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Title:
OPTICS DEVICE FOR STAGE LIGHTING
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2010/113091
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
An optics device for stage lighting is disclosed. In one embodiment of the optics device, an LED chip (30) provides a plurality of sources of light (G, R, B, W). An optical conductor (32), which may be a mixing tubular (32), is superposed on the LED chip (30) to mix the light received from the plurality of sources of light (G, R, B, W). After passing through the optical conductor (32), the mixed light enters a compound parabolic concentrator (34) which is coupled to the optical conductor (32). The compound parabolic concentrator (34) collimates the light received from the optical conductor (32) such that a homogeneous pupil (90) is emitted.

Inventors:
ADAMS, John, Andre (P.O. Box 3001 345 Scarborough Road, Briarcliff Manor, New York, 10510-8001, US)
Application Number:
IB2010/051321
Publication Date:
October 07, 2010
Filing Date:
March 25, 2010
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS ELECTRONICS, N.V. (High Tech Campus Building 44, AE Eindhoven, NL-5656, NL)
ADAMS, John, Andre (P.O. Box 3001 345 Scarborough Road, Briarcliff Manor, New York, 10510-8001, US)
International Classes:
G02B6/00; F21K99/00; F21S8/10; F21V7/00; F21V13/04; G02B17/08; G02B27/09; B60Q1/02; B60Q1/04; F24J2/06; F24J2/10
Domestic Patent References:
WO2008068722A22008-06-12
WO2006033029A12006-03-30
WO2009021079A12009-02-12
WO2010044030A12010-04-22
WO2009046050A12009-04-09
Foreign References:
US20050185416A12005-08-25
Other References:
None
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DAMEN, Daniel, M. (Philips Intellectual Property & Standards, High Tech Campus 44P.O. Box 220, AE Eindhoven, NL-5600, NL)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claim:

1. An optics device in the field of stage lighting, the optics device comprising: an optical conductor (32) having an input aperture (48) of a first cross-sectional area (πri2) and an output aperture (50) of a second cross-sectional area (πr-i ), the optical conductor

(32) for receiving light at the input aperture (48) and propagating light therethrough to the output aperture (50), the first cross-sectional area (πr 2) being substantially equal to the second cross-sectional area (πr22); a first wall portion (52) connecting the input aperture (48) with the output aperture (50), the first wall portion (52) being of a first reflective material (54) defining a plurality of transmission paths enabling mixing of the light from the input aperture (48) to the output aperture (50); a body (60) formed at a first end with an entrance aperture (62) of a third cross-sectional area (πr 2) and formed at a second end with an exit aperture (64) of a fourth cross-sectional area (πr42), the entrance aperture (62) intersecting the output aperture (50) and the optical conductor (32), the entrance aperture (62) disposed to deliver the light to the exit aperture (64), the third cross-sectional area (πri2) being substantially equal to the second cross-sectional area, the forth cross-sectional area (πr42) being greater than the third cross-sectional area (πr 2); and a second wall portion (66) connecting the entrance aperture (62) with the exit aperture (64) and diverging from the third cross sectional area (πr^, ) to the fourth cross-sectional area

(πr4 ), the second wall portion (66) being of a second reflective material (68) enabling from the second reflective material (68) single -reflection, collimated transmission of the light from the entrance aperture (62) to the exit aperture (64).

2. The optics device as recited in claim 1, wherein a longitudinal axis (Z) of the optical conductor (32) is aligned with a longitudinal axis (X) of the body (60).

3. The optics device as recited in claim 1, wherein the first wall portion (52) further comprises a surface of revolution generally forming a cylinder.

4. The optics device as recited in claim 1, wherein the second wall portion (66) further comprises a surface of revolution generally forming a conical shape.

5. The optics device as recited in claim 1, wherein the optical conductor (32) and first wall portion (52), in combination, comprise a lightpipe (94).

6. The optics device as recited in claim 1, wherein the optical conductor (32) and first wall portion (52), in combination, comprise an acrylic lightpipe (94).

7. The optics device as recited in claim 1, wherein the optical conductor (32) and first wall portion (52), in combination, comprise a polycarbonate lightpipe (94).

8. The optics device as recited in claim 1, wherein the body (60) and second wall portion (66), in combination, comprise a compound parabolic concentrator (34).

9. The optics device as recited in claim 1, wherein the second reflective material (68) comprises a metalized reflector.

10. An optics device in the field of stage lighting, the optics device comprising: an optical conductor (32) for mixing light received from a plurality of sources of light (G, R, B, W); and a compound parabolic concentrator (34) coupled to the optical conductor (32), the compound parabolic concentrator (34) for collimating the light received from the optical conductor (32).

11. The optics device as recited in claim 10, wherein the optical conductor (32) further comprises a reflective material (54) that propagates the light from an input aperture (48) to an output aperture (50), the output aperture (50) being at the coupling of the optical conductor (32) and the compound parabolic concentrator (34).

12. The optics device as recited in claim 10, wherein the light enters the compound parabolic concentrator (34) at an entrance aperture (62) and is reflected once from an inner surface of the compound parabolic concentrator (34) before exiting the compound parabolic concentrator at an exit aperture (64).

13. The optics device as recited in claim 10, wherein the optical conductor (32) further comprises a rod.

14. The optics device as recited in claim 10, wherein the optical conductor (32) further comprises a tubular shape.

15. The optics device as recited in claim 10, wherein the optical conductor (32) further comprises a faceted shape.

Description:
OPTICS DEVICE FOR STAGE LIGHTING

This invention relates, in general, to the creation of artificial light or illumination and, in particular, to light emitting diode (LED) collimation optics modules that may be employed individually or arranged in an array on a common base and luminaires using the same. Present LED chip packages may contain multiple LED chips per package and have relatively simple optics on the package itself that necessitate a secondary optics system to provide any needed color mixing, collimation, or other beam shaping. These existing LED chip packages must balance power and beam shaping requirements including collimation and color mixing. By way of example, in stage lighting applications, such as those related to the production of theatre, dance, opera and other performance arts, the required intensity and distance from the area to be lit as well as the beam or field angle of the luminaire dictate that the LED chip packages have tremendous power. Further, due to the nature of the application, a well shaped beam is also needed. The brightness requirements are satisfied by use of a large number of LEDs, which, in turn, makes the collection of the light into a single uniform and homogenous pupil more difficult. Often power must be sacrificed for uniformity or visa versa. Solutions continue to be required that address the tradeoffs between power, on the one hand, and collimation and color mixing, on the other.

An LED collimation optics module, luminaire using the same, and an optics device are disclosed. The solutions presented herein mitigate the traditional tradeoffs between power, on the one hand, and collimation and color mixing, on the other. In one embodiment of the LED collimation optics module, an LED chip provides multiple sources of light. An optical conductor, which may be a lightpipe, tubular, or rod, for example, is superposed on the LED chip to mix the light received from the sources of light. After passing through the optical conductor, the mixed light enters a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) which is coupled to the optical conductor. The CPC collimates the light received from the optical conductor such that a substantially homogenous pupil is emitted. In one embodiment of the luminaire, a plurality of LED collimation optics modules are respectively disposed on a base. A housing is adapted to accommodate the base and the LED optics modules. The luminaire may provide a complete lighting fixture for various applications. One embodiment of the optics device in the field of stage lighting includes an optical conductor, which may be a tubular, lightpipe, or rod, for example, for receiving light at an input aperture and propagating light therethrough to an output aperture having a cross-sectional area substantially equal to the cross-sectional area of the input aperture. A first wall portion connects the input aperture with the output aperture to, using a reflective material, define multiple transmission paths enabling mixing of the light from the input aperture to the output aperture of the optical conductor. A body, which may be a conical body, increases in cross-sectional area from an entrance aperture, which intersects the output aperture of the optical conductor, to an exit aperture. A second wall portion, which may be a parabolic wall portion, connects the entrance aperture with the exit aperture and diverges from the cross-sectional area of the entrance aperture to a greater cross-sectional area belonging to the exit aperture. The second wall portion enables collimated transmission of the light from the entrance aperture to the output aperture.

For a more complete understanding of the features and advantages of the present invention, reference is now made to the detailed description of the invention along with the accompanying figures in which corresponding numerals in the different figures refer to corresponding parts and in which:

Figure IA is a perspective illustration of one embodiment of a luminaire incorporating an LED collimation optics module according to the teachings presented herein; Figure IB is a perspective illustration of the luminaire depicted in figure IA with a partial cut-away to better reveal internal components;

Figure 1C is a perspective illustration showing in further detail an array of LED collimation optics modules of figures IA and IB;

Figure ID is a top plan view of the array of LED collimation optics modules shown in figure 1C;

Figure 2 is a top plan view of another embodiment of an array of LED collimation optics modules;

Figure 3 is a top plan view of a further embodiment of an array of LED collimation optics modules; Figure 4A is a front elevated view of one embodiment of an LED collimation optics module; Figure 4B is a transverse sectional view of the LED collimation optics module illustrated in figure 4A;

Figure 4C is a top plan view of the LED collimation optics module illustrated in figure 4A; Figure 4D is a top plan view of an LED chip package as viewed along line 4D - 4D of figure 4A;

Figure 5A is a traverse sectional view of a single light beam traversing the LED collimation optics module illustrated in figure 4A;

Figure 5B is a traverse sectional view of a plurality of light beams traversing the LED collimation optics module illustrated in figure 4A;

Figure 6 is a traverse sectional view of a plurality of light beams traversing another embodiment of an LED collimation optics module;

Figure 7 is a traverse sectional view of a plurality of light beams traversing a further embodiment of an LED collimation optics module; Figures 8-10 are top cross-sectional views of various embodiments of optical conductors for use with the LED collimation optics modules presented herein;

Figures 11-13 are top cross-sectional views of various embodiments of bodies for use with the LED collimation optics modules presented herein;

Figures 14-15 are top cross-sectional views of various embodiments of optical conductors for use with the LED collimation optics modules presented herein;

Figures 16-17 are top cross-sectional views of various embodiments of CPCs for use with the LED collimation optics modules presented herein;

Figure 18 is a graph of intensity versus vertical angle representing a baseline intensity for the LED collimation optics module of figures 5A-5B; Figure 19 is a graph of intensity versus vertical angle representing an optimized baseline intensity an LED collimation optics modules;

Figure 20 is a graph of intensity versus vertical angle representing a baseline intensity for a circular spaced-packing array of LED collimation optics modules;

Figure 21 is a graph of luminous efficiency and peak luminous flux versus current density for the circular spaced-packing array of LED collimation optics modules; Figure 22 is an amber die chromaticity diagram with respect to the u', v' color plane for the circular spaced-packing array of LED collimation optics modules; and

Figure 23 is a white die chromaticity diagram with respect to the u', v' color plane for the circular spaced-packing array of LED collimation optics modules. While the making and using of various embodiments of the present invention are discussed in detail below, it should be appreciated that the present invention provides many applicable inventive concepts which can be embodied in a wide variety of specific contexts. The specific embodiments discussed herein are merely illustrative of specific ways to make and use the invention, and do not delimit the scope of the present invention. Referring initially to figures IA through ID, therein is depicted one embodiment of a luminaire according to the teachings presented herein that is schematically illustrated and generally designated 10. A housing 12 is adapted to accommodate a base 14 and LED collimation optics modules, collectively numbered 16, and secured within the housing 12. The LED collimation optics modules include individual LED collimation optics modules 16-1, 16-2, 16-3, 16-4, 16-5, 16-6, and 16-7. A heatsink subassembly 18, which is also mounted to the base 14 and enclosed in the housing 12, absorbs and dissipates heat produced by the light emitting diode collimation optics modules 16. In one embodiment, a one-to-one correspondence is present between the number of heatsinks and the number of light emitting diode collimation optics modules 16. Further, in one embodiment, the heatsink subassembly 18 includes virtually silent fans that provide forced-air cooling for internal components including the light emitting diode collimation optics modules 16.

The housing 12 is fitted in place by a yoke 20 swivelly connected to a support structure 22. An electronics subassembly 24 located throughout the housing 12, yoke 20, and support structure 22 provides motorized movement and electronics to the luminaire 10. The electronics subassembly 24 may include multiple on-board processors providing diagnostic and self- calibration functions as well as internal test routines and software update capabilities. The luminaire 10 may also include any other required electronics such as connection to power. As illustrated, a finishing lens 26 is included for adding end effects.

The LED collimation optics modules 16 are disposed in a single layer close-packing arrangement 28 with LED collimation optics modules 16-1 through 16-6 being located in a hexagonal positioning in contact with a centrally positioned optics module 16-7. Each of the peripheral LED collimation optics modules 16-1 through 16-6 touches two adjacent peripheral LED collimation optics modules and the interiorly disposed LED collimation optics module 16- 7. By way of example, the LED collimation optics module 16-1 touches adjacent LED collimation optics modules 16-2 and 16-6 as well as the collimation optics module 16-7 located in the interior. The array of the LED collimation optics modules 16-1 through 16-7 may have a diameter of 8 inches (8.32 cm) in one embodiment. With respect to LED collimation optics module 16-4, an LED chip package 30 provides light to an optical conductor 32 that mixes the light. A CPC 34 is coupled to the optical conductor 32 to collimate the light received from the optical conductor 32. Following collimation, light exists the luminaire 10 as a substantially homogenous pupil. Components of or the entirety of the luminaire 10 may be considered an optics module for stage lighting and related applications.

Figures 2 and 3 depict other embodiments of the LED collimation optics modules 16. With respect to figure 2, the LED collimation optics modules 16 are positioned in a single layer circular spaced-packing arrangement 36. In this arrangement, the LED collimation optics modules 16-1 through 16-6 are respectively centered at peripheral points about a centrally positioned module, the LED collimation optics module 16-7. In one implementation, the spacing between the LED collimation optics modules 16 is approximately 0.19 inches (3 mm).

With respect to figure 3, the LED collimation optics modules 16-1 through 16-3 are located in a linear single layer arrangement 38 wherein the interior LED collimation optics module 16-2 is disposed in contact with each of the exterior LED collimation optics modules 16-1, 16-3. It should be appreciated that the LED collimation optics modules may be arranged in arrays other than those illustrated in figures IA through ID, figure 2, and figure 3. Any number of LED collimation optics modules may be utilized in an array and the array may take different forms including those providing for close contact between the LED collimation optics modules and those providing for space between the LED collimation optics modules and even those that provide for a combination thereof. Moreover, the LED collimation optics modules 16 may be arranged in an angular manner, linearly, or combinations thereof.

Figures 4A through 4D depict the LED collimation optics module 16-4. An LED chip package 30 provides sources of light and includes multiple colored LED chips G, R, B, W arranged in an array 42 on a single elongated base member 44, which may include provisions for bonding lead wires (not shown). As illustrated, the LED chips G, R, B, W have been positioned to provide a desired angular emission pattern with respect to the optical conductor 32 and CPC 34 to increase color mixing. It should be appreciated, however, that depending on the application, the LED chips G, R, B, W may be arranged in other types of arrays.

The LED chips G, R, B, W of the array 42 comprise conventional green, red, blue, and white LED chips that respectively emit green, red, blue, and white light. Such LED chips facilitate efficient injection into the optical conductor 32 and strongly enhance color mixing. As depicted, in order to further enhance the quality of the white light generated by the LED chip package, four LED chips including one red LED chip (R), one green chip (G), one blue LED chip (B), and one white LED chip (W) are utilized. It is contemplated, however, that as LED chip design advances, different numbers of LED chips and/or different color LED chips may be used in the array to optimize the quality of the light generated by the LED chip package 30. By way of example, in one embodiment, four LED chips including one red LED chip (R), one green chip (G), one blue LED chip (B), and one amber LED chip (A) are utilized. By way of further example, in another embodiment, four LED chips including one red LED chip (R), two green chips (Gl, G2), and one blue LED chip (B) are utilized. It is further contemplated that both low-power and high-power LED chips may be used in the LED chip package 30.

In one embodiment of the teachings presented herein, the elongated base member 44 may comprise an electrically insulative housing 46, made for example, of plastic or ceramic that encases a metal heat sink with a silicon submount disposed thereon. The metal heat sink provides heat sinking to the LED chip package 30 disposed thereon. Further heat dissipation is provided by the heatsink subassembly 18 which, as alluded, includes a virtually silent fan that furnishes forced-air cooling proximate to the metal heat sink. The elongated base member 44 may further include lead wires, which are electrically isolated from the metal heat sink and the LED chips G, R, B, W by the housing. Bond wires electrically connect the LED chips G, R, B, W to the lead wires.

The optical conductor 32 has at a first end an input aperture 48 of a cross-sectional area πr\ , wherein the radius is r\, and at a second end an output aperture 50 of a second cross- sectional area πrϊ , wherein the radius is r 2 . The optical conductor 32 is superposed on the LED chip package 30 and the LED chips G, R, B, W to receive the light from the sources at the input aperture 48 and deliver the light to the output aperture 50. The first cross-sectional area πr\ may be substantially equal to the second cross-sectional area πr-i so that the input aperture 48 and output aperture 50 have substantially equal diameters and r\ may equal r 2 . A wall portion 52, which may be a cylindrical wall portion, connects the input aperture 48 with the output aperture 50 and may include a surface of revolution generally forming a cylinder. The wall portion 52 includes a reflective material 54 defining multiple transmission paths enabling mixing of the light within an interior space 56 from the input aperture 48 to the output aperture 50. In one implementation, the wall portion 52 may be a wall means for mixing light connecting the input aperture 48 with the output aperture 50. The length l \ of the optical conductor 32 is determined by design parameters related to the mixing of the light emitted by the light sources. Additionally, the length l \ of the optical conductor 32 is measured along a longitudinal axis of the optical conductor 32 which is substantially orthogonal to a horizontal axis of the LED chip package 30.

The CPC 34 is coupled to the optical conductor 32. With respect to the CPC 34, a body 60, which in one embodiment is a conical body, is formed at a first end with an entrance aperture 62 of a cross-sectional area πr^ , wherein the radius is r 3 , and formed at a second end with an exit aperture 64 of a cross-sectional area πr 2 , wherein the radius is r 3 . The entrance aperture 62 intersects the output aperture 50 and the conical body 60 is disposed to deliver the light to the exit aperture 64. The cross-sectional area πr 2 of the entrance aperture 62 is substantially equal to the cross-sectional area πr^ of the output aperture 50 and the cross- sectional area πr 4 2 of the exit aperture 64 is greater than the cross-sectional area πr 2 of the entrance aperture 62. Accordingly, in this implementation, r 4 > r^ = r^ = r \ . A lip 72 at the second end may have a variety of forms including the illustrated arched edge which includes a sequence of abutting arches. This type of lip embodiment permits LED collimation optics modules to be placed in flush contact with one another in close-packing arrangements.

A wall portion 66, which may be a curved wall portion, connects the entrance aperture 62 with the exit aperture 64 and diverges from the cross-sectional area πr 2 to the cross-sectional area πr 4 . The wall portion 66 includes a reflective material 68 enabling collimated transmission of the light from the entrance aperture 62 to the exit aperture 64. The wall portion 66 may be a wall means connecting the entrance aperture 62 with the exit aperture 64 and diverging from the cross sectional area πr 2 to the cross-sectional area πr 4 2 . The wall portion 66 may include a parabolic wall portion comprising a surface of revolution generally forming a conical shape. The length h of the CPC 34 is determined by design parameters related to the desired collimation and degree of light mixing, for example. Additionally, the length h of the CPC 34 is measured along a longitudinal axis of the CPC 34 which is substantially aligned with the longitudinal axis of the optical conductor 32 and orthogonal to the horizontal axis of the LED chip package 30. It should be appreciated that depending on the application, the relationship between the lengths l\ and h may vary from what is depicted.

In one embodiment, the CPC 34 is characterized by the fact that rays entering the device at its smaller aperture, the entrance aperture 62, are reflected only once from an interior surface to the curved wall portion 66 before exiting the CPC 34 at the larger aperture, the exit aperture 64. In this implementation, the CPC 34 is designed to collimate a given of flux of light of energy received at the input aperture 62.

In this embodiment, the concentrator disclosed herein, which is termed a CPC whether or not the concentrator has a parabolic or other geometry, has a reflecting material 68 made of a prismatic, transparent, low-transmission loss dielectric material. As will be discussed in figures 11-13, other geometries are within the embodiments presented herein. The dielectric materials from which the reflecting material 68 of an interior surface 70 of the CPC 34 may be made include transparent polymers with a high index of refraction, such as, but no limited to, acrylic polymers or polycarbonate -based polymers.

Figure 5A depicts a single light beam traversing the LED collimation optics module 16- 4. The optical conductor 32, which may be a light-mixing rod or lightpipe, homogenizes the light bundle transmitted therein by the light sources. The intensity centroid of the light bundle moves in a longitudinal fashion from the input aperture 48 to the output aperture 50. The reflecting surfaces of the reflecting material 54 disposed along the light-mixing rod include surface normals that are perpendicular or inclined relative to the longitudinal or axial direction of the movement of the light therethrough. The reflective material furnishing pathways, such as pathways 80, 82, for light beams to travel and thereby mix with each other. The LED chips (G, R, B, W) have at least a partial direction of orientation toward the interior space 56 of the optical conductor 32.

The CPC 34 is depicted in terms of a QJQ 0 , where B 1 denotes the input angle and θ 0 denotes the output angle. The geometry of one embodiment may be better understood by taking a segment of parabola PR having its focal point Q and rotating this segment around an axis of revolution, which is at an angle B 1 to the parabola's axis z, which is perpendicular to the horizontal axis x through the LED chip package 30. The axis of rotation about axis z defines the center of the entrance aperture and the exit aperture. Such a CPC construction is characterized by the all rays of light entering at the input aperture at angles smaller than +/- B 1 with respect to the axis z will exit the CPC after no more than a single reflection within the angle of +/- θ 0 with respect to the axis z.

As shown, light beams 84, 86 are transmitted from LED chip R of the LED chip package 40. The angle of incidence from the light beam 84 is such that the light beam 84 does not contact the interior space 56 of the optical conductor 32. In other embodiments, due to the location of the optical conductor 32, all or nearly all of the light beams contact the interior surface 56. The light beam 86, however, contacts the interior space 56 and subsequently is reflected from the reflective material 54 of the optical conductor 32 six times before entering the CPC 34 where the light beam 86 is collumated by a single reflection from the interior surface 70 the CPC 34. As illustrated, the multiple reflections in the optical conductor 32 cause the light beam 86 to cross the longitudinal axis z of the optical conductor 32, thereby contributing to light mixing.

Figure 5B depicts a plurality of beams traversing the LED collimation optics module. The optical conductor 32 superposed on the LED chip 30 to receive the light from the sources of LEDs G, R, B, W at the input aperture 48. The LEDs G-I, R, B, W are at least partially oriented toward the interior space 56 of the optical conductor 32. As shown, there is a lateral offset between the LEDs G, R, B, W to provide for an angle of incidence between the LEDs and the reflective material to furnish reflection therefrom. The optical conductor 32 provides multiple pathways 89 that are traversed by multiple light beams, collectivelly light bundle 88. The multiple pathways 89 mix the received light beams and cause the intensity centroid of the light bundle 88 to move in a longitudinal fashion from the input aperture 48 to the output aperture 50. The reflective material of the optical conductor is oriented to propagate the light from the input aperture 48 to the output aperture 50 where the mixed light is received by the CPC 34 at the entrance aperture 62. Collimated transmission of the light from the entrance aperture 62 to the exit aperture 64 then occurs to produce a substantially homogenous pupil from the single- reflection, collimated transmission within the CPC 34. The light bundle exits the exit aperture 64 as a substantially homogenous pupil 90. Figures 6 and 7 depict other embodiments of LED collimation optics modules. With reference to figure 6, an LED collimation optics module 16-8 produces a substantially homogenous pupil of light 92 having a different profile than the light produced in figure 5. In figure 7, an LED collimation optics module 16-9 having a combination of a round polycarbonate lightpipe 94 and an approximately 80% reflectivity within a hollow metalized reflector identified as CPC 96 produces another substantially homogenous pupil of light 98. It should be appreciated that construction of the of LED collimation optics modules illustrated in figures 5A through 7 may vary. For example, the optical conductors and CPCs may be integrally formed or bonded together to form integral units. Factors such as application specific characteristics and cost may determined the preferred construction technique.

Figures 8-10 depict various embodiments of optical conductors 32 for use with LED collimation optics modules 16. In figure 8, the optical conductor 32 comprises the wall portion 52. It should be appreciated, however, that the optical conductors 32 are not limited to cylindrical wall portions. The optical conductors 32 may comprise non-cylindrical shapes, as well, that create different wall portions and respective interior spaces 56. By way of example, with reference to figure 9, the optical conductor 32 includes a faceted wall portion having 6- sides, which is indicated as hexagonal wall portion 100. By way of further example, in figure 10, the optical conductor 32 comprises a wall portion having 8-sides, which is indicated as an octagon wall portion 102. The optical conductor 32 may include any number of sides or facets and it may further include circular or cylindrical wall portions.

Figures 11-13 depict various embodiments of bodies 60 of the CPCs 34. In one implementation, the light emitting diode collimation optics module 16 is not limited to the conical body 60 having the curved wall portion 66 as shown in figure 11. Rather, as shown in figures 12 and 13, the light emitting collimation optics module 16 may include a body having any number of sides or facets, such as the body 60 of figure 12 and the body 60 of figure 13. In these embodiments, rather than a curved wall portion, a wall portion having sides or facets is utilized, such as wall portions 104, 106, respectively presented in figures 12 and 13. The body 60 may include any number of sides or facets and it may further include the aforementioned curved wall portion. Figures 14-15 depict embodiments of optical conductors 32 for use with the LED collimation optics modules 16 presented herein. As previously discussed, the optical conductor 32 may take a variety of shapes. In addition to having a variety of shapes, the optical conductor 32 may be a tubular or mixing tubular having a sidewall (e.g., figure 8), a rod (e.g., figure 14), a tubular having a body therein (e.g., figure 15), or a combination therefore, for example. In particular, with reference to figure 14, the optical conductor 32 is a rod having wall portion 52 comprising the reflecting material 54. With reference to figure 15, the optical conductor 32 includes a tubular member 32a having a body 32b therein and related wall portions 52a, 54b and reflective materials 54a, 54b.

Figures 16-17 depict embodiments of bodies 60 of CPCs 34 for use with the LED collimation optics modules 16 presented herein. Similar to the optical conductor 32, the bodies 60 of the CPCs 34 may have a variety of forms including the body 60 having a sidewall (e.g., figure 11), the body 60 being a solid member (e.g., figure 16) with the wall portion 66 and reflective material 68, the body 60 having a sidewall member 60a and a solid member 60b disposed therein (e.g., figure 17) with wall portions 66a, 66b and the reflective materials 68a, 68b, or combinations thereof, for example. Figure 18 depicts a graph of intensity versus vertical angle representing baseline intensity for a single layer close-packing arrangement having hexagonal positioning. Herein the vertical angle of light incidence is expressed in degrees and intensity as shown by line 110. Figure 19 depicts a graph of intensity versus vertical angle representing a baseline intensity for a hexagonal array of light emitting diode collimation optics modules. A line 120 expresses the relationship between intensity and vertical angle. In this embodiment, the optimized baseline intensity model produces the narrowest angular distribution possible while not compromising color uniformity. The angular distribution of this model may be reduced further by reducing the size of the lightpipe input plane or increasing the lightpipe output plane. Lastly, figure 20 depicts a graph of intensity versus vertical angle representing a baseline intensity for a single layer circular spaced-packing arrangement of light emitting diode collimation optics modules. In this figure, a line 130 shows the relationship of intensity versus vertical angle. The designs represented by the graphs exceed luminous flux requirements of 10,000 lumens. The Hex + CPC embodiment (figure 18) being 69% efficient with better color uniformity and the Round + Hollow CPC (figure 20) reflector embodiment being 49% efficient with a two piece approach that includes a round polycarbonate lightpipe with hollow metalized CPC reflector. Figure 21 is a graph showing the relative luminous efficiency as well as the peak luminous flux as a function of a current density. A line 140 of luminous efficiency expresses the ratio of luminous flux to radiant flux in lumen per Watts (lm/W) as a function of current density

(A/mm ). Additionally, a line 150 of peak luminous flux expresses the luminous flux in lumen (Im) as a function of current density (A/mm ).

Figure 22 depicts an amber die chromaticity diagram with respect to the u', v' colorimetry color space coordinates for a rounded array of light emitting diode collimation optics modules having the single layer circular spaced-packing arrangement previously discussed. The depicted CIELUV color space, CIE 1976 (L*, u*, V*) is an Adams chromatic valence color space, and is an update of the CIE 1964 color space (CIEUVW). The differences include a slightly modified lightness scale, and a modified uniform chromaticity scale (for example, in which one of the coordinates, v', is 1.5 times as large as v, its 1960 predecessor). The displayed wavelengths are expressed in nanometers (nm).

The following conversions and transformations are applicable:

L* = 116(Y/Y n ) 1/3 - 16, Y/Y n > (6/29) 3

(29/3) 3 (Y/Y n ), Y/Yn <= (6/29) 3 u* = 13L*(u' - u' n ) v* = 13L*(v' - v' n )

u' = 4X(X + 15Y + 3Z) = 4x/(-2x + 12y + 3) v' = 9Y(X + 15Y +3Z) = 9Y/(-2x + 12Y + 3)

With the respect to the transformation from (u',v') to (x,y) is:

x = 9u7(6u' - 16v' + 12) y = 4v7(6u' - 16v' + 12) u' = u*/13L* + u' n v' = v*/13L* + v' n

Y = Y n L*(3/29) 3 , L* <= 8

Y n (L* + 16)/116) 3 , L* > 8 X = Y(9u74v') Z = Y((12 - 3u' - 20v')/4v')

The turned-U shaped locus boundary 160 represents monochromatic light, or spectral colors or loosely rainbow colors. The lower-bound of the locus presents the line of purples and represents non-spectral colors obtained by mixing light of red and blue wavelengths. It should be understood that in reality this boundary is not hard, as the colors just become dimmer and dimmer owing to the falloff in sensitivity of the receptors of the eye at the extreme ends of the visible spectrum. Colors on the periphery of the locus are saturated and colors become progressively desaturated and tend towards white somewhere in the middle of the plot. Colors outside of the plot are out-of-gamut, however, the chromaticity diagram is not perceptually uniform. That is to say the area of any region of the plot may not correlate at all well with the number of perceptually-distinguishable colors in that region. Further, different light LED sources may have inherently different color gamuts.

Figure 23 depicts a white die chromaticity diagram with respect to the u', v' colorimetry color space coordinates for a rounded array of light emitting diode collimation optics modules having the single layer circular spaced-packing arrangement. Similar to figure 22, the displayed wavelengths are expressed in nanometers (nm) and the turned-U shaped locus boundary 170 represents monochromatic light. As illustrated, the turned-U shaped locus boundary 160 represents deviations in u', v' that are indistinguishable to the human eye and average chromaticity values are in the order of 0.06. While this invention has been described with reference to illustrative embodiments, this description is not intended to be construed in a limiting sense. Various modifications and combinations of the illustrative embodiments as well as other embodiments of the invention, will be apparent to persons skilled in the art upon reference to the description. It is, therefore, intended that the appended claims encompass any such modifications or embodiments.