Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
OPENING A WELLBORE WITH A SMART HOLE-OPENER
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/182976
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A retractable and extendable cone-type reamer is positioned on a drill string. An extension and retraction mechanism is configured to extend and retract the cone-type reamer. A hydraulic power unit is configured to control the extension and retraction mechanism. Sensors are positioned on or within the cone-type reamer. The sensors are configured to detect parameters of the wellbore-type hole opening system. A controller is operatively coupled to the hydraulic power unit and the sensors. The controller is configured to be positioned in a wellbore. The controller is configured to receive signals from the sensors. The signals represent the parameters detected by the sensors. The controller is configured to identify the parameters represented by the signals. The controller is configured to adjust a parameter of a wellbore-type hole opening operation in response to the received signals.

Inventors:
COSTA DE OLIVEIRA, Victor Carlos (C-140-1A, DTD Building # 319, Dhahran ., 31311, SA)
RIVAS MARTINEZ, Mario Augusto (C-1439-7A, DTD Building #319, Dhahran ., 31311, SA)
ABOUELNAAJ, Khaled K. (R-106, DTD Building #319, Dhahran ., 31311, SA)
AL-ZAHRANI, Bader S. (R-105, DTD Building # 319, Dhahran ., 31311, SA)
Application Number:
US2019/022758
Publication Date:
September 26, 2019
Filing Date:
March 18, 2019
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY (1 Eastern Avenue, Dhahran, 31311, SA)
ARAMCO SERVICES COMPANY (9009 West Loop South, Houston, Texas, 77210-4535, US)
International Classes:
E21B44/00; E21B10/32; E21B10/34; E21B17/10
Foreign References:
US20100139981A12010-06-10
US20120048571A12012-03-01
US20150101864A12015-04-16
US20100282511A12010-11-11
US3425500A1969-02-04
GB2194571A1988-03-09
US4846290A1989-07-11
US3483934A1969-12-16
US201815927714A2018-03-21
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BRUCE, Carl E. et al. (FISH & RICHARDSON P.C, P.O. Box 1022Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55440-1022, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

1. A wellbore-type hole opening system comprising:

a retractable and extendable cone-type reamer positioned on a drill string;

an extension and retraction mechanism configured to extend and retract the cone-type reamer;

a hydraulic power unit configured to control the extension and retraction mechanism;

a plurality of sensors positioned on or within the cone-type reamer, the plurality of sensors configured to detect parameters of the wellbore-type hole opening system; and

a controller operatively coupled to the hydraulic power unit and the plurality of sensors, the controller configured to be positioned in a wellbore, the controller configured to:

receive a plurality of signals from the plurality of sensors, the plurality of signals representing the parameters detected by the plurality of sensors,

identify the parameters represented by the plurality of signals, and

adjust a parameter of a wellbore-type hole opening operation in response to the received plurality of signals.

2. The wellbore-type hole opening system of claim 1, wherein adjusting a

parameter of a wellbore-type hole opening operation comprises adjusting the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer.

3. The wellbore-type hole opening system of claim 1, wherein the hydraulic power unit comprises:

a hydraulic reservoir configured to retain hydraulic fluid;

an expansion member configured to expand when pressurized hydraulic fluid is received into the expansion member, the expansion member configured to expand the extension and retraction mechanism; and

a hydraulic pump configured to move hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic reservoir to the expansion member.

4. The wellbore-type hole opening system of claim 3, wherein the extension and retraction mechanism comprises:

a wedge-shaped mandrel coupled to the expansion member, the wedge- shaped mandrel configured to move in a longitudinal direction;

a wedge-shaped member attached to a cone of the cone-type reamer, the wedge-shaped member configured to interact with the wedge-shaped mandrel, the wedge-shaped member configured to move laterally outward from the drill string in response to movement from the mandrel; and

a retraction spring configured to retract wedge-shaped member.

5. The wellbore-type hole opening system of claim 1, further comprising a power supply configured to provide electrical power to the controller and the hydraulic power unit.

6. The wellbore-type hole opening system of claim 1, further comprising a drill bit positioned downhole of the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer, the drill bit configured to form a pilot hole downhole of the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer.

7. The wellbore-type hole opening system of claim 1, wherein the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer comprises three cones. 8. The wellbore-type hole opening system of claim 7, wherein the hydraulic power unit is a first hydraulic power unit, wherein the system comprises a second hydraulic power unit and a third hydraulic power unit, wherein each hydraulic power unit is operatively coupled to the three cones, each HPU configured to retract or extend at least one of the three cones. 9. The wellbore-type hole opening system of claim 7, wherein any one hydraulic power unit can control any one of the three cones.

10. The wellbore-type hole opening system of claim 1, wherein the controller is attached to the cone-type reamer and is positioned uphole of the cone-type reamer.

11. The wellbore-type hole opening system of claim 1, wherein the controller comprises:

one or more processors; and

a computer-readable medium storing instructions executable by the one or more processors to perform operations comprising:

receiving, from a topside facility outside of the wellbore, instructions to perform hole-opening operations within the wellbore;

transmitting at least a portion of the hole-opening instructions to the controller, the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer increasing a radius of the wellbore in response to the hole-opening instructions;

receiving a status signal representing a status of the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer from at least one of the plurality of sensors; and

transmitting, to the topside facility, the status signal.

12. The wellbore-type hole opening system of claim 11, wherein the status signal comprises a state of the wellbore-type hole opening system, the state comprising either an engaged or a disengaged state, wherein an engaged state comprises the cone-type reamer being in an extended position, an extended position comprising extending from a cylindrical body of the wellbore-type hole opening system to a wall of the wellbore, and wherein a disengaged state comprises the cone-type reamer to not extend from the cylindrical body to the wall of the wellbore. 13. The wellbore-type hole opening system of claim 11, wherein the status signal comprises a wear state of the cone-type reamer, a torque experienced by the cone-type reamer, a rotational speed of the cone-type reamer, an axial load on the cone-type reamer, or a radius of a wellbore.

14. The wellbore-type hole opening system of claim 11, further comprising:

one or more transmitters at the topside facility, the one or more transmitters configured to transmit the instructions to the one or more processors; and one or more receivers at the topside facility, the one or more receivers configured to receive a status signal from the one or more processors.

15. The wellbore-type hole opening system of claim 14, wherein the one or more transmitters and the one or more receivers are configured to communicate wirelessly with the one or more processors.

16. The wellbore-type hole opening system of claim 1, wherein the hydraulic power unit comprises a hydraulic pump fluidically connected to the system, the hydraulic pump configured to supply hydraulic fluid at a pressure sufficient to extend and retract the cone-type reamer.

17. A method comprising:

receiving, by a controller deployed within a wellbore and from a topside facility located outside of the wellbore, instructions to perform hole opening operations within the wellbore;

transmitting, by the controller, at least a portion of the instructions to a hydraulic power unit;

activating, by the hydraulic power unit, a retractable and extendable cone-type reamer to increase a radius of a wellbore;

detecting a set of parameters of the hydraulic power unit and the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer from a plurality of sensors;

determining a status of the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer in response to receiving signals from the plurality of sensors; and

adjusting the cone-type reamer in response to determining the status.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein activating the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer comprises:

pumping a hydraulic fluid from a hydraulic reservoir into an expansion member;

expanding the expansion member with the pumped hydraulic fluid; longitudinally displacing a wedge-shaped mandrel in response to expanding the expansion member; and laterally displacing a wedge-shaped member to extend a cone of the cone-type reamer towards a wall of the wellbore.

19. The method of claim 17, further comprising transmitting, by the controller to the topside facility, a status signal comprising the determined status from the controller.

20. The method of claim 19, wherein the hydraulic power unit comprises a

hydraulic pump, wherein activating, by the hydraulic power unit, the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer to increase an internal radius of the wellbore, comprises pumping, by the hydraulic pump, hydraulic fluid to mechanically activate the cone-type reamer, wherein activating the cone-type reamer comprises extending the cone-type reamer out radially from a central body.

21. A hole-opener comprising:

a retractable and extendable tri-cone-type reamer configured to increase a radius of a wellbore;

an extension and retraction actuator configured to extend and retract the cone-type reamer;

a hydraulic power unit configured to control the extension and retraction actuator;

a plurality of sensors configured to detect parameters of the hole- opener;

a controller being operatively coupled the hydraulic power unit and the plurality of sensor, the controller configured to control the hydraulic power unit, the controller configured to be positioned in a wellbore, the controller configured to:

receive a plurality of signals from the plurality of sensors, the plurality of signals representing the parameters detected by the plurality of sensors,

identify the parameters represented by the plurality of signals, and

adjust the hole-opener in response to the received plurality of signals; and

a power supply configured to provide electrical power to the controller and the hydraulic power unit, the power supply configured to be positioned downhole. 22. The hole-opener of claim 21, wherein the hydraulic power unit comprises:

a hydraulic reservoir configured to retain hydraulic fluid;

an expansion member configured to expand when pressurized hydraulic fluid is received into the expansion member, the expansion member configured to expand the extension and retraction mechanism; and

a hydraulic pump configured to move hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic reservoir to the expansion member.

23. The hole-opener of claim 22, wherein the extension and retraction mechanism comprises:

a wedge-shaped mandrel coupled to the expansion member, the wedge- shaped mandrel configured to move in a longitudinal direction;

a wedge-shaped member attached to a cone of the cone-type reamer, the wedge-shaped member configured to interact with the wedge-shaped mandrel, the wedge-shaped member configured to move laterally outward from a string in response to movement from the mandrel; and

a retraction spring configured to retract wedge-shaped member.

24. The hole-opener of claim 21, wherein the power supply comprises a lithium- ion battery.

25. The hole-opener of claim 21, wherein the plurality of sensors comprises a gauge sensor configured to determine a radius of the wellbore, a wear sensor configured to measure a wear rate of the retractable and extendable tri-cone type reamer, a torque sensor configured to measure a torque imparted on the retractable and extendable tri-cone type reamer by a drill string, a weight on bit sensor configured to measure an axial load on the tri-cone type reamer by the drill string, or an RPM sensor configured to determine a rotational speed of the retractable and extendable tri-cone type reamer.

26. The hole-opener of claim 21, wherein the controller is configured to transmit analog signals from the plurality of sensors to a topside facility.

Description:
OPENING A WELLBORE WITH A SMART HOLE-OPENER

CLAIM OF PRIORITY

[0001] This application claims priority to U.S. Patent Application No. 15/927,714 filed on March 21, 2018, the entire contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] This disclosure relates to wellbore operations.

BACKGROUND

[0003] When forming a wellbore, a hole-opener can be included with a drill string uphole of a drill bit. The hole-opener widens the wellbore during the drilling process, while the drill bit forms a pilot hole. In some instances, a separate trip can be performed with a larger drill bit to widen the wellbore. Hole-openers can be solid pieces or actuate-able devices. An actuate-able device includes members that can extend outward from a string and into the wall of the wellbore. Both solid devices and actuate-able devices can include roller cones configured to crush rock within the wellbore, poly crystalline diamond compact cutters configured to scrape layers of rock within the wellbore, or a combination of the two.

SUMMARY

[0004] This disclosure describes technologies relating to opening wellbores with smart hole-openers.

[0005] An example implementation of the subject matter described within this disclosure is a wellbore-type hole opening system with the following features. A retractable and extendable cone-type reamer is positioned on a drill string. An extension and retraction mechanism is configured to extend and retract the cone-type reamer. A hydraulic power unit is configured to control the extension and retraction mechanism. Sensors are positioned on or within the cone-type reamer. The sensors are configured to detect parameters of the wellbore-type hole opening system. A controller is operatively coupled to the hydraulic power unit and the sensors. The controller is configured to be positioned in a wellbore. The controller is configured to receive signals from the sensors. The signals represent the parameters detected by the sensors. The controller is configured to identify the parameters represented by the signals. The controller is configured to adjust a parameter of a wellbore-type hole opening operation in response to the received signals.

[0006] Aspects of the example implementation, which can be combined with the example implementation alone or in combination, include the following. Adjusting a parameter of a wellbore-type hole opening operation comprises adjusting the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer.

[0007] Aspects of the example implementation, which can be combined with the example implementation alone or in combination, include the following. The hydraulic power unit includes a hydraulic reservoir configured to retain hydraulic fluid. An expansion member is configured to expand when pressurized hydraulic fluid is received into the expansion member. The expansion member is configured to expand the extension and retraction mechanism. A hydraulic pump is configured to move hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic reservoir to the expansion member.

[0008] Aspects of the example implementation, which can be combined with the example implementation alone or in combination, include the following. The extension and retraction mechanism includes a wedge-shaped mandrel coupled to the expansion member. The wedge-shaped mandrel is configured to move in a longitudinal direction. A wedge-shaped member is attached to a cone of the cone-type reamer. The wedge-shaped member is configured to interact with the wedge-shaped mandrel. The wedge-shaped member is configured to move laterally outward from the drill string in response to movement from the mandrel. A retraction spring is configured to retract wedge-shaped member.

[0009] Aspects of the example implementation, which can be combined with the example implementation alone or in combination, include the following. A power supply is configured to provide electrical power to the controller and the hydraulic power unit.

[0010] Aspects of the example implementation, which can be combined with the example implementation alone or in combination, include the following. A drill bit is positioned downhole of the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer. The drill bit is configured to form a pilot hole downhole of the retractable and extendable cone- type reamer. [0011] Aspects of the example implementation, which can be combined with the example implementation alone or in combination, include the following. The retractable and extendable cone-type reamer includes three cones.

[0012] Aspects of the example implementation, which can be combined with the example implementation alone or in combination, include the following. The hydraulic power unit is a first hydraulic power unit. The system includes a second hydraulic power unit and a third hydraulic power unit. Each hydraulic power unit is operatively coupled to the three cones. Each hydraulic power unit is configured to retract or extend at least one of the three cones.

[0013] Aspects of the example implementation, which can be combined with the example implementation alone or in combination, include the following. Any one hydraulic power unit can control any one of the three cones.

[0014] Aspects of the example implementation, which can be combined with the example implementation alone or in combination, include the following. The controller is attached to the cone-type reamer and is positioned uphole of the cone-type reamer.

[0015] Aspects of the example implementation, which can be combined with the example implementation alone or in combination, include the following. The controller includes one or more processors and a computer-readable medium storing instructions executable by the one or more processors to perform operations. The operations include receiving, from a topside facility outside of the wellbore, instructions to perform hole-opening operations within the wellbore. The operations include transmitting at least a portion of the hole-opening instructions to the controller. The retractable and extendable cone-type reamer increases a radius of the wellbore in response to the hole-opening instructions. The operations include receiving a status signal representing a status of the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer from at least one of the sensors. The operations include transmitting, to the topside facility, the status signal.

[0016] Aspects of the example implementation, which can be combined with the example implementation alone or in combination, include the following. The status signal includes a state of the wellbore-type hole opening system. The state comprising either an engaged or a disengaged state. An engaged state includes the cone-type reamer being in an extended position. An extended position includes extending from a cylindrical body of the wellbore-type hole opening system to a wall of the wellbore. A disengaged state includes the cone-type reamer to not extend from the cylindrical body to the wall of the wellbore.

[0017] Aspects of the example implementation, which can be combined with the example implementation alone or in combination, include the following. The status signal includes a wear state of the cone-type reamer, a torque experienced by the cone- type reamer, a rotational speed of the cone-type reamer, an axial load on the cone-type reamer, or a radius of a wellbore.

[0018] Aspects of the example implementation, which can be combined with the example implementation alone or in combination, include the following. One or more transmitters are located at the topside facility. The one or more transmitters are configured to transmit the instructions to the one or more processors. One or more receivers are located at the topside facility. The one or more receivers configured to receive a status signal from the one or more processors.

[0019] Aspects of the example implementation, which can be combined with the example implementation alone or in combination, include the following. The one or more transmitters and the one or more receivers are configured to communicate wirelessly with the one or more processors.

[0020] Aspects of the example implementation, which can be combined with the example implementation alone or in combination, include the following. The hydraulic power unit includes a hydraulic pump fluidically connected to the system. The hydraulic pump is configured to supply hydraulic fluid at a pressure sufficient to extend and retract the cone-type reamer.

[0021] An example implementation of the subject matter described within this disclosure is a method with the following features. Instructions to perform hole opening operations within a wellbore are received by a controller deployed within a wellbore from a topside facility located outside of the wellbore. At least a portion of the instructions are transmitted by the controller to a hydraulic power unit. A retractable and extendable cone-type reamer is activated by the hydraulic power unit to increase a radius of a wellbore. A set of parameters of the hydraulic power unit and the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer are detected by sensors. A status of the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer is determined in response to receiving signals from the sensors. The cone-type reamer is adjusted in response to determining the status.

[0022] Aspects of the example method, which can be combined with the example method alone or in combination, include the following. Activating the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer includes pumping a hydraulic fluid from a hydraulic reservoir into an expansion member. The expansion member is expanded with the pumped hydraulic fluid. A wedge-shaped mandrel is longitudinally displaced in response to expanding the expansion member. A wedge-shaped member is laterally displaced to extend a cone of the cone-type reamer towards a wall of the wellbore.

[0023] Aspects of the example method, which can be combined with the example method alone or in combination, include the following. A status signal that includes the determined status is transmitted from the controller, by the controller, to the topside facility.

[0024] Aspects of the example method, which can be combined with the example method alone or in combination, include the following. The hydraulic power unit includes a hydraulic pump. Activating, by the hydraulic power unit, the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer to increase an internal radius of the wellbore, includes pumping, by the hydraulic pump, hydraulic fluid to mechanically activate the cone-type reamer. Activating the cone-type reamer includes extending the cone-type reamer out radially from a central body.

[0025] An example implementation of the subject matter described within this disclosure is a hole-opener with the following features. A retractable and extendable tri-cone-type reamer is configured to increase a radius of a wellbore. An extension and retraction actuator is configured to extend and retract the cone-type reamer. A hydraulic power unit is configured to control the extension and retraction actuator. Sensors are configured to detect parameters of the hole-opener. A controller is operatively coupled the hydraulic power unit and the sensor. The controller is configured to control the hydraulic power unit. The controller is configured to be positioned in a wellbore. The controller is configured to receive signals from the sensors. The signals representing the parameters detected by the sensors. The controller is configured to identify the parameters represented by the signals. The controller is configured to adjust the hole-opener in response to the received signals. A power supply is configured to provide electrical power to the controller and the hydraulic power unit. The power supply is configured to be positioned downhole.

[0026] Aspects of the example hole-opener, which can be combined with the example hole-opener alone or in combination, include the following. The hydraulic power unit includes a hydraulic reservoir configured to retain hydraulic fluid. An expansion member is configured to expand when pressurized hydraulic fluid is received into the expansion member. The expansion member is configured to expand the extension and retraction mechanism. A hydraulic pump is configured to move hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic reservoir to the expansion member.

[0027] Aspects of the example hole-opener, which can be combined with the example hole-opener alone or in combination, include the following. The extension and retraction mechanism includes a wedge-shaped mandrel coupled to the expansion member. The wedge-shaped mandrel is configured to move in a longitudinal direction. A wedge-shaped member is attached to a cone of the cone-type reamer. The wedge- shaped member is configured to interact with the wedge-shaped mandrel. The wedge- shaped member is configured to move laterally outward from a string in response to movement from the mandrel. A retraction spring is configured to retract wedge-shaped member.

[0028] Aspects of the example hole-opener, which can be combined with the example hole-opener alone or in combination, include the following. The power supply includes a lithium-ion battery.

[0029] Aspects of the example hole-opener, which can be combined with the example hole-opener alone or in combination, include the following. The sensors include a gauge sensor configured to determine a radius of the wellbore, a wear sensor configured to measure a wear rate of the retractable and extendable tri-cone type reamer, a torque sensor configured to measure a torque imparted on the retractable and extendable tri-cone type reamer by a drill string, a weight on bit sensor configured to measure an axial load on the tri-cone type reamer by the drill string, or an RPM sensor configured to determine a rotational speed of the retractable and extendable tri-cone type reamer.

[0030] Aspects of the example hole-opener, which can be combined with the example hole-opener alone or in combination, include the following. The controller is configured to transmit analog signals from the plurality of sensors to a topside facility. [0031] The details of one or more implementations of the subject matter described in this disclosure are set forth in the accompanying drawings and description. Other features, aspects, and advantages of the subject matter will become apparent from the description, the drawings, and the claims. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0032] FIGS. 1A-1C are side cross-sectional views of an example wellbore system.

[0033] FIG. 2 A is a side view of an example hole-opener.

[0034] FIG. 2B is a side view of an example roller reamer.

[0035] FIG. 3 shows a block diagram of an example control system.

[0036] FIGS. 4A-4B show side cross-sectional views of an example actuator (engaged and disengaged).

[0037] FIG. 5 is a flowchart of an example method that can be used with aspects of this disclosure.

[0038] FIG. 6 is a flowchart of an example method that can be used with aspects of this disclosure.

[0039] Like reference numbers and designations in the various drawings indicate like elements.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0040] When opening (increasing the radius of) a wellbore, hole-openers often have a fixed radius. In some instances, only a section of the wellbore needs to be widened, sections must be widened different amounts, or both. In such instances, having an actuate-able hole-opener can be beneficial. Having such a hole-opener on a drill string would allow opening operations to take place simultaneously with drilling, saving both time and money. Additional advantages include a resulting better hole quality as a single trip is used to widen/enlarge the hole. If an additional trip were used, the time it takes for the additional trip could be detrimental to the formation. For example, hole collapse, tight hole, or washouts can be experienced in that time, all of which will decrease the quality of the well construction. For example, such complications can result in poor cement quality when cementing casing to the formation. [0041] This disclosure relates to a roller cone hole-opener with retractable cones. The hole-opener system includes several sensors, a controller, and communication electronics to communicate and determine a state of the hole-opener. The hole-opener includes three separate hydraulic power units; each hydraulic power unit controls one or more of the retractable cones. Each cone can be controlled independently. The hole-opener is capable of monitoring several parameters, including borehole size, cone seal status, torque, RPM, weight on bit, and other useful information in real time. The real-time information can be communicated to a topside facility in real-time or by downloading the information once the hole-opener is returned to the topside facility. In instances where information is communicated to a topside facility in real-time, the information is relatively recent, for example, several microseconds old.

[0042] As a length of the drill string increases, frictional forces against rotation increase, especially in horizontal or deviated wells. Such issues occur when the string is no longer centered within the wellbore, and the string scrapes against the wellbore walls. In addition, the walls of the wellbore can include non-uniformities after the wellbore is formed.

[0043] This disclosure relates to a string stabilizer that includes a roller reamer with retractable rollers. The roller reamer can support the functions of supporting, centering, and stabilizing the string, as well as smoothing out the wellbore walls to reduce any non-uniform sections. The string stabilizing system includes several sensors, a controller, and communication electronics to communicate and determine a state of the stabilizer. The stabilizer includes three separate hydraulic power units; each hydraulic power unit controls one or more of the retractable rollers. Each roller can be controlled independently. The stabilizer is capable of monitoring several parameters, including borehole size, torque, RPM, and other useful information in real time. The real-time information can be communicated to a topside facility in real-time or by downloading the information once the stabilizer is returned to the topside facility.

[0044] FIG. 1A shows an example cross-sectional view of a wellbore-type hole-opening system 100. As illustrated in FIG. 1A, a derrick 118 that can support a drill string 108 within a wellbore 106 that has been or is being formed in a geologic formation 104, is included. A bottom hole assembly 102 is positioned at the downhole end of the string 108 and can include a controller 101, a hole-opener 103, and a drill bit 105. The controller 101 can be mounted on and carried by the bottom hole assembly 102 and can monitor the hole-opening system 100. While the controller 101 is shown to be uphole of the hole-opener 103, the controller 101 can be positioned anywhere within the assembly 102. The assembly 102 can also include a drill bit 105 positioned downhole of the hole-opener 103. The hole-opener 103 is explained in greater detail later in the disclosure.

[0045] At a topside facility 116, a transmitter 113 and a receiver 112 can be positioned to communicate with the controller 101. The system 100 can also include one or more repeaters 114 that can be positioned between the topside facility 116 and the bottom hole assembly 102 within the wellbore 106. The one or more repeaters 114 can boost a strength of a wireless radio signal between the controller 101 and the topside facility 116.

[0046] The wellbore 106 can have multiple sections. For example, as illustrated, the wellbore includes a first section l06a and a second section l06b. The first section l06a is formed by the drill bit 105 and has a first radius. The drill bit 105 can include a tri-cone drill bit, a polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bit, or any other type of drill bit. The second section l06b has been widened by the hole- opener 103 and has a second radius that is greater than the radius of the first section. While the wellbore 106 is shown as a vertical wellbore, aspects of this disclosure can also be applied to horizontal wellbores, deviated wellbores, or combinations of them.

[0047] In operation, the controller 101 sends and receives signals to the topside facility 116. The signals can include statuses of the system 100, commands executable by the system 100, or other signals. When a command signal is received, the controller 101 activates, opens, or expands the hole-opener 103. The hole-opener 103 can widen the wellbore 106 to form the expanded section l06b. During operation, the controller 101 can detect parameters with various sensors within the hole-opener 103. The controller 101 can perform a function based on the received parameters, or send the parameters to the topside facility 116. Further details on the various system 100 components are explained in greater detail later within this disclosure.

[0048] In FIG. 1B, the system 100 includes one or more stabilizers 107, each with its own controller 101. The stabilizer 107 can be used to stabilize the string 108, centralize the string 108, reduce rotational friction of the string 108, or any combination. In some instances, the stabilizer 107 can be used to smooth the walls of the wellbore 106. In FIG. 1C, the stabilizer can be included on the same string as the hole-opener 103. In such an implementation, the stabilizer 107 can be positioned uphole or downhole of the hole-opener 103. The stabilizer 107 is explained in greater detail later in this disclosure.

[0049] FIG. 2A is a schematic diagram of a retractable and extendable cone- type reamer 200 that can be used as the hole-opener 103. As illustrated, the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer 200 is positioned on a drill string 108 and includes three cones 202 that are configured to increase a radius of a section of the wellbore 106 that is on the same radial plane as the cones. While the extendable cone-type reamer 200 is illustrated with three cones 202, any number of cones 202, such as four cones 202, can be used without departing from this disclosure. The cones 202 are capable of being retracted into the tool when not in use, or being extended when in use. The gauge (amount of extension) can be adjusted during operations. Details on the actuator are described in greater detail in FIGS. 4A-4B. Each of the three cones 202 can be individually actuated. That is, each of the individual cones 202 can be extended from the central body 204 or retracted within the central body 204. The reamer 200 can connect to the drill string 108 with threaded connections 206 at both an uphole end 208a and a downhole end 208b.

[0050] The extendable cone-type reamer 200 includes one or more sensors 210 positioned on or within the cone-type reamer 200. The sensors 210 are configured to detect parameters of the wellbore-type hole-opening system 100. For example, in some implementations, the cone-type reamer 200 can include a gauge sensor 210a that is configured to determine a radius of the wellbore. Such a task is accomplished by measuring an extension length of each of the three cones 202. The extension of each of the cones 202 can be controlled by the controller 101. That is, the controller can adjust a hydraulic pressure of a hydraulic power unit (described later) to maintain a specified gauge. In some implementations, the extension length of each cone 202 can be determined by determining a hydraulic pressure within a hydraulic power unit described later. A wear sensor 210b can be included and is configured to measure a wear rate of the cones 202. As the hole is opened, there will be frictional wear on the cones 202 and tool gauge. The wear sensor 210b measures the amount of wear. The controller 101 is configured to give a warning when the wear reaches a maximum specified limit. A torque sensor 2l0c can be included and is configured to measure a torque imparted on the retractable and extendable tri-cone type reamer 200 by the drill string 108. In some implementations, the torque sensor 2l0c can include a strain gauge. A weight-on-bit sensor 21 Od can be included and is configured to measure an axial load on the tri-cone type reamer 200 imparted by the drill string 108. In some implementations, the weight-on-bit sensor 2l0d can include a strain gauge or load cell. The weight-on-bit of the cones 202 can be similar to that of the drill bit 105 depending on the distance between the cones 202 and the drill bit 105. An RPM sensor 2l0e can be included and is configured to determine a rotational speed of the retractable and extendable tri-cone type reamer. In some implementations, the RPM sensor 2l0e can include a dynamometer or an optical sensor. The RPM sensor 2l0e can be useful in the event that there is a mud motor used between the top drive at the topside facility 116 and the bottom hole assembly 102 (FIGS. 1A-1C).

[0051] Analog or digital signals from the sensors 210 feed into the controller 101. The controller 101 receives the signals from the sensors. Each signal represents a parameter of the tri-cone type reamer 200. The controller 101 is configured to adjust the tri-cone type reamer 200 in response to the received signals. The controller 101 is capable of changing drilling parameters if high torque is observed. For example, the controller 101 can send a signal to expand or retract the hole opener 103 if necessary. The controller can also maintain a fixed hole size as per the drilling program. As illustrated, the controller is uphole of the tri-cone type reamer 200, but the controller can be located anywhere in proximity to the tri-cone type reamer 200, for example, within the same string 108. The controller 101 is described in more detail in FIG. 3.

[0052] The tri-cone type reamer 200 includes a power supply 212 that is configured to provide electrical power to the controller 101 and the tri-cone type reamer 200. In some implementations, the power supply 212 includes a lithium-ion battery. In some implementations, the power supply can include a downhole generator, a super capacitor, another type of battery, rectification/conditioning circuitry, or any combination.

[0053] FIG. 2B is a schematic diagram of a retractable and extendable roller reamer 250 that can be used as the stabilizer 107. As illustrated, the retractable and extendable roller reamer 250 is positioned on a drill string 108 and includes three rollers 252 that are configured to press against a section of the wellbore 106 that is on the same radial plane as the rollers. While the table and extendable roller reamer 250 is illustrated with three rollers 252, any number of rollers 252, such as four rollers 252, can be used without departing from this disclosure. The rollers 252 are capable of being retracted into the tool when not in use, or being extended when in use. A specific gauge can be set or adjusted during operation. Details on the actuator are described in greater detail in FIGS. 4A-4B. Both the roller reamer and the tri-cone type reamer can use a similar actuator. Each of the three rollers 252 can be individually actuated. That is, each of the individual rollers 252 can be extended from the central body 254 or retracted within the central body 254. The reamer 250 can connect to the drill string 108 with threaded connections 256 at both an uphole end 258a and a downhole end

258b.

[0054] The extendable roller-type reamer 250 includes one or more sensors 210 positioned on or within the roller-type reamer 250. The sensors 210 are configured to detect parameters of the wellbore-type hole-opening system 100. For example, in some implementations, the roller-type reamer 250 can include a gauge sensor 2l0a that is configured to determine a radius of the wellbore. Such a task is accomplished by measuring an extension length of each of the three rollers 252. The extension of each of the rollers 252 can be controlled by the controller 101. That is, the controller can adjust a hydraulic pressure of a hydraulic power unit (described later) to maintain a specified gauge. In some implementations, the extension length of each roller 252 can be determined by determining a hydraulic pressure within a hydraulic power unit described later. A torque sensor 2l0c can be included and is configured to measure a torque imparted on the retractable and extendable tri-roller type reamer 250 by the drill string 108. In some implementations, the torque sensor can include a strain gauge. An RPM sensor 2l0e can be included and is configured to determine a rotational speed of the retractable and extendable tri-roller type reamer 250. In some implementations, the RPM sensor 21 Oe can include a dynamometer or an optical sensor. The RPM sensor 2l0e can be useful in the event that there is a mud motor used between the top drive at the topside facility 116 and the bottom hole assembly 102 (FIGS. 1A-1C). In some implementations, additional sensors, such as those described within the tri-cone type reamer 200, can be included with the roller-type reamer 250.

[0055] Analog or digital signals from the sensors 210 feed into the controller 101. The controller 101 receives the signals from the sensors. Each signal represents a parameter of the tri-roller type reamer 250. The controller 101 is configured to adjust the tri-roller type reamer 250 in response to the received signals. The controller 101 is capable of changing drilling parameters if high torque is observed. For example, the controller 101 can send a signal to expand or retract the stabilizer 107 if necessary. The controller can also maintain a fixed hole size as per the drilling program. As illustrated, the controller is uphole of the tri-roller type reamer 250, but the controller can be located anywhere in proximity to the measure of a vertical load on the tri-roller type reamer 250, for example, within the same string 108. The controller 101 is described in more detail in FIG. 3. Each hole-opener 103 and each stabilizer 107 can have separate controllers 101.

[0056] The tri -roller type reamer 250 includes a power supply 212 that is configured to provide electrical power to the controller 101 and the tri-roller type reamer 250. In some implementations, the power supply 212 includes a lithium-ion battery. In some implementations, the power supply can include a downhole generator, a super capacitor, another type of battery, rectification/conditioning circuitry, or any combination.

[0057] FIG. 3 shows a block diagram of the controller 101. The controller 101 can be retained in a robust housing suited for a downhole environment. Such housing can provide isolation for the controller 101 from the downhole environment to ensure that the controller 101 is not exposed to a degrading environment. The controller 101 can also be mounted within the housing to reduce shock loads on the electronics. The controller 101 can include one or more processors 302 and a computer-readable medium 304 that stores instructions executable by the one or more processors 302 to perform operations. The one or more processors 302 are also coupled to the sensors 210. The one or more processors 302 can determine a set of parameters based on the signals received from the sensors 210. In some implementations, the controller 101 can expand or retract tools automatically based on such parameters. The controller 101 can also include a transmitter 306 and a receiver 308 that can be used to receive, from the topside facility 116, instructions to perform hole opening operations within the wellbore, and transmit, to the hole-opener 103, at least a portion of the instructions. The transmitter 306 and receiver 308 can also be used to receive, from the topside facility 116, instructions to perform stabilizing operations within the wellbore, and transmit, to the stabilizer 107, at least a portion of the instructions. In operation, the transmitter 306 and receiver 308 are operatively coupled to the transmitter 113 and the receiver 112 located at the topside facility 116 (FIGS. 1 A-1C).

[0058] The transmitter 306 can also transmit the status signals to the topside facility 116. The status signals can be transmitted in real-time, that is, an operator at the topside facility 116 (FIGS. 1A-1C) can see parameters within the wellbore while operating the system 100 with minimal delays on the order of microseconds. Various sample rates can be configured in the controller 101 to suite a user’s desired preferences. Signals can be sent, received, and processed in either digital or analog form. Analog and digital control loops can be configured into the controller 101 to suit the needs of the end user. The status signals can include a state of hole-opener 103 (such as an“on” state or an“off’ state), a hydraulic pressure of the hole-opener 103, or any other statuses. In some implementations, the status can include a state of the hole- opener 103, for example either an engaged or a disengaged state. In such an implementation, an engaged state includes the cone-type reamer 200 or the roller reamer 250 being in an extended position, that is, the cones 202 or rollers 252 extending from the central body (204 or 254) to a wall of the wellbore 106 (FIGS. 1 A- 2B). In such an instance, a disengaged state includes the cones 202 or rollers 252 to not extend from the central body (204 or 254). In some instances, the status signal includes a wear state of the cone-type reamer 200, a torque experienced by the cone- type reamer 200 or roller reamer 250, a rotational speed of the cone-type reamer 200 or roller reamer 250, a weight on bit experienced by the reamer 200, or a radius of a wellbore 106. In some implementations, the controller 101 is configured to transmit analog signals from the sensors 210 to the topside facility 116. In some implementations, the roller reamer 250 can include a wear sensor similar to the tri- cone reamer 200.

[0059] The controller 101 is coupled to the power supply 212 that can be positioned within the wellbore 106. The power supply 212 can be operatively coupled to the one or more processors 302 and can provide operating power to the one or more processors 302. In some implementations, the power source can be a stand-alone power source positioned within the wellbore 106, such as a lithium-ion battery (or other rechargeable power source). In some implementations, the power supply 212 can include a downhole generator, a super capacitor, or another type of battery, such as a lead-acid battery. In an instance where a generator is used, the generator includes rectification and conditioning circuitry to provide clean power to one or more processors 302.

[0060] The system 100 can include one or more hydraulic power units, such as a first hydraulic power unit 310, a second hydraulic power unit 312, or a third hydraulic power unit 314, operatively coupled to the one or more processors 302. Any of the hydraulic power units can receive at least a portion of a set of instructions from the one or more processors 302. The hydraulic power units may receive instructions to change states (“on” command or“off’ command) of a hydraulic pump, set a target pressure for the hydraulic pump, or any other command that can be executed by the hydraulic power unit. In some implementations, the different hydraulic power units may be interconnected to allow fluidic communication between each hydraulic power unit. The interconnection can allow a hydraulic power unit to control multiple cones 202 or rollers 252 in the event of a hydraulic power unit failure. In some implementations, each hydraulic power unit can include its own one or more sensors, for example, a pressure sensor or other sensor. Each hydraulic power unit can receive measurements (or other information) sensed by its one or more sensors, and transmit the same to the controller 101. While the illustrated implementations show three hydraulic power units, one for each cone 202 or roller 252, a different number of hydraulic power units can be used without departing from this disclosure. For example, a single hydraulic power unit can be used for multiple cones 202 or multiple rollers 252.

[0061] FIGS. 4A-4B show side cross-sectional views of an un-extended actuator 400 and an extended actuator 400, respectively. The actuator 400 can be used for the hole-opener 103, the stabilizer 107, or both. The actuator 400 includes a hydraulic power unit 401 operatively coupled to the controller 101. Once the hydraulic power unit 401 has received a signal to activate the hole-opener 103, the hydraulic pump 404 moves hydraulic fluid from a full hydraulic reservoir 402a to an unexpanded expansion member 406a. In some implementations, the unexpanded expansion member 406a can include a piston or elastomer bladder. The unexpanded expansion member 406a begins to expand and become expanded expansion member 406b as it is filled with hydraulic fluid. Similarly, the full hydraulic reservoir 402a becomes the depleted hydraulic reservoir 402b during the activation of the hole-opener 103, or the stabilizer 107. That is, activating at least one of the cones 202 or rollers 252 includes pumping hydraulic fluid to mechanically activate the respective cone 202 or roller 252 with the hydraulic pump 404. The expanded expansion member 406b moves a wedged-shaped mandrel 408a towards a wedge-shaped member 408b. The wedge- shaped mandrel 408a displaces the second wedge-shaped member 408b that is attached to the cones 202 or the rollers 252. This displacement causes the cones 202 or rollers 252 to extend radially outward from the hole-opener 103 and towards the wall of the wellbore 106. In some implementations, the wedge-shaped mandrel 408a can include multiple segments connected to multiple hydraulic power units and multiple cones 202 or rollers 252. In such an implementation, each cone 202 can be separately actuated. Once hole-opening operations are completed, the controller 101 can send a signal to the hydraulic pump 404 to pump hydraulic fluid from the expanded expansion member 406b back into the depleted hydraulic reservoir 402b. In some implementations, a separate relief valve can direct the hydraulic fluid from the expanded expansion member 406b back into the depleted hydraulic reservoir 402b. The hole-opener 103, the stabilizer 107, or both, can include a retraction device 412, such as a spring, to return the wedge-shaped mandrel 408a and cones 202 or rollers 252 back into the retracted position once the hydraulic fluid has been removed from the expanded expansion member 406b. In some implementations, the hydraulic power unit 401 may be fluidically connected to a separate hydraulic power unit in another part of the hole- opener 103 or stabilizer 107. Such a connection allows for a single hydraulic power unit to control multiple components within the hole-opener 103 or stabilizer 107 in the event of a failure of one of the hydraulic power units, such as hydraulic power unit 401.

[0062] The hydraulic power unit 401 can act as one of the hydraulic power units previously described, such as the first hydraulic power unit 310. The hydraulic power unit 401 can receive at least a portion of the sealing instructions from the controller 101. Portions of the sealing or stabilizing instructions can include changing states of the hydraulic pump, changing an output pressure of the hydraulic pump, changing position of the cones 202 or rollers 252, or any other command that can be executed by the hydraulic power unit. The cones 202 or rollers 252 can be operatively coupled to the hydraulic power unit 401, that is, the hydraulic power unit 401 can mechanically activate the hole-opener 103 to begin a hole opening operation within the wellbore 106 responsive to being activated by the controller 101. For example, the hydraulic power unit 401 itself can include hydraulic pump 404 fluidically connected to the cones 202 or rollers 252. The hydraulic pump 404 can supply hydraulic fluid, such as the hydraulic fluid stored in a full hydraulic reservoir 402a, at a pressure sufficient to activate the hole-opener 103 or stabilizer 107. To activate the hole-opener 103 or stabilizer 107, the hydraulic power unit 401 can cause the cones 202 or rollers

252 to extend radially outward from the hole-opener 103 or stabilizer 107 and towards the wall of the wellbore 106. In the case of the hole-opener 103, the extended cones 202 bite into the wellbore and can increase a radius of the wellbore 106. In the case of the stabilizer 107, the rollers 252 press against the walls of the wellbore 106. The rollers 252 smooth the walls of the wellbore 106 as the string 108 rotates. The rollers 252 also support the string 108 and reduce the rotational friction experience by the string 108. The hole-opener 103 and the stabilizer 107 can also include more sensors 410 to relay information back to the controller 101, such as hydraulic pressure or cone 202 position.

[0063] FIG. 5 is a flowchart of an example method 500 that can be used with aspects of this disclosure. At 502, instructions to perform hole opening operations within a wellbore are received by a controller deployed within a wellbore and from a topside facility located outside of the wellbore. At 504, at least a portion of the instructions are transmitted, by the controller, to a hydraulic power unit. At 506, a retractable and extendable cone-type reamer is activated by the hydraulic power unit to increase a radius of a wellbore. At 508, a set of parameters of the hydraulic power unit and the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer are detected from sensors. At 510, a status of the retractable and extendable cone-type reamer is determined in response to receiving signals from the sensors. At 512, the cone-type reamer is adjusted in response to determining the status. A status signal with the determined status from the controller is transmitted by the controller to the topside facility.

[0064] In some implementations, the hydraulic power unit includes a hydraulic pump. Activating, by the hydraulic power unit, the retractable and extendable cone- type reamer to increase an internal radius of the wellbore, includes pumping, by the hydraulic pump, hydraulic fluid to mechanically activate the cone-type reamer. Activating the cone-type reamer includes extending the cone-type reamer out radially from a central body. [0065] FIG. 6 is a flowchart of an example method 600 that can be used with aspects of this disclosure. At 602, instructions to perform stabilizing operations within a wellbore are received by a controller deployed within a wellbore and from a topside facility located outside of the wellbore. At 604, at least a portion of the instructions are transmitted, by the controller, to a hydraulic power unit. At 606, a retractable and extendable roller reamer is activated by the hydraulic power unit to stabilize a string within the wellbore. At 608, a set of parameters of the hydraulic power unit and the retractable and extendable roller reamer are detected from sensors. At 610, a status of the retractable and extendable roller reamer is determined in response to receiving signals from the sensors. At 612, the roller reamer is adjusted in response to determining the status. A status signal with the determined status from the controller is transmitted by the controller to the topside facility.

[0066] In some implementations, the hydraulic power unit includes a hydraulic pump. Activating, by the hydraulic power unit, the retractable and extendable roller reamer to stabilize a string within the wellbore, includes pumping, by the hydraulic pump, hydraulic fluid to mechanically activate the roller reamer. Activating the roller reamer includes extending the roller reamer out radially from a central body.

[0067] While this disclosure contains many specific implementation details, these should not be construed as limitations on the scope of what may be claimed, but rather as descriptions of features specific to particular implementations. Certain features that are described in this disclosure in the context of separate implementations can also be implemented in combination in a single implementation. Conversely, various features that are described in the context of a single implementation can also be implemented in multiple implementations separately or in any suitable subcombination. Moreover, although features may be previously described as acting in certain combinations and even initially claimed as such, one or more features from a claimed combination can in some cases be excised from the combination, and the claimed combination may be directed to a subcombination or variation of a subcombination.

[0068] Similarly, while operations are depicted in the drawings in a particular order, this should not be understood as requiring that such operations be performed in the particular order shown or in sequential order, or that all illustrated operations be performed, to achieve desirable results. Moreover, the separation of various system components in the implementations previously described should not be understood as requiring such separation in all implementations, and it should be understood that the described program components and systems can generally be integrated together in a single product or packaged into multiple products.

[0069] Thus, particular implementations of the subject matter have been described. Other implementations are within the scope of the following claims. In some cases, the actions recited in the claims can be performed in a different order and still achieve desirable results. In addition, the processes depicted in the accompanying figures do not necessarily require the particular order shown, or sequential order, to achieve desirable results.