kit of claim 15, wherein the ocular implant comprises:

a tubular body having an inner surface and an outer surface, the tubular body extending in a curved volume whose longitudinal axis forms an arc of a circle; and

a plurality of open areas and strut areas formed in the tubular body, the strut areas surrounding the plurality of open areas; and

the tubular body having a diameter of between 0.005 inches and 0.04 inches.

19. The kit of claim 18, wherein the ocular implant further comprises a first pressure sensor disposed on the inner surface of the tubular body.

20. The kit of claim 15, wherein the therapeutic agent is disposed on a surface of the ocular implant.

Description:
OCULAR IMPLANT AND DELIVERY SYSTEM

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 1 19 of US Patent Appl. No. 62/267,794 filed December 15, 2015, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

[0002] All publications and patent applications mentioned in this specification are herein incorporated by reference to the same extent as if each individual publication or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0003] The present disclosure pertains generally, but not by way of limitation, to medical devices, and methods for manufacturing medical devices. The present invention relates generally to devices that are implanted within the eye. More particularly, the present invention relates to devices that facilitate the transfer of fluid from within one area of the eye to another area of the eye. Additionally, the present disclosure relates to systems, devices and methods for delivering ocular implants into the eye.

BACKGROUND

[0004] According to a draft report by The National Eye Institute (NEI) at The United States National Institutes of Health (NIH), glaucoma is now the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide and the second leading cause of blindness, behind cataract, in the world. Thus, the NEI draft report concludes, "it is critical that significant emphasis and resources continue to be devoted to determining the

pathophysiology and management of this disease." Glaucoma researchers have found a strong correlation between high intraocular pressure and glaucoma. For this reason, eye care professionals routinely screen patients for glaucoma by measuring intraocular pressure using a device known as a tonometer. Many modern tonometers make this measurement by blowing a sudden puff of air against the outer surface of the eye.

[0005] The eye can be conceptualized as a ball filled with fluid. There are two types of fluid inside the eye. The cavity behind the lens is filled with a viscous fluid known as vitreous humor. The cavities in front of the lens are filled with a fluid know as aqueous humor. Whenever a person views an object, he or she is viewing that object through both the vitreous humor and the aqueous humor.

[0006] Whenever a person views an object, he or she is also viewing that object through the cornea and the lens of the eye. In order to be transparent, the cornea and the lens can include no blood vessels. Accordingly, no blood flows through the cornea and the lens to provide nutrition to these tissues and to remove wastes from these tissues. Instead, these functions are performed by the aqueous humor. A continuous flow of aqueous humor through the eye provides nutrition to portions of the eye (e.g., the cornea and the lens) that have no blood vessels. This flow of aqueous humor also removes waste from these tissues.

[0007] Aqueous humor is produced by an organ known as the ciliary body. The ciliary body includes epithelial cells that continuously secrete aqueous humor. In a healthy eye, a stream of aqueous humor flows out of the anterior chamber of the eye through the trabecular meshwork and into Schlemm's canal as new aqueous humor is secreted by the epithelial cells of the ciliary body. This excess aqueous humor enters the venous blood stream from Schlemm's canal and is carried along with the venous blood leaving the eye.

[0008] When the natural drainage mechanisms of the eye stop functioning properly, the pressure inside the eye begins to rise. Researchers have theorized prolonged exposure to high intraocular pressure causes damage to the optic nerve that transmits sensory information from the eye to the brain. This damage to the optic nerve results in loss of peripheral vision. As glaucoma progresses, more and more of the visual field is lost until the patient is completely blind.

[0009] In addition to drug treatments, a variety of surgical treatments for glaucoma have been performed. For example, shunts were implanted to direct aqueous humor from the anterior chamber to the extraocular vein (Lee and Scheppens, "Aqueous-venous shunt and intraocular pressure," Investigative Opthalmology (February 1966)). Other early glaucoma treatment implants led from the anterior chamber to a sub-conjunctival bleb (e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,968,296 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,180,362). Still others were shunts leading from the anterior chamber to a point just inside Schlemm's canal (Spiegel et al.,

"Schlemm's canal implant: a new method to lower intraocular pressure in patients with POAG?" Ophthalmic Surgery and Lasers (June 1999); U.S. Pat. No. 6,450,984; U.S. Pat. No. 6,450,984).

SUMMARY

[0010] The invention provides design, material, and manufacturing method alternatives for medical devices.

[0011] An illustrative method for reducing intraocular pressure in a patient may comprise deploying an ocular implant adapted to reside at least partially in a portion of Schlemm's canal of an eye and administering a therapeutic agent comprising a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor to the patient. The implant may comprise a tubular body having an inner surface and an outer surface. The tubular body may extend in a curved volume whose longitudinal axis forms an arc of a circle. A plurality of open areas and strut areas may be formed in the tubular body and the strut areas may surround the plurality of open areas. The tubular body may have a diameter of between 0.005 inches and 0.04 inches. The ocular implant may be configured to lower the intraocular pressure from an initial to a second pressure within a first range and the therapeutic agent may lower an intraocular pressure to a third pressure within a second range, the third pressure lower than the second pressure.

[0012] In another illustrative embodiment a kit for reducing intraocular pressure in a patient may be provided. The kit may comprise an ocular implant adapted to reside at least partially in a portion of Schlemm's canal of an eye, a cannula defining a passageway extending from a proximal end to a distal end, a delivery tool having a distal interlocking portion engaging a complementary interlocking portion of the ocular implant, and a therapeutic agent comprising a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. The cannula may have a distal opening extending through a side wall and the distal end of the cannula to form a trough, a curved distal portion, a curved intermediate portion, and a proximal portion.

[0013] The above summary of some examples and embodiments is not intended to describe each disclosed embodiment or every implementation of the present disclosure. The Brief Description of the Drawings, and Detailed Description, which follow, more particularly exemplify these embodiments, but are also intended as exemplary and not limiting.

[0014] In one embodiment, a method for reducing intraocular pressure in a patient is provided, the method comprising deploying an ocular implant adapted to reside at least partially in a portion of

Schlemm's canal of an eye, the implant comprising, a tubular body having an inner surface and an outer surface, the tubular body extending in a curved volume whose longitudinal axis forms an arc of a circle, and a plurality of open areas and strut areas formed in the tubular body, the strut areas surrounding the plurality of open areas, and the tubular body having a diameter of between 0.005 inches and 0.04 inches, wherein the ocular implant is configured to lower the intraocular pressure from an initial to a second pressure within a first range, and administering a therapeutic agent comprising a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor to the patient to lower an intraocular pressure to a third pressure within a second range, the third pressure lower than the second pressure.

[0015] In some embodiments, deploying the ocular implant comprises inserting a distal end of a cannula through an incision in the eye and into an anterior chamber of the eye, placing the distal opening of the cannula into fluid communication with Schlemm's canal such that the cannula enters Schlemm's canal in a substantially tangential orientation, advancing the ocular implant distally through the cannula with a delivery tool engaged with the ocular implant, a proximal portion of the ocular implant engaging the delivery tool proximal to a distal portion of the delivery tool, and disengaging the ocular implant and the delivery tool when the proximal portion of the ocular implant reaches distal opening of the cannula.

[0016] In some embodiments, the first range is approximately 20 to 30 mm Hg. In other embodiments, the first range is approximately 23 to 28 mm Hg. In other embodiments, the second range is approximately 13 to 23 mm Hg. In some embodiments, the second range is approximately 15 to 20 mm Hg.

[0017] In one embodiment, the implant further comprises a first pressure sensor disposed on the inner surface of the tubular body.

[0018] A method for reducing intraocular pressure in a patient is also provided, the method comprising, deploying an ocular implant adapted to reside at least partially in a portion of Schlemm's canal of an eye, the implant comprising a tubular body having an inner surface and an outer surface, the tubular body extending in a curved volume whose longitudinal axis forms an arc of a circle, and a plurality of open areas and strut areas formed in the tubular body, the strut areas surrounding the plurality of open areas, and the tubular body having a diameter of between 0.005 inches and 0.04 inches, wherein the ocular implant is configured to lower the intraocular pressure to a second pressure less than the initial pressure, and administering a therapeutic agent comprising a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor to the patient to lower an intraocular pressure from an initial to a third pressure, the third pressure less than the second pressure.

[0019] In one embodiment, deploying the ocular implant comprises inserting a distal end of a cannula through an incision in the eye and into an anterior chamber of the eye, placing the distal opening of the cannula into fluid communication with Schlemm's canal such that the cannula enters Schlemm's canal in a substantially tangential orientation, advancing the ocular implant distally through the cannula with a delivery tool engaged with the ocular implant, a proximal portion of the ocular implant engaging the delivery tool proximal to a distal portion of the delivery tool, and disengaging the ocular implant and the delivery tool when the proximal portion of the ocular implant reaches distal opening of the cannula.

[0020] In some embodiments, the second pressure is approximately 65 to 95% of the initial pressure. In another embodiment, the second pressure is approximately 75 to 85% of the initial pressure.

[0021] In one embodiment, the third pressure is approximately 65 to 95% of the second pressure. In another embodiment, the third pressure is approximately 75 to 85% of the second pressure.

[0022] In some embodiments, the implant further comprises a first pressure sensor disposed on the inner surface of the tubular body.

[0023] A kit for reducing intraocular pressure in a patient is provided, the kit comprising, an ocular implant adapted to reside at least partially in a portion of Schlemm's canal of an eye, a cannula defining a passageway extending from a proximal end to a distal end, the cannula having a distal opening extending through a side wall and the distal end of the cannula to form a trough, a curved distal portion, a curved intermediate portion, and a proximal portion, and a delivery tool having a distal interlocking portion engaging a complementary interlocking portion of the ocular implant, a therapeutic agent comprising a Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor.

[0024] In one embodiment, the kit further comprises a therapeutic agent delivery device.

[0025] In another embodiment, the therapeutic agent delivery device comprises an eye dropper.

[0026] In some embodiments, the ocular implant comprises a tubular body having an inner surface and an outer surface, the tubular body extending in a curved volume whose longitudinal axis forms an arc of a circle, and a plurality of open areas and strut areas formed in the tubular body, the strut areas surrounding the plurality of open areas, and the tubular body having a diameter of between 0.005 inches and 0.04 inches.

[0027] In one embodiment, the ocular implant further comprises a first pressure sensor disposed on the inner surface of the tubular body.

[0028] In another embodiment, the therapeutic agent is disposed on a surface of the ocular implant. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0029] The disclosure may be more completely understood in consideration of the following detailed description of various embodiments in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

[0030] Figure 1 is a stylized perspective view depicting a portion of a human eye and a portion of an ocular implant disposed in Schlemm's canal.

[0031] Figure 2 A is an enlarged perspective view showing a portion of the implant of Figure 1.

[0032] Figure 2B is another enlarged perspective view showing a portion of the implant of Figure 1 including a coating.

[0033] Figure 3 is a perspective view showing a volume defined by the body of the ocular implant of Figures 1 and 2.

[0034] Figure 4 is a perspective view showing a first plane intersecting the body of an ocular implant.

[0035] Figure 5 is a perspective view showing a bending moment being applied to an ocular implant.

[0036] Figure 6 is a plan view of the implant shown in Figure 5 but in the absence of any bending moment.

[0037] Figure 7A is a lateral cross-sectional view of the ocular implant of Figure 6 taken along section line A-A of Figure 6.

[0038] Figure 7B is a lateral cross-sectional view of the ocular implant of Figure 6 taken along section line B-B of Figure 6.

[0039] Figure 8 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the ocular implant of Figure 6 taken along section line B-B of Figure 6.

[0040] Figure 9 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the ocular implant of Figure 6 taken along section line A-A of Figure 6.

[0041] Figure 10A is an enlarged perspective view of a portion of the ocular implant including a pressure sensor.

[0042] Figure 10B is a cross-sectional view of the illustrative pressure sensor of Figure 1 OA, taken at line B-B.

[0043] Figure 10C is an enlarged perspective view of another portion of the ocular implant including a pressure sensor.

[0044] Figure 1 1 is a stylized view of an electronic device receiving data from an implanted ocular implant.

[0045] Figure 12 is a plan view showing an ocular implant according to another embodiment of the invention having a longitudinal radius of curvature that varies along its length.

[0046] Figure 13 is a perspective view showing an ocular implant according to yet another embodiment of the invention that has substantially no radius of curvature.

[0047] Figure 14 is a stylized representation of a medical procedure in accordance with this DETAILED DESCRIPTION. [0048] Figure 15 is an enlarged perspective view further illustrating the delivery system and the eye shown in Figure 14.

[0049] Figure 16A is a perspective view showing a delivery system including an ocular implant and a cannula defining a passageway that is dimensioned to slidingly receive the ocular implant.

[0050] Figure 16B is an enlarged detail view further illustrating the ocular implant and the cannula 108 shown in FIG. 6A.

[0051] Figure 17 is a perspective view of a cannula in accordance with the detailed description.

[0052] Figure 18 is a perspective view of an assembly including the cannula shown in Figure 17 and an ocular implant that is resting in a passageway defined by the cannula.

[0053] Figure 19 is a stylized perspective view including the assembly shown in Figure 18.

[0054] Figure 20 is an enlarged perspective view showing a portion of the cannula shown in the assembly of Figure 19.

[0055] Figure 21 is an additional perspective view showing the ocular implant and the cannula shown in the previous Figure 20.

[0056] Figure 22 is an additional perspective view showing the ocular implant and the cannula shown in Figure 21.

[0057] Figure 23 is an additional perspective view showing the ocular implant and the cannula shown in Figures 21 and 22.

[0058] Figure 24 is a perspective view of Schlemm's canal after the cannula shown in Figure 23 has been withdrawn leaving an inlet portion of the ocular implant in the anterior chamber of the eye and the remainder of ocular implant in Schlemm's canal.

[0059] Figure 25A is a perspective view showing another illustrative delivery system including an ocular implant and a cannula defining a passageway that is dimensioned to slidingly receive the ocular implant.

[0060] Figure 25B is an enlarged detail view further illustrating the ocular implant and the cannula shown in Figure 25A.

[0061] Figure 26 is an enlarged perspective view further illustrating the delivery system shown in Figure 25 and an eye.

[0062] Figure 27 is a perspective view further illustrating delivery system shown in Figure 25.

[0063] Figure 28 is a side view further illustrating the cannula shown in Figure 25.

[0064] Figure 28 A is an additional side view illustrating the cannula shown in Figure 25.

[0065] Figure 29 is an enlarged detail view further illustrating the cannula shown in Figure 25.

[0066] Figure 30 is an enlarged perspective view further illustrating the distal portion of the cannula shown in Figure 25.

[0067] Figure 31 is a schematic view of an illustrative kit for reducing intraocular pressure in a patient. [0068] While the disclosure is amenable to various modifications and alternative forms, specifics thereof have been shown by way of example in the drawings and will be described in detail. It should be understood, however, that the intention is not to limit the invention to the particular embodiments described. On the contrary, the intention is to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0069] The following description should be read with reference to the drawings, which are not necessarily to scale, wherein like reference numerals indicate like elements throughout the several views. The detailed description and drawings are intended to illustrate but not limit the claimed invention. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the various elements described and/or shown may be arranged in various combinations and configurations without departing from the scope of the disclosure. The detailed description and drawings illustrate example embodiments of the claimed invention.

[0070] Definitions of certain terms are provided below and shall be applied, unless a different definition is given in the claims or elsewhere in this specification.

[0071] All numeric values are herein assumed to be modified by the term "about," whether or not explicitly indicated. The term "about" generally refers to a range of numbers that one of skill in the art would consider equivalent to the recited value (i.e., having the same or substantially the same function or result). In many instances, the terms "about" may include numbers that are rounded to the nearest significant figure. Other uses of the term "about" (i.e., in a context other than numeric values) may be assumed to have their ordinary and customary defmition(s), as understood from and consistent with the context of the specification, unless otherwise specified.

[0072] The recitation of numerical ranges by endpoints includes all numbers within that range (e.g., 1 to 5 includes 1 , 1.5, 2, 2.75, 3, 3.80, 4, and 5).

[0073] As used in this specification and the appended claims, the singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include or otherwise refer to singular as well as plural referents, unless the content clearly dictates otherwise. As used in this specification and the appended claims, the term "or" is generally employed to include "and/or," unless the content clearly dictates otherwise.

[0074] It is noted that references in the specification to "an embodiment", "some embodiments", "other embodiments", etc., indicate that the embodiment(s) described may include a particular feature, structure, or characteristic, but every embodiment may not necessarily include the particular feature, structure, or characteristic. Moreover, such phrases are not necessarily referring to the same embodiment. Further, when a particular feature, structure, or characteristic is described in connection with an embodiment, it would be within the knowledge of one skilled in the art to affect such feature, structure, or characteristic in connection with other embodiments, whether or not explicitly described, unless clearly stated to the contrary. That is, the various individual elements described below, even if not explicitly shown in a particular combination, are nevertheless contemplated as being combinable or able to be arranged with each other to form other additional embodiments or to complement and/or enrich the described embodiment(s), as would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the art.

[0075] The following detailed description should be read with reference to the drawings, in which similar elements in different drawings are identified with the same reference numbers. The drawings, which are not necessarily to scale, depict illustrative embodiments and are not intended to limit the scope of the disclosure.

[0076] Figure 1 is a stylized perspective view depicting a portion of a human eye 20. Eye 20 can be conceptualized as a fluid filled ball having two chambers. Sclera 22 of eye 20 surrounds a posterior chamber 24 filled with a viscous fluid known as vitreous humor. Cornea 26 of eye 20 encloses an anterior chamber 30 that is filled with a fluid know as aqueous humor. The cornea 26 meets the sclera 22 at a limbus 28 of eye 20. A lens 32 of eye 20 is located between anterior chamber 30 and posterior chamber 24. Lens 32 is held in place by a number of ciliary zonules 34. Whenever a person views an object, he or she is viewing that object through the cornea, the aqueous humor, and the lens of the eye. In order to be transparent, the cornea and the lens can include no blood vessels. Accordingly, no blood flows through the cornea and the lens to provide nutrition to these tissues and to remove wastes from these tissues. Instead, these functions are performed by the aqueous humor. A continuous flow of aqueous humor through the eye provides nutrition to portions of the eye (e.g., the cornea and the lens) that have no blood vessels. This flow of aqueous humor also removes waste from these tissues.

[0077] Aqueous humor is produced by an organ known as the ciliary body. The ciliary body includes epithelial cells that continuously secrete aqueous humor. In a healthy eye, a stream of aqueous humor flows out of the eye as new aqueous humor is secreted by the epithelial cells of the ciliary body. This excess aqueous humor enters the blood stream and is carried away by venous blood leaving the eye.

[0078] In a healthy eye, aqueous humor flows out of the anterior chamber 30 through the trabecular meshwork 36 and into Schlemm's canal 38, located at the outer edge of the iris 42. Aqueous humor exits Schlemm's canal 38 by flowing through a number of outlets 40. After leaving Schlemm's canal 38, aqueous humor is absorbed into the venous blood stream.

[0079] In Figure 1 , an ocular implant 100 is disposed in Schlemm's canal 38 of eye 20. Ocular implant 100 has a body 102 including a plurality of tissue supporting frames 104 and a plurality of spines 106. Body 102 also includes a first edge 120 and a second edge 122 that define a first opening 124. First opening 124 is formed as a slot and fluidly communicates with an elongate channel 126 defined by an inner surface 128 of body 102. With reference to Figure 1 , it will be appreciated that first opening 124 is disposed on an outer side 130 of body 102. Accordingly, channel 126 opens in a radially outward direction 132 via first opening 124.

[0080] Ocular implant 100 may be inserted into Schlemm's canal of a human eye to facilitate the flow of aqueous humor out of the anterior chamber. This flow may include axial flow along Schlemm's canal, flow from the anterior chamber into Schlemm's canal, and flow leaving Schlemm's canal via outlets communicating with Schlemm's canal. When in place within the eye, ocular implant 100 will support trabecular mesh tissue and Schlemm's canal tissue and will provide for improved communication between the anterior chamber and Schlemm's canal (via the trabecular meshwork) and between pockets or compartments along Schlemm's canal. As shown in Figure 1 , the implant is preferably oriented so that the first opening 124 is disposed radially outwardly within Schlemm's canal.

[0081] Figure 2 A is an enlarged perspective view showing a portion of ocular implant 100 shown in the previous figure. Ocular implant 100 has a body 102 that extends along a generally curved longitudinal axis 134. Body 102 has a plurality of tissue supporting frames 104 and a plurality of spines 106. As shown in Figure 2A, these spines 106 and frames 104 are arranged in a repeating AB pattern in which each A is a tissue supporting frame and each B is a spine. In the embodiment of Figure 2 A, one spine extends between each adjacent pair of frames 104.

[0082] The frames 104 of body 102 include a first frame 136 of ocular implant 100 that is disposed between a first spine 140 and a second spine 142. In the embodiment of Figure 2A, first frame 136 is formed as a first strut 144 that extends between first spine 140 and second spine 142. First frame 136 also includes a second strut 146 extending between first spine 140 and second spine 142. In the exemplary embodiment of Figure 2 A, each strut undulates in a circumferential direction as it extends longitudinally between first spine 140 and second spine 142.

[0083] In the embodiment of Figure 2A, body 102 has a longitudinal radius 150 and a lateral radius 148. Body 102 of ocular implant 100 includes a first edge 120 and a second edge 122 that define a first opening 124. First opening 124 fluidly communicates with an elongate channel 126 defined by an inner surface 128 of body 102. A second opening 138 is defined by a second edge 122A of a first strut 144 and a second edge 122B of a second strut 146. First opening 124, second opening 138 and additional openings defined by ocular implant 100 allow aqueous humor to flow laterally across and/or laterally through ocular implant 100. The outer surfaces 127 of body 102 define a volume 152.

[0084] In some instances, the ocular implant 100 may further include a coating 129 disposed on the inner surfaces 128 and/or outer surfaces 127 of the implant 100, as shown in Figure 2B. While the coating 129 is illustrated on both the outer and inner surfaces 127, 128, the coating 129 may be disposed on only one of the outer surface 127 or the inner surface 128. Further, while the coating 129 is illustrated as extending over the entirety of the outer surface and the inner surface 127, 128, in some embodiments, the coating 129 may cover only a portion of the outer and/or inner surfaces 127, 128. For example, the coating 129 may cover 10% or more, 25% or more, 50% or more, or 75% or more of the surface area of the ocular implant 100. These are just examples. In some instances, the coating 129 may cover less than 10% or more than 75% of the surface area of the implant 100, as desired.

[0085] The coating 129 may be formed of, or otherwise include, a therapeutic agent. In some embodiments, the coating 129 may release the therapeutic agent. The coating 129 may release the therapeutic agent controllably over a period of time. In some embodiments, the therapeutic agent may be applied directly to the ocular implant 100 while in other embodiments, the ocular implant may be dispersed within a matrix material. For example, the therapeutic agent may be dispersed within a biocompatible or biodegradable polymeric material. The concentration of therapeutic agent within the matrix material may vary depending on the desired treatment.

[0086] The biocompatible polymeric material used to form the bioactive agent-polymer composite layer(s) may include any polymeric material capable of forming a solidified composite layer in the presence of the bioactive material. The polymeric material of the present invention may be hydrophilic or hydrophobic, and is, for example, polycarboxylic acids, cellulosic polymers, including cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate, gelatin, polyvinylpyrrolidone, cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyanhydrides including maleic anhydride polymers, polyamides, polyvinyl alcohols, polyolefins, copolymers of vinyl monomers such as EVA, polyvinyl ethers, polyvinyl aromatics, polyethylene oxides,

glycosaminoglycans, polysaccharides, polyesters including polyethylene terephthalate, polyacrylamides, polyethers, polyether sulfone, polycarbonate, polyalkylenes including polypropylene, polyethylene and high molecular weight polyethylene, halogenated polyalkylenes including polytetrafluoroethylene, polyurethanes, polyorthoesters, proteins, polypeptides, silicones, siloxane polymers, polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid, polycapro lactone, polyhydroxybutyrate valerate and blends and copolymers thereof as well as other biodegradable, bioabsorbable and biostable polymers and copolymers. Coatings from polymer dispersions such as polyurethane dispersions (BAYHDROL®, etc.) and acrylic latex dispersions are also within the scope of the present invention. The polymer may be a protein polymer, fibrin, collagen and derivatives thereof, polysaccharides such as celluloses, starches, dextrans, alginates and derivatives of these polysaccharides, an extracellular matrix component, hyaluronic acid, or another biologic agent or a suitable mixture of any of these, for example. The coating 129 can include of a single polymer or copolymer. The coating 129 may also include copolymers or physical blends of any of the materials indicated above.

[0087] The therapeutic agents utilized with the ocular implant, may include one or more drugs provided below, either alone or in combination. The drugs utilized may also be the equivalent of, derivatives of, or analogs of one or more of the drugs provided below. The drugs may include but are not limited to pharmaceutical agents including anti-glaucoma medications, ocular agents, antimicrobial agents (e.g., antibiotic, antiviral, antiparasitic, antifungal agents), anti-inflammatory agents (including steroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory), biological agents including honnones, enzymes or enzyme-related components, antibodies or antibody-related components, oligonucleotides (including DNA, RNA, short- interfering RNA, antisense oligonucleotides, and the like), DNA/RNA vectors, viruses (either wild type or genetically modified) or viral vectors, peptides, proteins, enzymes, extracellular matrix components, and live cells configured to produce one or more biological components. The use of any particular drug is not limited to its primary effect or regulatory body-approved treatment indication or manner of use. Drugs also include compounds or other materials that reduce or treat one or more side effects of another drug or therapeutic agent. As many drugs have more than a single mode of action, the listing of any particular drug within any one therapeutic class below is only representative of one possible use of the drug and is not intended to limit the scope of its use with the ophthalmic implant system.

[0088] The therapeutic agents may be combined with any number of excipients as is known in the art. In addition to the biodegradable polymeric excipients discussed above, other excipients may be used, including, but not limited to, benzyl alcohol, ethylcellulose, methylcellulose, hydroxymethylcellulose, cetyl alcohol, croscarmellose sodium, dextrans, dextrose, fructose, gelatin, glycerin, monoglycerides, diglycerides, kaolin, calcium chloride, lactose, lactose monohydrate, maltodextrins, polysorbates, pregelatinized starch, calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, silcon dioxide, cornstarch, talc, and the like. The one or more excipients may be included in total amounts as low as about 1 %, 5%, or 10% and in other embodiments may be included in total amounts as high as 50%, 70% or 90%.

[0089] Examples of drugs may include various anti-secretory agents; antimitotics and other antiproliferative agents, including among others, anti-angiogenesis agents such as angiostatin, anecortave acetate, thrombospondin, VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drugs such as ranibizumab (LUCENTIS®) and bevacizumab (AVASTIN®), pegaptanib (MACUGEN®)sunitinib and sorafenib and any of a variety of known small-molecule and transcription inhibitors having anti-angiogenesis effect; classes of known ophthalmic drugs, including: glaucoma agents, such as adrenergic antagonists, including for example, beta-blocker agents such as atenolol propranolol, metipranolol, betaxolol, betaxolol hydrochloride carteolol, levobetaxolol, levobunolol, levobunolol hydrochloride, timolol, timolol hemihydrate, and timolol maleate; adrenergic agonists or sympathomimetic agents such as epinephrine, dipivefrin, clonidine, aparclonidine, and brimonidine; parasympathomimetics or cholingeric agonists such as pilocarpine, carbachol, phospholine iodine, and physostigmine, salicylate, acetylcholine chloride, eserine, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, demecarium bromide); muscarinics; carbonic anhydrase inhibitor agents, including topical and/or systemic agents, for example acetozolamide, brinzolamide, dorzolamide and methazolamide, ethoxzolamide, diamox, and dichlorphenamide; mydriatic-cycloplegic agents such as atropine, cyclopentolate, succinylcholine, homatropine, phenylephrine, scopolamine and tropicamide;

prostaglandins such as prostaglandin F2 alpha, antiprostaglandins, prostaglandin precursors, or prostaglandin analog agents such as bimatoprost, latanoprost, travoprost, tafluprost and unoprostone; docosanoid compounds such as unoprostone.

[0090] Other examples of drugs may also include anti-inflammatory agents including for example glucocorticoids and corticosteroids such as betamethasone, cortisone, dexamethasone, dexamethasone 21 - phosphate, methylprednisolone, prednisolone 21 -phosphate, prednisolone acetate, prednisolone, fluroometholone, loteprednol, medrysone, fluocinolone acetonide, triamcinolone acetonide,

triamcinolone, triamcinolone acetonide, beclomethasone, budesonide, flunisolide, fluorometholone, fluticasone, hydrocortisone, hydrocortisone acetate, loteprednol, rimexolone and non-steroidal antiinflammatory agents including, for example, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, bromfenac, nepafenac, and ketorolac, salicylate, indomethacin, ibuprofen, naxopren, piroxicam and nabumetone; anti-infective or antimicrobial agents such as antibiotics including, for example, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, bacitracin, neomycin, polymyxin, gramicidin, cephalexin, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, gentamycin, erythromycin, penicillin, sulfonamides, sulfadiazine, sulfacetamide, sulfamethizole, sulfisoxazole, nitrofurazone, sodium propionate, aminoglycosides such as gentamicin and tobramycin; fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin; bacitracin, erythromycin, fusidic acid, neomycin, polymyxin B, gramicidin, trimethoprim and sulfacetamide; antifungals such as amphotericin B and miconazole;

antivirals such as idoxuridine trifluorothymidine, acyclovir, gancyclovir, interferon; antimicotics;

immune-modulating agents such as antiallergenics, including, for example, sodium chromoglycate, antazoline, methapyriline, chlorpheniramine, cetrizine, pyrilamine, prophenpyridamine anti-histamine agents such as azelastine, emedastine and levocabastine; immunological drugs (such as vaccines and immune stimulants); MAST cell stabilizer agents such as cromolyn sodium, ketotifen, lodoxamide, nedocrimil, olopatadine and pemirolastciliary body ablative agents, such as gentimicin and cidofovir; and other ophthalmic agents such as verteporfm, proparacaine, tetracaine, cyclosporine and pilocarpine; inhibitors of cell-surface glycoprotein receptors; decongestants such as phenylephrine, naphazoline, tetrahydrazoline; lipids or hypotensive lipids; dopaminergic agonists and/or antagonists such as quinpirole, fenoldopam, and ibopamine; vasospasm inhibitors; vasodilators; antihypertensive agents; angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors; angiotensin-1 receptor antagonists such as olmesartan; microtubule inhibitors; molecular motor (dynein and/or kinesin) inhibitors; actin cytoskeleton regulatory agents such as cyctchalasin, latrunculin, swinholide A, ethacrynic acid, H-7, and Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors; remodeling inhibitors; modulators of the extracellular matrix such as tert-butylhydro-quinolone and AL-3037A; adenosine receptor agonists and/or antagonists such as dicyanopyridines, N-6- cylclophexyladenosine and (R)-phenylisopropyladenosine; serotonin agonists; hormonal agents such as estrogens, estradiol, progestational hormones, progesterone, insulin, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, peptide and vasopressin hypothalamus releasing factor; growth factor antagonists or growth factors, including, for example, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, platelet derived growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, somatotrapin, fibronectin, connective tissue growth factor, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs); cytokines such as interleukins, CD44, cochlin, and serum amyloids, such as serum amyloid A.

[0091] Other therapeutic agents may include neuroprotective agents such as lubezole, nimodipine and related compounds, and including blood flow enhancers, sodium channels blockers, glutamate inhibitors such as memantine, neurotrophic factors, nitric oxide synthase inhibitors; free radical scavengers or anti-oxidants; chelating compounds; apoptosis-related protease inhibitors; compounds that reduce new protein synthesis; radiotherapeutic agents; photodynamic therapy agents; gene therapy agents; genetic modulators; and dry eye medications such as cyclosporine A, delmulcents, and sodium hyaluronate.

[0092] Other therapeutic agents that may be used include: other beta-blocker agents such as acebutolol, atenolol, bisoprolol, carvedilol, asmolol, labetalol, nadolol, penbutolol, and pindolol; other corticosteroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents such aspirin, betamethasone, cortisone, diflunisal, etodolac, fenoprofen, fludrocortisone, flurbiprofen, hydrocortisone, ibuprofen, indomethacine, ketoprofen, meclofenamate, mefenamic acid, meloxicam, methylprednisolone, nabumetone, naproxen, oxaprozin, prednisolone, prioxicam, salsalate, sulindac and tolmetin; COX-2 inhibitors like celecoxib, rofecoxib and Valdecoxib; other immune-modulating agents such as aldesleukin, adalimumab

(HUMIRA®), azathioprine, basiliximab, daclizumab, etanercept (ENBREL®), hydroxychloroquine, infliximab (REMICADE®), leflunomide, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, and sulfasalazine; other anti-histamine agents such as loratadine, desloratadine, cetirizine, diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine, dexchlorpheniramine, clemastine, cyproheptadine, fexofenadine, hydroxyzine and promethazine; other anti-infective agents such as aminoglycosides such as amikacin and streptomycin; anti-fungal agents such as amphotericin B, caspofungin, clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine and nystatin; anti-malarial agents such as chloroquine, atovaquone, mefloquine, primaquine, quinidine and quinine; anti-mycobacterium agents such as ethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, rifampin and rifabutin; anti-parasitic agents such as albendazole, mebendazole, thiobendazole, metronidazole, pyrantel, atovaquone, iodoquinaol, ivermectin, paromycin, praziquantel, and trimatrexate; other anti-viral agents, including anti-CMV or anti-herpetic agents such as acyclovir, cidofovir, famciclovir, gangciclovir, valacyclovir, valganciclovir, vidarabine, trifluridine and foscarnet; protease inhibitors such as ritonavir, saquinavir, lopinavir, indinavir, atazanavir, amprenavir and nelfinavir; nucleotide/nucleoside/non- nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as abacavir, ddl, 3TC, d4T, ddC, tenofovir and emtricitabine, delavirdine, efavirenz and nevirapine; other anti-viral agents such as interferons, ribavirin and trifluridiene; other anti-bacterial agents, including cabapenems like ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem; cephalosporins such as cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, cefditoren, cephalexin, cefaclor, cefepime, cefoperazone, cefotaxime, cefotetan, cefoxitin, cefpodoxime, cefprozil, ceftaxidime, ceftibuten, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime and loracarbef; other macrolides and ketolides such as azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin and telithromycin; penicillins (with and without clavulanate) including amoxicillin, ampicillin, pivampicillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, piperacillin, and ticarcillin;

tetracyclines such as doxycycline, minocycline and tetracycline; other anti-bacterials such as aztreonam, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, linezolid, nitrofurantoin and vancomycin; alpha blocker agents such as doxazosin, prazosin and terazosin; calcium-channel blockers such as amlodipine, bepridil, diltiazem, felodipine, isradipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nisoldipine and verapamil; other anti-hypertensive agents such as clonidine, diazoxide, fenoldopan, hydralazine, minoxidil, nitroprusside, phenoxybenzamine, epoprostenol, tolazoline, treprostinil and nitrate-based agents; anti-coagulant agents, including heparins and heparinoids such as heparin, dalteparin, enoxaparin, tinzaparin and fondaparinux; other anti-coagulant agents such as hirudin, aprotinin, argatroban, bivalirudin, desirudin, lepirudin, warfarin and ximelagatran; anti-platelet agents such as abciximab, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, optifibatide, ticlopidine and tirofiban; prostaglandin PDE-5 inhibitors and other prostaglandin agents such as alprostadil, carboprost, sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil; thrombin inhibitors; antithrombogenic agents; anti-platelet aggregating agents; thrombolytic agents and/or fibrinolytic agents such as alteplase, anistreplase, reteplase, streptokinase, tenecteplase and urokinase; anti-proliferative agents such as sirolimus, tacrolimus, everolimus, zotarolimus, paclitaxel and mycophenolic acid; hormonal-related agents including levothyroxine, fluoxymestrone, methyltestosterone, nandrolone, oxandrolone, testosterone, estradiol, estrone, estropipate, clomiphene, gonadotropins, hydroxyprogesterone, levonorgestrel, medroxyprogesterone, megestrol, mifepristone, norethindrone, oxytocin, progesterone, raloxifene and tamoxifen; anti-neoplastic agents, including alkylating agents such as carmustine lomustine, melphalan, cisplatin, fluorouraciB, and procarbazine antibiotic-like agents such as bleomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, idarubicin, mitomycin and plicamycin; anti proliferative agents (such as 1 ,3-cis retinoic acid, 5-fluorouracil, taxol, rapamycin, mitomycin C and cisplatin); antimetabolite agents such as cytarabine, fludarabine, hydroxyurea, mercaptopurine and 5-flurouracil (5-FU); immune modulating agents such as aldesleukin, imatinib, rituximab and tositumomab; mitotic inhibitors docetaxel, etoposide, vinblastine and vincristine;

radioactive agents such as strontium-89; and other anti-neoplastic agents such as irinotecan, topotecan and mitotane.

[0093] Figure 3 is an additional perspective view showing volume 152 defined by the body of the ocular implant shown in the previous figure. With reference to Figure 3, it will be appreciated that volume 152 extends along a generally curved longitudinal axis 134. Volume 152 has a longitudinal radius 150, a lateral radius 148, and a generally circular lateral cross section 153.

[0094] Figure 4 is a perspective view showing a first plane 154 and a second plane 155 that both intersect ocular implant 100. In Figure 4, first plane 154 is delineated with hatch marks. With reference to Figure 4, it will be appreciated that spines 106 of body 102 are generally aligned with one another and that first plane 154 intersects all spines 106 shown in Figure 4. In the embodiment of Figure 4, body 102 of ocular implant 100 is generally symmetric about first plane 154.

[0095] In the embodiment of Figure 4, the flexibility of body 102 is at a maximum when body 102 is bending along first plane 154, and body 102 has less flexibility when bending along a plane other than first plane 154 (e.g., a plane that intersects first plane 154). For example, in the embodiment shown in Figure 4, body 102 has a second flexibility when bending along second plane 155 that is less than the first flexibility that body 102 has when bending along first plane 154.

[0096] Stated another way, in the embodiment of Figure 4, the bending modulus of body 102 is at a minimum when body 102 is bent along first plane 154. Body 102 has a first bending modulus when bent along first plane 154 and a greater bending modulus when bent along a plane other than first plane 154 (e.g., a plane that intersects first plane 154). For example, in the embodiment shown in Figure 4, body

102 has a second bending modulus when bent along second plane 155 that is greater than the first bending modulus that body 102 has when bent along first plane 154. [0097] Figure 5 is an enlarged perspective view showing a portion of ocular implant 100 shown in the previous figure. In the exemplary embodiment of Figure 5, a bending moment M is being applied to body 102 of ocular implant 100. Bending moment M acts about a first axis 156 that is generally orthogonal to first plane 154. A second axis 158 and a third axis 160 are also shown in Figure 5. Second axis 158 is generally perpendicular to first axis 156. Third axis 160 is skewed relative to first axis 156.

[0098] An inner surface 128 of body 102 defines a channel 126. Body 102 of ocular implant 100 includes a first edge 120 and a second edge 123 that define a first opening 124. Channel 126 of ocular implant 100 fluidly communicates with first opening 124. A second opening 138 is defined by a second edge 122A of a first strut 144 and a second edge 122B of a second strut 146. First opening 124, second opening 138 and additional openings defined by ocular implant 100 allow aqueous humor to flow laterally across and/or laterally through ocular implant 100.

[0099] As shown in Figure 5, ocular implant 100 has a first spine 140 and a second spine 142. First strut 144 and a second strut 146 form a first frame 136 of ocular implant 100 that extends between first spine 140 and second spine 142. In the exemplary embodiment of Figure 5, each strut undulates in a circumferential direction as it extends longitudinally between first spine 140 and second spine 142.

[0100] In the embodiment of Figure 5, the flexibility of body 102 is at a maximum when body 102 is bent by a moment acting about first axis 156, and body 102 has less flexibility when bent by a moment acting about an axis other than first axis 156 (e.g., second axis 158 and third axis 160). Stated another way, the bending modulus of body 102 is at a minimum when body 102 is bent by a moment acting about first axis 156, and body 102 has a greater bending modulus when bent by a moment acting about an axis other than first axis 156 (e.g., second axis 158 and third axis 160).

[0101] Figure 6 is a plan view showing ocular implant 100 shown in the previous figure. In the embodiment of Figure 6, no external forces are acting on body 102 of ocular implant 100, and body 102 is free to assume the generally curved resting shape depicted in Figure 6. Body 102 defines a first opening 124 that is disposed on an outer side 130 of body 102. A channel 126 is defined by the inner surface of body 102 and opens in a radially outward direction 132 via first opening 124. A proximal end 101 of the ocular implant 100 may include an interlocking portion configured to mate with and/or engage a complementary interlocking portion of a delivery tool. Section lines A-A and B-B are visible in Figure 6. Section line A-A intersects a first frame 136 of ocular implant 100. Section line B-B intersects a first spine 140 of ocular implant 100.

[0102] Figure 7A is a lateral cross-sectional view of ocular implant 100 taken along section line A-A shown in the previous figure. Section line A-A intersects a first strut 144 and a second strut 146 of first frame 136 at the point where the circumferential undulation of these struts is at its maximum. Body 102 of ocular implant 100 has a longitudinal radius 150 and a lateral radius 148. An inner surface 128 of body 102 defines a channel 126. A first opening 124 fluidly communicates with channel 126.

[0103] In Figure 7A, first opening 124 in body 102 can be seen extending between first edge 120A of first strut 144 and a first edge 120B of second strut 146. With reference to Figure 7A, it will be appreciated that second strut 146 has a shape that is a mirror image of the shape of first strut 144. [0104] Figure 7B is a lateral cross-sectional view of ocular implant 100 taken along section line B-B shown in the previous figure. Section line B-B intersects first spine 140 of ocular implant 100. Body 102 has a longitudinal radius 150 and a lateral radius 148. In the embodiment of Figure 7B, the center 159 of lateral radius 148 and the center 163 of longitudinal radius 150 are disposed on opposite sides of first spine 140. The center 159 of lateral radius 148 is disposed on a first side of first spine 140. The center 163 of longitudinal radius 150 is disposed on a second side of second spine 142.

[0105] Figure 8 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of ocular implant 100 taken along section line B- B of Figure 6. First spine 140 includes a first major side 161 , a second major side 162, a first minor side 164, and second minor side 166. With reference to Figure 8, it will be appreciated that first major side 161 comprises a concave surface 168. Second major side 162 is opposite first major side 161. In the embodiment of Figure 8, second major side 162 comprises a convex surface 170.

[0106] The geometry of the spine provides the ocular implant with flexibility characteristics that may aid in advancing the ocular implant into Schlemm's canal. In the embodiment of Figure 8, first spine 140 has a thickness Tl extending between first major side 161 and second major side 162. Also in the embodiment of Figure 8, first spine 140 has a width Wl extending between first minor side 164 and second minor side 166.

[0107] In some useful embodiments, the spine of an ocular implant in accordance with this detailed description has an aspect ratio of width Wl to thickness Tl greater than about 2. In some particularly useful embodiments, the spine of an ocular implant in accordance with this detailed description has an aspect ratio of width Wl to thickness Tl greater than about 4. In one useful embodiment, the ocular implant has a spine with an aspect ratio of width Wl to thickness Tl of about 5.2.

[0108] A first axis 156, a second axis 158 and a third axis 160 are shown in Figure 8. Second axis 158 is generally perpendicular to first axis 156. Third axis 160 is skewed relative to first axis 156.

[0109] In the embodiment of Figure 8, the flexibility of first spine 140 is at a maximum when first spine 140 is bent by a moment acting about first axis 156. First spine 140 has a first flexibility when bent by a moment acting about first axis 156 and less flexibility when bent by a moment acting about an axis other than first axis 156 (e.g., second axis 158 and third axis 160). For example, first spine 140 has a second flexibility when bent by a moment acting about second axis 158 shown in Figure 8. This second flexibility is less than the first flexibility that first spine 140 has when bent by a moment acting about first axis 156.

[0110] In the embodiment of Figure 8, the bending modulus of first spine 140 is at a minimum when first spine 140 is bent by a moment acting about first axis 156. First spine 140 has a first bending modulus when bent by a moment acting about first axis 156 and a greater bending modulus when bent by a moment acting about an axis other than first axis 156 (e.g., second axis 158 and third axis 160). For example, first spine 140 has a second bending modulus when bent by a moment acting about second axis 158 shown in Figure 8. This second bending modulus is greater than the first bending modulus that first spine 140 has when bent by a moment acting about first axis 156. [0111] Figure 9 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of ocular implant 100 taken along section line A- A of Figure 6. Section line A-A intersects first strut 144 and second strut 146 at the point where the circumferential undulation of these struts is at its maximum.

[0112] Each strut shown in Figure 9 includes a first major side 161, a second major side 162, a first minor side 164, and second minor side 166. With reference to Figure 9, it will be appreciated that each first major side 161 comprises a concave surface 168 and each second major side 162 comprises a convex surface 170.

[0113] In the embodiment of Figure 9, each strut has a thickness T2 extending between first major side 161 and second major side 162. Also in the embodiment of Figure 9, each strut has a width W2 extending between first minor side 164 and second minor side 166. In some useful embodiments, an ocular implant in accordance with this detailed description includes spines having a width W 1 that is greater than the width W2 of the struts of the ocular implant.

[0114] In some useful embodiments, the struts of an ocular implant in accordance with this detailed description have an aspect ratio of width W2 to thickness T2 greater than about 2. In some particularly useful embodiments, the struts of an ocular implant in accordance with this detailed description have an aspect ratio of width W2 to thickness T2 greater than about 4. One exemplary ocular implant has struts with an aspect ratio of width W2 to thickness T2 of about 4.4.

[0115] Body 102 of ocular implant 100 has a longitudinal radius 150 and a lateral radius 148. In some useful embodiments, an ocular implant in accordance with this detailed description is sufficiently flexible to assume a shape matching the longitudinal curvature of Schlemm's canal when the ocular implant advanced into the eye. Also in some useful embodiments, a length of the ocular implant is selected so that the implant will extend across a pre-selected angular span when the implant is positioned in Schlemm's canal. Examples of pre-selected angular spans that may be suitable in some applications include 60°, 90°, 150° and 180°. The diameter of an ocular implant in accordance with this detailed description may be selected so that the ocular implant is dimensioned to lie within and support

Schlemm's canal. In some useful embodiments, the diameter of the ocular implant ranges between about 0.005 inches (0.127 millimeters) and about 0.04 inches (1.016 millimeters). In some particularly useful embodiments, the diameter of the ocular implant ranges between about 0.005 inches (0.127 millimeters) and about 0.02 inches (0.508 millimeters).

[0116] It is to be appreciated that an ocular implant in accordance with the present detailed description may be straight or curved. If the ocular implant is curved, it may have a substantially uniform longitudinal radius throughout its length, or the longitudinal radius of the ocular implant may vary along its length. Figure 6 shows one example of an ocular implant having a substantially uniform radius of curvature. Figure 10A shows one example of an ocular implant having a longitudinal radius of curvature that varies along the length of the ocular implant. An example of a substantially straight ocular implant is shown in Figure 13.

[0117] Figure 1 OA is an enlarged perspective view showing a portion of ocular implant 100 shown in the Figures 2 and 4. The ocular implant 100 may further include an intraocular pressure sensor 180 mounted to the inner surface 128 of the ocular implant 100 adjacent to an outlet of the implant 100, as shown in Detail A. While the pressure sensor 180 is illustrated as mounted to an inner surface 128 of the ocular implant 100 it is contemplated that the pressure sensor 180 may be mounted within one of the openings 124, 138 or on an outer surface of the ocular implant 100, as desired. The pressure sensor 180 may continuously measure the intraocular pressure of a patient, once the ocular implant 100 has been implanted.

[0118] The pressure sensor 180 may be a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) pressure sensor. While the pressure sensor 180 has been described as a MEMS pressure sensor, it is contemplated that other pressure sensors may be used in place of, or in addition to, a MEMS pressure sensor. In some instances, the pressure sensor 180 may have a width in the range of approximately 0.02 millimeters (20 micrometers) to approximately 1.0 millimeters. However, it is contemplated that the pressure sensors 180 are smaller than 20 micrometers, or larger than 1.0 millimeter. In some instances, the pressure sensor 180 may have a width dimension in the nanometer range. Further, while only a single pressure sensor 180 has been illustrated, the ocular implant 100 may include more than one pressure sensor 180, as desired. For example, a first pressure sensor may be placed at a first end of the ocular implant 100 and a second pressure sensor may be placed at a second end of the ocular implant. In some instances, the pressure sensor 180 may be provided in the channel 128 adjacent to the proximal end 101 of the implant 100, as shown in Figure 10C. It is contemplated that the pressure sensor 180 may include a protective cover to prevent the delivery device (not explicitly shown) from damaging the sensor 180 during delivery of the ocular implant 100, although this is not required.

[0119] MEMS pressure sensors are often formed by anisotropically etching a recess into a back side of a silicon substrate die, leaving a thin flexible diaphragm 182. In operation, at least one surface of the diaphragm 182 is exposed to an input pressure (e.g., the ocular pressure). The diaphragm 182 deflects according to the magnitude of the input pressure, which may be detected by one or more electrical components or sense elements 186 (e.g., piezoresistors) positioned on or embedded within the diaphragm 182. The change in resistance of the piezoresistors 186 is reflected as a change in an output voltage signal from a resistive bridge formed at least in part by the piezoresistors. In some cases, the diaphragm may be made thinner with the addition of support bosses, which may help increase the sensitivity of the diaphragm over a flat plate diaphragm. Circuit elements may be connected so that sensor elements 186 to provide some level of signal processing before providing an output signal to bond pads 188 of the pressure sensor 180. The signal processing may filter, amplify, linearize, calibrate and/or otherwise process the raw sensor signal produced by the sensor elements (e.g., piezoresistors 186). While the sense elements 186 have been described as piezoresistors, it is contemplated that the sense elements may be selected to provide a capacitive pressure sensor 180.

[0120] The pressure sensor 180 may include a first substrate 185 and a second substrate 183, as shown in Figure 10B, which is a cross-section of the illustrative pressure sensor 180 taken at line B-B in Figure 10A. In some instances, the first substrate 185 may be a layered silicon-insulator-silicon substrate or wafer formed with silicon on insulator (SOI) technology, although this is not required. It is contemplated that other substrates may be used, as desired. The first substrate 185 may include a first silicon layer. An insulating, or oxide, layer 187 may be disposed on the first silicon layer 185. In some instances, the insulating layer 187 may be formed from silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, sapphire, and/or any other suitable insulating material. While not explicitly shown, the pressure sensor 180 may include a second silicon layer disposed on the insulating layer. In some instances, the second silicon layer may be thinned or removed such that the oxide layer 187 is exposed at the side facing away from the second substrate 183. Alternatively, and in some cases, the second silicon layer and oxide layer 187 are not provided from the start.

[0121] The second substrate 183 may be any semi-conductor wafer (e.g., silicon or germanium) or other substrate as desired. It is contemplated that either or both the first substrate 185 or the second substrate 183 may be doped with an impurity to provide an n-type or p-type extrinsic semiconductor. For example, the first substrate 185 may be an n-type substrate while the second substrate 183 may be a p- type substrate. The reverse configuration is also contemplated, or both substrates may be doped the same polarity. In some instances, the first substrate 185 and/or the second substrate 183 may include an epitaxial layer.

[0122] A portion of the first substrate 185, such as a portion of the first silicon layer, may be removed, leaving a thin, flexible diaphragm 182 over a cavity or recess 1 81. In some cases, piezoresistors 186 may be located in or on the diaphragm 182 to measure deflection/stress of the diaphragm 1 82 to form a pressure sensor. During operation, at least one surface of the diaphragm 182 may be exposed to an input pressure. The diaphragm 182 may then deflect according to a magnitude of the pressure on the diaphragm 182. A deflection of the diaphragm 182 then creates changes in resistance in the piezoresistors 186. A change in resistance of the piezoresistors 186 may be reflected as a change in an output voltage signal of a resistive bridge that is formed at least partially by the piezoresistors 186. The output voltage provides a measure of the input pressure exerted on the diaphragm 182.

[0123] It is contemplated that the second substrate 183 may be flexible to allow the substrate 183 to be mounted flush against the inner surface 128 of the ocular implant 100. Alternatively, or additionally, the second substrate 183 may have a curved outer surface (facing away from the diaphragm 182) shaped to generally correspond to the curved inner surface 128 of the ocular implant 100. It is further contemplated that the materials forming the pressure sensor 180 may be selected such that the pressure sensor 180 is biocompatible.

[0124] As noted above, while the pressure sensor 180 has been described as a MEMS pressure sensor, it is contemplated that pressure sensor 1 80 may take other suitable forms. In one alternative example, the pressure sensor may be formed in such a way that radio waves can be used to detect changes in pressure without sensor elements incorporated into the device. Such a pressure sensor may include a flexible base substrate, a bottom inductive coil positioned on the base substrate, a layer of pressure sensitive rubber pyramids positioned over the bottom inductive coil, a top inductive coil positioned on top of the rubber pyramids, and a top substrate positioned over the top inductive coil. As a pressure is exerted on the sensor, the inductive coils move close together. Radio waves (from an applied source) reflected by the inductive coils have a lower resonance frequency when the coils are positioned closer together. Thus, the frequency of the radio waves can indicate the distance between the coils which is then correlated to the pressure exerted on the device.

[0125] The pressure sensor 180 may be further provided with an antenna or inductor 184 to allow the data from the pressure sensor 180 to be wirelessly communicated to a readout device. In some instances, the pressure sensor 180 may use radiofrequency communication protocols, such as, but not limited to cellular communication, ZigBee®, Bluetooth®, WiFi®, IrDA, dedicated short range communication (DSRC), EnOcean ®, or any other suitable wireless protocols, as desired to transmit the data from the pressure sensor 180 to another device located outside the body. The data may be transmitted to any number so suitably enabled devices, including, but not limited to, cellular phones, tablet or laptop computers, desktop computers, portable handheld devices, such a personal digital assistant (PDA), or a specially designed device, such as, but not limited to a medical device. This may allow a physician, patient, or other interested party to monitor the ocular pressure without the use of a tonometer. In some instances, the pressure data may be automatically transmitted to a physician from the remote device. For example, as shown in Figure 1 1 , once the ocular implant 100 with the pressure sensor 180 has been implanted, an enabled remote device 192 may be brought within communication range of the patient's 190 eye. This may allow the enabled device 192 to receive the ocular pressure data recorded at the pressure sensor 1 80. The enabled device 192 may be configured to automatically transmit the data to a physician, for example, to a second remote device.

[0126] Figure 12 is a plan view showing an ocular implant 200 having a radius of curvature that varies along its length. A proximal end 201 of the ocular implant 200 may include an interlocking portion configured to mate with and/or engage a complementary interlocking portion of a delivery tool. In the embodiment of Figure 12, ocular implant 200 has an at rest shape that is generally curved. This at rest shape can be established, for example, using a heat-setting process. The ocular implant shape shown in Figure 12 includes a distal radius RA, a proximal radius RC, and an intermediate radius RB. In the embodiment of Figure 12, distal radius RA is larger than both intermediate radius RB and proximal radius RC. Also in the embodiment of Figure 12, intermediate radius RB is larger than proximal radius RC and smaller than distal radius RA. In one useful embodiment, distal radius RA is about 0.320 inches (8.128 millimeters), intermediate radius RB is about 0.225 inches (5.715 millimeters) and proximal radius RC is about 0.205 inches (5.207 millimeters).

[0127] In the embodiment of Figure 12, a distal portion of the ocular implant follows an arc extending across an angle AA. A proximal portion of the ocular implant follows an arc extending across an angle AC. An intermediate portion of the ocular implant is disposed between the proximal portion and the distal portion. The intermediate portion extends across an angle AB. In one useful embodiment, angle AA is about 55 degrees, angle AB is about 79 degrees and angle AC is about 60 degrees.

[0128] Ocular implant 200 may be used in conjunction with a method of treating the eye of a human patient for a disease and/or disorder (e.g., glaucoma). Some such methods may include the step of inserting a core member into a lumen defined by ocular implant 200. The core member may comprise, for example, a wire or tube. The distal end of the ocular implant may be inserted into Schlemm's canal.

The ocular implant and the core member may then be advanced into Schlemm's canal until the ocular implant has reached a desired position. In some embodiments, an inlet portion of the implant may be disposed in the anterior chamber of eye while the remainder of the implant extends through the trabecular mesh into Schlemm's canal. The core member may then be withdrawn from the ocular implant, leaving the implant in place to support tissue forming Schlemm's canal. Further details of ocular implant delivery systems may be found in U.S. Application No. 1 1 /943,289, filed November 20, 2007, now U.S. Patent No. 8,512,404, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

[0129] The flexibility and bending modulus features of the ocular implant of this invention help ensure proper orientation of the implant within Schlemm's canal. Figure 1 shows the desired orientation of opening 124 when the implant 100 is disposed in Schlemm's canal. As shown, opening 124 faces radially outward. The implant 100 is therefore designed so that it is maximally flexible when bent along a plane defined by the longitudinal axis of implant 100 as shown in Figure 1 , and less flexible when bent in other planes, thereby enabling the curved shape of Schlemm's canal to help place the implant in this orientation automatically if the implant is initially placed in Schlemm's canal in a different orientation.

[0130] Figure 13 is a perspective view showing an ocular implant 300 in accordance with an additional embodiment in accordance with the present detailed description. With reference to Figure 13, it will be appreciated that ocular implant 300 has a resting (i.e., unstressed) shape that is generally straight. Ocular implant 300 extends along a longitudinal axis 334 that is generally straight. In some useful embodiments, ocular implant 300 is sufficiently flexible to assume a curved shape when advanced into Schlemm's canal of an eye.

[0131] Ocular implant 300 comprises a body 302. With reference to Figure 13, it will be appreciated that body 302 comprises a plurality of tissue supporting frames 304 and a plurality of spines 306. As shown in Figure 13, these spines 306 and frames 304 are arranged in an alternating pattern in which one spine extends between each adjacent pair of frames 304. The frames 304 of body 302 include a first frame 336 of ocular implant 300 is disposed between a first spine 340 and a second spine 342. In the embodiment of Figure 13, first frame 336 comprises a first strut 344 that extends between first spine 340 and second spine 342. A second strut 346 of first frame also extends between first spine 340 and second spine 342. Each strut undulates in a circumferential direction as it extends longitudinally between first spine 340 and second spine 342.

[0132] An inner surface 328 of body 302 defines a channel 326. Body 302 of ocular implant 300 includes a first edge 320 and a second edge 322 that define a first opening 324. Channel 326 of ocular implant 300 fluidly communicates with first opening 324. First strut 344 of first frame 336 comprises a first edge 325 A. Second strut 346 has a first edge 325B. In Figure 13, first opening 324 in body 302 can be seen extending between first edge 325A of first strut 344 and a first edge 325B of second strut 346.

[0133] A first axis 356, a second axis 358 and a third axis 360 are shown in Figure 13. Second axis 358 is generally perpendicular to first axis 356. Third axis 360 is generally skewed relative to first axis 356. The flexibility of body 302 is at a maximum when body 302 is bent by a moment acting about first axis 356, and body 302 has less flexibility when bent by a moment acting about an axis other than first axis 356 (e.g., second axis 358 and third axis 360). Stated another way, in the embodiment of Figure 13, the bending modulus of body 302 is at a minimum when body 302 is bent by a moment acting about first axis 356, and body 302 has a greater bending modulus when bent by a moment acting about an axis other than first axis 356 (e.g., second axis 358 and third axis 360).

[0134] The ocular implant 300 may further include an intraocular pressure sensor 380 mounted to the inner surface 328 of the ocular implant 300. The pressure sensor 380 may be similar in form and function to pressure sensor 180 described above. While the pressure sensor 380 is illustrated as mounted to an inner surface 328 of the ocular implant 300 it is contemplated that the pressure sensor 380 may be mounted within one of the openings 324 or on an outer surface of the ocular implant 300, as desired. The pressure sensor 380 may continuously measure the intraocular pressure of a patient, once the ocular implant 300 has been implanted.

[0135] The pressure sensor 380 may be a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) pressure sensor. While the pressure sensor 380 has been described as a MEMS pressure sensor, it is contemplated that other pressure sensors may be used in place of, or in addition to, a MEMS pressure sensor. MEMS pressure sensors are often formed by anisotropically etching a recess into a back side of a silicon substrate die, leaving a thin flexible diaphragm. In operation, at least one surface of the diaphragm is exposed to an input pressure (e.g., the ocular pressure). The diaphragm deflects according to the magnitude of the input pressure, which may be detected by one or more electrical components or sense elements (e.g., piezoresistors) positioned on or embedded within the diaphragm. The change in resistance of the piezoresistors is reflected as a change in an output voltage signal from a resistive bridge fonried at least in part by the piezoresistors. In some cases, the diaphragm may be made thinner with the addition of support bosses, which may help increase the sensitivity of the diaphragm over a flat plate diaphragm. Circuit elements may be connected so that sensor elements to provide some level of signal processing before providing an output signal to bond pads of the pressure sensor. The signal processing may filter, amplify, linearize, calibrate and/or otherwise process the raw sensor signal produced by the sensor elements (e.g., piezoresistors). While the sense elements have been described as piezoresistors, it is contemplated that the sense elements may be selected to provide a capacitive pressure sensor 380.

[0136] The pressure sensor 380 may be further provided with an antenna or inductor to allow the data from the pressure sensor 380 to be wirelessly communicated to a readout device. In some instances, the pressure sensor 380 may use radiofrequency communication protocols, such as, but not limited to cellular communication, ZigBee®, Bluetooth®, WiFi®, IrDA, dedicated short range communication (DSRC), EnOcean ®, or any other suitable wireless protocols, as desired to transmit the data from the pressure sensor 380 to another device located outside the body. The data may be transmitted to any number so suitably enabled devices, including, but not limited to, cellular phones, tablet computers, computers, portable handheld devices, such a personal digital assistant (PDA), or a specially designed device. This may allow a physician, patient, or other interested party to monitor the ocular pressure without the use of a tonometer. [0137] Figure 14 is a stylized representation of a medical procedure in accordance with this detailed description. In the procedure of Figure 14, a physician is treating an eye 400 of a patient P. In the procedure of Figure 14, the physician is holding a hand piece of a delivery system 450 in his or her right hand RH. The physician's left hand (not shown) may be used to hold the handle H of a gonio lens 402. Alternatively, some physicians may prefer holding the delivery system hand piece in the left hand and the gonio lens handle H in the right hand RH.

[0138] During the procedure illustrated in Figure 14, the physician may view the interior of the anterior chamber using gonio lens 402 and a microscope 404. Detail A of Figure 14 is a stylized simulation of the image viewed by the physician. A distal portion of a cannula 452 is visible in Detail A. A shadow-like line indicates the location of Schlemm's canal SC which is lying under various tissues

(e.g., the trabecular meshwork) that surround the anterior chamber. A distal opening 454 of cannula 452 is positioned near Schlemm's canal SC of eye 400.

[0139] Methods in accordance with this detailed description may include the step of advancing the distal end of cannula 452 through the cornea of eye 400 so that a distal portion of cannula 452 is disposed in the anterior chamber of the eye. Cannula 452 may then be used to access Schlemm's canal of the eye, for example, by piercing the wall of Schlemm's canal with the distal end of cannula 452. Distal opening 454 of cannula 452 may be placed in fluid communication with a lumen defined by Schlemm's canal. The ocular implant may be advanced out of distal opening 454 and into Schlemm's canal. Insertion of the ocular implant into Schlemm's canal may facilitate the flow of aqueous humor out of the anterior chamber of the eye.

[0140] Figure 15 is an enlarged perspective view further illustrating delivery system 450 and eye 400 shown in the previous figure. In Figure 15, cannula 452 of delivery system 450 is shown extending through a cornea 426 of eye 400. A distal portion of cannula 452 is disposed inside the anterior chamber defined by cornea 426 of eye 400. In the embodiment of Figure 15, cannula 452 is configured so that a distal opening 454 of cannula 452 can be placed in fluid communication with Schlemm's canal.

[0141] In the embodiment of Figure 15, an ocular implant is disposed in a passageway defined by cannula 452. Delivery system 450 includes a mechanism that is capable of advancing and retracting the ocular implant along the length of cannula 452. The ocular implant may be placed in Schlemm's canal of eye 400 by advancing the ocular implant through the distal opening of cannula 452 while the distal opening is in fluid communication with Schlemm's canal.

[0142] Figure 16A is a perspective view showing a delivery system 500 including an ocular implant 550 and a cannula 508 defining a passageway that is dimensioned to slidingly receive ocular implant 550. Delivery system 500 may be used to advance ocular implant 550 into a target location in the eye of a patient. Examples of target locations that may be suitable in some applications include areas in and around Schlemm's canal, the trabecular meshwork, the suprachoroidal space, and the anterior chamber of the eye. Figure 16B is an enlarged detail view further illustrating ocular implant 550 and cannula 508 of delivery system 500. [0143] Delivery system 500 of Figure 16A is capable of controlling the advancement and retraction of ocular implant 550 within cannula 508. Ocular implant 550 may be placed in a target location (e.g., Schlemm's canal) by advancing the ocular implant through a distal opening 532 of cannula 508 while the distal opening is in fluid communication with Schlemm's canal. In the embodiment of Figure 16A, ocular implant 550 has been advanced through distal opening 532 of cannula 508 for purposes of illustration.

[0144] Delivery system 500 of Figure 16A includes a housing 502, a sleeve 504, and an end cap 510. A tracking wheel 506 extends through a wall of housing 502 in Figure 16A. Tracking wheel 506 is part of a mechanism that is capable of advancing and retracting a delivery tool 552 of delivery system 500. The delivery tool 552 extends through a distal opening of cannula 508 of Figure 16B. Rotating the tracking wheel will cause delivery tool 552 to move in an axial direction along a passageway defined by cannula 508. The axial direction may be in a distal direction D or a proximal direction P. The delivery tool 552 and the mechanism for moving the delivery tool 552 are described in commonly assigned Application Serial No. 62/024,295, which is herein incorporated by reference.

[0145] In the embodiment of Figure 16A, housing 502 is configured to be gripped with one hand while providing control over the axial advancement and retraction of ocular implant via tracking wheel 506. The housing of delivery system 500 results in an advantageous ergonomic relationship of the fingers relative to the hand. This design provides a configuration that will allow a user, such as a physician, to stabilize the device using part of the hand, while leaving the middle or index finger free move independently from the remainder of the hand. The middle or index finger is free to move independently to rotate the wheel for advancing and/or retract the ocular implant.

[0146] Figure 16B is an enlarged detail view further illustrating ocular implant 550 and a cannula 508 of delivery system 500. Cannula 508 comprises a generally tubular member 598 having proximal portion 540, a distal end 534, and a distal portion 544 extending between distal end 534 and proximal portion 540. In the embodiment of Figure 6, distal portion 544 is curved. In some useful embodiments, distal portion 544 is dimensioned and configured to be received in the anterior chamber of the eye.

[0147] Figure 16B shows delivery tool 552 of delivery system 500 extending through distal opening 532 of cannula 508. Delivery tool 552 includes an interlocking portion 560 that is configured to form a connection with a complementary interlocking portion 562 of ocular implant 550, as explained in more detail below. In the embodiment of Figure 16, rotating the tracking wheel will cause delivery tool 552 and ocular implant 550 to move along a path defined by cannula 508. Cannula 508 is sized and configured so that the distal end of cannula 508 can be advanced through the trabecular meshwork of the eye and into Schlemm's canal. Positioning cannula 508 in this way places distal opening 532 in fluid communication with Schlemm's canal. Ocular implant 550 may be placed in Schlemm's canal by advancing the ocular implant through distal opening 532 of cannula 508 while the distal opening is in fluid communication with Schlemm's canal. The distal portion of the cannula may include a cutting portion configured to cut through the trabecular meshwork and the wall of Schlemm's canal, such as by providing distal end 534 with a sharp edge adapted to cut through such tissue. [0148] Figure 17 is a perspective view of a cannula 508 in accordance with the present detailed description. Cannula 508 of Figure 17 comprises a generally tubular member 598 having a central axis 596. Generally tubular member 598 of Figure 17 comprises a proximal portion 540, a distal end 534, and a distal portion 544 extending between distal end 534 and proximal portion 540. A distal opening surface 542 surrounds a distal opening 532 extending through the distal end 534 and through a side wall of cannula 508. A beveled edge 565 is disposed at the distal end of distal opening surface 542, extending from the distal end 534 to a proximal extent 567 of beveled edge 565. Tubular member 598 defines distal opening 532, a proximal opening 536, and a passageway 538 extending between proximal opening 536 and distal opening 532.

[0149] In the embodiment of Figure 17, proximal portion 540 of cannula 508 is substantially straight, distal portion 544 of cannula 508 is curved, and central axis 596 defines a curvature plane 548. Curvature plane 548 may be referred to as a plane of curvature. Curvature plane 548 divides cannula 508 into a first portion PA and a second portion PB. In the embodiment of Figure 17, second portion PB is substantially a mirror image of first portion PA. In Figure 17, distal portion 544 is shown extending between distal end 534 and proximal portion 540 with no intervening elements. In the embodiment of Figure 17, distal portion 544 is curved along its entire length.

[0150] A method in accordance with this detailed description may include the step of advancing the distal end 534 of cannula 508 through the cornea of a human eye so that distal end 534 is disposed in the anterior chamber of the eye. Cannula 508 may then be used to access Schlemm's canal of the eye, for example, by piercing the wall of Schlemm's canal with the distal end 534 of cannula 508. The beveled edge 565 may be inserted into Schlemm's canal to place at least part of distal opening 532 of cannula 508 in communication with Schlemm's canal, as discussed in more detail below. The ocular implant may be advanced out of a distal port of the cannula and into Schlemm's canal.

[0151] In the embodiment of Figure 17, distal portion 544 of cannula 508 defines a trough 554. In some useful embodiments, trough 554 is configured to receive the entire external cross section of an ocular implant as the ocular implant is being advanced into Schlemm's canal. When this is the case, trough 554 may have a depth dimension that is deeper than a width of the ocular implant. This cannula configuration advantageously prevents the ocular implant from intersecting the layers of the trabecular meshwork as the ocular implant is advanced into Schlemm's canal. Trough 554 may also be configured to allow the proximal portion of the ocular implant to be released from the delivery tool, as discussed below.

[0152] The cannula 508 may further include a pressure sensor 580 disposed within the trough 554. The pressure sensor 580 may be similar in form and function to pressure sensor 180 described above. While the pressure sensor 580 is illustrated as mounted within the trough 554 of the cannula, it is contemplated that the pressure sensor 580 may be mounted at other locations within or on the cannula 508. The pressure sensor 580 may provide an instantaneous pressure reading during implantation of the ocular implant 550 or shortly thereafter. In some instances, the pressure reading obtained from the pressure sensor 580 on the cannula 508 can be compared to a pressure reading obtained from a pressure sensor mounted on the ocular implant 550, if so provided.

[0153] The pressure sensor 580 may be a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) pressure sensor. While the pressure sensor 580 has been described as a MEMS pressure sensor, it is contemplated that other pressure sensors may be used in place of, or in addition to, a MEMS pressure sensor. Further, while only a single pressure sensor 580 has been illustrated, the cannula 508 may include more than one pressure sensor 580, as desired. MEMS pressure sensors are often formed by anisotropically etching a recess into a back side of a silicon substrate die, leaving a thin flexible diaphragm. In operation, at least one surface of the diaphragm is exposed to an input pressure (e.g., the ocular pressure). The diaphragm deflects according to the magnitude of the input pressure, which may be detected by one or more electrical components or sense elements (e.g., piezoresistors) positioned on or embedded within the diaphragm. The change in resistance of the piezoresistors is reflected as a change in an output voltage signal from a resistive bridge formed at least in part by the piezoresistors. In some cases, the diaphragm may be made thinner with the addition of support bosses, which may help increase the sensitivity of the diaphragm over a flat plate diaphragm. Circuit elements may be connected so that sensor elements to provide some level of signal processing before providing an output signal to bond pads of the pressure sensor. The signal processing may filter, amplify, linearize, calibrate and/or otherwise process the raw sensor signal produced by the sensor elements (e.g., piezoresistors). While the sense elements have been described as piezoresistors, it is contemplated that the sense elements may be selected to provide a capacitive pressure sensor 580.

[0154] The pressure sensor 580 may be further provided with an antenna or inductor to allow the data from the pressure sensor 580 to be wirelessly communicated to a readout device. In some instances, the pressure sensor 580 may use radiofrequency communication protocols, such as, but not limited to cellular communication, ZigBee®, Bluetooth®, WiFi®, IrDA, dedicated short range communication (DSRC), EnOcean ®, or any other suitable wireless protocols, as desired to transmit the data from the pressure sensor 580 to another device located outside the body. The data may be transmitted to any number so suitably enabled devices, including, but not limited to, cellular phones, tablet computers, computers, portable handheld devices, such a personal digital assistant (PDA), or a specially designed device. This may allow a physician, patient, or other interested party to monitor the ocular pressure without the use of a tonometer.

[0155] Figure 18 is a perspective view of an assembly including cannula 508 shown in the previous figure. For purposes of illustration, cannula 508 is cross-sectionally illustrated in Figure 23. In Figure 18, an ocular implant 550 can be seen resting in a passageway 538 defined by cannula 508. With reference to Figure 18, it will be appreciated that distal portion 544 of cannula 508 is curved so that central axis 596 of cannula 508 defines a curvature plane 548. With reference to Figure 23, it will be appreciated that curvature plane 548 divides cannula 508 into a first portion and a second portion PB. Only second portion PB of cannula 508 is shown in the illustrative embodiment of Figure 18. [0156] Figure 19 is a stylized perspective view including the assembly shown in the previous figure. In the embodiment of Figure 19, a distal portion of cannula 508 is shown extending through the wall of Schlemm's canal SC. The distal tip of cannula 508 may include a sharp portion configured for cutting and/or piercing the trabecular meshwork and the wall of Schlemm's canal so that the passageway defined by the cannula can be placed in fluid communication with the lumen defined by Schlemm's canal. With the passageway of the cannula placed in fluid communication with the lumen of Schlemm's canal, ocular implant 550 can be advanced out of the distal opening of the cannula and into Schlemm's canal. In Figure 19, a distal portion of ocular implant 550 can be seen through distal opening 532 of cannula 508.

[0157] For purposes of illustration, a hypothetical window W is cut through the wall of cannula 508 in Figure 19. An interlocking portion 560 of a delivery tool 552 and a complementary interlocking portion 562 of ocular implant 550 are visible through window W. In the embodiment of Figure 19, interlocking portion 560 of delivery tool 552 and complementary interlocking portion 562 of ocular implant 550 are engaging each other so that a proximal end 549 of ocular implant 550 is proximal to the distal end 551 of delivery tool 552. Surface 561 of delivery tool 552 rests against the wall of cannula 508 to prevent interlocking portion 560 of delivery tool 552 and complementary interlocking portion 562 of ocular implant 550 from disengaging one another. When they are connected in this fashion, delivery tool 552 and ocular implant 550 move together as the delivery tool is advanced and retracted relative to cannula 508 by the delivery system mechanism.

[0158] Figure 20 is an enlarged perspective view showing a portion of cannula 508 shown in the previous figure. In some useful embodiments, cannula 508 is curved to achieve substantially tangential entry into Schlemm's canal SC. In the embodiment of Figure 20, cannula 508 is contacting an outer major wall of Schlemm's canal SC at a point of tangency PT. Also in the embodiment of Figure 20, a curved distal portion of cannula 508 is dimensioned to be disposed within the anterior chamber of the eye.

[0159] As shown in Figure 20, the distal tip 534 and beveled edge of the cannula 508 have been inserted into Schlemm's canal up to the proximal extent 567 of beveled edge 565. In this position, ocular implant 550 can be seen extending into trough 554. In some useful embodiments, the ocular implant has a radius of curvature that is larger than the radius of curvature of the cannula. This arrangement ensures that the ocular implant will track along trough 554 as the ocular implant is urged in a distal direction by delivery system 500.

[0160] Figure 21 is an additional perspective view showing ocular implant 550 and cannula 508 shown in the previous figure. By comparing Figure 21 with the previous figure, it will be appreciated that ocular implant 550 has been advanced in a distal direction D while cannula 508 has remained stationary so that a distal portion of ocular implant 550 is disposed inside Schlemm's canal SC. Trough 554 opens into an elongate opening 532 defined by edge 542 at the distal portion of cannula 508. In the embodiment of Figure 21 , the elongate opening defined by the cannula provides direct visualization of the ocular implant as it is advanced into Schlemm's canal. A configuration allowing direct visualization of the ocular implant has a number of clinical advantages. During a medical procedure, it is often difficult to monitor the progress of the implant by viewing the implant through the trabecular meshwork. For example, blood reflux may push blood into Schlemm's canal obstructing a physician's view the portion of the implant that has entered Schlemm's canal. With reference to Figure 21, ocular implant 550 tracks along trough 554 as it is advanced distally along cannula 508. The trough opening allows the physician to monitor the progress of the implant by viewing the implant structures as they advance through the trough prior to entering Schlemm's canal. The trough opening also allows the physician to identify the position of the proximal end of the ocular implant with respect to the incision made by the cannula to access Schlemm's canal.

[0161] Figure 22 is an additional stylized perspective view showing ocular implant 550 and cannula 508. In the embodiment of Figure 22, the interlocking portions 560 and 562 of the delivery tool 552 and ocular implant 550, respectively, can be seen entering the distal opening 532 defined by cannula 508. As shown, ocular implant 550 has been advanced in a distal direction D (relative to the embodiment shown in the previous figure) so that more of ocular implant 550 is disposed inside Schlemm's canal SC. Surface 561 opposite interlocking portion 560 of delivery tool 552 still rests against the inner wall of cannula 508 to keep the delivery tool interlocked with ocular implant 550.

[0162] Figure 23 is an additional stylized perspective view showing ocular implant 550 and cannula 508. As shown in Figure 23, the ocular implant 550 and delivery tool 552 have advanced further distally so that delivery tool surface 561 and part of the reduced diameter portion 563 have now passed into opening 532, thereby permitting the delivery tool curved portion 553 to move toward its curved at-rest shape so that the delivery tool engagement surface 560 disengages and moves away from its

complementary engagement surface 562 on the ocular implant 550.

[0163] In some useful embodiments, the delivery tool may be colored to provide visual differentiation from the implant. After the disengaging from the ocular implant, cannula 508 and delivery tool 552 can be withdrawn from Schlemm's canal SC leaving the ocular implant 550 in the fully deployed position shown in Figure 23. After delivery of ocular implant 550 is complete, the delivery tool and the cannula may be removed from the eye, leaving at least a distal portion of the ocular implant in Schlemm's canal.

[0164] Figure 24 is a perspective view of Schlemm's canal SC after the cannula (seen in the previous figure) has been withdrawn leaving an inlet portion of ocular implant 550 in the anterior chamber of the eye and the remainder of ocular implant 550 in Schlemm's canal. The presence of ocular implant 550 in Schlemm's canal may facilitate the flow of aqueous humor out of the anterior chamber. This flow may include axial flow along Schlemm's canal, flow from the anterior chamber into Schlemm's canal, and flow leaving Schlemm's canal via outlets communicating with Schlemm's canal. When in place within the eye, ocular implant 550 will support the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal tissue and will provide for improved communication between the anterior chamber and Schlemm's canal (via the trabecular meshwork) and between pockets or compartments along Schlemm's canal.

[0165] In some instances, it may be desirable to deliver an ocular implant to Schlemm's canal in conjunction with another corrective surgery, such as, but not limited to, cataract surgery. When the ocular implant is placed during another surgical procedure, it may be desirable to insert the ocular implant through the same incision used for the other procedure. Figure 25A is a perspective view showing another illustrative delivery system 600 that may be used to advance ocular implant 650 into a target location in the eye of a patient through an incision location created for another procedure, such as, but not limited to cataract surgery. The delivery system 600 may include an ocular implant 650 and a cannula 608 defining a passageway that is dimensioned to slidingly receive ocular implant 650. It is contemplated that aspects of delivery system 600 may be similar in form and function to delivery system 500.

Examples of target locations that may be suitable in some applications include areas in and around Schlemm's canal, the trabecular meshwork, the suprachoroidal space, and the anterior chamber of the eye. Figure 25B is an enlarged detail view further illustrating ocular implant 650 and cannula 608 of delivery system 600.

[0166] Delivery system 600 of Figure 25A is capable of controlling the advancement and retraction of ocular implant 650 within cannula 608. Ocular implant 650 may be placed in a target location (e.g., Schlemm's canal) by advancing the ocular implant 650 through a distal opening 632 of cannula 608 while the distal opening is in fluid communication with Schlemm's canal. In the embodiment of Figure 25A, ocular implant 650 has been advanced through distal opening 632 of cannula 608 for purposes of illustration.

[0167] Delivery system 600 of Figure 25 A includes a housing 602, a sleeve 604, and an end cap 610. A tracking wheel 606 extends through a wall of housing 602 in Figure 25 A. Tracking wheel 606 is part of a mechanism that is capable of advancing and retracting a delivery tool 652 of delivery system 600. The delivery tool 652 is slidably disposed within cannula 608 and configured to extend through a distal opening of cannula 608. Rotating the tracking wheel will cause delivery tool 652 to move in an axial direction along a passageway defined by cannula 608. The axial direction may be in a distal direction D or a proximal direction P. Delivery tool 652 may be similar in form and function to delivery tool 152.

[0168] In the embodiment of Figure 25A, housing 602 is configured to be gripped with one hand while providing control over the axial advancement and retraction of ocular implant via tracking wheel 606. The features of housing 602 result in an advantageous ergonomic relationship of the fingers relative to the hand. This design provides a configuration that will allow a user, such as a physician, to stabilize the device using part of the hand, while leaving the middle or index finger free move independently from the remainder of the hand. The middle or index finger is free to move independently to rotate the wheel for advancing and/or retract the ocular implant.

[0169] Figure 25B is an enlarged detail view further illustrating ocular implant 650 and a cannula 608 of delivery system 600. Cannula 608 comprises a generally tubular member 698 having proximal portion 640, an intermediate portion 645, a distal portion 644, and a distal end 634. The intermediate portion 645 may extend distally from a first point 643 distal to the proximal end 641 to a second point 647 proximal to the distal end 634. The distal portion 644 may extend between distally from the second point 647 to distal end 634 of cannula 608 (shown in Figure 28). In the embodiment of Figure 25, both distal portion 644 and intermediate portion 645 may be curved. In some instances, distal portion 644 may have a smaller radius of curvature, and thus a higher curvature, than the intermediate portion 645, although this is not required. In some useful embodiments, distal portion 644 and intermediate portion

645 may be dimensioned and configured to be received in the anterior chamber of the eye.

[0170] In some instances, it may be desirable to place the ocular implant 650 during another ocular procedure, such as, but not limited to cataract surgery. It is contemplated that the optimal position for an incision for cataract surgery may not be the same as the optimal position of an incision for solely placing an ocular implant, such as implant 650, into Schlemm's canal. With previous ocular implant delivery system designs, in order to allow for substantially tangential entry of the cannula into Schlemm's canal two separate incisions may be required when the implant is placed in combination with another ocular procedure. The curved configuration of both the distal portion 644 may be configured to allow for substantially tangential entry of the cannula 608 into Schlemm's canal. It is further contemplated that the curved configuration of the intermediate portion 645 may allow the cannula 608 to be advanced through typical incisions associated with and/or optimized for cataract surgery, such as, but not limited to, a sclerocorneal tunnel incision, while still allowing for substantially tangential entry of the cannula 608 into Schlemm's canal. This may allow for two or more ocular procedures to be performed using a single incision. It is further contemplated that performing multiple procedures through a single incision may reduce patient discomfort and recovery time. Figure 25B shows delivery tool 652 of delivery system 600 extending through distal opening 632 of cannula 608. Delivery tool 652 includes an interlocking portion 660 that is configured to form a connection with a complementary interlocking portion 662 of ocular implant 650, as explained in more detail below. In the embodiment of Figure 25, rotating the tracking wheel will cause delivery tool 652 and ocular implant 650 to move along a path defined by cannula 608. Cannula 608 is sized and configured so that the distal end of cannula 608 can be advanced through the trabecular meshwork of the eye and into Schlemm's canal. Positioning cannula 608 in this way places distal opening 632 in fluid communication with Schlemm's canal. Ocular implant 650 may be placed in Schlemm's canal by advancing the ocular implant through distal opening 632 of cannula 608 while the distal opening is in fluid communication with Schlemm's canal. The distal portion of the cannula 608 may include a cutting portion configured to cut through the trabecular meshwork and the wall of Schlemm's canal, such as by providing distal end 634 with a sharp edge adapted to cut through such tissue.

[0171] Figure 26 is an enlarged perspective view further illustrating delivery system 600 shown in the previous figure and an eye 601 . In Figure 26, cannula 608 of delivery system 600 is shown extending through a cornea 603 of eye 601 . A distal portion of cannula 608 is disposed inside the anterior chamber defined by cornea 603 of eye 601 . In the embodiment of Figure 26, cannula 608 is configured so that a distal opening 632 of cannula 608 can be placed in fluid communication with Schlemm's canal. For example, distal portion 644 and intermediate portion 645 of cannula 608 may be dimensioned and configured such that cannula 608 may be advanced through an incision 607 created for another optical surgical procedure.

[0172] In the embodiment of Figure 26, an ocular implant is disposed in a passageway defined by cannula 608. Delivery system 600 includes a mechanism that is capable of advancing and retracting the ocular implant along the length of cannula 608. The ocular implant may be placed in Schlemm's canal of eye 601 by advancing the ocular implant through the distal opening of cannula 608 while the distal opening is in fluid communication with Schlemm's canal.

[0173] Figure 27 is a perspective view further illustrating delivery system 600 shown in the previous figure. In Figure 27, a portion of housing 602 has been removed for purposes of illustration. Delivery system 600 includes a delivery tool subassembly 670 and a cannula subassembly 680. Delivery tool subassembly 670 includes rotating rack gear 620 and a delivery tool (not shown). In the embodiment of Figure 27, the delivery tool extends into a passageway defined by a cannula 608. Cannula 608 can be seen extending beyond sleeve 604 in Figure 27. Cannula subassembly 680 includes cannula 608, a hub 672, and an extension tube (not shown). In the embodiment of Figure 27, the extension tube of cannula subassembly 680 is disposed inside a lumen defined by rotating rack gear 620.

[0174] Delivery system 600 includes a mechanism 617 that controls the movement of delivery tool subassembly 670. Mechanism 617 includes a number of components that are located inside housing 602, including tracking wheel 606, an idler gear 622, and the rotating rack gear 620. In the embodiment of Figure 27, tracking wheel 606 and idler gear 622 are both rotatably supported by housing 602. Gear teeth on tracking wheel 606 engage gear teeth on idler gear 622, which in turn engage gear teeth on the rotating rack gear 620. Rotating tracking wheel 606 in a counter clockwise direction CCW causes idler gear 622 to rotate in a clockwise direction CW, which in turn causes the rotating rack gear 620 to move in a distal direction D. Rotating tracking wheel 606 in a clockwise direction CW causes idler gear 622 to rotate in a counter clockwise direction CCW, which in turn causes the rotating rack gear 620 to move in a proximal direction P. In other embodiments, the idler gear 622 may be eliminated from the device, which would cause counter-clockwise movement of the tracking wheel to move the rack gear proximally.

[0175] In the embodiment of Figure 27, a sleeve 604 is fixed to cannula subassembly 680. Sleeve 604 may be rotated by the user to change the orientation of cannula 608 with respect to housing 602. The sleeve 604 may include gripping features, such as grooves (as shown), a rubber coating, or other frictional surfaces to facilitate this use. In some applications, correct alignment between the cannula and iris is advantageous to ensure that the core tube and/or ocular implant is advanced at the correct trajectory relative to Schlemm's canal oj other anatomy in the eye into which the ocular implant is to be implanted. The device is configured in a manner that keeps the ocular implant aligned within the device during rotation. Selected groups of components are keyed together to ensure that they rotate as a single body while simultaneously allowing axial movement of the ocular implant. In the embodiment of Figure 27, cannula subassembly 680 and delivery tool subassembly 670 may rotate in unison with sleeve 604 relative to housing 602.

[0176] In the embodiment of Figure 27, rotating rack gear 620 is configured to rotate with sleeve 604 while maintaining the ability to move axially in the distal and proximal directions before, during, and after rotation. As the rotating rack gear 620 moves distally and/or proximally, it causes corresponding movement of the delivery tool relative to cannula 608. This movement is transferred to ocular implant 650 when delivery tool 652 is coupled to ocular implant 650. Delivery tool subassembly 670 and cannula subassembly 680 engage one another in a keyed arrangement, as described in more detail below. This keyed arrangement causes delivery tool subassembly 670 and cannula subassembly 680 to maintain a constant rotational orientation relative to each other while, at the same time, allowing delivery tool subassembly 670 to translate in a distal direction D and a proximal direction P relative to cannula subassembly 680.

[0177] In some embodiments, delivery tool 652 is formed from shape memory material (such as, e.g., nitinol), and at least a portion of delivery tool 652 assumes a curved at-rest shape when no external forces are acting on it. Delivery tool 652 can be urged to assume a straightened shape, for example, by inserting delivery tool 652 through a straight portion of the passageway defined by cannula 608. When the delivery tool 652 is confined, such as within cannula 608, the interlocking portion can engage the complementary interlocking portion to join the delivery tool and ocular implant together, and allow the delivery tool and ocular implant to move together through the cannula 608, as described in more detail below.

[0178] Figures 28, 29, and 30 illustrate more detailed views of cannula 608. Figure 28 is a side view of a cannula 608 in accordance with the present detailed description, Figure 29 is an enlarged detail view of cannula 608, and Figure 30 is an enlarged perspective view further illustrating a portion of distal portion 644 of cannula 608. Cannula 608 comprises a generally tubular member 698 having a central axis 696. Generally, tubular member 698 comprises a proximal end 641 , a proximal portion 640, an intermediate portion 645, a distal portion 644, and a distal end 634. Cannula 608 may extend a distance Dl between proximal end 641 and distal end 634. Tubular member 698 may have a length along central axis 696 that is longer than distance Dl between proximal end 641 and distal end 634. For purposes of example, It is contemplated that distance Dl may be in the range of 1.50 to 3.50 inches (3.81 to 8.89 centimeters), 2.0 to 3.0 inches (5.08 to 7.62 centimeters) or around 2.50 inches (6.35 centimeters). It is contemplated cannula 608 may span any distance Dl desired. Proximal portion 640 may extend over a distance D2 from proximal end 641 to a point 643 distal to proximal end 641. Proximal portion 640 may be generally straight such that distance D2 is approximately equal to or equal to a length of proximal portion 640 measured along central axis 696. Distance D2 may be in the range of 1.50 to 2.50 inches (3.81 to 6.35 centimeters), 1.75 to 2.25 inches (4.652 to 5.72 centimeters), or around 2.0 inches (5.08 centimeters). Intermediate portion 645 may extend between first point 643 and a second point 647 located proximal to distal end 634 of cannula 608. Intermediate portion 645 may span a distance D3 extending from point 643and point 647. Distance D3 may be in the range of 0.15 to 0.50 inches (0.38 to 1.27 centimeters), 0.25 to 0.40 inches (0.64 to 1.02 centimeters), or around 0.33 inches (0.84 centimeters). Intermediate portion 645 may have a length along central axis 696 of tubular member 698 that is longer than distance D3. The difference in the length of intermediate portion 645 and the distance D3 may be determined by the degree of curvature of intermediate portion 645, as will be discussed in more detail below. Distal portion 644 may extend between second point 647 and distal end 634. Distal portion 644 may span a distance D4 extending from point 647 and distal end point 634. Distance D4 may be in the range of 0.05 to 0.30 inches (0.13 to 0.76 centimeters), 0.13 to 0.23 inches (0.33 to 0.58 centimeters), or around 0.17 inches (0.43 centimeters). Distal portion 644 may have a length along central axis 696 of tubular member 698 that is longer than distance D4. The difference in the length of distal portion 644 and the distance D4 may be determined by the degree of curvature of distal portion 644, as will be discussed in more detail below.

[0179] A distal opening surface 642 surrounds a distal opening 632 extending through the distal end 634 and through a side wall of cannula 608. A beveled edge 665 is disposed at the distal end of distal opening surface 642, extending from the distal end 634 to a proximal extent 667 of beveled edge 665. Tubular member 698 defines distal opening 632, a proximal opening 636, and a passageway 638 extending between proximal opening 636 and distal opening 632.

[0180] Proximal portion 640 of cannula 608 is substantially straight while intermediate portion 645 and distal portion 644 of cannula 608 may be curved. In the embodiment of Figure 28, distal portion 644 is curved along its entire length and intermediate portion 645 is curved along its entire length.

Intermediate portion 645 may define a curve having a first radius Rl measured from central axis 696 and defining a first radius of curvature. The length of intermediate portion 645 along central axis 696 may be determined by the measure of the arc (in degrees) and the radius of the curve using Equation 1 below:

Equation 1

where is the length of the arc, Θ is the angle measure of the arc (in degrees), and r is the radius of the circle. In some instances, the angle measure of intermediate portion 645 may be in the range of 10° to 25°, although other angles are possible. Distal portion 644 may define a curve having a second radius R2 and defining a second radius of curvature. The length of distal portion 644 along central axis 696 may be determined by the measure of the arc (in degrees) and the radius of the curve using Equation 1 above. In some instances, the angle measure of distal portion 644 may be in the range of 90° to 1 10°, although other angles are possible. It is contemplated that the first radius Rl may be larger than the second radius R2 such that the distal portion 644 has a higher curvature than the intermediate portion 645. This configuration may advance the ocular implant at the correct trajectory relative to Schlemm's canal or other anatomy in the eye into which the ocular implant is to be implanted. For example, the configuration may allow the cannula 608 to be advanced through an incision generally along a major axis of the visible eye and allowing for substantially tangential entry of cannula 608 into Schlemm's canal. It is contemplated that first radius Rl and second radius R2 may be selected to facilitate delivery of implant 650 to other anatomical locations.

[0181] Figure 28A is an additional side view and illustrates a sectioned view of the cannula shown in Figure 25. For purposes of example, cannula 608 comprises a generally tubular member 698 having a central axis 696. Generally tubular member 698 comprises a proximal end 641 , a proximal portion 640, an intermediate portion 645, a distal portion 644, and a distal end 634. Additionally, for example, the central axis 696 of proximal portion 640 is tangential to the tangential line at first point 643 of intermediate portion 645. Further, the tangential line at second point 647 of intermediate portion 645 is tangential to the tangential line of the second point 647 of distal portion 644. The tangential line at distal example, having an angle approximately in the range of 90° to 165°.

[0182] A method in accordance with this detailed description may include the step of advancing the distal end 634 of cannula 608 through the cornea of a human eye so that distal end 634 is disposed in the anterior chamber of the eye. Cannula 608 may then be used to access Schlemm's canal of the eye, for example, by piercing the wall of Schlemm's canal with the distal end 634 of cannula 608. The beveled edge 665 may be inserted into Schlemm's canal to place at least part of distal opening 632 of cannula 608 in communication with Schlemm's canal. For example, cannula 608 may be advanced until the distal tip 634 and beveled edge 665 of cannula 608 have been inserted into Schlemm's canal up to the proximal extent 667 of beveled edge 665. With the passageway of the cannula 608 placed in fluid communication with the lumen of Schlemm's canal, the ocular implant may be advanced out of a distal port of the cannula 608 and into Schlemm's canal.

[0183] In the embodiment of Figure 29 and further illustrated in Figure 30, distal portion 644 of cannula 608 defines a trough 654. In some embodiments, trough 654 is configured to receive the entire external cross section of an ocular implant as the ocular implant is being advanced into Schlemm's canal. When this is the case, trough 654 may have a depth dimension that is deeper than a width of the ocular implant. This cannula configuration advantageously prevents the ocular implant from intersecting the layers of the trabecular meshwork as the ocular implant is advanced into Schlemm's canal. Trough 654 may also be configured to allow the proximal portion of the ocular implant to be released from the delivery tool in a manner similar to trough 554 described above.

[0184] Referring briefly to Figure 25B, while not explicitly shown, during advancement of ocular implant 650 interlocking portion 660 of delivery tool 652 and complementary interlocking portion 662 of ocular implant 650 may be engaged with each other so that a proximal end of ocular implant 650 is proximal to the distal end of delivery tool 652. Surface 661 of delivery tool 652 rests against the wall of cannula 608 to prevent interlocking portion 660 of delivery tool 652 and complementary interlocking portion 662 of ocular implant 650 from disengaging one another. When they are connected in this fashion, delivery tool 652 and ocular implant 650 move together as the delivery tool is advanced and retracted relative to cannula 608 by the delivery system mechanism. In some embodiments, the ocular implant 650 has a radius of curvature that is larger than the radius of curvature of the distal portion 644 of cannula 608. This arrangement ensures that the ocular implant will track along trough 654 as the ocular implant is urged in a distal direction by delivery system 600.

[0185] Once cannula 608 has been positioned in the desired location, ocular implant 650 may be advanced distally while cannula 608 is held stationary. Elongate opening 632 may provide direct visualization of ocular implant 650 as it is advanced into Schlemm's canal. A configuration allowing direct visualization of the ocular implant has a number of clinical advantages. During a medical procedure, it is often difficult to monitor the progress of the implant by viewing the implant through the trabecular meshwork. For example, blood reflux may push blood into Schlemm's canal obstructing a physician's view the portion of the implant that has entered Schlemm's canal. Ocular implant 650 tracks

- 34 - along trough 654 as it is advanced distally along cannula 608. The trough opening allows the physician to monitor the progress of the implant by viewing the implant structures as they advance through the trough prior to entering Schlemm's canal. The trough opening also allows the physician to identify the position of the proximal end of the ocular implant with respect to the incision made by the cannula to access Schlemm's canal.

[0186] Delivery tool 652 may advance ocular implant 650 distally until delivery tool surface 661 and part of the reduced diameter portion 663 have now passed into opening 632, thereby permitting the delivery tool curved portion to move toward its curved at-rest shape so that the delivery tool engagement surface 660 disengages and moves away from its complementary engagement surface 662 on the ocular implant 650. After the disengaging from the ocular implant, cannula 608 and delivery tool 652 can be withdrawn from Schlemm's canal leaving the ocular implant 650 in the fully deployed position. After delivery of ocular implant 650 is complete, the delivery tool 652 and the cannula 608 may be removed from the eye, leaving at least a distal portion of the ocular implant 650 in Schlemm's canal. An inlet portion of ocular implant 650 may be positioned in the anterior chamber of the eye and the remainder of ocular implant 650 in Schlemm's canal. The presence of ocular implant 650 in Schlemm's canal may facilitate the flow of aqueous humor out of the anterior chamber. This flow may include axial flow along Schlemm's canal, flow from the anterior chamber into Schlemm's canal, and flow leaving Schlemm's canal via outlets communicating with Schlemm's canal. When in place within the eye, ocular implant 650 will support the trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal tissue and will provide for improved communication between the anterior chamber and Schlemm's canal (via the trabecular meshwork) and between pockets or compartments along Schlemm's canal.

[0187] The cannula 608 may further include a pressure sensor 690 disposed within the trough 654. The pressure sensor 690 may be similar in form and function to pressure sensor 180 described above. While the pressure sensor 690 is illustrated as mounted within the trough 654 of the cannula, it is contemplated that the pressure sensor 690 may be mounted at other locations within or on the cannula 608. The pressure sensor 690 may provide an instantaneous pressure reading during implantation of the ocular implant 650 or shortly thereafter. In some instances, the pressure reading obtained from the pressure sensor 690 on the cannula 608 can be compared to a pressure reading obtained from a pressure sensor mounted on the ocular implant 650, if so provided.

[0188] The pressure sensor 690 may be a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) pressure sensor. While the pressure sensor 690 has been described as a MEMS pressure sensor, it is contemplated that other pressure sensors may be used in place of, or in addition to, a MEMS pressure sensor. Further, while only a single pressure sensor 690 has been illustrated, the cannula 608 may include more than one pressure sensor 690, as desired. MEMS pressure sensors are often formed by anisotropically etching a recess into a back side of a silicon substrate die, leaving a thin flexible diaphragm. In operation, at least one surface of the diaphragm is exposed to an input pressure (e.g., the ocular pressure). The diaphragm deflects according to the magnitude of the input pressure, which may be detected by one or more electrical components or sense elements (e.g., piezoresistors) positioned on or embedded within the diaphragm. The change in resistance of the piezoresistors is reflected as a change in an output voltage signal from a resistive bridge formed at least in part by the piezoresistors. In some cases, the diaphragm may be made thinner with the addition of support bosses, which may help increase the sensitivity of the diaphragm over a flat plate diaphragm. Circuit elements may be connected so that sensor elements to provide some level of signal processing before providing an output signal to bond pads of the pressure sensor. The signal processing may filter, amplify, linearize, calibrate and/or otherwise process the raw sensor signal produced by the sensor elements (e.g., piezoresistors). While the sense elements have been described as piezoresistors, it is contemplated that the sense elements may be selected to provide a capacitive pressure sensor 690.

[0189] The pressure sensor 690 may be further provided with an antenna or inductor to allow the data from the pressure sensor 690 to be wirelessly communicated to a readout device. In some instances, the pressure sensor 690 may use radiofrequency communication protocols, such as, but not limited to cellular communication, ZigBee®, Bluetooth®, WiFi®, IrDA, dedicated short range communication (DSRC), EnOcean ®, or any other suitable wireless protocols, as desired to transmit the data from the pressure sensor 690 to another device located outside the body. The data may be transmitted to any number so suitably enabled devices, including, but not limited to, cellular phones, tablet computers, computers, portable handheld devices, such a personal digital assistant (PDA), or a specially designed device. This may allow a physician, patient, or other interested party to monitor the ocular pressure without the use of a tonometer.

[0190] An ocular implant, such as any of those described above, may lower the intraocular pressure from its initial, or pretreatment, pressure to a second pressure. The second pressure may be lower than the initial or first pressure. For example, the second pressure may be in the range of 65% to 95% of the initial pressure or in the range of 75% to 85% of the initial pressure. The second intraocular pressure may be within the range of 20 to 30 mm Hg or 23 to 28 mm Hg. These ranges are just examples. The ocular implant may lower the intraocular pressure from the initial pressure to a value above 30 mm Hg or below 20 mm Hg.

[0191] In some instances, the intraocular pressure of a patient may need to be lowered beyond the capabilities of an ocular implant, such as any of those described above. In such instances, it may be desirable to administer a therapeutic drug in combination with deploying an ocular implant, such as implant 100, within a portion of Schlemm's canal. The therapeutic agent may be any agent that may be used to reduce intraocular pressure. Some categories of drug therapy for glaucoma may include but are not limited to: (1 ) Miotics (e.g., pilocarpine, carbachol, and ace- tylcholinesterase inhibitors), (2) Sympathomimetics (e.g., epinephrine and dipivalylepinephxine), (3) Beta-blockers (e.g., betaxolol, levobunolol and timolol), (4) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g., acetazolamide, methazolamide and ethoxzolamide), (5) Prostaglandins (e.g., metabolite derivatives of arachidonic acid), and (6) Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors. The Rho family consists of three small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (RhoA, RhoB, RhoC), which regulate aspects of cell shape, motility, proliferation, and apoptosis throughout the body. ROCK inhibitors may work by relaxing the trabecular meshwork through inhibition of the actin cytoskeleton contractile tone of smooth muscle. This may result in increased aqueous outflow directly through the trabecular meshwork, achieving lower intraocular pressures in a range similar to prostaglandins. In some instances, ROCK inhibitors may improve blood flow to the optic nerve, increase ganglion cell survival, and reduce bleb scarring in glaucoma surgery. It is contemplated that other therapeutic agents, such as those described with respect to Figure 2B, may also be administered in combination with the delivery of an ocular implant.

[0192] The therapeutic agent may be administered to a patient before or after the implantation of the ocular implant, as desired. When administered after the implantation of an ocular implant, the therapeutic agent may further lower the intraocular pressure from the second pressure (which is lower than the initial pressure) to a third pressure lower than both the initial pressure and the second pressure. For example, the second pressure may be in the range of 65% to 95% of the second pressure (e.g., the lower pressure resulting from the delivery of the ocular implant) or in the range of 75% to 85% of the second pressure. The second intraocular pressure may be within the range of 13 to 23 mm Hg or 15 to 20 mm Hg. These ranges are just examples. The ocular implant may lower the intraocular pressure from the initial pressure to a value above 23 mm Hg or below 15 mm Hg.

[0193] Figure 31 is a schematic illustration of a kit 700 which may include a delivery device 702, ocular implant 704, and a therapeutic agent 706. The ocular implant 706 may be any of the ocular implants described above. The delivery device 704 may be a delivery system such as any of those described above. The delivery device 704 may include a cannula, such as cannulas 452 or 508, and a delivery tool, such as delivery tool 552. Reference to specific embodiments is intended for illustrative purposes only and is not intended to limit the component of kit 700 to any particular embodiment. The therapeutic agent 706 may be a drug intended for the treatment of glaucoma including, but not limited to: (1 ) Miotics (e.g., pilocarpine, carbachol, and ace- tylcholinesterase inhibitors), (2) Sympathomimetics (e.g., epinephrine and dipivalylepinephxine), (3) Beta-blockers (e.g., betaxolol, levobunolol and timolol), (4) Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g., acetazolamide, methazolamide and ethoxzolamide), (5)

Prostaglandins (e.g., metabolite derivatives of arachidonic acid), and (6) Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors. The therapeutic agent 706 may be provided with a delivery device, such as but not limited to, an eye dropper, syringe, needle, etc. However, if the therapeutic agent is intended for oral delivery, a drug delivery device may not be necessary. While the therapeutic agent 706 is illustrated as a separate component of the kit 700, it is contemplated that the therapeutic agent 706 may be provided as a part of the delivery device 702 and/or implant 704 (e.g., such as a drug eluting coating disposed on a surface of the implant).

[0194] Components of ocular device may be made from a metal, metal alloy, polymer (some examples of which are disclosed below), a metal-polymer composite, ceramics, combinations thereof, and the like, or other suitable material. Some examples of suitable polymers may include

polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP), polyoxymethylene (POM, for example, DELRIN® available from DuPont), polyether block ester, polyurethane (for example, Polyurethane 85A), polypropylene (PP), polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyether- ester (for example, ARNITEL® available from DSM Engineering Plastics), ether or ester based copolymers (for example, utylene/poly(alkylene ether) phthalate and/or other polyester elastomers such as HYTREL® available from DuPont), polyamide (for example, DURETHAN® available from Bayer or CRISTAMID® available from Elf Atochem), elastomeric polyamides, block polyamide/ethers, polyether block amide (PEBA, for example available under the trade name PEBAX®), ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA), silicones, polyethylene (PE), Marlex high-density polyethylene, Marlex low-density polyethylene, linear low density polyethylene (for example REXELL®), polyester, polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytrimethylene terephthalate, polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyimide (PI), polyetherimide (PEI), polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyphenylene oxide (PPO), poly paraphenylene terephthalamide (for example,

KEVLAR®), polysulfone, nylon, nylon- 12 (such as GRILAMID® available from EMS American Grilon), perfluoro(propyl vinyl ether) (PFA), ethylene vinyl alcohol, polyolefin, polystyrene, epoxy, polyvinylidene chloride (PVdC), poly(styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) (for example, SIBS and/or SIBS 50A), polycarbonates, ionomers, biocompatible polymers, other suitable materials, or mixtures, combinations, copolymers thereof, polymer/metal composites, and the like. In some embodiments the sheath can be blended with a liquid crystal polymer (LCP). For example, the mixture can contain up to about 6 percent LCP.

[0195] Some examples of suitable metals and metal alloys include stainless steel, such as 304V, 304L, and 316LV stainless steel; mild steel; nickel-titanium alloy such as linear-elastic and/or super- elastic nitinol; other nickel alloys such as nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys (e.g., UNS: N06625 such as INCONEL® 625, UNS: N06022 such as HASTELLOY® C-22®, UNS: N10276 such as

HASTELLOY® C276®, other HASTELLOY® alloys, and the like), nickel-copper alloys (e.g., UNS: N04400 such as MONEL® 400, NICKELVAC® 400, NICORROS® 400, and the like), nickel-cobalt- chromium-molybdenum alloys (e.g., UNS: R30035 such as MP35-N® and the like), nickel-molybdenum alloys (e.g., UNS: N10665 such as HASTELLOY® ALLOY B2®), other nickel-chromium alloys, other nickel-molybdenum alloys, other nickel-cobalt alloys, other nickel-iron alloys, other nickel-copper alloys, other nickel-tungsten or tungsten alloys, and the like; cobalt-chromium alloys; cobalt-chromium- molybdenum alloys (e.g., UNS: R30003 such as ELGILOY®, PHYNOX®, and the like); platinum enriched stainless steel; titanium; combinations thereof; and the like; or any other suitable material.

[0196] As alluded to herein, within the family of commercially available nickel-titanium or nitinol alloys, is a category designated "linear elastic" or "non-super-elastic" which, although may be similar in chemistry to conventional shape memory and super elastic varieties, may exhibit distinct and useful mechanical properties. Linear elastic and/or non-super-elastic nitinol may be distinguished from super elastic nitinol in that the linear elastic and/or non-super-elastic nitinol does not display a substantial "superelastic plateau" or "flag region" in its stress/strain curve like super elastic nitinol does. Instead, in the linear elastic and/or non-super-elastic nitinol, as recoverable strain increases, the stress continues to increase in a substantially linear, or a somewhat, but not necessarily entirely linear relationship until plastic deformation begins or at least in a relationship that is more linear that the super elastic plateau and/or flag region that may be seen with super elastic nitinol. Thus, for the purposes of this disclosure linear elastic and/or non-super-elastic nitinol may also be termed "substantially" linear elastic and/or non- super-elastic nitinol.

[0197] In some cases, linear elastic and/or non-super-elastic nitinol may also be distinguishable from super elastic nitinol in that linear elastic and/or non-super-elastic nitinol may accept up to about 2-5% strain while remaining substantially elastic (e.g., before plastically deforming) whereas super elastic nitinol may accept up to about 8% strain before plastically deforming. Both of these materials can be distinguished from other linear elastic materials such as stainless steel (that can also can be distinguished based on its composition), which may accept only about 0.2 to 0.44 percent strain before plastically deforming.

[0198] In some embodiments, the linear elastic and/or non-super-elastic nickel-titanium alloy is an alloy that does not show any martensite/austenite phase changes that are detectable by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic metal thermal analysis (DMTA) analysis over a large temperature range. For example, in some embodiments, there may be no martensite/austenite phase changes detectable by DSC and DMTA analysis in the range of about -60 degrees Celsius (°C) to about 120 °C in the linear elastic and/or non-super-elastic nickel-titanium alloy. The mechanical bending properties of such material may therefore be generally inert to the effect of temperature over this very broad range of temperature. In some embodiments, the mechanical bending properties of the linear elastic and/or non-super-elastic nickel-titanium alloy at ambient or room temperature are substantially the same as the mechanical properties at body temperature, for example, in that they do not display a super- elastic plateau and/or flag region. In other words, across a broad temperature range, the linear elastic and/or non-super-elastic nickel-titanium alloy maintains its linear elastic and/or non-super-elastic characteristics and/or properties.

[0199] In some embodiments, the linear elastic and/or non-super-elastic nickel-titanium alloy may be in the range of about 50 to about 60 weight percent nickel, with the remainder being essentially titanium.

In some embodiments, the composition is in the range of about 54 to about 57 weight percent nickel. One example of a suitable nickel-titanium alloy is FHP-NT alloy commercially available from Furukawa

Techno Material Co. of Kanagawa, Japan. Some examples of nickel titanium alloys are disclosed in U.S.

Patent Nos. 5,238,004 and 6,508,803, which are incorporated herein by reference. Other suitable materials may include ULTANIUM™ (available from Neo-Metrics) and GUM METAL™ (available from Toyota). In some other embodiments, a superelastic alloy, for example a superelastic nitinol can be used to achieve desired properties.

[0200] This application is related to U.S. Patent No. 7,740,604, issued June 22, 2010, and also U.S. Application No. 62/1 10,293, filed January 30, 2015, the disclosures of which are incorporated by reference as if fully set forth herein.

[0201] It is to be understood that even though numerous characteristics of various embodiments have been set forth in the foregoing description, together with details of the structure and function of various embodiments, this detailed description is illustrative only, and changes may be made in detail, especially in matters of structure and arrangements of parts illustrated by the various embodiments to the full extent indicated by the broad general meaning of the terms in which the appended claims are expressed.