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Title:
ONE STEP ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF PURE RUTILE TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANONEEDLES
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2010/079515
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A one step, room temperature, electrochemical process for the synthesis of rutile titanium dioxide nanoneedles with high aspect ratio is disclosed herein.

Inventors:
HYAM, Rajeshkumar, Shankar (National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha RoadPune 8, Maharashtra, 411 00, IN)
BHOSALE, Reshma, Kanta (National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha RoadPune 8, Maharashtra, 411 00, IN)
OGALE, Satishchandra, Balkrishna (National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha RoadPune 8, Maharashtra, 411 00, IN)
Application Number:
IN2010/000022
Publication Date:
July 15, 2010
Filing Date:
January 12, 2010
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
COUNCIL OF SCIENTIFIC & INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH (Anusandhan Bhawan, 2 Rafi Marg, New Delhi 1, 110 00, IN)
HYAM, Rajeshkumar, Shankar (National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha RoadPune 8, Maharashtra, 411 00, IN)
BHOSALE, Reshma, Kanta (National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha RoadPune 8, Maharashtra, 411 00, IN)
OGALE, Satishchandra, Balkrishna (National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha RoadPune 8, Maharashtra, 411 00, IN)
International Classes:
C01G23/047; C01G23/053; C25D1/00
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DHAWAN, Ramesh, Chander (Lall Lahiri & Salhotra, Plot No. B-28 Sector-32, Institutional Area,Gurgaon 1, Haryana, 122 00, IN)
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Claims:
We claim:

1. A one step electrochemical process for the synthesis of pure rutile titanium dioxide nanoneedles with high aspect ratio at room temperature, wherein the said process comprising the steps of :

a. maintaining a bath of a solution of mineral acid in water at room temperature ranging from 20-30 0C, wherein the cathode is a noble metal and the anode is Ti;

b. applying electric voltages of the order of 8-30 volts between the two electrodes of step (a) stationed at about 1-2 cms apart, resulting in the instantaneous evolution of hydrogen gas at cathode and anodic dissolution of Ti into pure rutile TiO2 nanoneedles in the bath ;

c. washing the nanoneedles as obtained in step (b) and air-drying at ambient temperature ranging between 20-30 0C to obtain rutile titanium dioxide nanoneedles with aspect ratio greater than 10.

2. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein noble metal used for cathode in step (a) is platinum.

3. A process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein mineral acid used in step (a) is HClO4

4. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the concentration of the acid solution in step (a) is to maintain pH below 2.

5. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein Ti anode used in step (a) is selected from the group wire, foil, plate and rod.

6. A process as claimed in claims 1, Ti anode used in step (a) is a foil.

7. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein current density in the foil surface is in the range of 80- 120 m Amps/cm2 for rutile phase titanium dioxide nanoneedles formation.

8. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein thickness of Ti anode foil is at least 0.5 mm.

Description:
'One step Electrochemical Process for the Synthesis of Pure Rutile Titanium dioxide Nanoneedles"

Field of the Invention:

The invention relates to a one step electrochemical process for the synthesis of pure rutile titanium dioxide nanoneedles with high aspect ratio at room temperature. Further the invention relates to a room temperature process for the synthesis of rutile titanium dioxide nanoneedles.

Background and prior art:

Titanium dioxide occurs in nature as rutile, anatase and brookite. Rutile titanium dioxide is widely used as ultraviolet protecting agent, optical coatings, beam splitters and anti- reflection coatings. It can also be used as a humidity sensor and as high-temperature oxygen sensor.

A variety of synthetic procedures have been documented for control on the phase formation and morphology of TiO 2 nanoparticles. Usually, these synthetic routes lead to mixture of anatase and rutile polymorphs.

Rutile TiO 2 powders are conventionally obtained by phase transformation of anatase to rutile at more than 450 0 C or by flame oxidation of TiCl 4 . These methods result in larger titania particles with lower surface/volume ratio. The alternative to control the phase and size of rutile titania particles involves the use of a precursor along with other mineralizers and inorganic additives, like SnCl 4 , NH 4 Cl, NaCl or SnO 2 that are difficult to remove and have an undesirable influence in several applications. Controlled synthesis of crystalline rutile nano-TiO 2 without using any inorganic additives require higher temperatures, which result in an increase in crystallite size. Low-temperature preparation of nano-rutile TiO 2 with higher specific surface area is possible under acidic conditions by hydrothermal synthesis route. But, this process is extremely time consuming, requiring about two-three days with poor yields. WO2008127508 titled "Titania Nanotubes Prepared By Anodization In Chloride-Containing Electrolytes" by Northeastern University dated 23.10.2008; discloses a method of preparing titania nanotubes on the surface of Ti foil leading to rapid production of titania nanotubes of about 25 nm diameter and high aspect ratio, which can be organized into bundles and tightly packed parallel arrays. This application discloses use of Ti foil as anode and platinum rod as cathode with an electrolyte solution consisting of chloride ions and the reaction is carried out at room temperature with a pH ranging 1 to 7. But Ex. 4 refers to the X-ray diffraction of TiO 2 nanotubes, wherein the as-synthesized samples were amorphous prior to annealing and the annealed samples were predominantly anatase with traces of rutile.

Nakayam et al in "Anodic formation of high aspect ratio titania nanotubes", ECS Meeting Abstracts 502, 819(2006) reported an anodization process for the preparation of anatase TiO 2 , the material formed by the Nakayama et al process was nanotubes. The nanotubes were formed on the surface of Ti foils.

Juha-Pekka et al in an article titled "The effect of acidity in low-temperature synthesis of titanium dioxide" in Journal of crystal growth 2007, Volume 34, No 1, 179-183 disclose preparation of crystalline titanium dioxide powders by the modified alkoxide method of low temperature. They further state that lower acidity promotes anatase phase, while in case of higher amount of acid the final phase form is rutile.

Aruna et al.in Journal of Materials Science 2000, 10, 2388-2391 and Zhang et al. in Langmuir 2003, 19, 961 -91 \ titled "Preparation of Oxide Nanocrystals with Tunable Morphologies by the Moderate Hydrothermal Method: Insights from Rutile" prepared nanosize rutile titania by hydrothermal and thermal hydrolysis of titanium(IV) isopropoxide (Ti[OCH(CHs) 2 ]) and titanium(IV) chloride (TiCl 4 ) respectively.

Pedraza et al. in Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 60 (1999) 445^448 showed room temperature preparation of high surface area rutile TiO 2 using TiCl 3 in O 2 . But the processes followed by Aruna et al and Pedraza et al led to formation of spherical or irregularly shaped rutile titania nanoparticles. Amorphous precipitates of rutile titania nanocrystals have been obtained by hydrothermal treatment or peptization of titanium alkoxide at 433-573 K. Keisuke Nakayam et. al. in Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 11 (3) C23-C26 (2008) have disclosed an anodization process for the preparation Of TiO 2 , which resulted in anatase TiO 2 as nanotubes.

Thus we observe that prior art processes to prepare rutile titania are spontaneous, with little or no control on morphology, unless templates are employed. Further, the results of the prior art processes is a mixture of spherical, broom like, or rod-shaped rutile titania. Also, the separation of nanocrystals of any particular morphology from the others is very tedious. Further no prior art process disclose a single-step room temperature process to synthesize rutile titania nanoneedles. Also, the prior art processes suffer from the drawback of having to conduct processes above room temperature, about 50 0 C.

Therefore there exists a need from prior art review to evolve a simple, preferably single step process for the synthesis of rutile titanium dioxide at room temperature. There also exists a need to evolve a process for the synthesis of TiO 2 with control on morphology.

Also, there exists a need to synthesize rutile titanium dioxide nanoneedles by a simple process that is carried out at room temperature, which results in nanoneedles of high aspect ratios (ratio of length to diameter).

Summary of the invention:

Accordingly, the present invention provides a one step electrochemical process for the synthesis of pure rutile titanium dioxide nanoneedles with high aspect ratio at room temperature. The process involves application of electric field between a cathode made of noble metal and Ti as anode within a bath comprising of acid and water of desired pH. The nanoneedles of rutile TiO 2 are formed by the dissolution of Ti anode. The aspect ratio of the nanoneedles is greater than 10.

In an embodiment, a one step electrochemical process for the synthesis of pure rutile titanium dioxide nanoneedles with high aspect ratio at room temperature, wherein the said process comprising the steps of : a. maintaining a bath of a solution of mineral acid in water at temperature ranging from 20-30 0 C, wherein the cathode is a noble metal and the anotle is Ti;

b. applying electric voltages of the order of 8-30 volts between the two electrodes of step (a) stationed at about 1-2 cms apart, resulting in the instantaneous evolution of hydrogen gas at cathode and anodic dissolution of Ti into pure rutile TiO 2 nanoneedles in the bath ;

c. washing the nanoneedles as obtained in step (b) and air-drying at ambient temperature ranging between 20-30 0 C to obtain rutile titanium dioxide nanoneedles with aspect ratio greater than 10.

In yet another embodiment, a process as claimed in claim 1, wherein noble metal used for cathode in step (a) is platinum.

In yet another embodiment, a process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein mineral acid used in step (a) is HClO 4

In yet another embodiment, a process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein pH of the acid solution is below 2.

In yet another embodiment, a process as claimed in claim 1 , wherein Ti anode used in step (a) is selected from the group wire, foil, plate and rod.

In yet another embodiment, a process as claimed in claims 1 , Ti anode used in step (a) is a foil.

In yet another embodiment, a process as claimed in claim 1, wherein current density in the foil surface is in the range of 80-120 mAmps/cm 2 for rutile phase titanium dioxide nanoneedles formation.

In yet another embodiment, a process as claimed in claim 1, wherein thickness of Ti anode foil is at least 0.5 mm.

Description of drawings:

Figure 1 shows the XRD for phase pure rutile TiO 2 nanoneedles. Figure 2 shows HR-TEM (High Resolution- Transmission Electron Microscopy) picture of as synthesized rutile TiO 2 nanoneedles.

Figure 3 shows HR-TEM. The interplanar spacing was compared with standard PCPDFWIN data 211276 and matches with the 110 plane of rutile TiO 2

Figure 4 shows the SAED pattern of the room temperature synthesized rutile TiO2 nanoneedle powder. The diffraction rings are matching with that of rutile TiO 2 ( PCPDFWIN data 211276).

Detailed Description of Invention:

In order to achieve the objectives of the invention, a one step, room temperature electrochemical process for the synthesis of rutile titanium dioxide nanoneedles with high aspect ratio is disclosed herein.

The one step room temperature electrochemical process for the synthesis of rutile titanium dioxide nanoneedles with high aspect ratio comprises: a) maintaining a bath of a solution of mineral acid in water at temperature ranging from

20-30 deg C, wherein the cathode is a noble metal and the anode is Ti;

b) applying electric voltages of the order of 8-30 volts between the two electrodes of step (a) stationed at about 1 -2 cms apart, resulting in the instantaneous evolution of hydrogen gas at cathode and anodic dissolution of Ti into rutile TiO 2 nanoneedles in the bath and

c) washing the nanoneedles of step (b) and air-drying at ambient temperature to obtain rutile titanium dioxide nanoneedles of the invention with high aspect ratio.

The concentration of the acid solution is such that the pH is below 2. The mineral acid of the invention is HClO 4 . The cathode of the process of the invention is selected from the group comprising of noble metals with high conductivity, preferably platinum.

Ti is in a physical form selected from wire, foil, plate, rod and such like, preferably foil. The Ti used is phase pure and preferably of a thickness of at least 0.5 mm. The current density in the foil surface is 80-i20 mAmps/cm 2 for rutile phase formation.

The aspect ratio of greater than 10 for the rutile nanoneedles of TiO 2 is as seen from HR- TEM, figure 3.

The rutile nanoneedles of high aspect ratio formed by the room temperature electrochemical process of the invention are characterized herein by XRD and HR-TEM as seen in figures 1 - 3.

The TiO 2 is characterized by XRD data of -Figure 1 and HRTEM images in figures 3 and 4.

The nanoneedles of the invention are seen in HR-TEM-image of figures 2 and 3.

The XRD data of figure 1 confirms the phase purity of rutile nanoneedles of titanium dioxide, as is further evident from figures 2 and 3.

Example

Maintaining an anodizing bath of a solution of 3.5 ml Of HClO 4 in 30 ml water at 25 deg C. Platinum was used as cathode and Titanium foil as anode and the distance between the foils was 1 cm. Applying electric voltages of the order of 8 volt between the two electrodes, resulting in the instantaneous evolution of hydrogen gas at cathode and anodic dissolution of Ti into rutile TiO 2 nanoneedles in the bath and washing the nanoneedles and air-drying at ambient temperature to obtain rutile titanium dioxide nanoneedles. Advantages of the present invention

1. The present invention provides an electrochemical process for the synthesis of rutile TiO 2 nanoneedles in one step only.

2. In the present invention pure rutile TiO 2 is formed.

3. No intermediate amorphous powder or anatase phase is formed and hence does not require any heat treatment to form rutile TiO 2 which reduces the time for synthesis and cost too.

4. The present invention has given significant improvement in the synthesis routes for phase pure rutile TiO 2 synthesis which will make it easier, cheaper and will take less time for its large scale synthesis to fullfill its ever increasing demands for applications such as photocatalysis and biomedicine etc.