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Title:
ORAL HYGIENE SYSTEM FOR COMPLIANCE MONITORING AND TELE-DENTISTRY SYSTEM
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/037318
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Oral hygiene monitoring system is disclosed to track motion and orientation of an oral hygiene device. The control system may process data output from a motion sensor to determine position and orientation of an oral hygiene device with respect to a user's mouth. In some examples, the system may use machine learning techniques to identify position and orientation, brush stroke type, and other specific actions.

Inventors:
SERVAL, Thomas (27 rue Delabordère, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 92200, FR)
NICOLAS, Yann (187 Boulevard Bineau, Neuilly-sur-Seine, 92200, FR)
WILLIAMS, Leonie (72 rue de la Colonie, Paris, 75013, FR)
Application Number:
IB2017/055004
Publication Date:
March 01, 2018
Filing Date:
August 17, 2017
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
KOLIBREE SAS (36 rue de Turin, Paris, 75008, FR)
International Classes:
A46B15/00; A61C17/16; A61C17/22
Foreign References:
US20090215015A12009-08-27
EP3141151A12017-03-15
US20140065588A12014-03-06
US20110010875A12011-01-20
US20100145654A12010-06-10
Other References:
ATLIN T; HORECKER E.: "Tooth Brushing and Oral Health: How Frequently and When Should Tooth Brushing be Performed", ORAL HEALTH & PREVENTION DENTISTRY, vol. 3, no. 3, 2005, pages 135 - 140
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Claims:
CLAIMS

1. An oral hygiene system for monitoring compliance with an oral hygiene regimen comprising:

an oral hygiene device comprising a handle and a head;

an optical sensor;

a memory containing machine readable medium comprising machine executable code having stored thereon instructions for performing a method of recognizing specific actions of the oral hygiene device;

a control system coupled to the memory comprising one or more processors coupled to the memory, the control system configured to execute the machine executable code to cause the one or more processors to:

receive data output by the optical sensor;

process the data using a machine learning model to determine a specific action of the oral hygiene device represented by the data, wherein the specific action includes an orientation and motion of the oral hygiene device; and

outputting data representing the specific action.

2. The oral hygiene system according to claim 1, wherein the oral hygiene device comprises a pattern, and the control system is further configured to execute the machine executable code to cause the one or more processors to determine the specific action of the oral hygiene device based on at least analysis of the pattern in the data output by the optical sensor.

3. The oral hygiene system according to claim 1, wherein the specific action of the oral hygiene device is determined with respect to the user's mouth.

4. The oral hygiene system according to claim 1, wherein the machine learning model is a deep learning model.

5. The oral hygiene system according to claim 1, wherein the machine learning model is trained with labeled data that indicates a position of the mouth.

6. The oral hygiene system according to claim Error! Reference source not found., wherein the control system is further configured to execute the machine executable code to cause the one or more processors to input data output from the optical sensor and a motion sensor attached to the oral hygiene device to determine the specific action.

7. The oral hygiene system according to claim 0, wherein the labeled data comprises data that was automatically labeled by a user brushing their teeth according to instructions on a display of a mobile device.

8. The oral hygiene system according to claim 1, wherein the specific action is one of: a brush stroke type, a brushing position, applying toothpaste, or brushing.

9. An electronic oral hygiene system for monitoring brushing and compliance with a tooth brush regime comprising:

an oral hygiene device including a handle and a head;

a motion sensor configured to output motion data related to motion of the oral hygiene device;

a memory for storing the data output by the motion sensor and in data communication with the motion sensor; and

a control system which determines the position of a head of the oral hygiene device in a user's mouth by comparing the motion data to previously recorded calibration data using a machine learning model.

10. The electronic oral hygiene system according to claim 0, wherein the control system utilizes a machine learning model to determine orientation.

11. The electronic oral hygiene system according to claim 0, wherein the machine learning model is a deep learning model.

12. The electronic oral hygiene system according to claim 0, wherein the machine learning model is trained with labeled training data that indicates a position of the mouth.

13. The electronic oral hygiene system according to claim 0, wherein the labeled training data comprises data that was automatically labeled by a user brushing their teeth according to instructions on a display of a mobile device.

14. The electronic oral hygiene system according to claim 0, wherein the control system utilizes a machine learning model to further determine brush stroke type.

15. The electronic oral hygiene system according to claim 0, wherein the brush stroke type comprises a circular stroke, back-and-forth stroke, or an angled stroke.

16. An oral hygiene system for monitoring brushing and compliance with a tooth brush regime comprising:

an oral hygiene device including a handle and a head;

a sensor;

a memory containing machine readable medium comprising machine executable code having stored thereon instructions for performing a method of determining a position and orientation of the toothbrush; and

a control system coupled to the memory comprising one or more processors, the control system configured to execute the machine executable code to cause the control system to determine a specific action performed by the oral hygiene device based at least on data output by the sensor comprising motion data representing the motion of the oral hygiene device, wherein the specific action is determined by processing the motion data with a machine learning model.

17. The oral hygiene system according to claim 0, wherein the sensor is one of a: gyrometer, magnetometer, or accelerometer.

18. The oral hygiene system according to claim 0, wherein the specific action performed by the oral hygiene device is one of: a brush stroke type, a position in the mouth, a brush stroke type at a position in the mouth, or applying toothpaste to the oral hygiene device.

19. The oral hygiene system according to claim 0, wherein a first mobile device displays a schematic of a user's dentition based on the determined specific action, and illustrates information relating to an amount of time spent brushing each section of the user's mouth and the brush stroke type used in each section of the user's mouth.

20. The oral hygiene system according to claim 19, wherein a second mobile device in communication with the first mobile device receives input from a user regarding a goal for a time, quantity, or accuracy of specific actions.

21. The oral hygiene system according to claim 20, wherein the control system is configured to send a notification to the second mobile device if the goal is reached, and send a reward to the first mobile device.

22. A non-transitory, computer-readable storage medium having stored thereon instructions for performing a method comprising machine executable code which when executed by at least one machine, causes the machine to:

determine a spatial position and orientation of an oral hygiene device based on at least data output by an accelerometer comprising motion data representing the oral hygiene device using a machine learning algorithm;

determine a section of a user's teeth being brushed by the oral hygiene device based on the motion data; and

output an indication of the user's brushing on a display based on the determined spatial position, orientation, and section of the user's teeth.

23. The non-transitory, computer-readable storage medium of claim 22, wherein the section of the user's teeth comprises the outside face of upper molars or the inside face of lower molars.

24. The non-transitory, computer-readable storage medium of claim 22, wherein the section of the user's teeth comprises the outside face of upper incisors or the outside face of lower incisors.

Description:
ORAL HYGIENE SYSTEM FOR COMPLIANCE MONITORING

AND TELE-DENTISTRY SYSTEM

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION(S)

[0001] The application claims the benefit of and priority to U.S. provisional patent application no. 62/378, 139, filed August 22, 2017, which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

FIELD

[0002] The present invention relates to methods and devices for monitoring oral hygiene activities.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Compliance with proper technique and frequency of oral hygiene activities, including brushing and flossing, is essential for healthy teeth. However, compliance is especially poor among children and adolescents. For instance, many regions of the mouth are frequently missed after bad habits develop. Accordingly, if the amount of brushing and technique could be monitored, compliance perhaps could be increased. However, monitoring the oral hygiene device technique and the amount of time in each region is quite difficult due to various technological limitations.

[0004] According to the CDC, although preventable, tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of children aged 6 - 11 (25%) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (59%). Also 28% of adults aged 35 to 44 have untreated tooth decay. A bacterial biofilm called plaque that develops on teeth contributes to tooth decay and gingivitis. However, plaque can be removed by brushing at least once a day for two minutes and preferably twice a day and therefore prevent or mitigate tooth decay. Atlin T and Horecker E., "Tooth Brushing and Oral Health: How Frequently and When Should Tooth Brushing be Performed," Oral Health & Prevention Dentistry, 2005 3 (3): 135-140.

[0005] Additionally, research shows that children continually miss the same areas during brushing which leads to isolated buildups of plaque on certain teeth. Accordingly, more important than the length of time of brushing, is the efficacy of the tooth brushing. Additionally, dental health education only has been shown to generally only have a small and temporal effect on plaque accumulation. Atlin T and Horecker E., "Tooth Brushing and Oral Health: How Frequently and When Should Tooth Brushing be Performed," Oral Health & Prevention Dentistry, 2005 3 (3): 135-140. Furthermore, many toothpastes incorporate fluoride which promotes the regrowth of tooth enamel to prevent cavity formation. According to the American Dental Association, the compliance with tooth brushing is quite low. For instance, only 49% of men and 57% of women brush their teeth twice a day.

SUMMARY

[0006] Accordingly, there exists a need for a dental system that could increase a user's compliance of tooth brushing, flossing, or other oral hygiene activities with dentist recommend regimes in order to decrease cavities, gum disease, and other dental complications from lack of brushing. The present disclosure provides systems and methods for monitoring oral hygiene device usage and electronically providing feedback and other incentives to the user to increase compliance.

[0007] The system allows the recording of teeth brushing activities (or other oral hygiene activities) and the analysis of those activities. It allows the creation of a service that provides feedback and incentives for a user of the oral hygiene system. The oral hygiene device or associated system components, including for instance, a camera, records brushing data through sensors during its use. In some embodiments, the data is analyzed and compared to reference data. For instance, one or more optical sensor(s) are disclosed that track the movement of the toothbrush with reference to the mouth. Images output from the optical sensor(s) may be analyzed to determine an orientation and motion of the toothbrush with respect to the mouth, and amount of brushing in each region (or flossing with, for example, a water flosser) may be determined.

[0008] Through a feedback output device, the user receives advice about the use of the system and incentives and other feedback designed to increase compliance with recommended usage regimes. For example, the system can let the user know which regions of the mouth were brushed or flossed and provide the user feedback for where they could brush more, or positions or portions of the mouth they entirely missed. In another example, the system may implement a gamification process to increase the motivation to use the hygienic device.

[0009] In some embodiments, the invention relates to a method for a new way to use an oral hygiene device by informing a user about his/her brushing practices for example by wireless integration with a mobile telecommunication device or other device having a display. The electric tooth brush may also communicate data wirelessly to a base station which may then send the data to a network for analysis on cloud servers or wirelessly to a mobile device. The mobile telecommunication device may be a mobile phone, a microcomputer with telecommunication means, a tablet computer with telecommunication means. In other embodiments, the data may be wirelessly sent to the base station and then uploaded to servers for later accessing by computing devices that include both mobile and non-mobile computing devices. In some examples, the oral hygiene system will include one or more optical sensors or cameras that track the movement of a manual toothbrush (e.g., a non-powered/non-electric toothbrush), and the camera will integrate with a mobile device, a base station, a local area network, or other computing devices. In this example, any standard toothbrush or water flosser may be utilized that does not include electronics or motion sensors.

[0010] The oral hygiene device system may include an oral hygiene device with sensors and a base station, the base station physically supporting the oral hygiene device when it is not handled by a user. The electronic oral hygiene device may include (a) signal processing circuitry, (b) memory, (c) base station interface for exchanging data between the oral hygiene device and base station, (d) a power supply circuit that may include a rechargeable battery or capacitor, and (e) a controller.

[0011] A base station and/or camera may include (a) a network interface for exchanging data between the internet or other network and the base station, and (b) a recharging circuit for recharging the toothbrush's rechargeable battery which may optionally also act as a magnetic transmitter in connection with a magnetometer sensor in the toothbrush. In other embodiments, the system may not include a base station and signals may be sent wirelessly directly to a mobile phone or other wireless terminal, or a separate optical sensor/camera system may record the optical data and send it directly to a mobile device, other computing device or network for analysis. In some embodiments, the base station may include a camera for monitoring and identifying codes on the oral hygiene device to visually track movement.

[0012] The oral hygiene device system may include a camera located separate from the oral hygiene device to record images of the oral hygiene device during brushing. Image processing software can then analyze the brushing motion of the oral hygiene device independently or in addition to data from motion sensors attached to the toothbrush. For instance, the oral hygiene device may not incorporate any electronics and may instead be a standard toothbrush. In this example, the camera and image processing system may solely determine the brushing position and times for each section of teeth. [0013] For instance, the optical sensor(s) may record images during the entire brushing session that include the mouth, oral hygiene device and teeth. The image processing software may then identify the toothbrush, features of the toothbrush, the mouth, and the relative positions of each to determine the section and time of brushing, or using other methods as discussed further herein.

[0014] In some examples, the oral hygiene device may include a pattern for enhanced recognition and spatial orientation calculation. In some examples, an attachment for an oral hygiene device may also contain or include a pattern. Additionally, the system may combine the sensor motion data output from electronics on the oral hygiene device with image data to determine the section or portion of teeth a user is brushing.

Electrical Configuration

[0015] The control system(s) of the oral hygiene devices may be configured to coordinate the data exchange between the oral hygiene device, optical sensor(s), base station, mobile device and/or other networked devices for the transfer of the processed signals from the sensors and/or optical sensor for processing to the processing. In some embodiments, the oral hygiene device system and associated control system may include signal conditioning circuits for the processing of signals from the sensors, a memory for the storing of the processed signals from the sensors, an oral hygiene device interfacing circuit for allowing information exchanges between the oral hygiene device and the base station and other electronic components, an oral hygiene device power supply circuit for powering the sensors and the circuits of the toothbrush, including a rechargeable electric source of the battery and/or capacitor type, and a controller circuit for directing the operation of the tooth brush electronics.

[0016] The base station, optical sensor(s), and/or other associated camera device may include the following circuits: a data exchange circuit for exchanging data with a network, an interfacing circuit adapted to exchange information with the an oral hygiene device, a base station power supply circuit for powering the base station circuits and for recharging the rechargeable electric source of the oral hygiene device when it is received in the base station. The base station may also include a magnetic field transmitter, which may be the power supply or recharging circuit, or may be a separate magnetic field transmitter. The base station or other electronic device may also include a camera and associated electronics. The controlling circuit may be configured to store in memory the processed signals from the sensors upon the detection of the user using the toothbrush, and to command, when the oral hygiene device is received in the base station, the data exchange circuit of the base station or other electronic device to transfer the stored signals from the sensors, through the interfacing circuits of the oral hygiene device and of the base station or other electronic device, over the network. In some embodiments, raw data from the sensors may be stored and sent over the data exchange circuit for processing at the base station or processing elsewhere.

Physical Design

[0017] In some embodiments, the oral hygiene device may include an electronic motor, for vibrating the oral hygiene device head during brushing. Additionally, the head of the oral hygiene device that includes the bristles or water flosser, may be removably connectable to a body or handle of the oral hygiene device, and be configured for the interchangeability of multiple heads. The oral hygiene device may be waterproof. In some embodiments, a base station may be configured to physically receive only one, two, three, four or five, or additional numbers of toothbrushes or other oral hygiene heads.

[0018] In some embodiments, the oral hygiene device may include visual codes or patterns that may be detected and tracked by a camera or visual based detector. For instance, the oral hygiene device head may include a pattern and the handle may include a pattern. In some embodiments, the handle may include an add-on bulb or protrusion on the end that includes a larger pattern for detection by the camera. This "bulb or protrusion" might be a dedicated add-on clipped on the handle that is not necessarily part of the toothbrush.

[0019] Also, this add-on may also be a stand for the toothbrush. For instance, the bulb could ballast the oral hygiene device with water. Accordingly, the add-on could be an empty half sphere with water or other heavy substance in the bottom. This could allow for the novelty for a user to set down the oral hygiene device at many angles and/or orientations and the oral hygiene device would stand erect regardless of the angle and/or orientation at which the oral hygiene device is set down.

Sensors

[0020] Sensor(s) may include one more optical sensors that are separate from the oral hygiene device that can record images of the oral hygiene device as it is being used. If two or more optical sensors are used, the images can be utilized to stereoscopically track movement and distance of the oral hygiene device.

[0021] In embodiments where the oral hygiene device includes electronics, the sensors of the oral hygiene device may be one or more of: i) a pressure sensor (10) motion sensors (11), or ii) any other type(s) of sensors capable of measuring brushing activities of the toothbrush, such as an accelerometer or an inertial sensor. This may include accelerometers, magnetometers, and gyroscopes, and/or gyrometers. In some embodiments, the oral hygiene device may include at least a pressure sensor and at least one acceleration sensor. In some embodiments, the processed signals from the sensors are transferred to the server via a network through the base station. Additionally, processed signals from the sensors are transferred to the server via a network through the mobile device.

[0022] In other embodiments, the oral hygiene device may have patterns for recognition by visual based sensors that are stationary and remote from the toothbrush, or may be only a standard toothbrush. For instance, a mobile phone camera or a camera in the base station may be utilized as an optical sensor to monitor the orientation and position of the toothbrush. In these embodiments, the oral hygiene device may also include motion sensors or in other embodiments may have no electronics to save on the cost of manufacturing. Instead, the oral hygiene device may only have patterns for recognition by the camera, or may have no patterns and the image processing system may recognize the shape, axis and orientation of the oral hygiene device as disclosed further herein.

Computing Devices

[0023] In some embodiments, the mobile telecommunication device is a mobile phone, a microcomputer with telecommunication means, a tablet computer with telecommunication means, or any other means having display means for displaying information related to a tooth brushing activity and having circuits for a connection to the global network and for communicating with the global network. For example, the mobile device can typically be a mobile phone, but may also consist of other portable mobile PDA device types ("PDA") or otherwise, with capacity of radio communication or, even, a microcomputer laptop or desktop with telecommunication means, a tablet computer with telecommunication means. In other embodiments, the signals are viewable on a stationary computable device that accesses the data via cloud servers.

Signal Processing

[0024] In some embodiments with electronics in the toothbrush, a control system of the oral hygiene device is configured to store processed signals from the sensors in memory. In some embodiments, the control system may instead store raw data from the sensors in the memory for sending to a base station or other component of the system where the raw sensor data may be processed. The control system coordinates the acquisition, processing, and storage of signals once the control system and/or other processor in the system determines a user initiates brushing. In other embodiments, the control system may coordinate the storing and sending of raw data for processing elsewhere. Next, the control system may be configured to send the stored signals wirelessly to the base station or the computing device for further processing or initial processing, display, or analysis. In some embodiments, the oral hygiene device may not contain a controller or any electronics.

[0025] Signal processing may include filtering, amplification, conversion, signal conversion from analog to digital, digital filtering, digital data compression, digital data reduction, digital data computation, and digital data conversion. This may be performed at several different aspects of the system including the oral hygiene device, the base station, an associated mobile phone, a server linked by a network to the system or other locations.

Data Protocols and Transfer

[0026] In some embodiments, the oral hygiene device interface circuit and the base station and/or camera device interface circuits are wireless circuits, for example: WiFi®, Bluetooth®, GSM/UMTS and derivatives. In some embodiments, the data exchange circuit of the base station uses a wireless protocol, for example: WiFi®, Bluetooth®, GSM or others. In some embodiments, the oral hygiene device may have a unique identifier, to allow the pairing of a mobile device and the toothbrush.

[0027] In other embodiments, the oral hygiene device interface circuit and the camera/base station interface circuit may utilize wired connections. For example, the data exchange circuit connection to the network is wired. Identification data may be incorporated in the data packets that include the stored signals from the sensors that are sent over the network. The identification may include a serial identity number of the oral hygiene device or head, a serial identity number of the base station, or a network address of the base station. Additionally, tooth brushing monitoring data obtained during the measuring step may be time-stamped using data from a oral hygiene device internal clock.

[0028] In other embodiments, the network comprises at least a wireless local area network (WLAN) and during the step of communication, the oral hygiene device transmits data to said mobile device via said WLAN. The WLAN may operate according to a communication protocol selected from the Wi-Fi or Bluetooth protocols. A mobile, camera, or other computing device may also be in communication with the local wireless local area network and in the communication step, the tooth brush transmits said data to the mobile device via said wireless LAN. [0029] The LAN may include a server that communicates with at least the toothbrush, and in the communication step, the oral hygiene device may transmit said data to the mobile device by means of the server. The telecommunication network may further comprise a network of separate remote wireless LANs, the server communicating with at least one server via said remote network, the mobile device also communicating with said server via the remote network.

[0030] The information exchanged between the oral hygiene device, camera, optical sensor(s) device, mobile device, and/or the base station through the interfacing circuits may include data or commands, the data including stored, processed signals from the sensors or raw data from the sensors. Information may be transmitted from the oral hygiene device to the base station and, conversely, from the base station to the toothbrush, as needed. The data can also be a program or software update to store and/or execute by the toothbrush. For example, updates and new firmware may be wirelessly downloaded and installed on the toothbrush.

Cloud Server or Local Network Processing of Data

[0031] In some embodiments, the system includes a server and the stored, processed signals from the sensors or raw data from the sensors (including optical sensors) are transferred over the network to said server, the server including storing means for the transferred processed signals and including computational components under the control of a program or software instructions. The program has instructions that are configured to send, at the end of the transfer, an erase command over the network to the oral hygiene device to erase the signals stored on the oral hygiene device that have been transferred to the server. The server may also determine the location of the oral hygiene device using geo-location capabilities of the remote network and/or of the mobile device.

[0032] The server includes memory for storing a history of the successive transferred stored and processed signals from the oral hygiene device sensors and/or raw data from the sensors or associated camera(s) and other devices. The program for controlling the computational components of the server includes software instructions for analyzing and comparing the stored and processed signals and to provide computational results from said analysis and comparison. The program for controlling the computational components of the server may include instructions for making the results of the analysis available to a variety of computing devices, including a mobile or stationary device, by accessing the server through an internet page or other variety of methods. The computational analysis from the server may be transferred or downloaded directly to a computing device via a network link, which may be made through a dedicated communication equipment POA link to the base station. Accordingly, the computational results from the server are transferred to the mobile device via a network through a dedicated communication equipment POA, and then to the base station and/or the oral hygiene device via links. When the oral hygiene device is operative and communicating with the server, said server can update the software and/or the parameters running and/or used in the oral hygiene device. Similarly, the server can update the application or parameters related to the oral hygiene device and which is running on the mobile device.

User Profile

[0033] The system may include a stored user profile associated to the tooth brushing (or other oral hygiene) activity and its related data comprises the age, size and gender of the user. During or after the step of monitoring oral hygiene (e.g. tooth brushing) activities, the oral hygiene device, mobile device, or server automatically seeks to match the user with at least one user profile using at least one predetermined rule depending on the user profile and of past data. If the user is not a regular user of the oral hygiene device, said user identifies him/her as a guest on the mobile device.

[0034] In a step of user identification, a specific user may be associated with the oral hygiene device and presumed to be the user. If multiple users for a given oral hygiene device are utilized, to associate a user with a brushing activity at least in the oral hygiene device and possibly in the mobile device and/or the server at least for reference purposes for those last two.

[0035] In embodiments that utilize a camera, the user profile may have a picture of the user uploaded or associated with the profile. This will allow the visual based recognition system to automatically determine a specific user associated with the profile.

Data Output

[0036] In some embodiments, the oral hygiene device transmits data in real time to the mobile, camera, optical sensor device, or other computing device, and in the display step, the computing device displays in real time on the screen, information related to said data, for example the instantaneous progress of a user for a brushing episode in progress.

Calibration / Initialization [0037] In some embodiments, the oral hygiene device and/or camera may be calibrated, either in the factory or by the user or both. If a calibration step is performed by the user, the user can be guided in this process by information given by e.g. the display of the mobile device.

[0038] Particularly, the visual tracking system may be calibrated by the user with prompts from the base station or an associated electronic device, (e.g. mobile and/or optical sensor(s)). The prompts may be audio or come through a user interface. The calibration program may request the user stand at a certain distance with the oral hygiene device and move around in brushing positions until certain lights or audible tones are indicated. The system may calibrate an oral hygiene device with or without patterns, and with or without motion sensing electronics.

[0039] This calibration system may detect the oral hygiene device size and shape and the size and shape of the user's head, including the distance that the user is standing away from the camera. In some embodiments, the user may hold up a standard oral hygiene device sized calibration tool to allow the camera (or other optical sensor) to appropriately calibrate the distance. In some embodiments, the motion data may be combined with the image data to calibration the system simultaneously.

[0040] In a step of initialization, the system may allow for the selection of the desired local wireless network or mobile device. This can be done automatically or with the help of the user, and these operations correspond to a network pairing between the elements of the system which communicate between them.

[0041] In some embodiments, the oral hygiene device may include at least a pressure sensor, at least one acceleration sensor, signal conditioning circuits for the processing of signals from the sensors, a memory circuit for the storing of the processed signals from the sensors, an oral hygiene device interfacing circuit for allowing information transfer between the oral hygiene device and a base station, an oral hygiene device power supply circuit for powering the sensors and the circuits of the toothbrush, said oral hygiene device power supply including a rechargeable electric source of the battery and/or capacitor type, and a controlling circuit for the operation of the oral hygiene device circuits. Preferably, the controlling circuit is configured to store in the memory the processed signals from the sensors upon the detection of the user using the toothbrush, and to command, when the oral hygiene device is received in a base station, the data exchange circuit of the base station for the transfer of the stored, processed signals from the sensors, through the interfacing circuits of the oral hygiene device and of the base station, over a network.

[0042] According to the invention, the base station (and/or optical sensor device) includes a data exchange circuit with a network, a base station interfacing circuit adapted to exchange information with an oral hygiene device and/or mobile device or other computing device, a power supply circuit for powering the base station circuits and for recharging the rechargeable electric source of the oral hygiene device when it is received in the base station.

[0043] From another point of view of this same invention, the invention provides a system and also a method using the system for monitoring oral hygiene (e.g. brushing) activities, allowing communications with a mobile communication device having a display and information entry means, the oral hygiene device and the mobile device communicating both by radio with a telecommunications network, said telecommunications network being adapted to make communicate at least the mobile device with at least one further telecommunications device, the method comprising the steps of: (a) at least one tooth brushing or oral hygiene activity monitoring step in which the oral hygiene device performs at least one measurement indicative of at least the brushing or other oral hygiene activity of the user, (b) at least one stage of two-way communication during which: i) a user enters information in the mobile device, and the mobile device transmits said information to the oral hygiene device through the telecommunication network, and ii) the oral hygiene device transmits to the mobile device, the data according to said tooth brushing activity monitoring measurement, through the telecommunications network, and (c) at least a display or feedback step in which the mobile device displays on its screen information based on tooth brushing (or other oral hygiene) activity monitoring data transmitted in the communication step. The displayed information may be representative of an output of a computation done on the transmitted data, said computation being done in the mobile device or in a server.

[0044] The present disclosure provides a product and service which improves the use and/or motivation for a user to brush their teeth or perform other oral hygiene activities. Feedback is provided through an output device linked with the system. The system provides an oral hygiene device including sensors which monitor a user's brushing activities and provides feedback related to the brushing to the user. In some embodiments, a server may provide applications that use and process the data received from the sensors to provide output data relating to the quality of the brushing and other analysis. Finally, the applications running on the server may process this output data to provide feedback to the user to provide a playful / gameful dimension to increase the motivation to brush or floss the user's teeth.

[0045] According to some embodiments, an oral hygiene system for monitoring compliance with an oral hygiene regimen includes an oral hygiene device, an optical sensor, a memory, and a control system. The oral hygiene device includes a handle and a head. The memory contains machine readable medium comprising machine executable code having stored thereon instructions for performing a method of recognizing specific actions of the oral hygiene device. The control system is coupled to the memory and includes one or more processors coupled to the memory. The control system is configured to execute the machine executable code to cause the one or more processors to: (i) receive data output by the optical sensor, (ii) process the data using a machine learning model to determine a specific action of the oral hygiene device represented by the data, wherein the specific action includes an orientation and motion of the oral hygiene device, and (iii) output data representing the specific action.

[0046] According to some embodiments, an electronic oral hygiene system for monitoring brushing and compliance with a tooth brush regime includes an oral hygiene device, a motion sensor, a memory, and a control system. The oral hygiene device includes a handle and a head. The motion sensor is configured to output motion data related to motion of the oral hygiene device. The memory is for storing the data output by the motion sensor and is in data communication with the motion sensor. The control system determines the position of a head of the oral hygiene device in a user's mouth by comparing the motion data to previously recorded calibration data using a machine learning model.

[0047] According to some embodiments, an oral hygiene system for monitoring brushing and compliance with a tooth brush regime includes an oral hygiene device, a sensor, a memory, and a control system. The oral hygiene device includes a handle and a head. The memory contains machine readable medium including machine executable code having stored thereon instructions for performing a method of determining a position and orientation of the toothbrush. The control system is coupled to the memory and includes one or more processors. The control system is configured to execute the machine executable code to cause the control system to determine a specific action performed by the oral hygiene device based at least on data output by the sensor including motion data representing the motion of the oral hygiene device. The specific action is determined by processing the motion data with a machine learning model. [0048] According to some embodiments, a non-transitory, computer-readable storage medium has stored thereon instructions for performing a method comprising machine executable code which when executed by at least one machine, causes the machine to: (i) determine a spatial position and orientation of an oral hygiene device based on at least data output by an accelerometer comprising motion data representing the oral hygiene device using a machine learning algorithm, (ii) determine a section of a user's teeth being brushed by the oral hygiene device based on the motion data, and (iii) output an indication of the user's brushing on a display based on the determined spatial position, orientation, and section of the user's teeth.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0049] The invention will now be described in relation to an exemplified embodiment and to the following Figures:

[0050] Figure 1 is a schematic view of an example of the system of the invention;

[0051] Figure 2 is a diagrammatic view of an example of the oral hygiene device and of an example base station of the system;

[0052] Figure 3A is a perspective view of an example of an oral hygiene device and head in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention;

[0053] Figure 3B is a perspective view of an example of an oral hygiene device handle;

[0054] Figures 3C - 3E are perspective views of an example replaceable heads that may be attached to a head interface;

[0055] Figure 4 is a flow chart illustrating an example of a process utilized in the present disclosure to record brushing or other hygiene data and provide feedback to the user;

[0056] Figure 5 is diagram illustrating an example of an oral hygiene device and base station, with a magnetic field generator in the base station or other associated device;

[0057] Figure 6A is a perspective view illustrating an example of an oral hygiene device with visual patterns in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention;

[0058] Figure 6B is a perspective view illustrating an example of an oral hygiene device head with visual patterns in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention;

[0059] Figure 7 is a perspective view illustrating an example of a system that identifies the position of the oral hygiene device visually without a pattern;

[0060] Figure 8A is a perspective view illustrating an example of a toothbrush handle with an insert; [0061] Figure 8B is a perspective view illustrating an example of a toothbrush with an insert removed;

[0062] Figure 8C is a perspective view illustrating an example of an insert that includes a battery and electronics for a toothbrush;

[0063] Figure 9A is a front view illustrating an example of a mobile device display with brushing feedback; and

[0064] Figure 9B is a front view illustrating an example of a mobile device display with brushing feedback.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0065] Various examples of the invention will now be described. The following description provides specific details for a thorough understanding and enabling description of these examples. One skilled in the relevant art will understand, however, that the invention may be practiced without many of these details. Likewise, one skilled in the relevant art will also understand that the invention can include many other obvious features not described in detail herein. Additionally, some well-known structures or functions may not be shown or described in detail below, so as to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the relevant description.

[0066] The terminology used below is to be interpreted in its broadest reasonable manner, even though it is being used in conjunction with a detailed description of certain specific examples of the invention. Indeed, certain terms may even be emphasized below; however, any terminology intended to be interpreted in any restricted manner will be overtly and specifically defined as such in this Detailed Description section.

[0067] Particular implementations of the subject matter have been described. Other implementations are within the scope of the following claims. In some cases, the actions recited in the claims can be performed in a different order and still achieve desirable results. In addition, the processes depicted in the accompanying figures do not necessarily require the particular order shown, or sequential order, to achieve desirable results.

[0068] While this specification contains many specific implementation details, these should not be construed as limitations on the scope of any inventions or of what may be claimed, but rather as descriptions of features specific to particular implementations of particular inventions. Certain features that are described in this specification in the context of separate implementations can also be implemented in combination in a single implementation. Conversely, various features that are described in the context of a single implementation can also be implemented in multiple implementations separately or in any suitable subcombination. Moreover, although features may be described above as acting in certain combinations and even initially claimed as such, one or more features from a claimed combination can in some cases be excised from the combination, and the claimed combination may be directed to a subcombination or variation of a subcombination.

[0069] Similarly, while operations may be depicted in the drawings in a particular order, this should not be understood as requiring that such operations be performed in the particular order shown or in sequential order, or that all illustrated operations be performed, to achieve desirable results. In certain circumstances, multitasking and parallel processing may be advantageous. Moreover, the separation of various system components in the implementations described above should not be understood as requiring such separation in all implementations, and it should be understood that the described program components and systems can generally be integrated together in a single software product or packaged into multiple software products.

[0070] Figure 1 illustrates an overview of the disclosed oral hygiene device monitoring and feedback system 100 that includes: an oral hygiene device 1 equipped with sensors, a base station 2 for receiving and charging the oral hygiene device 1, a mobile device 30 that wirelessly receives/sends data, a dedicated wireless link POA 8, a server 4 and a network 3 for transferring the information from the server or between other various components of the system 100.

Data Communication

[0071] The oral hygiene device 1 may have an antenna 5 and transceiver means for radio communication to a compatible complementary antenna 5 and transceiver means of the base station 2 through a radio link 31. The radio-communication link 31 may be for example WiFi or GSM or Bluetooth or their derivatives or other proprietary protocols. Additionally, one or more optical sensors 9 may communicate with a mobile phone 30, base station 2, server 4, or other associated computing device as disclosed herein.

[0072] In another embodiment, antennas and transceiver means are replaced or completed by wired connections or connectors to allow the exchange of information between the oral hygiene device 1, optical sensor 9, and / or the base station 2. Wired connectors may also provide electric power supply from the base station to the oral hygiene device 1 for recharging a rechargeable electric source of the latter. In another embodiment, the electric power supply from the base station to the oral hygiene device 1 or optical sensor device 9 is provided with electromagnetic induction circuitry.

[0073] The base station 2 may be powered through a power cord. The base station 2 may alternatively be powered by a rechargeable battery which is charged from time to time with a battery charger powered by the power supply grid. The base station 2 has a receiving slot for physically supporting and storing the tooth brush when it is not used by a user.

[0074] The base station 2 and or separate optical sensor device 9 includes a data exchange circuit, for communicating data with a network 3, for example the internet. Data may be transferred using a radio-communication link 31, as illustrated in Figure 1, with the antenna 5 of the base station 2 and with the antenna 5 of a dedicated communication equipment 8 or POA, connected to the network 3. In other embodiments, transfer of data between the base station 2 and the network 3 are performed through a wired link, for example ADSL.

[0075] The antenna 5 and transceiver means of the oral hygiene device 1 and/or camera/optical sensing device 9 is also compatible with radio communication means of a mobile device 30 over a radio link 31. The radio-communication link 31 is for example WiFi or GSM or Bluetooth or their derivatives or other suitable protocols. In some embodiments, radio links 31 are short range, local, radio communication links or a radio link 35 such as the ones used in cellular or other mobile phone systems (GSM and derivatives for example).

[0076] The mobile device 30 is also able, via its radio communication circuits, to exchange data on a radio link 31 through the dedicated communication equipment 8 or POA, on the network 3. In addition, or alternatively, the mobile device 30 is able to exchange data on a radio link 35 directly on the network 3.

[0077] A server 4 is connected to the network 3 by any suitable means. Server 4 is defined broadly to include computing devices capable of storing and computational operations for example on the "cloud" in a computing network. The server 4 may include storage devices, for instance memory, hard disk drives, flash memory, or other storage devices and includes computational means under the control of a program. For the transfer of data, the oral hygiene device controlling circuit uses a predetermined server 4 address of the network 3. This predetermined address may be stored initially in the oral hygiene device 1 and/or updated later through the network 3. The transfer of data between the oral hygiene device 1 and server 4 may be performed: a) each time the oral hygiene device 1 is replaced in the base station 2 in a batch configuration, b) at the direction of the user or the server 4, for example by user action initiating the transfer using the interface of the mobile device 30 or a web page accessing the server 4 or c) in real time when oral hygiene device 1 activities are detected, or d) the oral hygiene device 1 is removed from the base station 2 or e) at other suitable intervals.

System Circuit Design and Network Architecture

[0078] As illustrated in Figure 2, the oral hygiene device 1 may include a pressure sensor 10 and at least one motion sensor 11. The pressure sensor 10 detects force applied on the brushing side of the oral hygiene device 1 when a user applies the bristles to their teeth. A motion sensor 11 may be provided for detecting motion on any or all three of the orthogonal axes of the oral hygiene device 1, or a motion sensor may be able to detect accelerations or other motion characteristics in all three axes. The signals output by the sensors are processed by a signal conditioning circuits 12. Examples of signal conditioning include: frequency and noise filtering, amplification, conversion, digital signal processing, and other techniques to optimize the detected signals for analysis.

[0079] On other embodiments, the oral hygiene device 1 may not include any electronics and may be a standard toothbrush. In those embodiments, a separate optical sensor 9 may perform the tasks of tracking the motion of the oral hygiene device 1.

[0080] The processed signals or raw data from the sensors are then stored in memory 14 as determined by a control system 13 which may be a digital signal processor, microcontroller, or other processing component and which operations are controlled by a program 15. The memory 14 may be included in the oral hygiene device 1 or on a server 4 or other component of the system 100. A program 15 may be updated through an oral hygiene device 1 interfacing circuit 16, a modem for radio communication, and its antenna 5 (and/or connector in case of contact/wired interface) or other interfaces of the oral hygiene device 1. More generally, the oral hygiene device interfacing circuit 16 allows information exchanges between the oral hygiene device 1, the optical sensor device 9, and the base station 2 when the radio link 31 is established (and/or connectors of the tooth brush and of the base station are mated together). The oral hygiene device 1 may contain a power supply circuit for powering the sensors and the circuits of the oral hygiene device 1 and it can include a rechargeable electric source 17.

[0081] The base station 2 may include a base station interfacing circuit 20, a modem for radio communication, with an antenna 5 (and/or connector) to exchange information over link 31. In addition, the base station interfacing circuit 20 is able to establish a radio link 31 with the dedicated communication equipment 8, for communication with the network 3. The base station 2 may utilize a power supply converter 22 which is regulated 21 to provide appropriate voltage and current to the base station circuits. Electrical connections (not illustrated) for providing charging current to the oral hygiene device 1 from the base station 2 may be provided. In some embodiments, the base station 2 may include a recharging circuit for recharging a battery or power supply of the toothbrush, through inductive charging or a direct electrical connection.

[0082] The base station 2, optical sensing device 9, or other separate electronic device may also include a magnetic field transmitter 110 that emits a magnetic field that may be sensed by an associated magnetometer or other magnetic field sensor 11. The magnetic field transmitter 110 may be provided by utilizing the charging circuits or other circuits that already exist in the base station 2 or other electronic device. For example, the base station 2 may have a recharging coil that could also serve as a magnetic field transmitter 110. The recharging coil may be fixed and in a known orientation, so as to create a magnetic field of known strength and polarity orientation. In some embodiments, the base station 2 may include a recharging coil that generates a magnetic field with a polar axis situated in a horizontal or vertical plane. In some embodiments, this may be a single axis magnetic field transmitter 110, such as in the case of a single axis recharging coil. In other embodiments, 2 or 3 axis magnetic field transmitters 110 may be incorporated into the base station 2. This will advantageously allow for a fixed magnetic field(s) of known orientation so that a magnetometer 11 on the oral hygiene device 1 may sense the strength and polarity of the magnetic field(s) in order to provide information regarding the position and orientation of the oral hygiene device 1, or the relative changes in position and orientation.

[0083] In some embodiments, the base station 2 or other electronic device separate from the oral hygiene device 1 may also include a camera 9 that may detect visual patterns on the oral hygiene device 1. The camera 9 may be any suitable camera that may detect a visual pattern on the oral hygiene device 1. For instance, the cameras provided with mobile phones would be suitable. In other embodiments, a standalone camera or optical sensing device 9, a separate camera stand for a mobile phone, a connected mirror or other camera or imaging device may be utilized.

[0084] In some embodiments, the base station 2 is passive and its circuits are under the control of the controller 13 of the oral hygiene device 1 when they are communicating together, specifically when the link 31 is of the wired/contact type with connectors. In the embodiment represented on Figure 2, the base station has a control system 19 which controls its operations.

[0085] The dedicated communication equipment 8 may include a radio modem circuit 27 and the appropriate electronics for communicating with network 3. The dedicated communication equipment 8, is able to establish a radio link 31 with the base station 2 and/or a radio link 31 with the mobile device.

[0086] The mobile device 30 includes at least a radio modem 26 for establishing a radio link 31. The operations of the mobile device 30 are under the control of a control system 25, for instance, a central processing unit or and of a program 15. The mobile device 30 includes an output means such as a display screen and an input means such as a virtual or material keyboard. Preferably, the input and output means of the mobile device 30 are used in the system to input information and to display information, notably the results of computations performed by a server. The mobile device 30 may also include a camera 9 that is capable of detecting visual patterns supplied on the oral hygiene device for detection of movement.

[0087] The program of the computational means of the server 4 allows storage of signals received from the oral hygiene device 1. Additionally, the server 4 may analyze the data from the sensors to produce feedback and motivational data regarding the user's performance in brushing their teeth. These results may be accessible to the user on an internet page hosted by the server 4 or transferred to another webserver for hosting. In a different embodiment, the previous operations and computations are done fully or partially in the mobile device 30, the server 4 being used for general monitoring.

[0088] It should initially be understood that the disclosure herein may be implemented with any type of hardware and/or software, and may be a pre-programmed general purpose computing device. For example, the system may be implemented using a server, a personal computer, a portable computer, a thin client, or any suitable device or devices. The disclosure and/or components thereof may be a single device at a single location, or multiple devices at a single, or multiple, locations that are connected together using any appropriate communication protocols over any communication medium such as electric cable, fiber optic cable, or in a wireless manner.

[0089] It should also be noted that the disclosure is illustrated and discussed herein as having a plurality of modules which perform particular functions. It should be understood that these modules are merely schematically illustrated based on their function for clarity purposes only, and do not necessary represent specific hardware or software. In this regard, these modules may be hardware and/or software implemented to substantially perform the particular functions discussed. Moreover, the modules may be combined together within the disclosure, or divided into additional modules based on the particular function desired. Thus, the disclosure should not be construed to limit the present invention, but merely be understood to illustrate one example implementation thereof.

[0090] The computing system can include clients and servers. A client and server are generally remote from each other and typically interact through a communication network. The relationship of client and server arises by virtue of computer programs running on the respective computers and having a client-server relationship to each other. In some implementations, a server transmits data (e.g., an HTML page) to a client device (e.g., for purposes of displaying data to and receiving user input from a user interacting with the client device). Data generated at the client device (e.g., a result of the user interaction) can be received from the client device at the server.

[0091] Implementations of the subject matter described in this specification can be implemented in a computing system that includes a back end component, e.g., as a data server, or that includes a middleware component, e.g., an application server, or that includes a front end component, e.g., a client computer having a graphical user interface or a Web browser through which a user can interact with an implementation of the subject matter described in this specification, or any combination of one or more such back end, middleware, or front end components. The components of the system can be interconnected by any form or medium of digital data communication, e.g., a communication network. Examples of communication networks include a local area network ("LAN") and a wide area network ("WAN"), an inter-network (e.g., the Internet), and peer-to-peer networks (e.g., ad hoc peer to-peer networks).

[0092] Implementations of the subject matter and the operations described in this specification can be implemented in digital electronic circuitry, or in computer software, firmware, or hardware, including the structures disclosed in this specification and their structural equivalents, or in combinations of one or more of them. Implementations of the subject matter described in this specification can be implemented as one or more computer programs, i.e., one or more modules of computer program instructions, encoded on computer storage medium for execution by, or to control the operation of, data processing apparatus. Alternatively, or in addition, the program instructions can be encoded on an artificially generated propagated signal, e.g., a machine-generated electrical, optical, or electromagnetic signal that is generated to encode information for transmission to suitable receiver apparatus for execution by a data processing apparatus. A computer storage medium can be, or be included in, a computer-readable storage device, a computer-readable storage substrate, a random or serial access memory array or device, or a combination of one or more of them. Moreover, while a computer storage medium is not a propagated signal, a computer storage medium can be a source or destination of computer program instructions encoded in an artificially generated propagated signal. The computer storage medium can also be, or be included in, one or more separate physical components or media (e.g., multiple CDs, disks, or other storage devices).

[0093] The operations described in this specification can be implemented as operations performed by a "data processing apparatus" on data stored on one or more computer-readable storage devices or received from other sources.

[0094] The term "data processing apparatus" encompasses all kinds of apparatus, devices, and machines for processing data, including by way of example a programmable processor, a computer, a system on a chip, or multiple ones, or combinations, of the foregoing The apparatus can include special purpose logic circuitry, e.g., an FPGA (field programmable gate array) or an ASIC (application specific integrated circuit). The apparatus can also include, in addition to hardware, code that creates an execution environment for the computer program in question, e.g., code that constitutes processor firmware, a protocol stack, a database management system, an operating system, a cross-platform runtime environment, a virtual machine, or a combination of one or more of them. The apparatus and execution environment can realize various different computing model infrastructures, such as web services, distributed computing and grid computing infrastructures.

[0095] A computer program (also known as a program, software, software application, script, or code) can be written in any form of programming language, including compiled or interpreted languages, declarative or procedural languages, and it can be deployed in any form, including as a standalone program or as a module, component, subroutine, object, or other unit suitable for use in a computing environment. A computer program may, but need not, correspond to a file in a file system. A program can be stored in a portion of a file that holds other programs or data (e.g., one or more scripts stored in a markup language document), in a single file dedicated to the program in question, or in multiple coordinated files (e.g., files that store one or more modules, sub programs, or portions of code). A computer program can be deployed to be executed on one computer or on multiple computers that are located at one site or distributed across multiple sites and interconnected by a communication network.

[0096] The processes and logic flows described in this specification can be performed by one or more programmable processors executing one or more computer programs to perform actions by operating on input data and generating output. The processes and logic flows can also be performed by, and apparatus can also be implemented as, special purpose logic circuitry, e.g., an FPGA (field programmable gate array) or an ASIC (application specific integrated circuit).

[0097] Processors suitable for the execution of a computer program include, by way of example, both general and special purpose microprocessors, and any one or more processors of any kind of digital computer. Generally, a processor will receive instructions and data from a read only memory or a random access memory or both. The essential elements of a computer are a processor for performing actions in accordance with instructions and one or more memory devices for storing instructions and data. Generally, a computer will also include, or be operatively coupled to receive data from or transfer data to, or both, one or more mass storage devices for storing data, e.g., magnetic, magneto optical disks, or optical disks. However, a computer need not have such devices. Moreover, a computer can be embedded in another device, e.g., a mobile telephone, a personal digital assistant (PDA), a mobile audio or video player, a game console, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, or a portable storage device (e.g., a universal serial bus (USB) flash drive), to name just a few. Devices suitable for storing computer program instructions and data include all forms of non-volatile memory, media and memory devices, including by way of example semiconductor memory devices, e.g., EPROM, EEPROM, and flash memory devices; magnetic disks, e.g., internal hard disks or removable disks; magneto optical disks; and CD ROM and DVD-ROM disks. The processor and the memory can be supplemented by, or incorporated in, special purpose logic circuitry.

Oral Hygiene Device Design

[0098] As illustrated in FIGS. 3A - 3C, the oral hygiene device oral hygiene device 1 may include a handle 40, and a head 42 that may be removably connectable to the handle 40. The handle 40 may contain a motor that is mechanically connected to the head 42 and when activated vibrates or moves the head 42 in manner that brushes a user's teeth when placed inside the mouth. The handle 40 includes a head interface 46 that removably attaches various heads 42 to the handle 40. The head interface 40 contains leads 48 for both data and power transfer to various heads 42. For example, certain heads 42 may include sensors that require power and data transfer, and therefore power can be routed from the handle's 40 power source to the head 42 through leads 48 that form a connection with the head 42 at the head interface 46. The may be various numbers of leads 48 that form the connection on the head interface 46, for instance there may be two leads 48 for power, and two leads 48 for data, three leads 48 for power, three leads 48 for data, and other various numbers of leads. In some embodiments the head interface 46 will form a watertight seal with the head 42 to prevent water from entering the interface and interfering with the electrical leads 48 power and data transfer.

[0099] In some embodiments, the majority of the circuitry and costly components can be contained inside the handle 40 as opposed to the head 42, which may be disposable after a certain number of uses. This will minimize the cost of the replacement heads 42. For example, in some embodiments, the battery, controller 13 may be contained in the handle 40, and any sensor probes and circuitry to connect the sensor probes may be contained in the head 42. In other embodiments, the head 42 may contain no circuitry or electrical components and will only provide a mechanical brushing function by supporting the bristles.

[0100] For instance, as illustrated in Figures 8A - 8C, the electronics and battery may be contained inside an insert 800 that is easily slidable into a conventional oral hygiene device 1. For instance, an oral hygiene device 1 may include a chamber and connector that is connectable to a base and insert 800 that slide into the chamber and the base forms a watertight seal with the connector. The insert 800 could be any manner of shapes (cylindrical, rectangular or others) that would slide inside a space of the toothbrush. In some examples, the base and connector will contain a screw and thread mechanism to attach the toothbrush. In some examples, the connector and base will include a press-fit mating configuration for easy connection and detachment. For instance, the connection may be made with opposing wings on the connector and the base as illustrated in Figures 8A - 8C.

[0101] In some embodiments, oral hygiene device 1 may only be a standard toothbrush, or other standard oral hygiene device 1 that is commercially available and may not have electronics, or may only have electronics for moving the head to facilitate brushing. In some embodiments, the oral hygiene device 1 may only include patterns 120 or an attachment 130 with a pattern 120, and may not include any motion sensing electronics, or may not include any electronics at all. Accordingly, in these embodiments, the visual tracking software may be utilized to determine position and orientation of the oral hygiene device 1. [0102] The oral hygiene device 1 may also include a speaker 50 and various visual indicators 52 to provide audio and visual feedback to the user. For example, the handle 40 may contain a speaker 50 for playing music, substantive feedback, motivational phrases, remaining time elapsed, recommendations on brushing pressure, on whether certain quadrants have not been adequately brushed, an announcement for completion of brushing, etc. Additionally, the oral hygiene device 1 may contain any number of visual indicators 52, for providing substantive feedback on the brushing including time elapsed, a LED indicator for when brushing is complete, warning indicators for brushing inappropriately, including indicators for whether each quadrant has been addressed. In other embodiments, the oral hygiene device 1 may also utilize osteophony to convey audio messages to the user.

[0103] As illustrated in Figure 6, the oral hygiene device 1 may contain a handle 40 and head 42, where either or both may include a pattern 120 for visual detection of movement and orientation by an associated camera 9. For instance, in some embodiments, the back of the head 42 may contain a pattern (i.e. "AB" with a circle and line as illustrated). In other embodiments, the pattern 120 may be contained on an attachment 130 that may be attachable to the head or on the neck, painted in the bristles, or other positions.

[0104] The handle 40 may also include a pattern 120, or in some embodiments may be the only component that includes a pattern 120. The pattern 120 on the handle 40 may be applied directly to the handle 40 or may be in an attachment 130 that clips or connects to the end of the handle 40. The pattern 120 may be positioned at a convenient location on the attachment 130 or on the handle 40 so that it may be detected in all angles of normal brushing activity. In some embodiments, the handle 40 may include multiple patterns 120 on different sides for detecting different orientations. For instance, in some embodiments, the attachment 130 may be square or circular and have a different pattern 120 on each side in order for the system to detect the orientation of the oral hygiene device with respect to the camera.

[0105] The attachment 130 may be weighted so that the oral hygiene device 1 stands by itself when set on a flat surface. For instance, a weight that is heavy enough 130 to keep the oral hygiene device 1 upright may be applied to the bottom of the attachment 130. In some embodiments, this may be particularly useful if the attachment 130 is spherical on the bottom. This will give the oral hygiene device an entertaining quality that will be intriguing to children and even adults. [0106] Pattern 120 may be applied using paint, other marking processes, or it may use reflective coatings, mirrors, or fluorescent coatings. In some embodiments, pattern 120 may utilize color, or it may be grayscale.

Oral hygiene device without Pattern or Electronics

[0107] A standard oral hygiene device 1 or oral hygiene device may be utilized without any electronics or patterns. As indicated, in some embodiments the position and motion of the oral hygiene device 1 will be detected.

Sensors

[0108] The oral hygiene device 1 or separate electronic devices (e.g. optical sensors) may incorporate various sensors that detect certain attributes of brushing that may be analyzed to provide various feedback and other motivational information to the user. For instance, one or more optical sensors 9 may also be utilized on a separate electronic device to detect an orientation and movement of the oral hygiene device 1. For instance, the optical sensors 9 may be utilized to capture images of an oral hygiene device 1, and the images may be sent for processing to identify its borders, shape, longitudinal axis, and orientation (for example by identifying its bristles) In some embodiments, the optical sensor(s) 9 may be utilized may detect patterns on the oral hygiene device 1 rather than the oral hygiene device 1 itself. The optical sensor(s) 9 utilized for pattern detection may be oriented in a direction to provide a visual line of sight to the pattern 120 on the oral hygiene device 1 that may be on the head 42, handle 40 or on an attachment 130.

[0109] As another example, the oral hygiene device 1 may incorporate various motion sensors 11 to determine the quality of the brushing with respect to certain quadrants of the mouth or even individual teeth. The motion sensors 11 may include gyroscopes, accelerometers, magnetometers, gyrometers, and other various sensors capable of detecting positions, movement, and acceleration. These various motion sensors 11 may be incorporated either in the handle 40 or the head 42. However, it may be advantageous to put the motion sensor 11 in the handle 40 because in some embodiments where the motion sensor 11 is in the head 42, the motion sensor 11 can experience at lot of additional motion (e.g., due to brushing and engagement with teeth) that may interfere with detecting a position. In some embodiments, a magnetometer will sense a vector(s) of the earth's magnetic field. In some embodiments, a three-axis magnetometer will be used and in others a two or one axis magnetometer will be utilized. [0110] A magnetic field generator 110 may also be utilized to generate a known magnetic field with a known polarity that may be sensed by a magnetometer incorporated into the oral hygiene device 1. The magnetic field transmitter 110 may be placed inside the base station 2 which would already have a recharging coil and/or interfacing circuit 20 that may be utilized to produce a detectable magnetic field. In other embodiments, the magnetic field transmitter 110 may be a separate electronic component in the base station 2 or in a separate physical component entirely. In some embodiments, the magnetic field transmitter 110 would be in a stationary unit with a known orientation.

[0111] The oral hygiene device 1 may also incorporate various proximity sensors that detect the proximity of the oral hygiene device 1 to the mouth of a user. These may be incorporated at the head 42 or in the handle 40. The proximity sensors may be utilized to acquire additional positional information relevant to determining the brushing quality of the user.

[0112] Additionally, the oral hygiene device 1 may contain a pressure sensor 10 to determine whether the user is applying appropriate pressure in brushing their teeth. The pressure sensor 10 may be incorporated into the head 42 which may be more easily flexible or utilize simple pressure transducers or other components capable of measuring pressure.

[0113] In certain examples, the oral hygiene device may contain a pH sensor 10. The pH sensor 10 may be utilized to determine the salivary pH of a user. For instance, in some examples, a user may be instructed to place the oral hygiene device 1 in the user's mouth prior to using toothpaste or mouthwash, to test the salivary pH. Salivary pH may be indicative of periodontal disease or gingivitis.

[0114] In other examples, the oral hygiene device 1 or system 100 may also include a depth perception sensor. For instance, in some examples the depth perception sensor will project a laser light grid or other laser pattern from the base 2, for example in place of camera 9, and include a detector that will detect and analyze distortions in the pattern to determine depth. The depth perception sensor may be utilized to determine more accurately the outlines of separate objects for identification and motion tracking. For instance, the system 100 may be able to more easily identify the user's head and facial features, and distinguish from the oral hygiene device 1. Accordingly, the depth perception device may be utilized to determine movement in a plane parallel to the line connecting the base 2 to the user.

[0115] In some examples, the oral hygiene device 1 may also contain a depth perception device. For instance, in some examples, the oral hygiene device 1 may include a depth perception projector and sensor that projects onto the user's teeth. This may be utilized to form a map of the user's teeth and to detect holes or cavities in the user's mouth.

[0116] In some embodiments, various heads 42 may incorporate a camera 56 that will detect various aspects of tooth quality that may or may not be related to brushing quality. For example, a camera 56 including a near infrared camera 56 may be able to be utilized on an oral hygiene device 1 to collect data indicative of demineralization or dental caries or dental decay. For example, the oral hygiene device 1 may utilize certain wavelengths that are particularly suited to detect these abnormalities, for instance in the 1300 - 1400 nm range. In some embodiments, the oral hygiene device 1 may also contain a light source 58 that will be focused towards the teeth during brushing and can be utilized by the camera to detect certain abnormalities.

[0117] In some examples, the output of the camera 56 may be utilized by the system 100 to form a tarter map of the user's mouth. For instance, in some examples, the system 100 may utilize the images from the camera 56 to identify tarter based on the reflection wavelengths, and build a schematic or other representation of the tarter for the user's mouth. For instance, the camera 56 may utilize certain wavelengths and/or filters that reflect tarter more readily, and identify which areas of the mouth have more or less areas of tarter, or other issues. For instance, tarter may cause light to reflect less, and may also reflect different wavelengths. These different patterns can be filtered or detected by machine learning algorithms by the system as described in further detail below.

[0118] Certain cameras 56 and potentially light sources 58 may also be implemented to detect levels of plaque on the teeth and changes in levels of plaque during brushing. In certain embodiments, infrared or near-infrared light sources 58 and an appropriate camera 56 that detects and records light in this wavelength range may potentially allow for the detection of plaques.

Program for Brushing Analysis and Feedback

[0119] The systems various sensors and optical sensors may gather data relevant to the quality of brushing by a user or the overall dental health of a user's teeth. This data may then be processed using programs or applications installed in various portions of the oral hygiene device monitoring system 100. Accordingly, as described above, data from the sensors and optical sensors may be processed by a program executed by the oral hygiene device's 1 control system 13 or alternatively a processor on the mobile device 30, another associated computing device, or the server's 4. The system's 100 processing and analysis of the data will result in output data representing feedback relevant to a user's quality of brushing. This feedback may be communicated through audio feedback through the oral hygiene device 1 speaker 50, visually on the oral hygiene device 1 indicators 52, or both on an associated mobile device 30 or when accessed on a website hosted or in communication with the server 4.

[0120] Figure 4 illustrates an example of the process by which the oral hygiene device 1 evaluates the brushing quality of a specific user. Each the steps may not be required in a specific embodiment, but various combinations of these steps may be implemented in an oral hygiene device monitoring system 100. First, the user may input a user profile 70 into the oral hygiene device monitoring system 100, to allow the user to calibrate the oral hygiene device 72. In some embodiments, the oral hygiene device 1 may be calibrated at the factory, by the user or both. After calibration, the user may pick up the oral hygiene device 1 and begin brushing her teeth. The oral hygiene device or associated monitoring devices (e.g. camera) would then determine that brushing is initiated 74, and start recording sensor data 76 during brushing. Then the oral hygiene device monitoring system 100 may analyze the sensor data 78 to output brushing quality feedback 80 to the user.

User Profile

[0121] Accordingly, a user profile 60 may be entered 70 for each particular user of a certain oral hygiene device 1 or associated with a specific account stored on the server 4, inside the oral hygiene device, base station or other computing devices. Upon initialization for of a new oral hygiene device or new account on the server 4, a user may enter their information that may be utilized to determine optimal brushing times and characteristics. For example, a program 15 may first request a user's name, gender, height, weight, age, and certain questions on their dental history. The user profile 60 may then be associated with certain data recorded during use of the oral hygiene device by the user, including calibration data that is specific to certain oral hygiene devices 1, associated optical sensors 9 or is generic and can be applied to any oral hygiene device 1 or optical sensors 9 connected to the system 100. In some embodiments, a user may upload a picture of themselves, or a program may be initiated that uses the optical sensor(s) 9 to capture a picture of the user from a distance from which a user would typically brush their teeth.

Detecting Usage [0122] A tooth brushing monitoring system 100 may also determine whether usage has taken place and the number of usages per day. In some embodiments, the oral hygiene device 1 and/or optical sensor detection system detects motion data through motion sensors 11 and/or optical sensors 9 and analyzes the data to determine whether usage has occurred, or whether the brush has been moved or usage is feigned.

[0123] When motion indicative of usage is detected, the oral hygiene device 1 or optical sensor device 9 may store the positional and motion data in its memory 14 for later analysis. For example, this will prevent the recording of false positives, for example when a user moves the brush in a medicine cabinet, or from children circumventing the system by briefly shaking the toothbrush.

[0124] For example, movement indicating usage may be associated with a certain acceleration level and/or frequency that is characteristic of a particular user. In other embodiments, a user may push a button or switch on the oral hygiene device 1, base station 2, or device with an optical sensor 9 to wake up the sensors on the device, which will then begin recording data. Accordingly, the system will determine when brushing is initiated 74. In some embodiments, this will be performed automatically, for example, upon the detection of certain accelerations and frequencies. Accordingly, once the user picks up the toothbrush, the motion sensors 11 may begin recording the data 76 and sending it to any of the various control systems 13 in the system 100 to analyze it 78 for characteristics associated with brushing.

[0125] For instance, the oral hygiene device 1 will generally be resting on its base 2 pointing upwards prior to use, in an orientation that would not be suitable for brushing by a user holding the oral hygiene device 1. Accordingly, once the user picks up the oral hygiene device 1, the oral hygiene device 1 will generally be rotated roughly 45 degrees to be held primarily horizontal during brushing. Accordingly, one threshold criteria for determining that brushing is initiated 74 would be whether the oral hygiene device 1 has been titled within a certain angle range indicating the oral hygiene device 1 is horizontal or near horizontal. This could be an angle range of 20 degrees, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, or other suitable ranges. Additionally, a series of calibration sessions may indicate a suitable range. Of course, this could be detected by optical sensors 9 and/or motion sensors 11.

[0126] In some embodiments, the user may turn on the device and the optical sensor 9 (and/or depth sensor) may begin recording. Then the system may look to determine when the pattern 120 is at a certain height indicating it is close to the user's mouth. This may be combined with acceleration information detected by the optical sensor(s) 9 and analyzed as above for the motion sensors 11.

[0127] In other embodiments, the determination of whether brushing has initiated 74 and whether or not it has ceased may be performed by the system 100 using a statistical analysis of the motion data from motion sensors 11 and/or optical sensors 9. This statistical analysis may be performed by correlating data from the motion sensors 11 and/or optical sensors 9 to previous tooth brushing or calibration data, or data stored from other users. For example, after performing the analysis, a certain threshold of correlation of the motion data with previously recorded calibration data that is associated with usage may be determined that indicates brushing has initiated 74 or is in progress. Accordingly, once the user begins brushing, the system 100 may record that usage has been initiated 74 and record the data 76 in memory 14 until usage stops as brushing data, for instance after the correlation falls below a certain threshold.

[0128] For instance, utilizing an optical sensor 9 system setup, the optical sensor 9 may output data that includes images of the oral hygiene device (e.g. toothbrush or water flosser) and the user. The data may be sent to various control systems to be processed and analyzed for motion. For instance, the image processing algorithms may first determine a boundary condition to identify the boundaries of the lips/mouth of the user, the teeth, the head, the oral hygiene device, the handle, head, bristles, water flosser, etc.

[0129] Identifying the boundaries of the human characteristics could be utilized using standard boundary identifying algorithms that generally may utilize threshold changes in certain colors (light frequencies). Once the boundaries of the oral hygiene device 1 are identified, a longitudinal axis could be identified, and potentially an orientation of the bristles (if it is a toothbrush) to determine an angular orientation about the longitudinal axis. This will allow the system to determine the general orientation and motion of the toothbrush, with time stamped frames from the imaging device.

[0130] Then, the toothbrush can be identified as on a certain side of the mouth by analysis of the relative positions of the toothbrush and features of the mouth. Furthermore, the orientation of the toothbrush with respect to the side of the mouth it is on can be utilized to determine which section or portion of a user's teeth are being brushed or water flossed. For instance, of the bottom of the upper molars are being brushed on the right side, then the visual system would determine the toothbrush is on the right side of the mouth with the bristles facing up. [0131] Furthermore, once the outline and orientation of the toothbrush 1 is determined in each frame, the time stamps of each frame can be utilized to determine the motion of the toothbrush. For instance, the change in positions, (time and distance) can calculate speed and acceleration of changes. Accordingly, as with motion sensors 11, the image data can be utilized determine the motion of the oral hygiene device. Accordingly, that motion may be utilized to determine compliance with brushing or other oral hygiene standards as disclosed further herein.

[0132] The analysis of motion data (processed from motion sensors 11 or image data from optical sensors 9) may utilize a fingerprint or signature type analysis that only compares relative movements. The signature may be determined based on the acceleration in certain axes (as detected by motion sensors 11, time stamp image data, or other methods), as the motion of brushing teeth is generally performed in a relatively rapid motion that is uncharacteristic of any other incidental movement of the oral hygiene device 1, for example, to put it back in the cabinet. Additionally, the frequency of the brushing may be monitored, as brushing is generally a rapid periodic motion, and therefore various bandpass frequency, low- pass, and Kalman filters may be used or other techniques to identify certain frequencies of interest and amplitudes in those frequencies that indicate brushing.

[0133] These amplitudes in frequencies may be certain frequencies that reach a threshold amplitude, that are associated or determined to indicate a user is brushing. For example, certain frequencies in horizontal or vertical axes may be required for the system 100 to determine brushing is initiated 74, or certain periodic accelerations that reach certain thresholds may be required for the system to determine brushing has initiated 74. In some embodiments, this may a frequency of 1 - 5 Hz. Once the data analyzed by the controller 13 falls below a certain threshold that indicates use, the system 100 may stop recording data or determine that brushing has stopped.

[0134] In addition to statistical analysis, the system may detect movement indicating usage or actual brushing by using filtering and threshold analysis. For example, the system 100 may first filter the data from the motion sensors 11 to pass frequencies only in a certain band (as brushing is periodic) and monitor those frequencies to detect when the for one the signal in that reach a threshold for at least a certain number of cycles or duration to determine the user is brushing. For example, if a user brushes their teeth at an average of 1 - 5 Hz (or potentially less in the case of a motorized toothbrush), a band pass filter of 1-5 Hz may be implemented. [0135] Thus when the system 100 detects that amplitude of the frequency band in the 1-5 Hz range reaches a threshold indicating use, the controller 13 may begin to record data from the sensors in the memory 14 for the duration of time the motion data indicates the oral hygiene device 1 is being used. Additionally, periodic accelerations in certain axes or angular acceleration (for circular brushing) that reaches certain threshold amplitudes may also be used to indicate brushing has initiated. The analysis of the data may also be affected by whether the oral hygiene device 1 includes an electronic motor to vibrate the head to assist in brushing. In those embodiments, the data may be filtered to eliminate the high frequency acceleration and other noise created by the electronic motor.

Quality of Brushing - Movement Types

[0136] In some embodiments, the quality of brushing based of the type of movements the user performs using the oral hygiene device 1 may be determined. Dentists have indicated that certain movements are more or less beneficial for brushing. Different types of movements include circular movements, in both clockwise and counterclockwise motions, tip to root motions, and left to right motions.

[0137] In some examples, the system 100 may determine whether the length of the brushing stroke. This could be by any combination of the methods disclosed, including by determining a magnitude of acceleration and time of acceleration in each direction for strokes. For instance, strokes may be filtered out by identifying a regular pattern or filtering at certain frequencies and magnitudes. For instance, acceleration at a certain amount in certain directions with respect to the toothbrush will likely indicate brushing strokes.

[0138] Most brushing will take place in the plane of the bristles, because the strokes will be optimized for contact with the tips of the bristles with the teeth using brushing motion. Accordingly, the system may filter out acceleration in the plane of the bristles, or within a suitable tolerance, to further identify acceleration or movement that relates to brushing strokes.

[0139] The system 100 may determine if these motions are being performed the relative amount of these motions by filtering the data from motion sensors 11 or optical sensors 9 in certain axes that is indicative of each motion. For example, the data from motions sensors 11 or optical sensors 9 may be filtered in an axis horizontal to gravity, and the control system 13 or other system 100 processors may process the data to determine whether the acceleration, frequency, or other motion data reached a significant enough amplitude in a certain direction to indicate that particular motion is performed. [0140] In the case of image data, in addition to detecting thresholds of acceleration or velocity that indicate brushing, the optical system may detect when the oral hygiene device 1 is within a certain proximity to the user's mouth, or inside the user's mouth to determine brushing is initiated. For instance, if the head can be identified, whenever the head is inside a region defined as being inside the user's mouth the system can determine that the user is brushing his or her teeth quite reliably.

[0141] In other examples, acceleration alone may be utilized to determine whether back and forth motions are being used, or circular motions. In other embodiments, the acceleration data from motion sensors 11 may be integrated to determine the actual movement of the oral hygiene device 1 to evaluate the type of brush strokes utilized. The analysis of the data may also be affected by whether the oral hygiene device 1 includes an electronic motor to vibrate the head to assist in brushing. In those embodiments, the data may be filtered to eliminate the high frequency acceleration and other noise created by the electronic motor.

[0142] In some embodiments, an electronic motor to vibrate the head 42 may be included in the oral hygiene device 1. In those embodiments, the motion data recorded by the sensors relating to brushing movements would have a smaller amplitude than for a manual brush 1. This is because users of manual toothbrushes, without the assistance from the electronic motor and moving head 42, will brush their teeth with more vigorous motions. Accordingly, the algorithms utilized to analyze the motion data to detect, use, motion, and location of oral hygiene device will be modified to account for the lower amplitudes and/or different motions, and include filtering of the high frequency noise from the motor. Accordingly, in some embodiments, the thresholds set for the amplitude required to detect or indicate a brush stroke would be less, as a user using an electronic oral hygiene device generally moves the brush at a slower pace, and makes more straight line movements.

[0143] Furthermore, pressure sensor 10 may also be utilized to determine whether brushing is actually being performed, or in combination with the motion data from above. For instance, the user may be moving the oral hygiene device 1 around but not pressing on the teeth. Therefore, accordingly, requiring both motion of a certain frequency, amplitude, or features, and a certain pressure will eliminate many false positives from incidental movement or pressure of the brush that is not happening during brushing. Accordingly, the pressure sensor 10 may output a signal that is analyzed 78 by controller 28 to determine a pressure being applied to the teeth. If the pressure is above a certain threshold, the system 100 may indicate or determine it is likely that a user is brushing. This analysis may be performed by statistical analysis, threshold analysis or other suitable calculation methods for determining a likelihood of brushing based on the amount and/or sustained nature of the pressure recorded by pressure sensor 10.

[0144] In some examples, the system 100 and toothbrush 1 may develop a library of specific types of brushing strokes or motions, and give the user feedback on the brushing strokes or motion the user implemented for their brushing. For instance, the system may retain a dictionary of motion types for tooth-brushing, and rank the motion types, and the quality of each motion type.

[0145] Examples of motion types may be the following:

Identification of Specific Users

[0146] The system 100 may include a stored user profile associated with the user's stored tooth brushing (or other oral hygiene) data and the demographic data of the user that includes the age, size and gender of the user. During or after the step of monitoring oral hygiene (e.g. tooth-brushing) activities, the oral hygiene device 1, mobile device 30, or server may automatically seek to match the user with at least one user profile using at least one predetermined rule or algorithm depending on the user profile and of past data. If the user is not a regular user of the oral hygiene device, said user identifies him/her as a guest on the mobile device.

[0147] In a step of user identification, a specific user may be associated with the oral hygiene device and presumed to be the user. If multiple users for a given oral hygiene device are utilized, to associate a user with a brushing activity at least in the oral hygiene device and possibly in the mobile device and/or the server at least for reference purposes for those last two.

[0148] In embodiments that utilize a camera, the user profile may have a picture of the user uploaded or associated with the profile. This will allow the visual based recognition system to automatically determine a specific user associated with the profile. In some examples, the system 100 may capture a picture with the camera, and identify the specific user by comparing the picture taken initially with each user that initiates brushing. In some examples, the system may utilize the position of the user on the frame of the camera to determine the user (e.g. by estimating the user's height or relative height). In other examples, the system 100 may utilize machine learning and computer vision principles to match features of the user and determine which saved user (and associated user profile) is currently brushing. For instance, eye color or other facial recognition techniques may be utilized to match users on a reliable basis, especially if each unit only has 2, 3 or 4 users total to distinguish.

[0149] In other examples, use data associated with a particular user may be utilized to identify that user. For instance, the usage data for a particular user may be associated with a certain acceleration level and/or frequency that is characteristic of that user. For instance, a particular user may have a certain frequency range of tooth-brushing, or may begin on a particular side of the mouth. In some examples, combinations of physical features, motion data, or other indicators may be utilized to identify users and associate the user with their profile data. Usage Monitor for Replaceable Heads

[0150] Additionally, the total number of uses for a replaceable oral hygiene device 1 head 42 may be detected and stored in the memory 13 of the oral hygiene device 1 or associated with the server 4, to monitor the useful life of a single oral hygiene device 1 head 42. Thus, the system 100 could provide a notification to the user, for example on their mobile device 30 or through the webpage interface to the server 4, once a particular oral hygiene device 1 head 42 has been used a certain number or duration of time. Once a head 42 has been exhausted, the user will disconnect and reconnect a new head 42, which could be interpreted or recorded by the system 100 as attaching a new oral hygiene device 1. Additionally, each head 42 may incorporate a unique identity module 62 that stores an identifier for that specific head 42, so when the same head 42 is reattached, for example, for cleaning or other purposes, the system 100 will not assume a new head 42 has been attached.

Brushing Time and Position

[0151] Next, the brushing data recorded above may be analyzed 78 to provide feedback on the positional and time quality of brushing 80. This may be presented after brushing has completed or in real time to provide instantaneous feedback to the user. For example, the motion sensors 11 and/or optical sensors 9 may detect positional information of the oral hygiene device 1. Using the accelerometer and gyrometer data, visually detected data from the optical sensors 9 and patterns 120 or other motion sensors 11, the position, orientation, and movement of the oral hygiene device 1 may be determined and extrapolated to calculate the relative positional movement of the head 42. For instance, if the distance, orientation, and direction of the motion sensors 11 to the bristle portion of the head 42 are known, the system 11 will be able to determine the position of the head 42, and its relative motion, orientation, and coverage area based on the relative motion of the motion sensors 11.

[0152] This may be calculated by initially calculating a reference coordinate one the oral hygiene device 1 detects motion, and recording the relative movement with respect to the initial coordinate(s) to determine a signature of the brushing. This may be performed by calculating the movement of the head 42 by calculating the changes in orientation of the brush and the movement due to acceleration recorded by the gyrometer or accelerometer, or visually detected by the optical sensors 9. These calculations may be performed by the control system 13, or other processors that are utilized in the system 100, including a mobile phone processor executing an application on the mobile phone, or a processor(s) on a server running software for analyzing the data.

Brushing Time and Position - Magnetometer

[0153] In some embodiments, a magnetometer sensor 11 may provide additional positional information by detecting the polarity, a directional vector and strength of the earth's magnetic field and/or the magnetic field generated by a magnetic field transmitter 110. In some embodiments, this may be a magnetic field transmitter 110 located in the base station 2, as the base station 2 is stationary, and the magnetic field transmitter 110 would have a known polarity and direction (e.g., horizontal or vertical and in a certain direction). This may be detected by a magnetometer 11 located in an oral hygiene device 1. Accordingly, the strength of the magnetic field detected by the magnetometer sensor 11 will give an estimate of the distance the oral hygiene device 1 is from the base station 2 along a sphere or oval curve or egg shaped curve representing the magnetic field lines surrounding the base station 2 or other associated device.

[0154] Additionally, the magnetometer will be able to sense the vector direction of the magnetic field along the magnetic field lines. In other embodiments, the distance of the oral hygiene device 1 from the base station 2 may be calculated using: the magnetic field orientation detected by the magnetometer sensor 11 emitted from the magnetic field transmitter 110 together with the attitude information of the accelerometer and gyrometer. This is possible utilizing the knowledge of the shape of the magnetic field and its vectors at particular distances from the transmitter and its polarity. For example, the inclination of the magnetic field with respect to gravity will change predictably at various distances from the magnetic field transmitter for example. Additionally, by comparing the gravity vector with the vector of the magnetic field, the angle may be utilized to calculate the height along the shell or magnetic field lines. This is because the angle of the field with respect to gravity will be different at each height because the egg shell will be directed at a different angle with respect to gravity at each height. This will be especially true when the north and south poles are oriented in a vertical direction, so that the magnetic field lines have components that change from horizontal near the bottom and top of the egg shells to vertical at about the height of the transmitter.

[0155] Accordingly, the magnetometer data combined with the accelerometer data and/or optical data may be utilized to determine position of an oral hygiene device 1 within a ring that is situated in a horizontal plane that is of equal magnetic field strength around the transmitter 110. For example, Figure 5 illustrates an embodiment of a base 2, with a single coil magnetic field transmitter 110 that generates shells that have slices with B (magnetic) field vectors that change direction in a vertical plane. Sensors 11 on the oral hygiene device 1 may include a magnetic field sensor 11 to detect the magnetic field generated by the magnetic field transmitters 110 and an accelerometer 11 to detect, among other accelerations, the acceleration of gravity a g . Accordingly, the magnetometer 11 on the oral hygiene device 1 may be positioned with the B field generated by the transmitter 110. Accordingly, a magnetic field strength and direction (B t ) may be determined by the magnetometer 11. Simultaneously, an accelerometer 11 may detect the acceleration from gravity as vector a g . The system 100 may the analyze that data, and determine an Q° between the gravity vector a g and magnetic field vector B t .

[0156] The angle Q° may then be able to be used to determine a ring R wherein the oral hygiene device 1 position is known to be at some point along ring R. For instance, first, the strength of the magnetic field B detected by the magnetometer 11 can be utilized to determine which magnetic field egg or donut shaped shell the oral hygiene device is on (e.g., B 1; B 2 , or B 3 ). This would narrow the position of the oral hygiene device 1 down to a hollow shell or donut surround the transmitter 110. Next, Q° can be unitized to calculate a vertical position on the shell or donut and therefore narrow the position down a ring R surrounding the transmitter 110. Accordingly, if the system 100 detects movement to a new ring R, the system will have information about the possible direction and distances travelled. This information will be enhanced by the accelerometer data, which will provide further information about the direction travelled. This, for example, may provide certain upper or lower bounds of direction and/or distance travelled by the oral hygiene device 1. Thus, this system 100 and data processing technique may be utilized to provide relative position and movement information of the oral hygiene device 1 and applied to determine tooth brushing position in the mouth as described herein.

[0157] In some embodiments, a magnetometer sensor 11 may sense a magnetic field transmitted by a magnetic field transmitter 110. In order to do this, this magnetic field data must be filtered out from extraneous noise and especially from the earth's magnetic field. The earth's magnetic field will be of relatively constant strength and direction at a given location on the scale of movement of a toothbrush. Additionally, the earth's magnetic field is quite large and most magnetometers are calibrated to the scale of the earth's magnetic field. Accordingly, to use a magnetometer calibrated for the earth's magnetic field, for instance, in embodiments that detect both the magnetic field of the earth and of the transmitters 110 to calculate orientation and position changes, certain filtering algorithms must be used to distinguish the two. In some embodiments, the critical data that may be utilized to filter the two is that the strength of the earth's magnetic field remains relatively constant on the scale of oral hygiene device movement, compared to the change in magnetic field detected that is transmitted by the magnetic field transmitter 110. Therefore, temporal filters may be applied to distinguish the two magnetic fields. In some embodiments, the magnetic field transmitted by transmitter 110 may be pulsed at a certain frequency or amplitude in order to be easily filtered out using signal processing and data analysis.

[0158] In some embodiments, the magnetic field directional component of the vector data output from the magnetometer 11 may also be utilized to calculate a relative position change and/or orientation. For example, in some embodiments, the transmitter 110 may transmit a magnetic field with a vector orientation illustrated in Figure 5. Directional or vector information detected by a magnetometer from a magnetic field B created by transmitter 110 may be useful to provide orientation and or relative positional information. This data may then be combined with data from the directional vector information detected from the earth's magnetic field which would likely have an orientation that differs from the orientation of the earth's magnetic field. Accordingly, the magnetometer 11 may detect vectors indicating the direction of the earth's magnetic field and the vectors of the magnetic field of the transmitter 110 to provide a reference for orientation in space and for changes in position.

[0159] In one example, the magnetometer sensing the earth's magnetic field could sense an orientation of the oral hygiene device 1 in a horizontal plane as would a compass or about the Z axis illustrated in Figure 5. In some embodiments, this may include a vector not only in the horizontal direction but in the vertical direction that will be constant and based on the inclination of the earth's magnetic field at a particular geographic location. In other embodiments the transmitter 110 may be placed in a diagonal, horizontal, vertical or other known orientation which is used as a reference point to calculate orientation of the magnetometer 11 and positional changes of the magnetometer 11 and oral hygiene device 1.

[0160] Furthermore, calibration may be necessary based on the relative orientation of the oral hygiene device 1 when being used by a user and the base station's magnetic field transmitter 110. As the shape and orientation of magnetic field lines change based on the position with respect to the magnetic field generator, different formulas, calibrations, or adjustments may need to be performed. For example, near the side of a magnetic field generator, the flux lines may be oriented in a first direction; however, near either polar end of the transmitter 110 (e.g., above or below, or the right or left side) the flux lines may be oriented perpendicular to the first direction near the side or middle of the transmitter 110. Additionally, the user may be required to brush her teeth a certain distance from the transmitter 110 to ensure a proper magnetic field for measuring is generated in that position. The beneficial aspect of the coils being physically oriented in the vertical direction is that the magnetic field generated is relatively the same on all sides of the transmitter 110 (and by proxy, the base station 2) assuming relatively the same height, and therefore calibration may require simpler algorithms and/or processes. However, if the coils lie in a horizontal plane, depending on the orientation of the base station 2, the magnetic flux lines may be traveling in different directions. In that embodiment, the user may be instructed to swivel the base station 2 to point it in a certain direction with respect to the user where the user typically brushes their teeth. In other embodiments, the calibration may be able to utilize or accommodate for changes in the vector direction of the magnetic field transmitted by the transmitter 110.

[0161] The data from a magnetometer 11 may be combined with the data output from an accelerometer 11 or data from the gyrometer 11 and accelerometer 11 or optical sensor 9 to determine orientation and/or position. For example, the accelerometer 11 and/or optical sensor 9 data may first be utilized to determine the orientation of the oral hygiene device 1 with respect to gravity during periods of relatively little acceleration, so the acceleration of gravity would be detected by a three axis accelerometer or image analysis so it could be determined whether the oral hygiene device 1 is tilted about a lateral axis that is in a horizontal plane, or how it is rotated about a its longitudinal axis (a longitudinal axis running lengthwise through the toothbrush) with respect to a gravity pointing down towards the earth.

[0162] If the accelerometer data indicates the oral hygiene device 1 is experiencing relatively small amounts of acceleration relative to normal tooth brushing movements, the control system may determine that the oral hygiene device 1 is relatively still and the accelerometer data can be utilized to determine a vector oriented in the direction of gravity.

[0163] If the accelerometer data is combined with the gyrometer data, deviations of the attitude of the tooth brush with respect to gravity can be determined to calculate the attitude of the toothbrush. For example, the initial recording of the gravity vector may then be used as a reference vector to determine attitude. Then deviations from this initial position or attitude determined by the accelerometer and gyrometer may be determined by calculating orientation changes from the initial reference vector based on gyrometer data. Accordingly, the accelerometer or accelerometer and gyrometer data may be utilized to determine which way the bristles are facing. For example, in some embodiments, the accelerometer and gyrometer data may be analyzed to determine whether the bristles are facing upward forwards or downwards, front, left and right side, potentially narrowing down to a specific quadrant or other division of the mouth. For example, when the oral hygiene device 1 bristles are facing down they could only be brushing the tops of the bottom teeth. If the oral hygiene device 1 bristles are facing up, it could only be brushing the crowns or tips of the upper teeth. As a further example, when the oral hygiene device 1 is facing right, it could only be brushing the left sides of the molars, etc. Additionally, in some embodiments, the orientations with respect to gravity will be deterministic as a vector representing gravity always points in the direction towards the floor or earth, and brushing will very likely take place standing up straight.

[0164] Therefore, it is possible to determine the orientation of the bristles with respect to the teeth in some aspects or planes of orientation. In certain embodiments, these calculations may be made deterministically, or estimated using statistics and/or a retrofitted model of the mouth. For example, if the accelerometer senses the toothbrush's bristles are facing down within a certain margin of error or within a statistically significant margin, then the system can determine that the surfaces being brushed are likely the tops of the lower teeth (or the tongue for example). In other embodiments, as disclosed herein, the brushing orientations may be calculated relative to each other, so a model of the mouth may be fit each time the user brushes their teeth.

[0165] To determine the orientation in a horizontal plane perpendicular to gravity, the earth's magnetic field or the magnetic field generated by the base station 2 transmitter 110 for example, may be utilized. In some embodiments, the magnetic field transmitter 110 will generate a magnetic field with directional vectors that change direction in a horizontal plane that is perpendicular to gravity. Accordingly, even if the absolute direction is not known, a relative orientation of the oral hygiene device 1 with respect to the magnetic field detected by the magnetometer 11 and emitted by the transmitter 110 may be determined in a horizontal plane. Accordingly, relative changes of this orientation in a horizontal plane could be determined and a path of movement along a reference coordinate system may be determined. In some embodiments, the reference coordinate system may be based on one of the initial or any other data points recorded during a tooth brushing session. As disclosed herein, these relative changes may be utilized to calculate the positions or reconstruct the shape by using relative positions after a user is finished brushing. [0166] In some embodiments, data from the gyrometer, magnetometer, optical sensor and accelerometer may be utilized to determine an orientation with respect to gravity and either or both magnetic field of the earth and of the transmitters 110. In some embodiments, orientation may be determined and confirmed or validated by the different sensors 11 or optical sensors 9. For example, the angular velocity from a gyrometer may be integrated to determine orientation changes in certain directions, but errors from integration may be corrected using the magnetometer readings and/or optical sensor 9 data. In other embodiments, either or both the magnetometer, gyrometer and magnetometers may be utilized in various combinations to determine orientations.

[0167] In some embodiments, orientation alone may be utilized to determine the position of the oral hygiene device 1 using statistical analysis as disclosed herein. In other embodiments, the gyrometer and/or accelerometer detected inertial changes may be used in conjunction with or separate from magnetometer 11 readings to be provide further indications of movement or distance to calculate an estimated position of the oral hygiene device 1 bristles. In some embodiments, the orientation information may be combined with data output from sensors 11 or optical sensors 9 that indicate translational inertia, or positional changes. Depending on the location of the inertial sensor, the orientation information may be combined with the inertial movement data to indicate the position of the bristles. For instance, if a motion sensor 11 is located inside the oral hygiene device 1, but in the middle of the toothbrush's longitudinal axis where the user would hold the oral hygiene device 1, changes in orientation would move the head without moving the position (although it may rotate in place) of the motion sensor 11. Accordingly, the orientation information can also be used to calculate a position in space of the bristles relative to the position of sensor 11.

[0168] Movement or positional changes may also be calculated from data output by the magnetometer 11. In some embodiments, the magnetometer 11 may detect a magnetic field generated by a magnetic field transmitter 110 in the base station 2 or another stationary component that is separate from the oral hygiene device 1. In this embodiment, the strength and orientation of the magnetic field sensed by a single-, two-, or three-axis magnetometer 11 can provide additional data on the positional movement of the oral hygiene device 1 with respect to the magnetic field transmitter 110 in the base station 2, which is fixed and stationary. Accordingly, the increase or decrease in magnetic field will indicate that the oral hygiene device 1 is moving towards or away from the base station 2. Additionally, changes in the orientation or inclination of the magnetic field and its polarity output by the magnetometer 11 can be utilized to determine translational and position. This information may be utilized to determine, based on calibration or experimental data, how much a per unit change in magnetic field strength is equivalent to in distance based on the direction of movement (as different directions through a magnetic field will have higher or lower rates of change). In other embodiments, the per unit change in inclination or shape of the magnetic field may also be correlated to changes in position. The respective orientation of a horizontal magnetic field may be different each time a oral hygiene device system as disclosed herein is set up, including such a system that incorporates a magnetometer in the base station 2. This is because how each user stands as they are brushing their teeth, and/or how the base station 2 is oriented on the top of the counter may change for each user and even change somewhat each time and after cleaning the countertop, etc. Accordingly, adaptive statistical analysis may be utilized to determine relative positions of the bristles of the oral hygiene device 1.

[0169] Positional data calculated from magnetic field data output from a magnetometer 11 may be combined with inertial data to calculate positional changes in the oral hygiene device 1. In some embodiments, the inertial data may be utilized to calculate distance traveled and the magnetometer data may also be utilized to eliminate errors, and/or provide bounds to the calculations for positional changes based on the inertia data. For example, the changes in magnetic field strength may have a certain minimum lower bound limit assuming travel directly perpendicular to the magnetic field lines where they are most compressed. Given a certain change in magnetic field strength, it could be determined that the magnetometer had at least travelled a certain Euclidean distance in space (or changed a certain angular orientation). These changes in inclination and field strength may be utilized to determine distance changes within certain margins of error that may be supplemented or fine-tuned according to accelerometer or gyrometer data. This data could be combined with orientation and inertial data to determine a more precise distance travelled and relative directional travel of the oral hygiene device 1.

Brushing Time and Position - Visual Pattern Recognition

[0170] An optical sensor 9 and pattern 120 recognition system may be utilized, in some embodiments, to track the movement of the oral hygiene device 1. For instance, as described above, the oral hygiene device 1 may contain patterns 120 on the handle 40 or head 42 that can be recognized by a visual tracking system. The visual tracking system may be able to recognize the orientation, distance and position of a pattern 120 that is on the oral hygiene device 1. For example, in some embodiments, the pattern 120 may be both on the head 42 and a separate pattern 120 may be on the handle 40 to allow the system to determine the position of both the handle 40 and the head 42 of the oral hygiene device 1 to assist in determining the orientation and movement. Visual pattern recognitions have been utilized to detect the movement and orientation of markers, such as for example the system described in "Towards Positioning through Visual Markers," by Bernhard L. Ecklbauer, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety. For instance, image processing software may identify the boundaries of the oral hygiene device by standard boundary image identifiers, identify objects the appropriate dimensions and size for a toothbrush, and then attempt to determine an orientation of the oral hygiene device (or determine an orientation of the pattern 120 and the oral hygiene device respectively).

[0171] In some embodiments, the visual pattern recognition system may also be utilized to determine the position and orientation of the human face. This will be useful to compare the relative position and orientation of the face and/or mouth and the oral hygiene device 1 in order to determine the position of the oral hygiene device with respect to the mouth. In some embodiments, the system may first acquire an image with the oral hygiene device 1 at the same distance from an optical sensor 9 as a human face. Additionally, an initial calibration using the orientation and size of the face may be utilized to calibrate the distance from the camera 9 to the oral hygiene device 1, so size and movement can be estimated. In some embodiments, since the size of the oral hygiene device 1 is known, the relative size of the face using the oral hygiene device 1 could be determined, to calibrate or estimate the jaw shape and size and modify the algorithms utilized to determine which zone is being brushed.

[0172] For instance, the system could determine whether the oral hygiene device 1 is in or near the mouth if the system can be utilized to determine the position and orientation of the face. This will help the system validate and confirm when usage starts and stops, as the oral hygiene device 1 would only be near the mouth of the user is actually using it. Rarely would a user hold the brush near the mouth when they are not actually brushing their teeth. Rather, a user generally immediately washes it off/puts down the oral hygiene device after they finish brushing.

[0173] Accordingly, the data detected by the camera can be evaluated to determine the position, movement and orientation of an oral hygiene device 1. For example, an oral hygiene device 1 may have a code "AB" with a circle and line as illustrated in Figure 6 either on the back of the head 42, or on the handle 40, or both. In some embodiments, the pattern 120 could be any other pattern 120 that has a distinct orientation as described herein. The camera 9 may detect the pattern and the data may be retrieved for processing and analysis. For example, the visual data detected by the camera may be output and a processor may evaluate the data to determine the orientation and size of the pattern 120 and the relative sizes of certain parts of the pattern 120.

[0174] For instance, if the pattern is AB and it is oriented as pictured on the back of the head 42 of the oral hygiene device 1 and the data analysis determines that the AB is oriented upright, then it is likely that the user is not brushing their teeth. This is because this will mean the oral hygiene device 1 itself is upright (as pictured in FIG. 6) which would be a highly unlikely position for a user to hold an oral hygiene device 1 to brush their teeth. Rather, the longitudinal axis of an oral hygiene device 1 will generally be held in a horizontal plane during tooth brushing. However, if the camera 9 detects data that indicates the AB on the head of the oral hygiene device 1 is sideways, it likely means two things: (1) the oral hygiene device 1 is positioned that the back of the head 42 of the oral hygiene device 1 is facing the user because the AB is actually visible to the camera 9 and (2) the oral hygiene device 1 is horizontal because the AB is oriented on its side. This, for instance, would provide a high likelihood that the oral hygiene device 1 was brushing the front incisors. This is because the camera 9 is generally positioned so that the user is facing the camera 9 as they brush their teeth. Accordingly, if the AB is visible to the camera 9 and lying on its side, then the oral hygiene device 1 must be oriented with the bristles facing the mouth (to brush the front surfaces) and brushing the front teeth (rather than the sides) because the AB is still visible to the front facing camera 9.

[0175] In many oral hygiene device 1 positions, however, the head 42 of the oral hygiene device 1 and any associated pattern 120 may not be visible to the camera 9. For instance, when brushing the molars, tongue, top or bottom surfaces of the teeth, a pattern 120 on the back of the head 42 would not be visible. Accordingly, in some embodiments, an additional pattern(s) 120 could be included on an attachment 130 on the end of the oral hygiene device 1. This would allow the camera 9 to detect the orientation of the pattern 120 on the attachment 130 and/or handle 40 while the oral hygiene device 1 is in inserted inside the user's mouth. For instance, in some embodiments, the attachment 130 may be a spherical shaped bulb on the bottom of the handle 40 of the oral hygiene device 1, and would include several different patterns in different positions around the sphere.

[0176] This would allow the camera to detect the position and orientation of several different patterns. Upon visually detecting a pattern, the system could determine (1) which pattern 120 is being detected, (2) the size of the pattern 120, (3) the orientation of the pattern 120, (4) the relative size of different components of the pattern 120, (5) other characteristics of the pattern 120. This information could be downloaded and compared to existing data regarding the types and orientation of patterns 120 that are placed on the attachment 130 (and/or handle 40 or head 42 of the oral hygiene device 1). For example, the system may include a database that stores each of the different patterns 120 and different size and orientation information with respect to the pattern 120 in relation to the oral hygiene device 1 and distance from the camera 9. For example, each pattern 120 may include information about if it is found in an upright orientation, then the oral hygiene device is on its side, pointed in the mouth, etc. In other embodiments, the size of the pattern 120 detected may be equated to the distance of the oral hygiene device 1 from the camera 9, assuming a set distance. In some embodiments, calibration information may be further added to enhance the systems analysis of brushing data for a particular individual and/or a particular bathroom. Therefore, each pattern 120 may have a pixel number associated with each component (e.g., height/width of certain features) that may be associated with a certain distance from the camera 9. This may be an approximate or average, or use statistics to find the distance/orientation of the highest probability.

[0177] Then, once this pattern information is determined, it could be compared to calibration information or other data representing the patterns 120 and respective orientations that are included on the attachment 130 for example. If for example, an AB pattern 120 is included on the attachment 130 as illustrated in Figure 6, with an upright orientation and facing forward in the same direction as the bristles, the if this pattern is detected upright, it is unlikely the user is brushing their teeth. However, again, if this pattern 120 is detected with a sideways orientation, it is likely the user is brushing their front molars. In another example, if another pattern, BC is placed on the bottom of the toothbrush, when the system detects that pattern it is likely that the oral hygiene device is being used to clean the molars. Accordingly, the orientation of the BC could then be used to determine whether it is likely the user is cleaning the tops, bottoms, or sides of the molars. In some embodiments, this could be combined with accelerometer and gyrometer data to determine which side of the mouth is being brushed.

[0178] In still another embodiment, the system may be able to determine the position of the oral hygiene device (without a pattern) with respect to the face, including the vector direction of its longitudinal axis. Accordingly, the system could then determine whether the oral hygiene device is likely on the left or right side of the mouth. This could be done using the visual recognition system as disclosed herein. In other embodiments, the system could determine the position and orientation of the mouth and oral hygiene device with respect to each other. For instance, a mouth recognition algorithm could be used to approximate the position of each of the corners or sides of the mouth. Additionally, there could be visual markers on the neck of the oral hygiene device 1 to help the system determine which side of the mouth is being brushed when the user has the oral hygiene device inside the mouth.

No Pattern on Toothbrush

[0179] As illustrate in FIG. 7 and in some embodiments, the system may only detect the outline of the oral hygiene device 1 handle to determine an orientation of the longitudinal axis with respect to gravity with without utilizing a pattern 120, or markings. In other embodiments, the system may have additional image processing software to identify specific features of the oral hygiene device including the head (bristles, etc.) by utilizing classification algorithms to classify certain portions of the image. In some embodiments, the image processing software identifies the longitudinal axis, the head, the base and potentially the bristles. From this information, the orientation and position of the oral hygiene device may be determined. In some embodiments, the user and the mouth of the user may be identified utilizing similar boundary detection / shape classification software. Accordingly, the relative position of the oral hygiene device with respect to the mouth may be determined, as explained further herein.

[0180] The inventors may utilize this system so that a customized oral hygiene device is not necessary, and only a chip would need to be provided inside the oral hygiene device that includes motion sensors 11. Accordingly, the device could be manufactured utilizing an existing oral hygiene device designs and only implementing a chip or controller 13 system that includes a motion sensor 11, antenna 5 or other wireless connectivity, and a memory. Then the device could send all of the data to a connected smartphone or other connected device 30 (e.g. smart mirror, etc.)

Combining Visual and Motion Data for Position Determination

[0181] The visual data may also be used to determine acceleration and the vector or direction of motion of the oral hygiene device 1 as it is brushing the teeth. The visual data may capture the different positions and time stamp the data to determine the amount of time recorded to travel for a first point to a second point and therefore the resultant velocity (direction and speed) and acceleration. As described herein the positional data may be utilized to calculate brushing positions. This combined with the orientation data will be able to provide enough positional and orientation data to determine the position in a user's mouth and the section of the mouth that is being brushed as described herein.

[0182] For instance, in some embodiments, the visual information from pattern recognitions or brush outlines may be utilized to recalibrate or the position output from the accelerometer/magnetometer/gyrometer position determination. In these embodiments, the visual data may be utilized to recalibrate the drift experienced by the position sensors to bring them back to a reference coordinate system. In other embodiments, the visual data may be utilized to recalibrate the entire statistical model used to determine position.

[0183] In some embodiments, position may be independently determined from motion/acceleration/position sensors, and independently determined from visual recognition data. These two determinations may then be utilized to determine a final position with respect to the mouth. In other embodiments, just the visual recognition data alone may be utilized to calculate position with respect to the mouth.

[0184] For instance, a first example would a setup with no visual pattern 120 added to the oral hygiene device 1. Using data output from the motion sensor(s) 11 only, it may be challenging to distinguish, in some situations, which side of the mouth the oral hygiene device 1 is on when the oral hygiene device is oriented in the same direction but could be brushing different sections of teeth. For instance, its orientation about an axis is identical or near identical, but its position on one side of the face, is on the left or the right side of the mouth.

[0185] For example, an ambiguous determination could be: is the user brushing the outer face of the teeth on the left side of the mouth, or is the user brushing the inner face of the teeth on the right side of the mouth? Even with no additional visual pattern 120, with visual information of the oral hygiene device and the user's face alone the system can make a distinction between left and right. So, the combination of algorithms in this case is beneficial in that inertial data is known to be insufficient to establish a relative spatial position on a coordinate system surrounding the head. Thus, the visual information can be utilized to make a secondary determination of which side of the head the brush is on, and therefore, the visual information and the orientation information (about an axis or point or with respect to gravity) can be combined to determine which side of the head the brush 1 is on and whether (for example the inner or outer face of the teeth are being brushed).

[0186] Another example may include an embodiment with a pattern 120 attached to the oral hygiene device 1. For instance, a pattern 120 could be added to the bottom of the oral hygiene device 1 and to the back of the brush 1 head. With a pattern 120 however, there may be positions of the oral hygiene device 1 in which visual information alone would not be enough to determine the location and orientation of the oral hygiene device 1 with enough accuracy. For example, when the visual tags are partially hidden, or too small in the image resolution to be accurately detected in size and orientation.

[0187] For example, if a user is brushing the molars, and the only visible pattern 120 is on the oral hygiene device 1 bottom, and the resolutions is low (e.g., because the user is a bit too far from the camera device, or because the user is using a camera that has insufficient resolution) then the system may not be able to determine with enough accuracy the angle with which the brush 1 is on the teeth. Therefore, the system could not determine whether the user is brushing the outside of the molars of the upper jaw or the outside of the molars on the lower jaw.

[0188] In this case, the angle difference (e.g. the angle of the longitudinal axis of the oral hygiene device with respect to gravity because you hold the oral hygiene device at a slightly different angle when brushing the top or bottom molars) may be quite subtle between those two brushing positions. However, the motion data (especially acceleration and vertical orientation) may be able to disambiguate the two potential positions narrowed down by the visual data and hence provide the necessary information to if the oral hygiene device 1 is brushing the upper or lower jaw. Accordingly, the visual data alone can be supplemented with the motion data to determine the position or section of teeth that are brushed.

Brushing Time and Position - Analysis of Motion Data

[0189] In order to utilize the data from the sensors to estimate the amount of time spent in each section, quadrant or other logical division of the mouth, the user may need to calibrate the oral hygiene device 1. In some embodiments, calibration may take place at the factory, by the user or both. Accordingly, calibration could be utilized to calibrate a specifically manufactured unit, and to adapt to a particular user's geography, anatomy (i.e. height) and/or bathroom environment, which for example, may include unique magnetic interferences unique heights and orientations (tabletops may not be level, etc.). For example, in some embodiments, the user may apply a colored gel to their teeth. The user can then turn the oral hygiene device 1 in calibration mode once the oral hygiene device 1 is in position in by the teeth and brush away all of the colored gel, while the motion sensors 11, optical sensor(s) 9 and other sensors are recording data. [0190] At this point, the user may switch off calibration to stop the acquisition of calibration data. In other embodiments, once the user turns on the calibration function, the oral hygiene device 1 would detect the points in time when the user has started and stopped brushing, including any pauses in the brushing. This calibration procedure provides reference positional, orientation, and motion calibration data that can then be compared to subsequent brushes using statistical analysis 78, or other analysis methods to determine whether subsequent brushes have brushed all regions of the mouth for sufficient time.

[0191] Once the device is calibrated, or using reference data from previous brushing or and other model users brushing, brushing data from each usage may be compared to reference data to evaluate its quality 78 and determine the position of the oral hygiene device 1 in the newly acquired data. For instance, the calibration data may be utilized to prepare a statistical model of the shape and dimensions of a specific user's mouth and be used to create certain statistical boundaries for determining when the oral hygiene device 1 is brushing any certain section of the user's mouth. Then, once a user initiates brushing a second time, the newly recorded data could then be overlaid or correlated with the calibration brushing data associated with that user profile 60, to determine whether and where there were any deficiencies in the brushing. For instance, the system 100 may determine how much time is spent brushing each quadrant, how many strokes, or perform other evaluations of the brushing. Additionally, the analysis may indicate that a user brushed too much in certain areas or did not use the correct stroke patterns generally or in specific sections of the user's mouth.

[0192] The correlation may be performed by statistical analysis, for example, a quantitative comparison of such differences can be made simply by measuring the Euclidean distance in the 3xz space. Such vectors may then be treated by using a statistical analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), regression analysis, and linear discriminant analysis. Statistical methods suitable for high dimensionality data may be utilized. As an example, HCA systematically examines the distance between the data that represent each type of motion or positional data. A dendrogram can then be generated that shows the clustering of the data from the Euclidean distances between and among the data vectors, much like an ancestral tree.

[0193] Each statistical data cluster may be representative of sensor data for each section, quadrant or other logical division of the user's mouth. For example, the mouth may be divided into, top and bottom, with top and bottom each having a right front and left portion, and each of the right, front and left portions, having an inside, top, and outside face. Accordingly, the mouth may have 36 different sections, 10 sections, 8 sections, 12 sections, or 4 sections (quadrants), top and bottom only, outer and inner only, and other logical divisions. Accordingly, using reference data, the controller 13, or other processors in the system 100 (e.g., processors in the mobile phone or servers), may calculate the confidence interval or other value indicating the likelihood the oral hygiene device is brushing a specific section of the user's mouth, but determine the likelihood the strokes correlate or relate to the calibration data in those sections. In order to acquire a reference position, the user may be instructed to initiate brushing at an identical position of the mouth. That way, the data starts at a known position and can use that as a reference point to relate the rest of the data using statistical analysis. For instance, the angle, orientation, calculated distance and other features from the reference position of the oral hygiene device 1 detected by the motion sensor 11 and/or optical sensor 9 may indicate the likelihood each new position is correlated to a certain position of the mouth based on calibration data.

[0194] In other embodiments, the control system 13 or other system processors (e.g. processors in the smartphone, servers, or other components) may process the statistical data and determine that the brush is brushing a certain section of the mouth if the statistical analysis shows with great than 95%, 85%, 80% or other suitable certainty that the brush is within the section of the mouth. In some embodiments, the specificity or sensitivity of the brushing statically analysis may be modified to match a specific user's variance.

[0195] This analysis may include an output 80 that allows the control system 13 or other processors to determine which brush strokes were in each section of the mouth or tooth set, and therefore how much time a user spend brushing each quadrant, half or tooth, or other logical division of the mouth and how those times compare to recommended regimes. In other embodiments, the time at the beginning and end of entering a certain area may be recorded, or other suitable methods to determine how much time is spent brushing each section of the mouth.

[0196] In some embodiments, rather than detect the position of the toothbrush, the system 100 may direct the user to brush certain sections of the mouth one at a time, and only determine whether or not the user is actually brushing, and count or record brushing time only while motion indicative of brushing is detected. Then, once brushing has been recorded in the directed section for the prescribed time, the system 100 would indicate to the user that it is time to move to the next section of the mouth, and elapse time when the user is actually brushing. This prevents the user from taking breaks and thereby brushing for less than the optimal amount of time in each section. Accordingly, the control system 13 or other processors may analyze the data from the sensors 11 (or pressure sensor 10) to record the amount of time the user was brushing in each section while the system 100 indicated the user should be brushing in that particular section.

[0197] In other embodiments, pressure exerted on the head 42 from brushing may also be detected by a pressure sensor 10 incorporated into oral hygiene device 1. For example, the pressure sensor 10 may be incorporated into the head 42, and detect a pressure associated with usage. Additionally, the pressure may be mapped to the various positional data and therefore the controllers 13 or other processors of the system 100 may calculate the amount of pressure utilized for brushing each area of the mouth.

Machine Learning

[0198] In some examples, the statistical analysis utilized to implement various features disclosed in the system 100 will be a machine learning or artificial intelligent algorithm. For instance, the system 100 may process the available data sources from the systems 100 sensors included as disclosed herein, and identify a position within the mouth. In other examples, machine learning algorithms may be utilized to: (1) identify cavities or plaque using machine vision or other combinations of data, (2) identify position in the mouth to varying degrees of granularity, (3) identify bush stroke type using the dictionary of strokes disclosed herein, (4) identify users from motion or image data (e.g. machine vision to recognize facial features), or (5) other useful applications to the features described herein.

[0199] Machine learning algorithms may take a variety of forms. For instance, the system 100 may utilize more basic machine learning tools including 1) decision trees ("DT"), (2) Bayesian networks ("BN"), (3) artificial neural network ("ANN"), or (4) support vector machines ("SVM"). In other examples, deep learning algorithms or other more sophisticated machine learning algorithms may be used.

[0200] DT programs are generally used because of their simplicity and ease of understanding. DT are classification graphs that match input data to questions asked at each consecutive step in a decision tree. The DT program moves down the "branches" of the tree based on the answers to the questions (e.g., First branch: Is the patient male? yes or no. Branch two: Is the patient having trouble urinating? yes or no. etc.).

[0201] Bayesian networks ("BN") are based on likelihood something is true based on given independent variables and are modeled based on probabilistic relationships. BN are based purely on probabilistic relationships that determine the likelihood of one one variable based on another or others. For example, BN can model the relationships between symptoms and diseases. Particularly, if a patient's symptoms or biomarkers levels are known, a BN can be used to compute the probability that a patient has a particular disease. Thus, using an efficient BN algorithm, an inference can be made based on the input data. They are commonly used by the medical domain to represent reasoning under uncertain conditions for a wide range of applications, including disease diagnostics, genetic counseling, and emergency medical decision support system (MDSS) design.

[0202] Artificial neural networks ("ANN") are computational models inspired by an animal's central nervous system. They map inputs to outputs through a network of nodes. However, unlike BN, in ANN the nodes do not necessarily represent any actual variable. Accordingly, ANN may have a hidden layer of nodes that are not represented by a known variable to an observer.

[0203] ANNs are capable of pattern recognition and have been used for the medical and diagnostics fields. Their computing methods make it easier to understand a complex and unclear process that might go on during diagnosis of an illness based on input data a variety of input data including symptoms. While still facing steep limitations, ANN has demonstrated to be suitable in CDSS design and other biomedical applications, such as diagnosis of myocardial infarction, MDSS for leukemia management, and cancer detection.

[0204] Support vector machines ("SVM") came about from a framework utilizing of machine learning statistics and vector spaces (linear algebra concept that signifies the number of dimensions in linear space) equipped with some kind of limit-related structure. In some cases, they may determine a new coordinate system that easily separates inputs into two classifications. For example, a SVM could identify a line that separates two sets of points originating from different classifications of events.

[0205] They have been applied practically and are theoretically well-founded, but can sometimes be difficult to understand. SVMs have been applied to a number of biological domains, such as MDSS for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection, tumor classification, and biomarker discovery.

[0206] However, there is a relatively new type of machine learning algorithm that is capable of modeling very complex relationships that have a lot of variation that are called deep neural networks. Deep neural networks have developed recently to tackle the problems of speech recognition. [0207] In the IT industry fields, various architectures of DNN have been proposed to tackle the problems associated with algorithms such as ANN by many researchers during the last few decades. These types of DNN are CNN (Convolutional Neural Network), RBM (Restricted Boltzmann Machine), LSTM (Long Short Term Memory) etc. They are all based on the theory of ANN. They demonstrate a better performance by overcoming the back- propagation error diminishing problem associated with ANN.

Machine Learning - Training Data

[0208] Machine learning algorithms require training data to identify the features of interest that they are designed to detect. For instance, various methods may be utilized to form the machine learning models including applying randomly assigned initial weights for the network and applying gradient descent using back propagation for deep learning algorithms. In other examples, a neural network with one or two hidden layers can be used without training using this technique.

[0209] In some examples, the machine learning algorithms will be trained using labeled data, or data that represents certain features, specific actions, or characteristics, including a particular position in the mouth, a particular brush stroke, a particular user and others. In some examples, the training data will be pre-filtered or analyzed to determine certain features, including various high level filters or starting points that include motion sensing data (brush picked up, brush facing certain direction with respect to gravity). In other examples, the data will only be labeled with the outcome and the various relevant data may be input to train the machine learning algorithm.

[0210] For instance, to identify the position in the mouth, various machine learning algorithms may be utilized that input various data disclosed herein, including motion (accelerometer output, gyroscope output, magnetometer output), visual data from the camera on the base 2, or other data that is relevant to the position of the oral hygiene device 1 during brushing. For instance, in some embodiments, the input data for determining toothbrush position may only include data output from the sensors on the oral hygiene device 1. For instance, in some examples, the input data will be labeled data from the acceleration sensor alone.

[0211] In other examples, to identify position, the input data may be various combinations of labeled data output from the accelerometer, magnetometer, and gyroscope. In some examples, the starting and ending points of the input data will be quite important. In some examples, the input data may be a combination of data output from the sensors on the oral hygiene device, and sensors on the base 2, for example, the visual recognition or depth perception systems.

[0212] Similarly, for systems 100 that identify types of brush strokes (e.g. specific actions), the systems may utilize machine learning from combinations of data output from various sensors. In some examples, data output from the accelerometer alone may be sufficient to identify brush strokes. This is particularly the case because most brush strokes have a particular acceleration pattern that is repeated, and may include angular information with respect to gravity as disclosed herein.

[0213] In systems 100 that identify users, machine learning algorithms may be utilized to detect the face of the user, and identify the user with a unique profile. In these examples, the user may first use the system that includes a base 2 with a camera 56 that may take an initial picture of the user. The user can then indicate their profile selection, and the system can use that picture to identify that user in the future. Over time, the system may acquire additional photos or video of the user to make the identification of the user more robust (more labeled training sets, for example).

Machine Learning - Acquisition of training data

[0214] In some examples, the labeling of training data may include operators that review data that is recorded while a video camera captures images of a user. In other examples, a user prompt will tell the user (1) where to brush, and (2) potentially the type of brush stroke (e.g. other specific actions) to use, to train the system. For instance, in some examples, the system 100 may utilize a coach or other instructor with a schematic of the mouth that may highlight, light up, or otherwise instruct the user where to brush. These instructions may be displayed on a display of a mobile device, for instance.

[0215] Accordingly, an automatic instruction system may be utilized to acquire training data for a particular user (to personalize the algorithm) or for many users. For instance, in the case where the system 100 implements a mobile device 30, the system may display a schematic of the user's dentition on the mobile device 30 screen, and indicate which regions the user should brush in sequence, real time. Then, the system can record the data as labeled training data, with each set of data indicating a certain position in the mouth.

[0216] Additionally, the system 100 may indicate the type of brush stroke to use, including circular, back and forth, or more complex strokes as disclosed herein. Accordingly, these will all provide input training data to the system 100 to learn how to identify positions in the mouth and certain brush strokes. [0217] In some examples, however, the input data from the coach style acquisition may be required to be filtered, have the dimensionality reduced before feeding the labeled data into the algorithm for developing a model. For instance, a principal component analysis or other dimensionality reduction method may be implemented before the labeled data is fed into the algorithm(s).

[0218] In other examples, various filters may be utilized to filter the data before labeling and entering the data as training data. For instance, if a machine learning model for identifying position is being developed, the system may filter out various accelerations that include fast time changes, or periodic accelerations that are related to brush strokes rather than position. Similarly, for brush strokes, accelerations that are steady (e.g. gravitational) may be filtered out and only periodic accelerations will be analyzed or fed into the system. In other examples the data may not be pre-filtered and the sensitive deep learning algorithms may reliably determine position with additional data.

[0219] In other examples, the data may be pre-filtered or post-filtered (later rejected after analysis) in case the user is performing someone action wrong or not in accordance with the instructions displayed on the mobile 30 or other device display. Additionally, various filters or techniques may be utilized to determine when the user is in position and complying with the instructions, for instance once a periodic brushing is detected (with a periodic change in acceleration for example).

Presentation of Feedback

[0220] Once the system's 100 controller(s) 13, or other processors contained in the smartphone, servers, or other components of the system 100 have analyzed the usage data 78, feedback may be presented to the user 80 through the speaker 50, the visual indicators 52 on the oral hygiene device 1, or through an associated mobile device 30 or other computing device in data communication with the system 100. This feedback may be presented instantaneously or available for access to check progress.

[0221] For instance, instantaneous feedback may be provided to the user 80 during brushing, that includes indications by audio or visual means that indicate how much time is left, whether to brush harder or softer, whether certain quadrants have been sufficiently brushed, and when brushing is completed. For example, a red light or stop sound may be produced through the speaker 50 to indicate the brushing is completed. [0222] Additionally, historic and average brushing times and positional data may be presented to the user 80 on the mobile device or other computing device using graphs, charts, percentages and other metrics. For instance, the user could be presented with the average time spent per day, per quadrant, and the average days the user brushes once, twice or other times. Additionally, the average time spent brushing per tooth may be calculated and presented to the user on the mobile device 30 or other computing device. A program 15 running on the mobile device may control the presentation of the data, using the mobile device 30 controller 13.

[0223] In some examples, the system may combine the filtered and processed position and brush stroke identifications, and potentially tarter identification to give holistic feedback. For instance, in some examples, the feedback will not only be related to the time in each position of the mouth, but will also include the strokes used in each position of the mouth. In some examples, certain stroke techniques will present higher feedback scores to the user, or certain strokes that are used in certain positions in the mouth.

[0224] Accordingly, as show in Figures 9A and 9B, an application according to the present invention may include a mobile device 30 display 910 that may include a heatmap 920 or other visual representation of the positions the user has brushed, the accuracy of the brushing in each position, and the amount of time, and the type of stroke used. This information can provide a user with multiple goals for improving brushing.

API for Dentist Integration

[0225] An API may also be developed for transferring the brushing and usage data to a dentist for professional evaluation and feedback on brushing habits and techniques. Furthermore, this data may be evaluated to determine brushing techniques that result in more dental issues, including cavities and gum disease. For instance, the width or height of the strokes may be correlated to how high along the gum-line the brush reaches, indicating whether the gums are properly brushed. This could be analyzed to determine whether short strokes in height lead to more frequent instances of gum disease.

Gamification

[0226] The usage data may also be used to create games for children or family members to play alone or against each other, to hit certain thresholds of usage. This can provide a unique motivational tool for users to brush their teeth on a regular basis. Accordingly, as delayed feedback, for example, in the case of gum disease or cavities generally is discounted psychologically, the more immediate and continual concrete, and quantitative feedback of the present disclosure will provide a much better incentive to conform to recommend brushing regimens.

[0227] In some examples, the games will show what is inside the mouth, how to brush well and how to train & evaluate the quality of kid's brushing. In some examples, the user's brush to earn points based on time, quality, and quantity of brushing. For instance, the system may Tele-Dentistry Platform

[0228] In some examples, the systems and methods disclosed herein may be in communication with dentist professionals, to provide diagnosis on dental conditions and feedback on brushing. This may include the cavity, plaque, and brushing position time and technique information. For instance, in some embodiments, a user profile may be integrated with the servers of a dentist office, or separately contain patient data added by the dentist that includes any specific maladies or other issues a patient may have.

[0229] For instance, the dentist may add specific areas or teeth that have cavities, periodontal diseases, gingivitis, tooth decay, receding gumlines, and other issues. Accordingly, those issues may be mapped to an individual user's dentition and change the recommended brushing strategy presented to the user during brushing and evaluated against for providing feedback.

[0230] In some examples, a dentist (using a computer or mobile device) may enter into that the user has a receding gumline in a certain position in the user's mouth. Accordingly, that data will be sent to the patient's mobile device 30 and saved with the patient profile. Accordingly, when the user brushes, the interface may highlight in red where the user should brush more softly, and using a circular or other type of stroke to minimize gum damage. Thus, the user will then attempt to accommodate that request, the feedback may indicate the pressure is too high for that area (including real time) the stroke is wrong, too fast, etc., or too much time is spent in a particular area.

[0231] Accordingly, the tele-dentistry system may be able to provide clinician level feedback in the brushing process. This will allow the brushing experience to be personalized to each user.

Computer & Hardware Implementation of Disclosure

[0232] It should initially be understood that the disclosure herein may be implemented with any type of hardware and/or software, and may be a pre-programmed general purpose computing device. For example, the system may be implemented using a server, a personal computer, a portable computer, a thin client, or any suitable device or devices. The disclosure and/or components thereof may be a single device at a single location, or multiple devices at a single, or multiple, locations that are connected together using any appropriate communication protocols over any communication medium such as electric cable, fiber optic cable, or in a wireless manner.

[0233] It should also be noted that the disclosure is illustrated and discussed herein as having a plurality of modules which perform particular functions. It should be understood that these modules are merely schematically illustrated based on their function for clarity purposes only, and do not necessary represent specific hardware or software. In this regard, these modules may be hardware and/or software implemented to substantially perform the particular functions discussed. Moreover, the modules may be combined together within the disclosure, or divided into additional modules based on the particular function desired. Thus, the disclosure should not be construed to limit the present invention, but merely be understood to illustrate one example implementation thereof.

[0234] The computing system can include clients and servers. A client and server are generally remote from each other and typically interact through a communication network. The relationship of client and server arises by virtue of computer programs running on the respective computers and having a client-server relationship to each other. In some implementations, a server transmits data (e.g., an HTML page) to a client device (e.g., for purposes of displaying data to and receiving user input from a user interacting with the client device). Data generated at the client device (e.g., a result of the user interaction) can be received from the client device at the server.

[0235] Implementations of the subject matter described in this specification can be implemented in a computing system that includes a back-end component, e.g., as a data server, or that includes a middleware component, e.g., an application server, or that includes a front-end component, e.g., a client computer having a graphical user interface or a Web browser through which a user can interact with an implementation of the subject matter described in this specification, or any combination of one or more such back-end, middleware, or front-end components. The components of the system can be interconnected by any form or medium of digital data communication, e.g., a communication network. Examples of communication networks include a local area network ("LAN") and a wide area network ("WAN"), an inter-network (e.g., the Internet), and peer-to-peer networks (e.g., ad hoc peer-to-peer networks). [0236] Implementations of the subject matter and the operations described in this specification can be implemented in digital electronic circuitry, or in computer software, firmware, or hardware, including the structures disclosed in this specification and their structural equivalents, or in combinations of one or more of them. Implementations of the subject matter described in this specification can be implemented as one or more computer programs, i.e., one or more modules of computer program instructions, encoded on computer storage medium for execution by, or to control the operation of, data processing apparatus. Alternatively, or in addition, the program instructions can be encoded on an artificially-generated propagated signal, e.g., a machine-generated electrical, optical, or electromagnetic signal that is generated to encode information for transmission to suitable receiver apparatus for execution by a data processing apparatus. A computer storage medium can be, or be included in, a computer-readable storage device, a computer-readable storage substrate, a random or serial access memory array or device, or a combination of one or more of them. Moreover, while a computer storage medium is not a propagated signal, a computer storage medium can be a source or destination of computer program instructions encoded in an artificially-generated propagated signal. The computer storage medium can also be, or be included in, one or more separate physical components or media (e.g., multiple CDs, disks, or other storage devices).

[0237] The operations described in this specification can be implemented as operations performed by a "data processing apparatus" on data stored on one or more computer-readable storage devices or received from other sources.

[0238] The term "data processing apparatus" encompasses all kinds of apparatus, devices, and machines for processing data, including by way of example a programmable processor, a computer, a system on a chip, or multiple ones, or combinations, of the foregoing The apparatus can include special purpose logic circuitry, e.g., an FPGA (field programmable gate array) or an ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit). The apparatus can also include, in addition to hardware, code that creates an execution environment for the computer program in question, e.g., code that constitutes processor firmware, a protocol stack, a database management system, an operating system, a cross-platform runtime environment, a virtual machine, or a combination of one or more of them. The apparatus and execution environment can realize various different computing model infrastructures, such as web services, distributed computing and grid computing infrastructures. [0239] A computer program (also known as a program, software, software application, script, or code) can be written in any form of programming language, including compiled or interpreted languages, declarative or procedural languages, and it can be deployed in any form, including as a stand-alone program or as a module, component, subroutine, object, or other unit suitable for use in a computing environment. A computer program may, but need not, correspond to a file in a file system. A program can be stored in a portion of a file that holds other programs or data (e.g., one or more scripts stored in a markup language document), in a single file dedicated to the program in question, or in multiple coordinated files (e.g., files that store one or more modules, sub-programs, or portions of code). A computer program can be deployed to be executed on one computer or on multiple computers that are located at one site or distributed across multiple sites and interconnected by a communication network.

[0240] The processes and logic flows described in this specification can be performed by one or more programmable processors executing one or more computer programs to perform actions by operating on input data and generating output. The processes and logic flows can also be performed by, and apparatus can also be implemented as, special purpose logic circuitry, e.g., an FPGA (field programmable gate array) or an ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit).

[0241] Processors suitable for the execution of a computer program include, by way of example, both general and special purpose microprocessors, and any one or more processors of any kind of digital computer. Generally, a processor will receive instructions and data from a read-only memory or a random access memory or both. The essential elements of a computer are a processor for performing actions in accordance with instructions and one or more memory devices for storing instructions and data. Generally, a computer will also include, or be operatively coupled to receive data from or transfer data to, or both, one or more mass storage devices for storing data, e.g., magnetic, magneto-optical disks, or optical disks. However, a computer need not have such devices. Moreover, a computer can be embedded in another device, e.g., a mobile telephone, a personal digital assistant (PDA), a mobile audio or video player, a game console, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, or a portable storage device (e.g., a universal serial bus (USB) flash drive), to name just a few. Devices suitable for storing computer program instructions and data include all forms of non-volatile memory, media and memory devices, including by way of example semiconductor memory devices, e.g., EPROM, EEPROM, and flash memory devices; magnetic disks, e.g., internal hard disks or removable disks; magneto-optical disks; and CD-ROM and DVD-ROM disks. The processor and the memory can be supplemented by, or incorporated in, special purpose logic circuitry.

[0242] Those skilled in the art will recognize that many changes may be made to the described embodiments without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Furthermore, those skilled in the art will also recognize that certain embodiments described for one device or system can be readily, or with slight modification, be included in the embodiments described for another device or system, without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

[0243] By way of example, the following selected embodiments are illustrative examples of the present disclosure.

SELECTED EMBODIMENTS

[0244] Embodiment 1. An oral hygiene system for monitoring compliance with an oral hygiene regimen comprising: an oral hygiene device comprising a handle and a head; an optical sensor; a memory containing machine readable medium comprising machine executable code having stored thereon instructions for performing a method of recognizing specific actions of the oral hygiene device; a control system coupled to the memory comprising one or more processors coupled to the memory, the control system configured to execute the machine executable code to cause the one or more processors to: receive data output by the optical sensor; process the data using a machine learning model to determine a specific action of the oral hygiene device represented by the data, wherein the specific action includes an orientation and motion of the oral hygiene device; and outputting data representing the specific action.

[0245] Embodiment 2. The oral hygiene system according to embodiment 1, wherein the oral hygiene device comprises a pattern, and the control system is further configured to execute the machine executable code to cause the one or more processors to determine the specific action of the oral hygiene device based at least on an analysis of the pattern in the data output by the optical sensor.

[0246] Embodiment 3. The oral hygiene system according to embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the specific action of the oral hygiene device is determined with respect to the user's mouth.

[0247] Embodiment 4. The oral hygiene system according to any of the preceding embodiments, wherein the machine learning model is a deep learning model. [0248] Embodiment 5. The oral hygiene system according to any of the preceding embodiments, wherein the machine learning model incorporates labeled training data that indicates a position of the mouth.

[0249] Embodiment 6. The oral hygiene system according to any of the preceding embodiments, wherein the control system is further configured to execute the machine executable code to cause the one or more processors to input data output from the optical sensor and a motion sensor attached to the oral hygiene device to determine the specific action.

[0250] Embodiment 7. The oral hygiene system according to embodiment 0, wherein the labeled training data comprises data that was automatically labeled by a user brushing their teeth according to instructions on a display of a mobile device.

[0251] Embodiment 8. The oral hygiene system according to any of the preceding embodiments, wherein the specific action is one of: a brush stroke type, a brushing position, applying toothpaste, or brushing.

[0252] Embodiment 9. An electronic oral hygiene system for monitoring brushing and compliance with a tooth brush regime comprising: an oral hygiene device including a handle and a head; a motion sensor configured to output motion data related to motion of the oral hygiene device; a memory for storing the data output by the motion sensor and in data communication with the motion sensor; and a control system which determines the position of a head of the oral hygiene device in a user's mouth by comparing the motion data to previously recorded calibration data using a machine learning model.

[0253] Embodiment 10. The electronic oral hygiene system according to embodiment 9, wherein the control system utilizes a machine learning model to determine orientation.

[0254] Embodiment 11. The electronic oral hygiene system according to embodiment 10, wherein the machine learning model is a deep learning model.

[0255] Embodiment 12. The electronic oral hygiene system according to embodiment 10 or 11, wherein the machine learning model incorporates labeled training data that indicates a position of the mouth.

[0256] Embodiment 13. The electronic oral hygiene system according to embodiment 12, wherein the labeled training data comprises data that was automatically labeled by a user brushing their teeth according to instructions on a display of a mobile device. [0257] Embodiment 14. The electronic oral hygiene system according to any of embodiments 9 to 13, wherein the control system utilizes a machine learning model to further determine brush stroke type.

[0258] Embodiment 15. The electronic oral hygiene system according to embodiment 14, wherein the brush stroke type comprises a circular stroke, back-and-forth stroke, or an angled stroke.

[0259] Embodiment 16. An oral hygiene system for monitoring brushing and compliance with a tooth brush regime comprising: an oral hygiene device including a handle and a head; a sensor; a memory containing machine readable medium comprising machine executable code having stored thereon instructions for performing a method of determining a position and orientation of the toothbrush; and a control system coupled to the memory comprising one or more processors, the control system configured to execute the machine executable code to cause the control system to determine a specific action performed by the oral hygiene device based at least on data output by the sensor comprising motion data representing the motion of the oral hygiene device, wherein the specific action is determined by processing the motion data with a machine learning model.

[0260] Embodiment 17. The oral hygiene system according to embodiment 16, wherein the sensor is one of a: gyrometer, magnetometer, or accelerometer.

[0261] Embodiment 18. The oral hygiene system according to embodiment 16 or 17, wherein the specific action performed by the oral hygiene device is one of: a brush stroke type, a position in the mouth, a brush stroke type at a position in the mouth, or applying toothpaste to the oral hygiene device.

[0262] Embodiment 19. The oral hygiene system according to any of embodiments 16 to 18, wherein a first mobile device displays a schematic of a user's dentition based on the determined specific action, and illustrates information relating to an amount of time spent brushing each section of the user's mouth and the brush stroke type used in each section of the user's mouth.

[0263] Embodiment 20. The oral hygiene system according to embodiment 19, wherein a second mobile device in communication with the first mobile device receives input from a user regarding a goal for a time, quantity, or accuracy of specific actions.

[0264] Embodiment 21. The oral hygiene system according to embodiment 20, wherein the control system is configured to send a notification to the second mobile device if the goal is reached, and send a reward to the first mobile device. [0265] Embodiment 22. A non-transitory, computer-readable storage medium having stored thereon instructions for performing a method comprising machine executable code which when executed by at least one machine, causes the machine to: determine a spatial position and orientation of an oral hygiene device based at least on data output by an accelerometer comprising motion data representing the oral hygiene device using a machine learning algorithm; determine a section of a user's teeth being brushed by the oral hygiene device based on the motion data; and output an indication of the user's brushing on a display based on the determined spatial position, orientation, and section of the user's teeth.

[0266] Embodiment 23. The non-transitory, computer-readable storage medium of embodiment 22, wherein the section of the user's teeth comprises the outside face of upper molars or the inside face of lower molars.

[0267] Embodiment 24. The non-transitory, computer-readable storage medium of embodiment 22, wherein the section of the user's teeth comprises the outside face of upper incisors or the outside face of lower incisors.

CONCLUSION

[0268] The various methods and techniques described above provide a number of ways to carry out the invention. Of course, it is to be understood that not necessarily all objectives or advantages described can be achieved in accordance with any particular embodiment described herein. Thus, for example, those skilled in the art will recognize that the methods can be performed in a manner that achieves or optimizes one advantage or group of advantages as taught herein without necessarily achieving other objectives or advantages as taught or suggested herein. A variety of alternatives are mentioned herein. It is to be understood that some embodiments specifically include one, another, or several features, while others specifically exclude one, another, or several features, while still others mitigate a particular feature by inclusion of one, another, or several advantageous features.

[0269] Furthermore, the skilled artisan will recognize the applicability of various features from different embodiments. Similarly, the various elements, features and steps discussed above, as well as other known equivalents for each such element, feature or step, can be employed in various combinations by one of ordinary skill in this art to perform methods in accordance with the principles described herein. Among the various elements, features, and steps some will be specifically included and others specifically excluded in diverse embodiments. [0270] Although the application has been disclosed in the context of certain embodiments and examples, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the embodiments of the application extend beyond the specifically disclosed embodiments to other alternative embodiments and/or uses and modifications and equivalents thereof.

[0271] In some embodiments, the terms "a" and "an" and "the" and similar references used in the context of describing a particular embodiment of the application (especially in the context of certain of the following claims) can be construed to cover both the singular and the plural. The recitation of ranges of values herein is merely intended to serve as a shorthand method of referring individually to each separate value falling within the range. Unless otherwise indicated herein, each individual value is incorporated into the specification as if it were individually recited herein. All methods described herein can be performed in any suitable order unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context. The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language (for example, "such as") provided with respect to certain embodiments herein is intended merely to better illuminate the application and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the application otherwise claimed. No language in the specification should be construed as indicating any non-claimed element essential to the practice of the application.

[0272] Certain embodiments of this application are described herein. Variations on those embodiments will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon reading the foregoing description. It is contemplated that skilled artisans can employ such variations as appropriate, and the application can be practiced otherwise than specifically described herein. Accordingly, many embodiments of this application include all modifications and equivalents of the subject matter recited in the claims appended hereto as permitted by applicable law. Moreover, any combination of the above-described elements in all possible variations thereof is encompassed by the application unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context.

[0273] Particular implementations of the subject matter have been described. Other implementations are within the scope of the following claims. In some cases, the actions recited in the claims can be performed in a different order and still achieve desirable results. In addition, the processes depicted in the accompanying figures do not necessarily require the particular order shown, or sequential order, to achieve desirable results.

[0274] All patents, patent applications, publications of patent applications, and other material, such as articles, books, specifications, publications, documents, things, and/or the like, referenced herein are hereby incorporated herein by this reference in their entirety for all purposes, excepting any prosecution file history associated with same, any of same that is inconsistent with or in conflict with the present document, or any of same that may have a limiting affect as to the broadest scope of the claims now or later associated with the present document. By way of example, should there be any inconsistency or conflict between the description, definition, and/or the use of a term associated with any of the incorporated material and that associated with the present document, the description, definition, and/or the use of the term in the present document shall prevail.

[0275] In closing, it is to be understood that the embodiments of the application disclosed herein are illustrative of the principles of the embodiments of the application. Other modifications that can be employed can be within the scope of the application. Thus, by way of example, but not of limitation, alternative configurations of the embodiments of the application can be utilized in accordance with the teachings herein. Accordingly, embodiments of the present application are not limited to that precisely as shown and described.