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Title:
OPEN THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE UTILIZING SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE WITHOUT COMPRESSORS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/083684
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention is directed to methods and systems for utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide in an open thermodynamic cycle in which no compressors are used. In some embodiments, a method for utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide includes combusting oxygen, fuel, and heated recycled supercritical carbon dioxide to produce a gas that is fed to a turbine to generate power; using the exhaust gas from the turbine to preheat the recycled supercritical carbon dioxide that is fed to the turbine; and pass the exhaust gas through a series of two sets of condensers and separators to provide a carbon dioxide stream from which the recycled supercritical carbon dioxide is generated using a pump. Power for the pump is provided by the turbine, which also provides power to an electric generator.

Inventors:
SMOGORZEWSKI, Stan, Andy (3050 Rue Dorleans Unit 296, San Diego, CA, 92110, US)
Application Number:
US2016/061582
Publication Date:
May 18, 2017
Filing Date:
November 11, 2016
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
NEW FG CO, LLC (140 South Lake Avenue, Suite 304Pasadena, CA, 91101, US)
International Classes:
F02C3/00; F01K25/00; F02C3/04; F02C3/36; F02C7/14; F03G7/00
Foreign References:
US4498289A1985-02-12
US20110226010A12011-09-22
US20120090352A12012-04-19
US20160010551A12016-01-14
Other References:
ALLAM ET AL.: "High efficiency and low cost of electricity generation from fossil fuels while eliminating atmospheric emissions, including carbon dioxide", ENERGY PROCEDIA, vol. 37, 5 August 2013 (2013-08-05), pages 1135 - 1149, XP055380459
RICHARD DENNIS: "US DOE FE Advanced Turbine Program: Suggested Next Steps for UTSR", 2014 UTSR WORKSHOP, October 2014 (2014-10-01), pages 13, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20170105]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
OWENS, David, R. (Owens Tarabichi LLP, 111 W. Saint John St. Suite 20, San Jose CA, 95113, US)
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Claims:
CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A method for utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide in an open thermodynamic cycle, comprising:

combusting oxygen, fuel, and preheated recycled supercritical carbon dioxide to

produce a combusted gas;

expanding the combusted gas to produce power and an expanded gas;

heating recycled supercritical carbon dioxide with the expanded gas to produce the preheated recycled supercritical carbon dioxide and an exhaust gas comprising carbon dioxide;

condensing the exhaust gas to remove at least a portion of water from the exhaust gas; liquefying carbon dioxide from the exhaust gas to produce a liquefied carbon dioxide; pressurizing the liquefied carbon dioxide to produce the recycled super critical carbon dioxide; and

removing a portion of excess supercritical carbon dioxide from the recycled super critical carbon dioxide.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein said expanding comprises expanding the combusted gas to produce mechanical power.

3. The method of claim 2, wherein said pressurizing is performed using a pump and further comprising:

using the mechanical power to power the pump.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein said expanding comprises expanding the combusted gas to produce electrical power.

5. The method of claim 1, further comprising:

separating remaining exhaust gases from the liquefied carbon dioxide.

6. The method of claim 5, wherein said separating remaining exhaust gases produces a separated exhaust gas and further comprising: expanding the separated exhaust gas to produce power.

7. The method of claim 6, wherein said pressurizing is performed using a pump and further comprising:

using the power produced by said expanding the separated exhaust gas to power the pump.

8. The method of claim 7, wherein said expanding comprises expanding the combusted gas to produce power and further comprising:

using the power produced by said expanding the combusted gas to power the pump.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein said using the power produced by said expanding the separated exhaust gas to power the pump and said using the power produced by said expanding the combusted gas to power the pump are performed using the same shaft.

10. The method of claim 1, wherein the recycled super critical carbon dioxide is produced without a compressor.

Description:
OPEN THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE UTILIZING SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

WITHOUT COMPRESSORS

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Field of the Invention

[0001] The invention and its various embodiments relate to methods and systems for utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide (sC0 2 ) as a working fluid in an open thermodynamic cycle that produces mechanical power, electrical power, or both and a commercial grade sC0 2 product. In particular, the invention and its various embodiments relate to the use of an open thermodynamic cycle using sC0 2 as a working fluid without the need for compressors, which provides the advantages of simplicity and thermal efficiency.

Description of Related Art

[0002] Fossil fuel combustion for power generation typically use thermodynamic cycles that rely upon water as a working fluid. Therefore, a thermodynamic cycle that utilizes sC0 2 as a working fluid, without compressors, and that provides power with improved simplicity and thermal efficiency is desirable.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0003] In general, the present invention is directed towards an open thermodynamic cycle utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide (sC0 2 ) as a working fluid that operates without compressors to produce mechanical power, electrical power, or both and a commercial grade sC0 2 product. In some embodiments, a method for utilizing sC0 2 includes combusting oxygen, fuel, and preheated recycled sC0 2 to produce a gas that is fed to a turbine to generate power; using the exhaust gas from the turbine to preheat the recycled supercritical carbon dioxide that is fed to the turbine; and passing the exhaust gas through a series of two sets of condensers and separators to provide a carbon dioxide stream from which the recycled supercritical carbon dioxide is generated using a pump that is powered by the turbine.

[0004] In some embodiments, the exhaust gas from the turbine provides a carbon dioxide stream, from which the recycled supercritical carbon dioxide is generated, that includes other exhaust gases from the turbine. These other exhaust gases are separated from the carbon dioxide and expanded in an expander that also provide power to the pump used to generate the sC0 2 . In some embodiments, a single shaft is used that is common to the turbine, expander, and the pump used to generate the sC0 2 . In addition, excess sC0 2 may be removed from the system as a commercial grade sC0 2 product.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0005] Figure 1 is a process flow diagram of a process according to one embodiment of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0006] The present invention is more fully described below with reference to the accompanying drawings. While the invention will be described in conjunction with particular embodiments, it should be understood that the invention can be applied to a wide variety of applications, and it is intended to cover alternatives, modifications, and equivalents as may be included within the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, the following description is exemplary in that several embodiments are described (e.g., by use of the terms "preferably" or "for example"), but this description should not be viewed as limiting or as setting forth the only embodiments of the invention, as the invention encompasses other embodiments not specifically recited in this description. Further, the use of the term

"invention" throughout this description is used broadly and is not intended to mean that any particular portion of the description is the only manner in which the invention may be made or used.

[0007] In general, the present invention is directed towards methods and systems for utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide (sC0 2 ) in an open thermodynamic cycle without compressors. In some embodiments, the methods and systems for utilizing sC0 2 as a working fluid include combusting oxygen, fuel, and preheated recycled sC0 2 to produce a gas that is fed to a turbine to generate power; using the exhaust gas from the turbine to preheat the recycled supercritical carbon dioxide that is fed to the turbine; and passing the exhaust gas through a series of condensers and separators to provide a carbon dioxide stream from which the recycled supercritical carbon dioxide is generated using a pump that is powered by the turbine.

[0008] The thermodynamic cycle may produce mechanical power, electrical power, or both, and may produce commercial grade sC0 2 at a specific pressure and purity. In certain embodiments of the invention, the open thermodynamic cycle does not utilize compressors. Such a cycle therefore has inherent advantages of simplicity and thermal efficiency as compared to other configurations. [0009] In some embodiments, the exhaust gas from the turbine includes not only the carbon dioxide stream from which the recycled supercritical carbon dioxide is generated, but other exhaust gases from the turbine. These other exhaust gases are separated from the carbon dioxide downstream of the condensers and separators and expanded in an expander that also provides power to the pump used to generate the sCCh. In some embodiments, a single shaft is used that is common to the turbine, expander, and the pump used to generate the sCCh. In addition, excess sCCh may be removed from the system as a commercial grade sCCh product.

[0010] Figure 1 is a process flow diagram of a process according to one embodiment of the invention. Specifically, Figure 1 shows an open thermodynamic cycle 100 that utilizes sCCh as a working fluid but without the need for compressors.

[0011] In the thermodynamic cycle 100, oxygen 102 and fuel 104 at high pressure are combined in a combustion reaction in a combustor 106. The oxygen 102 may originate from any kind of process that provides enriched or pure oxygen. In some embodiments, the enriched oxygen is at a purity of higher than 95% by volume. The fuel 104 may be gaseous, liquid, or a mixture of gaseous and liquid fuels, but should not contain solids. In addition to the oxygen 102 and fuel 104, heated recycled sCCh 158 is also added to the combustor 106 to limit the combustion temperature of the thermodynamic cycle 100.

[0012] The resulting or combusted gas 108 from the combustion or combustor exhaust gas exits the combustor 106 and enters a turbine 110, where it is expanded to produce an expanded gas 114 or turbine exhaust gas. As a result, the turbine 110 generates power, which can be used to power both an electric generator 112 to produce electricity and a pump 152 by a common shaft 160. In other words, the turbine 110 can produce mechanical power, electrical power, or both.

[0013] The expanded gas 114 enters a recuperative heat exchanger 116 where recycled sCCh 156 is preheated and introduced to the combustor 106 as preheated recycled sCCh 158. The expanded gas 114 is cooled in the recuperative heat exchanger 116 and the cooled exhaust gas 118 from the recuperative heat exchanger 116 enters a water and condensables condenser 120 in which water and other condensibles in the cooled exhaust gas 118 are condensed and passed to a separator 128. The separator 128 removes most of the water and condensables as a stream 130 at temperatures above the liquefaction temperature of CO2. The gas 132 from the separator 128 enters a CO2 condenser 134, where CO2 is liquefied. [0014] A heat rejection system 126 is used to provide a cooling media for use in the water and condensables condenser 120 and from the CO2 condenser 134. The heat rejection system 126 may be dry air, wet evaporative, chiller-based, waste cold energy source based, river once-thru, ocean water once-thru, or any combination thereof. The cooling media is recirculated to the water and condensables condenser 120 using cooling medium supply pipe 124 and return pipe 122 and transports heat from the water and condensables condenser 120 to the heat rejection system 126. Similarly, the cooling media is recirculated to the CO2 condenser 134 using cooling medium supply pipe 136 and return pipe 138 and transports heat from the CO2 condenser 134 to the heat rejection system 126.

[0015] The liquefied CO2 and remaining exhaust gases 140 from the CO2 condenser

134 are passed to a CO2 separator 142. The CO2 separator 142 separates the liquid CO2 150 from the exhaust gases 144. The liquid CO2 150 is passed to a pump 152 that pressurizes the liquid CO2 to provide recycled sCC 156 to the recuperative heat exchanger 116 where heat is passed from the expanded gas or turbine exhaust gas 114 to the recycled sCC 156 to provide the preheated sCC 158 for the combustor 106. It should be appreciated that the pump 152 uses an extraction stream 154 to remove excess CO2 from the sCC and, therefore, from the recycled sCC and from the thermodynamic cycle. The extraction stream 154 can provide saleable sCC and is intended to provide the sCC pressure and purity desired. It should be appreciated that no compressors are necessary in the process 100.

[0016] The exhaust gases 140 from the CO2 separator 142 are expanded in an expander 146, and exhaust gases 148 from the expander 146 are discharged to the atmosphere. The expander 146 generates power to power the common shaft 160. It should be appreciated that the common shaft 160 is common to the turbine 110, the electric generator 112, and the pump 152. Therefore, it should be appreciated that the operating speeds of turbine 110, electric generator 112, expander 146, and pump 152 may be different in order to maximize their respective efficiencies. Thus, common shaft 160 may also include speed-changing gears.

17] In some embodiments, the following conditions may be used: