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Title:
ORGANO-METALLIC FRAMEWORKS AND METHODS OF MAKING SAME
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2010/148374
Kind Code:
A2
Abstract:
The disclosure provides organic frameworks comprising increased stability.

Inventors:
DOONAN CHRISTIAN J (US)
MORRIS WILLIAM (US)
YAGHI OMAR M (US)
WANG BO (US)
DENG HEXIANG (US)
Application Number:
US2010/039284
Publication Date:
December 23, 2010
Filing Date:
June 19, 2010
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
UNIV CALIFORNIA (US)
DOONAN CHRISTIAN J (US)
MORRIS WILLIAM (US)
YAGHI OMAR M (US)
WANG BO (US)
DENG HEXIANG (US)
International Classes:
C07F19/00; B01J20/22; B01J31/16; C07F3/06
Foreign References:
Other References:
None
See also references of EP 2443133A4
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BAKER, Joseph, R. (Dodd & Lindsey LLP4660 La Jolla Village Drive, Suite 75, San Diego CA, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. An organo-metallic framework comprising the general structure M-L-M, wherein M is a framework metal and wherein L is a linking moiety having an heterocyclic carbene or an imine group linked to a modifying metal.

2. The organo-metallic framework of claim 1, wherein the imine group comprises a chelating group.

3. The organo-metallic framework of claim 1, wherein the linking moiety is metallated prior to reacting with the framework metal .

4. The organo-metallic framework of claim 3, wherein the linking moiety comprises an N-heterocyclic carbene.

5. The organo-metallic framework of claim 1, wherein the framework comprises a covalent organic framework (COF) , a zeolitic imidizole framework (ZIF) , or a metal organic framework (MOF) .

64. The organo-metallic framework of claim 2, wherein the imine group is post-framework chelated to a metal.

7. The organo-metallic framework of claim 1, wherein the framework metal is selected from the group consisting of Li+, Na+, Rb+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Sc3+, Ti4+, Zr4+, Ta3+, Cr3+, Mo3+, W3+, Mn3+, Fe3+, Fe2+, Ru3+, Ru2+, Os3+, Os2+, Co3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ni+, Pd2+, Pd+, Pt2+, Pt+, Cu2+, Cu+, Au+, Zn2+, Al3+, Ga3+, In3+, Si4+, Si2+, Ge4+, Ge2+, Sn4+, Sn2+, Bi5+, Bi3+.

8. The organo-metallic framework of claim 1, wherein the modifying metal is selected from the group consisting of Li+, Na+, Rb+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Sc3+, Ti4+, Zr4+, Ta3+, Cr3+, Mo3+, W3+, Mn3+, Fe3+, Fe2+, Ru3+, Ru2+, Os3+, Os2+, Co3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ni+, Pd2 Pd+, Pt2+, Pt+, Cu2+, Cu+, Au+, Zn2 AV Ga¬ in^ Si4

Si2+, Ge4+, Ge2+, Sn4+, Sn2+, Bi5+, Bi3+

9. The organo-metallic framework of claim 1, wherein the modifying metal extends into a pore of the framework.

10. The organo-metallic framework of claim 1, wherein the framework lacks a guest species.

11. A method of making an organo-metallic framework of claim 1 comprising reacting a linking moiety comprising a heterocyclic carbene and comprising a protected linking cluster with a modifying metal to obtain a metallated linking moiety, deprotecting the linking cluster and reacting the metallated linking moiety with a framework metal.

12. A method of making an organo-metallic framework of claim 1 comprising reacting an organic framework comprising an amine group with a 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde to obtain an imine functionalized linking moiety and contacting the framework with a metal that chelates to the imine functionalized linking moiety.

13. A gas sorption composition comprising an organo-metallic framework of claim 1.

14. A catalyst composition comprising an organo-metallic framework of claim 1.

Description:
ORGANO-METALLIC FRAMEWORKS AND METHODS OF

MAKING SAME

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority under 35 U. S. C. §119 from Provisional Application Serial Nos . 61/218,891, filed June 19, 2009, and 61/247,351, filed September 30, 2009, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference.

STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONOSRED RESEARCH This invention was funded by grant number DE-FG36-05GO15001 awarded by the Department of Energy and grant number HDTRAl- 08-10023 awarded by the Department of Defense. The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0002] The disclosure provides organometallic frameworks for gas separation, storage, and for use as sensors with chemical stability.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Frameworks for gas separation, storage and purification are important.

SUMMARY

[0004] The disclosure provides chemically stable open frameworks comprising designated elements including, but not limited to, zirconium, titanium, aluminum, and magnesium ions. The disclosure encompasses all open framework materials that are constructed from organic links bridged by multidentate organic or inorganic cores. Including all classes of open framework materials; covalent organic frameworks (COFs), zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) and metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and all possible resulting net topologies as described within the reticular chemistry structure resource

(hLtp://rcsr.anu.edu.au/) . The disclosure provides stable frameworks utilizing these materials in industrial harsh conditions. Such material will have a variety of uses in applications such as gas storage and separation, chemical and biological sensing, molecular reorganization and catalysis. [0005] The disclosure provides an organo-metallic framework comprising the general structure M-L-M, wherein M is a framework metal and wherein L is a linking moiety having an heterocyclic carbene or an imine group linked to a modifying metal. In one embodiment, the imine group comprises a chelating group. In yet another embodiment, the linking moiety is metallated prior to reacting with the framework metal. In yet a further embodiment, the linking moiety comprises an N-heterocyclic carbene. In one embodiment, the framework comprises a covalent organic framework (COF) , a zeolitic imidizole framework (ZIF) , or a metal organic framework (MOF) . In yet another embodiment, the imine group is post-framework chelated to a metal. In one embodiment, the framework metal is selected from the group consisting of Li + , Na + , Rb + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Sc 3+ , Ti 4+ , Zr 4+ , Ta 3+ , Cr 3+ , Mo 3+ , W 3+ , Mn 3+ , Fe 3+ , Fe 2+ , Ru 3+ , Ru 2+ , Os 3+ , Os 2+ , Co 3+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Ni + , Pd 2+ , Pd + , Pt 2+ , Pt + , Cu 2+ , Cu + , Au + , Zn 2+ , Al 3+ , Ga 3+ , In 3+ , Si 4+ , Si 2+ , Ge 4+ , Ge 2+ , Sn 4+ , Sn 2+ , Bi 5+ , Bi 3+ . In yet another embodiment, the modifying metal is selected from the group consisting of Li + , Na + , Rb + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Sc 3+ , Ti 4+ , Zr 4+ , Ta 3+ , Cr 3+ , Mo 3+ , W 3+ , Mn 3+ , Fe 3+ , Fe 2+ , Ru 3+ , Ru 2+ , Os 3+ , Os 2+ , Co 3+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Ni + , Pd 2+ , Pd + , Pt 2+ , Pt + , Cu 2+ , Cu + , Au + , Zn 2+ , Al 3+ , Ga 3+ , In 3+ , Si 4+ , Si 2+ , Ge 4+ , Ge 2+ , Sn 4+ , Sn 2+ , Bi 5+ , Bi 3+ . In yet a further embodiment, the modifying metal extends into a pore of the framework. In some embodiments the framework comprises a guest species, however, in other embodiments, the framework lacks a guest species while remaining stable. [0006] The disclosure provides a method of making an organo-metallic framework described above comprising reacting a linking moiety comprising a heterocyclic carbene and comprising a protected linking cluster with a modifying metal to obtain a metallated linking moiety, deprotecting the linking cluster and reacting the metallated linking moiety with a framework metal .

[0007] The disclosure also provides a method of making an organo-metallic framework comprising reacting an organic framework comprising an amine group with a 2- pyridinecarboxaldehyde to obtain an imine functionalized linking moiety and contacting the framework with a metal that chelates to the imine functionalized linking moiety. [0008] The organo-metallic frameworks of the disclosure are usful for gas separation and catalysis. Accordingly, the disclosure provides gas sorption materials and devices comprising an organo-metallic framework of the disclosure as well as catalytic compositions and devices. [0009] The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0010] Figure 1 shows PXRD patterns for A, B, and C along with a simulated pattern for A (bottom) .

[0011] Figure 2 shows Ar gas adsorption isotherms for A (solid circles top portion of graph) , B (open circles top portion) , and C (lower line) at 87 K, with adsorption and desorption points represented by solid and open circles, respectively.

[0012] Figure 3 shows Pd K-edge EXAFS Fourier transforms and (inset) EXAFS spectra for C. Solid lines show the experimental data and dotted lines show the best fits using the parameters given in Table 1.

[0013] Figure 4 shows Pd K-edge near edge spectra of : Dichloro (N- (2-pyridylmethylene) aniline-N, N ' ) Palladium (II) (a) (Zn 4 O) 3 (BDC-C 6 H 5 N 2 PdCl 2 ) S (BTB) 4 (b) and PdCl 2 (CH 3 CN) (c) . [0014] Figure 5 shows ESI mass spectrum of imine ligand fragment .

[0015] Figure 6A-C show structures of IRMOF-76 and -77. (a) Single crystal structure of IRMOF-76 (Zn 4 O (C 23 H 15 N 2 O 4 ) 3 (X) 3 (X = BF 4 , PF 6 , OH)) . (b) Single crystal structure of IRMOF-77 (Zn 4 O(C 28 H 21 I 2 N 3 O 4 Pd) 3 ) shown with only one pcu net. Atom colors: tetrahedron: Zn, I, Pd, O, sphere: N. The spheres represent the largest spheres that would occupy the cavity without contacting the interior van der Waals surface for IRMOF-76 and the single framework of IRMOF-77 (ca. 19 A and 15 A, respectively) . All hydrogen atoms, counter-anions (X) , and guest molecules have been omitted for clarity, (c) Spacefilling illustration of IRMOF-77. Two interwoven pcu nets are shown with blue and gold colors, respectively.

[0016] Figure 7 shows N 2 isotherm measurements for IRMOF-77 measured at 77 K.

[0017] Figure 8 shows PXRD patterns of as-synthesized IRMOF-77 (middle) , quinoline-exchanged IRMOF-77 (bottom) , and simulated PXRD pattern from single crystal X-ray structure (top) .

[0018] Figure 9 is an ORTEP drawing of the asymmetric unit of the IRMOF-76. All ellipsoids are displayed at the 10% probability level except for hydrogen atoms.

[0019] Figure 10 is an ORTEP drawing of the IRMOF-77, with a half of Zn 4 O unit and one link. All ellipsoids are displayed at the 30% probability level except for hydrogen atoms. [0020] Figure 11 shows PXRD patterns of as-synthesized IRMOF-76 (black) and simulated IRMOF-15, 16 (blue and red, respectively) from single crystal X-ray structures. [0021] Figure 12 is a TGA trace of as-synthesized IRMOF-76. The huge weight loss up to 150 0 C corresponds to the loss of guest solvents (DMF, H 2 O) . A significant weight loss from 300 to 400 0 C indicates the decomposition of the material. [0022] Figure 13 is a TGA trace of as-synthesized IRMOF-77. The huge weight loss up to 150 0 C corresponds to the loss of guest solvents (DEF, pyridine, and H 2 O) . Presumably the material loses coordinated molecules (pyridines) up to 250 0 C, and a significant weight loss from 300 to 400 0 C indicates the decomposition of the material.

[0023] Figure 14 is a TGA trace of activated IRMOF-77. The weight loss around 180 0 C is attributed to the partial loss of coordinated pyridine (calcd. 8.6% for full loss) . [0024] Figure 15 is a TGA trace of organometallic linker Ll. The weight loss (9.7%) up to 250 0 C is in accordance with the loss of pyridine (calcd. 9.3%) to form dimer S4. [0025] Figure 16 shows an activated Zr-MOF. [0026] Figure 17 shows a stability test in the presence of various chemicals .

[0027] Figure 18 shows reactions useful for generating imines as chelators.

[0028] Figure 19 shows a reversible imine formation in a framework .

[0029] Figure 20 shows PXRD data for imines. [0030] Figure 21 shows solid state NMR data for imines. [0031] Figure 22A-B shows SA of imine reactions. [0032] Figure 23 shows data on reversal of imine reactions. [0033] Figure 24 shows ligands useful in the methods and compositions of the disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0034] As used herein and in the appended claims, the singular forms "a," "and," and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to "a framework" includes a plurality of such frameworks and reference to "the metal" includes reference to one or more metals and equivalents thereof known to those skilled in the art, and so forth. [0035] Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood to one of ordinary skill in the art to which this disclosure belongs. Although any methods and reagents similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice of the disclosed methods and compositions, the exemplary methods and materials are now described. [0036] Also, the use of "or" means "and/or" unless stated otherwise. Similarly, "comprise," "comprises," "comprising" "include," "includes," and "including" are interchangeable and not intended to be limiting. [0037] It is to be further understood that where descriptions of various embodiments use the term "comprising, " those skilled in the art would understand that in some specific instances, an embodiment can be alternatively described using language "consisting essentially of" or "consisting of."

[0038] All publications mentioned herein are incorporated herein by reference in full for the purpose of describing and disclosing the methodologies, which are described in the publications, which might be used in connection with the description herein. The publications discussed above and throughout the text are provided solely for their disclosure prior to the filing date of the present application. Nothing herein is to be construed as an admission that the inventors are not entitled to antedate such disclosure by virtue of prior disclosure.

[0039] Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been synthesized in the art, however, these prior MOFs lack chemical stability or suffer from low porosity and restricted cages/channels, which drastically limit their use in industry. [0040] Precise control of functionality in metal complexes is commonly achieved in molecular coordination chemistry. Developing the analogous chemistry within extended crystalline structures remains a challenge because of their tendency to lose order and connectivity when subjected to chemical reactions. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are ideal candidates for performing coordination chemistry in extended structures because of their highly ordered nature and the flexibility with which the organic links can be modified. This is exemplified by the successful application of the isoreticular principle, where the functionality and metrics of an extended porous structure can be altered without changing its underlying topology.

[0041] The disclosure provides a method of generating organo-metallic frameworks via two methods. A first method utilizes a post-framework synthesis reaction, wherein a reactive side-group a linking ligand serves as a metal chelator to chelate a metal into the framework. The second method utilizes a pre-framework synthesis methodology wherein the linking ligand is modified to comprise a metal, wherein the metal-ligand is then reacted to form the framework. The disclosure also includes compositions that result from these methods as well as devices incorporating the compositions. [0042] The disclosure provides a method of generating stable organo-metallic frameworks comprising MOFs, ZIFs, or COFs using a sequence of chemical reactions. One advantage of the frameworks of the disclosure is that the desired metal centers and organic links can be easily incorporated so that the porosity, functionality and channel environment can be readily adjusted and tuned for targeted functions and application .

[0043] In one embodiment of the invention, the disclosure provides a precursor organic framework comprising a linking moiety having a reactive side group useful for chelating a metal. In one embodiment, the reactive side group comprises an amine group. The precursor organic framework can then be reacted with a metal to form an organo-metallic framework through reaction of the framework with a post-framework reaction chelating process.

[0044] The disclosure demonstrates that MOF material, chosen from the vast number reported in the literature, can be subjected to a sequence of chemical reactions to make a covalently bound chelating ligand, which can subsequently be used for the complexation of Pd(II) . The framework comprising the chelated metal can then be further reacted to incorporate additional functionality (e.g., space constraints, charge and the like) oto the pores of the framework.

[0045] As an example, crystals of (Zn 4 O) 3 (BDC-NH 2 ) S (BTB) 4 (A) (Scheme 1) were reacted with 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde to form the covalently bound iminopyridine chelate derivative (Zn 4 O) 3 -(BDC-C 6 H 5 N 2 ) S (BTB) 4 (B), which was reacted with PdCl 2 (CH 3 CN) 2 to give the metal-complexed MOF (Zn 4 O) 3 (BDC- C 6 H 5 N 2 PdCl 2 )S-(BTB) 4 (C) . These reactions and their respective products were achieved without loss of structural order or framework connectivity. This isoreticular metalation is a significant first step in harnessing the intrinsic advantages of molecular coordination chemistry for functionalization of extended solids. The metal-complexed MOF, can then serve as an building block for additional reactions of the chelated-metal to form further functionalized frameworks.

[0046] Two reports on covalent metalation describe materials that have not been demonstrated to be permanently porous. The strategy delineated in Scheme 1 overcomes these limitations. Iminopyridine moieties have proved to be a versatile ligand system for binding a variety of transition metals in known coordination environments. The disclosure incorporates such a moiety through condensation of the amine- functionalized framework and 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde (Scheme D .

[0047] In yet another embodiment of the invention, the disclosure provides an alternative method for generating organo-metallic frameworks. In this embodiment, covalently linked organometallic complexes within the pores of MOFs are generated. The method metalates a reactive carbene on a linking ligand, followed by deprotecting the linking clusters and reacting the metalated linking ligand with a metal. For example, a carbene (NHC) 5 precursor is metalated (Ll, Scheme 2) and then assembled into the desired metalated MOF structure (e.g., IRMOF-77, Scheme 2) . Also demonstrated by the disclosure is that these metalated MOFs can be further modified to increase the functionality (size, charge etc.) of the pores of the framework.

Scheme 2: Convergent synthesis of new dicarboxylic acid links (LO, Ll) and preparation of IRMOF-76, 77:

Scheme 2

^Conditions: (a) CoCl 2 (1 mol %) , NaBH 4 , EtOH/THF, reflux; (b) HC(OEt) 3 , sulfamic acid (5 mol %) , MeOH, 52% (for 2 steps); (c) MeI, K 2 CO 3 , EtOH, reflux, 100%; (d) Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 (5 mol %) , K 2 CO 3 , dioxane/H 2 0, 100 0 C, 62%; (e) MeI, CH 3 CN, reflux, 94%; (f) HBF 4 OEt 2 , CH 2 Cl 2 , 100%; (g) Zn (BF 4 ) 2 -χH 2 O (3 equiv) , KPF 6 (10 equiv) , DMF, 100 0 C, 36 h; (h) Pd(CH 3 CN) 2 Cl 2 , NaI, K 2 CO 3 , pyridine, reflux, 88%; (i) TMSOTf, CH 2 Cl 2 ; (j) pyridine, CHCl 3 /MeOH; 74% (for 2 steps); (k) Zn (NO 3 ) 2 -4H 2 O (3 equiv), DEF/pyridine (75/1), 100 0 C, 30 h.

[0048] In one embodiment, the methods of the disclosure utilize process depicted in Scheme 3 to produce an organo- metallic MOF.

[0049] The term "cluster" refers to identifiable associations of 2 or more atoms. Such associations are typically established by some type of bond--ionic, covalent, Van der Waal, and the like.

[0050] A "linking cluster" refers to one or more reactive species capable of condensation comprising an atom capable of forming a bond between a linking moiety substructure and a metal group or between a linking moiety and another linking moiety. Examples of such species are selected from the group consisting of boron, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous atoms. In some embodiments, the linking cluster may comprise one or more different reactive species capable of forming a link with a bridging oxygen atom. For example, a linking cluster can comprise CO 2 H, CS 2 H, NO 2 , SO 3 H, Si(OH) 3 , Ge(OH) 3 , Sn(OH) 3 , Si(SH) 4 , Ge(SH) 4 , Sn(SH) 4 , PO 3 H, AsO 3 H, AsO 4 H, P(SH) 3 , As(SH) 3 , CH(RSH) 2 , C(RSH) 3 , CH(RNH 2 J 2 , C(RNH 2 J 3 , CH(ROH) 2 , C(ROH) 3 , CH(RCN) 2 , C(RCN) 3 , CH(SH) 2 , C(SH) 3 , CH (NH 2 ) 2 , C(NH 2 J 3 , CH(OH) 2 , C(OH) 3 , CH(CN) 2 , and C(CN) 3 , wherein R is an alkyl group having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms, or an aryl group comprising 1 to 2 pheny rings and CH (SH) 2, C (SH) 3, CH(NH2)2, C(NH2)3, CH (OH) 2, C (OH) 3, CH (CN) 2, and C (CN) 3. Typically ligans for MOFs contain carboxylic acid functional grapus . The disclosure includes cycloalkyl or aryl substructures that comprise 1 to 5 rings that consist either of all carbon or a mixture of carbon, with nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, boron, phosphorous, silicon and aluminum atoms making up the ring. [0051] A "linking moiety" refers to a mono-dentate or polydentate compound that bind a transition metal or a plurality of transition metals, respectively. Generally a linking moiety comprises a substructure comprising an alkyl or cycloalkyl group, comprising 1 to 20 carbon atoms, an aryl group comprising 1 to 5 phenyl rings, or an alkyl or aryl amine comprising alkyl or cycloalkyl groups having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms or aryl groups comprising 1 to 5 phenyl rings, and in which a linking cluster (e.g., a multidentate function groups) are covalently bound to the substructure. A cycloalkyl or aryl substructure may comprise 1 to 5 rings that comprise either of all carbon or a mixture of carbon with nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, boron, phosphorus, silicon and/or aluminum atoms making up the ring. Typically the linking moiety will comprise a substructure having one or more carboxylic acid linking clusters covalently attached. In some embodiments the carboxylic acid cluster may be protected during certain reactions and then deprotected prior to reaction with a metal .

[0052] As used herein, a line in a chemical formula with an atom on one end and nothing on the other end means that the formula refers to a chemical fragment that is bonded to another entity on the end without an atom attached. Sometimes for emphasis, a wavy line will intersect the line. [0053] In one aspect, the linking moiety substructure is selected from any of the following:

In specific embodiments, the linking moiety has a structure:

Other linking moieties include those set forth below:

wherein R 1 - R 15 is H, NH 2 , COOH, CN, NO 2 , F, Cl, Br, I, S, 0, SH, SO 3 H, PO 3 H 2 , OH, CHO, CS 2 H, SO 3 H, Si(OH) 3 , Ge(OH) 3 , Sn(OH) 3 , Si(SH) 4 , Ge(SH) 4 , PO 3 H, AsO 3 H, AsO 4 H, P(SH) 3 , As(SH) 3 , CH(RSH) 2 , C(RSH) 3 , CH(RNH 2 J 2 , C(RNH 2 J 3 , CH(ROH) 2 , C(ROH) 3 , CH(RCN) 2 , C(RCN) 3 ,

wherein X=I, 2, or 3 , [0054] Multidentate cores of the disclosure can comprise substituted or unsubstituted aromatic rings, substituted or unsubstituted heteroaromatic rings, substituted or unsubstituted nonaromatic rings, substituted or unsubstituted nonaromatic heterocyclic rings, or saturated or unsaturated, substituted or unsubstituted, hydrocarbon groups. The saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon groups may include one or more heteroatoms. For example, the multidentate core can comprise the following examples:

wherein R1-R15 are each independently H, alkyl, aryl, OH, alkoxy, alkenes, alkynes, phenyl and substitutions of the foregoing, sulfur-containing groups (e.g., thioalkoxy) , silicon-containing groups, nitrogen-containing groups (e.g., amides), oxygen-containing groOups (e.g., ketones, and aldehydes) , halogen, nitro, amino, cyano, boron-containing groups, phosphorous-containing groups, carboxylic acids, or esters, Al, A2, A3, A4, A5 and A6 are each independently absent or any atom or group capable of forming a stable ring structure, and T is a tetrahedral atom (e.g., a carbon, silicon, germanium, tin and the like) or a tetrahedral group or cluster.

[0055] Linking moieties for MOF structure that may be functionalized to include a reactive imine group for chelating a metal include those below:

wherein R1-R15 are selected from: H, NH2, CN, OH, =0, =S, Cl, I, F,

wherein X=I, 2, or 3. In certain embodiments, the R group is imine functionalized to promote chelating of a post-synthesis metal .

[0056] Linking moieties for ZIF structures that may be functionalized to include a reactive imine group or which may be modified to form an N-heterocyclic carbene for include those below:

[0057 ] Linking moieties for COF structures that may be functionali zed to include a reactive imine group or which may be modi fied to form an N-heterocyclic carbene for include those below :

wherein R1-R15 are each independently H, alkyl, aryl, OH, alkoxy, alkenes, alkynes, phenyl and substitutions of the foregoing, sulfur-containing groups (e.g., thioalkoxy) , silicon-containing groups, nitrogen-containing groups (e.g., amides), oxygen-containing groOups (e.g., ketones, and aldehydes) , halogen, nitro, amino, cyano, boron-containing groups, phosphorous-containing groups, carboxylic acids, or esters, Al, A2, A3, A4, A5 and A6 are each independently absent or any atom or group capable of forming a stable ring structure, and T is a tetrahedral atom (e.g., a carbon, silicon, germanium, tin and the like) or a tetrahedral group or cluster.

[0058] All the aforementioned organic links that possess appropriate reactive functionalities can be chemically transformed by a suitable reactant post framework synthesis to further functionalize the pores, by modifying the organic links within the framework post-synthetically, access to functional groups that were previously inaccessible or accessible only through great difficulty and/or cost is possible and facile. Post framework reactants include all known organic transformations and their respective reactants; rings of 1-20 carbons with functional groups including atoms such as N, S, O. In a specific embodiment, the post-framework reactant is used to generate a chelating group for the addition of a metal. The disclosure includes the chelation of all metals that may chelate to and add a functional group or a combination of previously existing and newly added functional groups. All reactions that result in tethering an organometallic complex to the framework for use, for example, as a heterogenous catalyst.

[0059] In addition, metal and metal containing compounds that may chelate to and add functional groups or a combination of previously existing and newly added functional groups are also useful. Reaction that result in the tethering of organometallic complexes to the framework for use as, for example, a heterogeneous catalyst can be used. Examples of post framework reactants include, but are not limited to, heterocyclic compounds. In one embodiment, the post framework reactant can be a saturated or unsaturated heterocycle. The term "heterocycle" used alone or as a suffix or prefix, refers to a ring-containing structure or molecule having one or more multivalent heteroatoms, independently selected from N, O and S, as a part of the ring structure and including at least 3 and up to about 20 atoms in the ring(s) . [0060] Heterocycle may be saturated or unsaturated, containing one or more double bonds, and heterocycle may contain more than one ring. When a heterocycle contains more than one ring, the rings may be fused or unfused. Fused rings generally refer to at least two rings share two atoms therebetween. Heterocycle may have aromatic character or may not have aromatic character. The terms "heterocyclic group", "heterocyclic moiety", "heterocyclic", or "heterocyclo" used alone or as a suffix or prefix, refers to a radical derived from a heterocycle by removing one or more hydrogens therefrom. The term "heterocyclyl" used alone or as a suffix or prefix, refers a monovalent radical derived from a heterocycle by removing one hydrogen therefrom. The term "heteroaryl" used alone or as a suffix or prefix, refers to a heterocyclyl having aromatic character. Heterocycle includes, for example, monocyclic heterocycles such as: aziridine, oxirane, thiirane, azetidine, oxetane, thietane, pyrrolidine, pyrroline, imidazolidine, pyrazolidine, pyrazoline, dioxolane, sulfolane 2, 3-dihydrofuran, 2, 5-dihydrofuran tetrahydrofuran, thiophane, piperidine, 1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydro-pyridine, piperazine, morpholine, thiomorpholine, pyran, thiopyran, 2,3- dihydropyran, tetrahydropyran, 1, 4-dihydropyridine, 1,4- dioxane, 1,3-dioxane, dioxane, homopiperidine, 2,3,4,7- tetrahydro-lH-azepine homopiperazine, 1, 3-dioxepane, 4,7- dihydro-1, 3-dioxepin, and hexamethylene oxide. In addition, heterocycle includes aromatic heterocycles (heteroaryl groups) , for example, pyridine, pyrazine, pyrimidine, pyridazine, thiophene, furan, furazan, pyrrole, imidazole, thiazole, oxazole, pyrazole, isothiazole, isoxazole, 1,2,3- triazole, tetrazole, 1, 2, 3-thiadiazole, 1, 2, 3-oxadiazole, 1,2,4-triazole, 1, 2, 4-thiadiazole, 1, 2, 4-oxadiazole, 1,3,4- triazole, 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole, and 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole . [0061] Additionally, heterocycle encompass polycyclic heterocycles, for example, indole, indoline, isoindoline, quinoline, tetrahydroquinoline, isoquinoline, tetrahydroisoquinoline, 1, 4-benzodioxan, coumarin, dihydrocoumarin, benzofuran, 2, 3-dihydrobenzofuran, isobenzofuran, chromene, chroman, isochroman, xanthene, phenoxathiin, thianthrene, indolizine, isoindole, indazole, purine, phthalazine, naphthyridine, quinoxaline, quinazoline, cinnoline, pteridine, phenanthridine, perimidine, phenanthroline, phenazine, phenothiazine, phenoxazine, 1,2- benzisoxazole, benzothiophene, benzoxazole, benzthiazole, benzimidazole, benztriazole, thioxanthine, carbazole, carboline, acridine, pyrolizidine, and quinolizidine . [0062] In addition to the polycyclic heterocycles described above, heterocycle includes polycyclic heterocycles wherein the ring fusion between two or more rings includes more than one bond common to both rings and more than two atoms common to both rings. Examples of such bridged heterocycles include quinuclidine, diazabicyclo [2.2.1 ] heptane and 7- oxabicyclo [2.2.1] heptane .

[0063] Heterocyclyl includes, for example, monocyclic heterocyclyls, such as: aziridinyl, oxiranyl, thiiranyl, azetidinyl, oxetanyl, thietanyl, pyrrolidinyl, pyrrolinyl, imidazolidinyl, pyrazolidinyl, pyrazolinyl, dioxolanyl, sulfolanyl, 2, 3-dihydrofuranyl, 2, 5-dihydrofuranyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, thiophanyl, piperidinyl, 1,2,3,6- tetrahydro-pyridinyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, thiomorpholinyl, pyranyl, thiopyranyl, 2, 3-dihydropyranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, 1, 4-dihydropyridinyl, 1, 4-dioxanyl, 1,3- dioxanyl, dioxanyl, homopiperidinyl, 2, 3, 4, 7-tetrahydro-lH- azepinyl, homopiperazinyl, 1, 3-dioxepanyl, 4, 7-dihydro-l, 3- dioxepinyl, and hexamethylene oxidyl .

[0064] In addition, heterocyclyl includes aromatic heterocyclyls or heteroaryl, for example, pyridinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyridazinyl, thienyl, furyl, furazanyl, pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, thiazolyl, oxazolyl, pyrazolyl, isothiazolyl, isoxazolyl, 1, 2, 3-triazolyl, tetrazolyl, 1, 2, 3-thiadiazolyl, 1, 2, 3-oxadiazolyl, 1,2,4- triazolyl, 1, 2, 4-thiadiazolyl, 1, 2, 4-oxadiazolyl, 1,3,4- triazolyl, 1, 3, 4-thiadiazolyl, and 1,3,4 oxadiazolyl. [0065] Additionally, heterocyclyl encompasses polycyclic heterocyclyls (including both aromatic or non-aromatic) , for example, indolyl, indolinyl, isoindolinyl, quinolinyl, tetrahydroquinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, tetrahydroisoquinolinyl, 1, 4-benzodioxanyl, coumarinyl, dihydrocoumarinyl, benzofuranyl, 2, 3-dihydrobenzofuranyl, isobenzofuranyl, chromenyl, chromanyl, isochromanyl, xanthenyl, phenoxathiinyl, thianthrenyl, indolizinyl, isoindolyl, indazolyl, purinyl, phthalazinyl, naphthyridinyl, quinoxalinyl, quinazolinyl, cinnolinyl, pteridinyl, phenanthridinyl, perimidinyl, phenanthrolinyl, phenazinyl, phenothiazinyl, phenoxazinyl, 1, 2-benzisoxazolyl, benzothiophenyl, benzoxazolyl, benzthiazolyl, benzimidazolyl, benztriazolyl, thioxanthinyl, carbazolyl, carbolinyl, acridinyl, pyrolizidinyl, and quinolizidinyl .

[0066] In addition to the polycyclic heterocyclyls described above, heterocyclyl includes polycyclic heterocyclyls wherein the ring fusion between two or more rings includes more than one bond common to both rings and more than two atoms common to both rings. Examples of such bridged heterocycles include quinuclidinyl, diazabicyclo [2.2.1 ] heptyl; and 7-oxabicyclo [2.2.1 ] heptyl . [0067] Metal ions that can be used in the synthesis of frameworks of the disclosure include Li + , Na + , Rb + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ ,

S r 2+ , Ba 2+ , Sc 3 + r Ti 4+ , Z r 4+ , Ta 3 + r Cr 3+

, Mo 3+ , W 3+ , Mn 3+ , Fe 3+ , Fe 2+

Ru 3+ , Ru 2+ , Os 3 + r Os 2+ , Co 3+ , Co 2 + r Ni 2 + , Ni + , Pd 2+ , Pd + , Pt 2+ , Pt + ,

Cu 2+ . Cu + , Au + Zn 2+ , Al 3+ . Ga 3+ In 3+ S i 4+ . S i 2+ . Ge 4+ . Ge 2+ . Sn 4+

Sn 2+ , Bi 5+ , Bi 3+ , and combinations thereof, along with corresponding metal salt counter-anions .

[0068] Metal ions can be introduced into open frameworks, MOFs, ZIFs and COFs, via complexation with the functionalized organic linkers (e.g., imine or N-heterocyclic carbene) in framework backbones or by simple ion exchange. Therefore, any metal ions from the periodic table can be introduced. [0069] The preparation of the frameworks of the disclosure can be carried out in either an aqueous or non-aqueous system. The solvent may be polar or non-polar as the case may be . The solvent can comprise the templating agent or the optional ligand containing a monodentate functional group. Examples of non-aqueous solvents include n-alkanes, such as pentane, hexane, benzene, toluene, xylene, chlorobenzene, nitrobenzene, cyanobenzene, aniline, naphthalene, naphthas, n-alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, acetone, 1,3, - dichloroethane, methylene chloride, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, tetrahydrofuran, dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide, N-methylpyrollidone, dimethylacetamide, diethylformamide, thiophene, pyridine, ethanolamine, triethylamine, ethlenediamine, and the like. Those skilled in the art will be readily able to determine an appropriate solvent based on the starting reactants and the choice of solvent is not believed to be crucial in obtaining the materials of the disclosure.

[0070] Templating agents can be used in the methods of the disclosure. Templating agents employed in the disclosure are added to the reaction mixture for the purpose of occupying the pores in the resulting crystalline base frameworks. In some variations of the disclosure, space-filling agents, adsorbed chemical species and guest species increase the surface area of the metal-organic framework. Suitable space-filling agents include, for example, a component selected from the group consisting of: (i) alkyl amines and their corresponding alkyl ammonium salts, containing linear, branched, or cyclic aliphatic groups, having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms; (ii) aryl amines and their corresponding aryl ammonium salts having from 1 to 5 phenyl rings; (iii) alkyl phosphonium salts, containing linear, branched, or cyclic aliphatic groups, having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms; (iv) aryl phosphonium salts, having from 1 to 5 phenyl rings; (v) alkyl organic acids and their corresponding salts, containing linear, branched, or cyclic aliphatic groups, having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms; (vi) aryl organic acids and their corresponding salts, having from 1 to 5 phenyl rings; (vii) aliphatic alcohols, containing linear, branched, or cyclic aliphatic groups, having from 1 to 20 carbon atoms; or (viii) aryl alcohols having from 1 to 5 phenyl rings .

[0071] Crystallization can be carried out by leaving the solution at room temperature or in isothermal oven for up to 300 °C; adding a diluted base to the solution to initiate the crystallization; diffusing a diluted base into the solution to initiate the crystallization; and/or transferring the solution to a closed vessel and heating to a predetermined temperature. [0072] Also provided are devices for the sorptive uptake of a chemical species. The device includes a sorbent comprising a framework provided herein or obtained by the methods of the disclosure. The uptake can be reversible or non-reversible. In some aspects, the sorbent is included in discrete sorptive particles. The sorptive particles may be embedded into or fixed to a solid liquid- and/or gas-permeable three- dimensional support. In some aspects, the sorptive particles have pores for the reversible uptake or storage of liquids or gases and wherein the sorptive particles can reversibly adsorb or absorb the liquid or gas.

[0073] In some embodiments, a device provided herein comprises a storage unit for the storage of chemical species such as ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, amines, methane, oxygen, argon, nitrogen, argon, organic dyes, polycyclic organic molecules, and combinations thereof. [0074] Also provided are methods for the sorptive uptake of a chemical species. The method includes contacting the chemical species with a sorbent that comprises a framework provided herein. The uptake of the chemical species may include storage of the chemical species. In some aspects, the chemical species is stored under conditions suitable for use as an energy source. [0075] Also provided are methods for the sorptive uptake of a chemical species which includes contacting the chemical species with a device provided described herein. [0076] Natural gas is an important fuel gas and it is used extensively as a basic raw material in the petrochemical and other chemical process industries. The composition of natural gas varies widely from field to field. Many natural gas reservoirs contain relatively low percentages of hydrocarbons (less than 40%, for example) and high percentages of acid gases, principally carbon dioxide, but also hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide and various mercaptans. Removal of acid gases from natural gas produced in remote locations is desirable to provide conditioned or sweet, dry natural gas either for delivery to a pipeline, natural gas liquids recovery, helium recovery, conversion to liquefied natural gas (LNG), or for subsequent nitrogen rejection. CO2 is corrosive in the presence of water, and it can form dry ice, hydrates and can cause freeze-up problems in pipelines and in cryogenic equipment often used in processing natural gas. Also, by not contributing to the heating value, CO 2 merely adds to the cost of gas transmission.

[0077] An important aspect of any natural gas treating process is economics. Natural gas is typically treated in high volumes, making even slight differences in capital and operating costs of the treating unit significant factors in the selection of process technology. Some natural gas resources are now uneconomical to produce because of processing costs. There is a continuing need for improved natural gas treating processes that have high reliability and represent simplicity of operation.

[0078] In addition, removal of carbon dioxide from the flue exhaust of power plants, currently a major source of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, is commonly accomplished by chilling and pressurizing the exhaust or by passing the fumes through a fluidized bed of aqueous amine solution, both of which are costly and inefficient. Other methods based on chemisorption of carbon dioxide on oxide surfaces or adsorption within porous silicates, carbon, and membranes have been pursued as means for carbon dioxide uptake. However, in order for an effective adsorption medium to have long term viability in carbon dioxide removal it should combine two features: (i) a periodic structure for which carbon dioxide uptake and release is fully reversible, and (ii) a flexibility with which chemical functionalization and molecular level fine-tuning can be achieved for optimized uptake capacities. [0079] A number of processes for the recovery or removal of carbon dioxide from gas steams have been proposed and practiced on a commercial scale. The processes vary widely, but generally involve some form of solvent absorption, adsorption on a porous adsorbent, distillation, or diffusion through a semipermeable membrane.

[0080] The following examples are intended to illustrate but not limit the disclosure. While they are typical of those that might be used, other procedures known to those skilled in the art may alternatively be used.

EXAMPLES

Example 1 : Post-synthesis metalation

[0081] All reagents unless otherwise stated were obtained from commercial sources (Alfa Aesar, Cambridge isotope laboratories, Sigma Aldrich) and were used without further purification and all manipulations were carried out in an Ar atmosphere. Yields reported were unoptimized. Elemental microanalyses were performed at the University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. [0082] Synthesis of (Zn 4 O) 3 (BDC-C 6 H 5 N 2 ) S (BTB) 4 and (Zn 4 O) 3 (BDC-C 6 H 5 N 2 PdCl 2 ) 3 (BTB) 4 .

[0083] Synthetic procedure for (Zn 4 O) 3 (BDC-C 6 H 5 N 2 ) 3 (BTB) 4 . 200 mg (Zn 4 O) 3 (BDC-NH 2 ) S (BTB) 4 was placed in a 20 ml glass vial and immersed in 10 ml of anhydrous toluene. 0.3 ml of 2- pyridinecarboxaldehyde was added to the vial and allowed to stand unperturbed for 5 days. The resultant yellow crystals were washed with CH 2 Cl 2 and dried under vacuum to yield of

(Zn 4 O) 3 (BDC-C 6 H 5 N 2 ) S (BTB) 4 (0.190 g, 87%) .

[0084] Synthetic procedure for (Zn 4 O) 3 (BDC- C 6 H 5 N 2 PdCl 2 ) 3 (BTB) n. 100 mg of (Zn 4 O) 3 (BDC-C 6 H 5 N 2 ) S (BTB) 4 was placed in a 20 ml vial immersed in 10 ml of anhydrous CH2C12. 0.20 g of PdCl 2 (CH 3 CN) 2 was added causing the yellow crystals to turn dark purple. The reaction mixture was allowed to stand unperturbed for 12 hours after which the dark purple crystals were washed with CH 2 Cl 2 and dried to yield

(Zn 4 O) 3 (BDCC 6 H 5 N 2 PdCl 2 ) 3 (BTB) 4 (0.098g, 85%) .

[0085] Synthetic procedure for model compound: Dichloro (N-

(2-pyridylmethylene) anilme-N,N' ) Palladium (II) . 2.Og of (E)-N-

( (Pyridin-2-yl) methylene) benzenamine was reacted with PdCl 2 (CH 3 CN) 2 in acetone for 2 hrs . The resulting orange powder, dichloro (N- (2-pyridylmethylene) aniline-N, N ' ) Palladium (II)

(1.45g), was filtered dried in air and used without further purification .

[0086] XAS Data collection. XAS measurements were conducted at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) with the SPEAR storage ring containing between 80 and 100 mA at 3.0 GeV. Pd Kedge data were collected on the structural molecular biology XAS beamline 7-3 operating with a wiggler field of 2 T. A Si (220) double-crystal monochromator was used. Beamline 7-3 is equipped with a rhodium-coated vertical collimating mirror upstream of the monochromator, and a downstream bent- cylindrical focusing mirror (also rhodium-coated) . Harmonic rejection was accomplished by detuning the intensity of the incident radiation at the end of the scan by 50%. Incident and transmitted X-ray intensities were monitored using argon or nitrogen-filled ionization chambers. X-ray absorption was measured in transmittance mode. During data collection, samples were maintained at a temperature of approximately 1OK using an Oxford instruments liquid helium flow cryostat. For each sample, three scans were accumulated, and the energy was calibrated by reference to the absorption of a Pd foil measured simultaneously with each scan, assuming a lowest energy inflection point of 24349.0 eV. The energy threshold of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) oscillations was assumed to be 24370 eV.

[0087] XAS data analysis. The EXAFS oscillations χ(k) were quantitatively analyzed by curve-fitting using the EXAFSPAK suite of computer programs using ab-initio theoretical phase and amplitude functions calculated using the program FEFF version 8.25. No smoothing, filtering or related operations were performed on the data. [0088] Table 1: EXAFS curve-fitting parameters 3 .

aCoordination numbers, N, interatomic distances R (A) , Debye-Waller factors σ2 (A2), and threshold energy shifts ΔEO (eV) . Values in parentheses are the estimated standard deviations (precisions) obtained from the diagonal elements of the covariance matrix. The accuracies will be much greater than these values, and numbers and Debye-Waller factors. The fit-error function

F is defined as where the summations are over all data points included in the refinement .

[0089] XANES measurements. Figure 4 compares the Near edge regions of Pd Model compound, PdCl 2 (CH 3 CN) 2 and (Zn 4 O) 3 (BDC- C 6 H 5 N 2 PdCl 2 J 3 (BTB) 4 . This stacked plot highlights the similarities between the model complex and (Zn 4 O) 3 (BDC- C 6 H 5 N 2 PdCl 2 J 3 (BTB) 4 indicating that the palladium, in both cases, is in a very similar chemical and electronic environment. [0090] Powder X-Ray diffraction. Powder X-ray data were collected using a Bruker D8-Discover Θ-2Θ diffractometer in reflectance Bragg-Brentano geometry employing Ni filtered Cu Ka line focused radiation at 1600 W (40 kV, 40 mA) power and equipped with a Vantec Line detector. Radiation was focused using parallel focusing Gobel mirrors. The system was also outfitted with an antiscattering shield that prevents incident diffuse radiation from hitting the detector, preventing the normally large background at 2Θ < 3. Samples were mounted on zero background sample holders by dropping powders from a wide-blade spatula and then leveling the sample with a razor blade. Samples were prepared by dissolving small amounts of the material in methanol followed by sonication for 10 min . The precipitate was then filtered before collecting data. [0091] Mass spectrometry. Samples of (Zn 4 O) 3 (BDC- C 6 H 5 N 2 ) S (BTB) 4 were dissolved in MeOH and ESI-MS was run in the negative ion mode, (see, e.g., Figure 5) . [0092] Gas adsorption measurements. Low pressure Ar adsorption isotherms were measured volumetrically on an Autosorb-1 analyzer (Quantachrome Instruments) . A liquid argon bath (87 K) was used for the measurements. The Ar and He gases used were UHP grade. From the Ar adsorption isotherms, the BET surface areas (accessible surface area) and total pore volumes of each material have been calculated (Table 2) . The pore volume of each material was estimated from the Dubinin- Radushkevich (DR) model with the assumption that the adsorbate is in the liquid state and the adsorption involves a pore- filling process. To estimate pore size distributions for MOFs, Ar isotherms were analyzed using nonlocal density functional theory (NLDFT) implementing a hybrid kernel for Ar adsorption at 87 K based on a zeolite/silica model containing cylindrical pores .

[0094] For porosity measurements, as-synthesized (Zn 4 O) 3 (BDC-C 6 H 5 N 2 ) S (BTB) 4 was immersed in acetone for 24 h, during which the activation solvent was replenished three times. The sample was evacuated with supercritical CO 2 in a Tousimis Samdri PVT-3D critical point dryer. Briefly, the acetone-containing sample was placed in the chamber and acetone was exchanged with liquid CO 2 . After that the chamber containing the sample and liquid CO 2 was heated up around 40 0 C and kept under the supercritical condition (typically 1300 psi) for 1 h. The CO 2 was slowly vented (ca. 1 h) from the chamber at around 40 0 C, yielding porous material. [0095] Iminopyridine moieties have proved to be a versatile ligand system for binding a variety of transition metals in known coordination environments. The disclosure demonstrates incorporation of such a moiety into A through condensation of the amine-functionalized framework and 2- pyridinecarboxaldehyde (Scheme 1) . The isoreticular functionalized MOF B was synthesized by adding 1.5 equiv of 2- pyridinecarboxaldehyde to A in anhydrous toluene and allowing the reaction to proceed for 5 days, during which the needleshaped crystals changed color from clear to yellow to give a product having a composition that coincided well with the expected formula, thus indicating quantitative conversion. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies (Figure 1) showed that B maintained crystallinity and possessed the same underlying topology as A subsequent to the covalent transformation. The presence of the iminopyridine unit was confirmed by mass spectrometry of digested samples of B, which showed a parent ion peak at m/z 269 ([M - H]-) attributable to the ligand fragment .

[0096] Isoreticular metalation was achieved by adding 1.5 equiv of PdCl 2 (CH 3 CN) 2 to B in anhydrous CH2C12, whereupon the yellow crystalline material became dark-purple within several minutes. After 12 h, the material was washed three times with 10 mL portions of CH 2 Cl 2 ; the crystals were then immersed in dry CH 2 Cl 2 , and the solvent was refreshed every 24 h for 3 days to yield C. Again, the PXRD pattern of C (Figure 1) confirmed that it retained crystallinity and possessed a framework topology identical to those of A and B. Removal of guest species from the pores was achieved by evacuating the crystals at 80 °C for 12 h. Elemental analysis performed on the guest- free framework of C gave a molecular formula C 50 H 2S N 2 Oi 3 Zn 4 PdCl 2 , whose Pd/Zn ratio of 1:4 is consistent with quantitative metalation of the iminopyridine sites. [0097] The porosities of B and C were assessed by performing an 87 K Ar isotherm (Figure 2) . Notably, both materials maintained porosity after two subsequent chemical transformations. Additionally, analogous profiles were observed for A-C; however, the small hysteresis present in the isotherm of C implies the presence of defects, presumably resulting from the sequence of chemical reactions carried out on the crystals.

[0098] To confirm that the Pd is complexed to the iminopyridine unit and to precisely determine the Pd coordination environment within the framework, Pd K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was performed on samples of C. Figure 3 shows the EXAFS Fourier transform of C together with the results of the curve- fitting analysis. The data analysis indicated the presence of two Pd-Cl and two 2 Pd-N ligands at 2.276(2) and 1.993(2) A, respectively. A survey of the Cambridge Structural Database showed that both of these distances are consistent with crystallographic data for analogous Pd compounds. Additionally, two Pd-C interactions at 2.793(4) A, belonging to the ligand backbone, were required for the best data fit. The EXAFS data analysis provides a quantitative structural description of the Pd coordination environment within the MOF and clearly demonstrates that Pd is bound to the framework via the iminopyridine moiety. Furthermore, analysis of the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectrum indicated that the major chemical form of Pd within the framework of C was consistent with an iminopyridine-bound moiety and not the starting material, PdCl 2 (CH 3 CN) 2 .

Example 2 : Pre-synthesis metalation

[0099] Synthesis and Analytical Data for the Linkers (LO- L2) and IRMOF-76, 77. Chemicals were purchased from commercial suppliers and used as received unless otherwise noted. Dry solvents were obtained from an EMD Chemicals DrySolv ® system. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was carried out using glass plates precoated with silica gel 60 with fluorescent indicator

(Whatman LK6F) . The plates were inspected by UV light (254 nm) and iodine/silica gel. Column chromatography was carried out using silica gel 6OF (230-400 mesh) . 1 H, 13 C and 19 F solution NMR spectra were recorded on Bruker ARX400 (400 MHz) or AV600

(600 MHz) spectrometers. The residual solvents are used as the internal standard for 1 H and 13 C NMR. Trifluoroacetic acid (δ = -76.5 ppm) is used as the external standard for 19 F NMR. The chemical shifts were listed in ppm on the δ scale and coupling constants were recorded in hertz (Hz) . The following abbreviations were used to denote the multiplicities: s, singlet; d, doublet; t, triplet; q, quartet; b, broad peaks; m, multiplet or overlapping peaks.

[00100] 13 C CP/MAS solid state NMR spectra were collected on a Bruker DSX-300 spectrometer using a standard Bruker magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 4 mm (outside diameter) zirconia rotors. Cross-polarization with MAS (CP/MAS) was used to acquire at 75.47 MHz ( 13 C) . The 1 H and 13 C ninety-degree pulse widths were both 4 μs . The CP contact time was 1.5 ms . High power two-pulse phase modulation (TPPM) 1 H decoupling was applied during data acquisition. The decoupling frequency corresponded to 72 kHz. The MAS sample spinning rate was 10 kHz. Recycle delays betweens scans varied between 10 and 30 s, depending upon the compound as determined by observing no apparent loss in the signal intensity from one scan to the next. The 13 C chemical shifts are given relative to tetramethylsilane as zero ppm calibrated using the methyne carbon signal of adamantane assigned to 29.46 ppm as a secondary reference.

[00101] FT-IR spectra were collected on a Shimazu FT-IR Spectrometer. Electrospray ionization mass spectra (ESI-MS), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectra

(MALDI-MS) and chemical ionization mass spectra with gas chromatography (CI/GC-MS) were conducted at Molecular Instrumentation Center in of the University of California, Los Angeles .

[00102] Elemental microanalyses were performed on a Thermo Flash EA1112 combustion CHNS analyzer. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) anaylses for IRMOF-76 and 77 were performed by Intertek QTI.

MMeeOOHH.. rtrt.. oovveernmiigghhti

[00103] Sl: Starting material (1) was prepared following the reported procedure. 1 Reduction of 1 was performed following the published procedures 1 ' 2 with slight modification in the work-up process. To a 2000 mL flask were added 1 (20.5 g, 70 mmol) , CoCl 2 (91 mg, 0.7 mmol), THF (200 mL) and EtOH (450 mL) . The mixture was refluxed. NaBH 4 (2.65 g, 70 mmol for each portion) was added three times (total 8.0 g) every hour. After consumption of 1 was confirmed by TLC analysis, the mixture was cooled to room temperature. After addition of water (300 mL) and vigorous stirring for 10 min, gummy precipitate was filtered off using Celite. Organic solvent was evaporated and product was extracted with dichloromethane three times. Combined organic layer was washed with water and brine and dried over Na 2 SO 4 . The extract was filtered off, evaporated, and the crude mixture was purified with short pad silica gel chromatography (eluent: hexane/acetone = 5/1) . Combined solution was evaporated to give diamine as an orange solid. [00104] Obtained diamine was immediately used for the next step. To the diamine dissolved in MeOH (350 mL) were added HC(OEt) 3 (13.9 mL, 84 mmol) and sulfamic acid (340 mg, 3.5 mmol) . The mixture was stirred overnight and powder precipitate formed. Solvent was evaporated and the residue was rinsed with ether. Drying under air gave Sl as a yellow powder (10.1 g, 52% yield for 2 steps) . [00105] 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) : δ = 7.35 (s, 2H) , 8.36

(s, 1 H) , 13.2 (brs, IH) ; 13 C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) : δ = 113.75, 126.21, 132.75, 144.05; IR (KBr, cm "1 ) v = 630, 792, 912, 956, 1163, 1217, 1259, 1284, 1340, 1381, 1433, 1489, 1616, 2823, 3062; CI/GC-MS [M] + C 7 H 4 Br 2 N 2 + m/ z = 276; Elemental analysis: C 7 H 4 Br 2 N 2 Calcd. C, 30.47; H, 1.46; N, 10.15%, Found: C, 30.21; H, 1.64; N, 10.94%.

[00106] 2: To a 1000 mL flask were added Sl (19.7 g, 71.4 mmol), K 2 CO 3 (29.6 g, 214 mmol) and EtOH (500 mL) . The mixture was heated at reflux. To the hot mixture, MeI (8.8 mL, 142.8 mmol) was added dropwise and the mixture was maintained at reflux for 1 h. After consumption of S2 was confirmed by TLC analysis, the mixture was cooled to room temperature. After addition of water (200 mL) and evaporation of EtOH, the powdered precipitate was collected, washed with water and hexane/Et 2 O (1/1), and dried to give 2 as a brown powder (21.0 g, 100% yield) .

[00107] 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) : δ = 4.05 (s, 3H), 7.34

(s, 2H), 8.32 (s, IH); 13 C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) : δ = 34.51, 102.75, 112.82, 126.14, 128.05, 132.44, 143.80, 147.96; IR

(KBr, cm "1 ) v = 524, 623, 719, 781, 918, 1058, 1105, 1186, 1219, 1273, 1301, 1332, 1390, 1465, 1500, 1604, 1816, 2940, 3086; CI/GC-MS [M] + C 8 H 6 Br 2 N 2 + m/ z = 290; Elemental analysis: C 8 H 6 Br 2 N 2 Calcd. C, 33.14; H, 2.09; N, 9.66%, Found C, 31.92; H, 2.13; N, 9.50%.

[00108] S2: To a 1000 mL flask were added 4- methoxyphenylboronic acid (20.5 g, 113 mmol) , pinacol (14.0 g, 118 mmol) and THF (500 mL) . The mixture was heated to reflux, stirred for 2 h, and then cooled to room temperature. The solution is filtered over short pad basic aluminum oxide and the solvent was evaporated to give S2 as a white powder (26.0 g, 85% yield) .

[00109] 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) : δ = 1.34 (s, 12H), 3.83 (s, 3H), 7.86 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 8.01 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H) . 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ) : δ = 24.88, 52.13, 84.16, 128.59, 132.32, 134.66, 167.12; IR (KBr, cm "1 ) v = 486, 520, 576, 651, 709, 771, 806, 856, 1018, 1109, 1140, 1278, 1373, 1508, 1562, 1614, 1724 (S), 1950, 2985 (s); CI/GC-MS [M] + Ci 4 Hi 9 BO 4 + m/ z = 262; Elemental analysis: Ci 4 Hi 9 BO 4 Calcd. C, 64.15; H, 7.31%, Found C, 64.81; H, 7.30%.

[00110] 3: Transesterification was conducted following published procedure. 3 To the stirred solution of S2 (13.2 g, 50 mmol) in 500 mL of anhydrous diethyl ether was added t-BuOK (28.0 g, 250 mmol) portionwise over 30 min under nitrogen atmosphere. Stirring was continued for 2 h. The suspension was poured into water (1000 mL) . After the organic layer was separated, the compound was extracted with ethyl acetate three times. The combined organic layer was dried over Na 2 SO 4 , filtered off, and evaporated to give 3 as a white powder (12.2 g, 80% yield) . 3 was used for next step without further purification .

[00111] 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) : δ = 1.35 (s, 12H), 1.63 (s, 9H), 7.85 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 7.96 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H); 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ) : δ = 24.87, 28.19, 81.08, 84.09, 128.42, 134.25, 134.52, 165.80; IR (KBr, cm "1 ) v = 522, 578, 651, 709, 777, 815, 854, 960, 1016, 1116, 1141, 1170, 1296, 1359, 1508, 1560, 1612, 1705 (s) , 1957, 1981 (s) ; CI/GC-MS [M-(CH 2 =C (CHs) 2 ) ] + Ci 3 H 18 BO 4 + m/ z = 249. Elemental analysis : Ci 7 H 25 BO 4 Calcd. C, 67.12; H, 8.28%, Found C, 67.60; H, 8.23% .

[00112] 4: The stirred solution of 2 (1.93 g, 6.67 mmol) , 3 (4.67 g, 15.35 mmol), Pd(PPh 3 J 4 (385 mg, 0.33 mmol) and K 2 CO 3 (2.76 g, 20 mmol) in 50 mL of 1,4-dioxane and 12 mL of water was heated to 100 0 C under nitrogen atmosphere. Stirring was continued overnight, and then the mixture was cooled to room temperature. Water was added and organic compounds were extracted with ethyl acetate three times . The combined organic layer was washed with brine and dried over Na 2 SO 4 . The extract was filtered through short pad basic aluminum oxide and evaporated. The obtained residue was rinsed with hexane/Et 2 O (2/1) to give 4 as a brown powder (2.0 g, 62% yield) . [00113] 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) : δ = 1.62 (s, 9H), 1.64 (s, 9H), 3.42 (s, 3H), 7.23 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, IH), 7.49 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, IH), 7.52 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.87 (s, IH), 8.05-8.16 (m, 6H); 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ) : δ = 28.26, 34.50, 80.79, 81.38, 121.52, 125.04, 125.99, 129.10, 129.59, 129.80, 130.79, 131.51, 131.68, 132.38, 142.32, 142.40, 145.54, 165.45, 165.87; IR (KBr, cm "1 ) v = 509, 592, 630, 661, 704, 731, 769, 825, 848, 867, 1018, 1118, 1168, 1294, 1369, 1471, 1500, 1608, 1708 (s), 2978 (s) ; CI/GC-MS [M-CH 2 =C (CH 3 ) 2 ] + C 26 H 25 N 2 O 4 + m/ z = 429.; Elemental analysis: C 30 H 32 N 2 O 4 Calcd. C, 74.36; H, 6.66; N, 5.78%, Found: C, 73.05; H, 6.50; N, 6.06%.

[00114] 5: A solution of 4 (570 mg, 1.17 mmol) and MeI (0.73 mL, 11.7 mmol) in 12 mL of acetonitrile was heated to reflux and stirred overnight. After cooling the mixture to room temperature, volatiles were evaporated. The obtained residue was rinsed with hexane/ethyl acetate (2/1) to give 5 as a brown powder (689 mg, 94% yield) .

[00115] 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) : δ = 1.61 (s, 18H), 3.87 (s,

6H), 7.41 (s, 2H), 7.53 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 4H), 8.10 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 4H), 10.64 (s, IH); 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ) : δ = 28.17, 37.56, 81.79, 128.44, 128.88, 129.59, 129.77, 129.88, 132.87, 139.20. 145.38, 164.91; IR (KBr, cm "1 ) v = 621, 709, 773, 846, 1012, 1118, 1165, 1296, 1369, 1456, 1608, 1710 (s) , 2976, 3435 (br) ; ESI-TOF-MS [M-I] + C 3 iH 35 N 2 O 4 + m/ z = 499. Elemental analysis: C 3I H 35 IN 2 O 4 Calcd. C, 59.43; H, 5.63; N, 4.47%, Found: C, 56.83; H, 5.70; N, 4.72%.

[00116] LO: To a solution of 5 (2.1 g, 3.35 mmol) in dichloromethane (35 mL) was added HBF 4 -OEt 2 (2.26 mL, 16.5 mmol) . The mixture was stirred for 2 h at room temperature. After dilution with diethyl ether the precipitates were filtered and washed with thoroughly with dichloromethane and diethyl ether. Toluene was added to the powder and evaporated. This is repeated twice to remove residual water as an azeotropic mixture. After drying in vacuo at 50 0 C, LO was obtained as gray powder (1.7 g, 100% yield) .

[00117] 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-Cf 6 ) : δ = 3.50 (s, 6 H), 7.54 (s, 2H), 7.72 (d, J = 9.2Hz, 4H), 8.03 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 4H), 9.63 (s, IH), 13.2 (brs, 2H); 13 C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) : δ = 37.94, 128.58, 128.72, 129.72, 130.07, 130.70, 131.10, 140.12, 145.82, 163.18; 19 F NMR (376.5 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) : δ = -148.9 (s, BF 4 ~ ) ; MALDI- MS: [M-BF 4 ] + C 23 H 19 N 2 O 4 + m/ z = 387.

[00118] S3: A solution of 5 (1.87 g, 3 mmol) , Pd(CH 3 CN) 2 Cl 2 (900 mg, 3.3 mmol), NaI (750 mg, 6 mmol), and K 2 CO 3 (2.07 g, 15 mmol) in 30 mL of pyridine was heated to reflux and stirred overnight. After cooling the mixture to room temperature, all volatiles were evaporated. The obtained residue was dissolved in chloroform (200 mL) and water (100 mL) . The separated organic layer was washed with 5% CuSO 4 aq. (30 mL, twice) and brine (30 mL) , and then dried over Na 2 SO 4 . The extract was filtered over short pad silica gel and washed thoroughly with hexane/acetone (2/1) . The combined organic solutions were evaporated to give S3 as an orange powder (2.5 g, 88% yield) . [00119] 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3 ) : δ = 1.64 (s, 18 H), 3.79 (s, 6 H), 7.09 (s, 2H), 7.25-7.34 (m, 2H), 7.51 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 4H), 7.70-7.77 (m, IH), 8.11 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 4H), 8.97- 9.01 (m, 2H) 13 C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl 3 ) : δ = 28.24, 40.04, 81.53, 124.60, 125.01, 125.80, 129.27, 129.93, 132.06, 132.87, 141.45, 153.85 (NHC carbon), 165.29; IR (KBr, cm "1 ) v = 675, 692, 769, 848, 1012, 1116, 1165, 1294, 1388, 1446, 1604, 1710 (s), 2974, 3445; Elemental analysis: C 36 H 39 I 2 N 3 O 4 Pd Calcd. C, 46.10; H, 4.19; N, 4.48%, Found: C, 43.64; H, 4.02; N, 4.79%.

[00120] Ll: To a solution of S3 (2.5 g, 2.64 mmol) in dichloromethane (15 mL) was added Me 3 SiOTf (1.67 mL, 9.24 mmol) . The mixture was stirred for 2 h at room temperature. After addition of water the brown precipitates were filtered and washed thoroughly with water and dichloromethane. To the brown powder (S4) in CHCl 3 /MeOH (1/1, 25 mL) was added pyridine (1 mL, 13.2 mmol) . The mixture was stirred for 30 min at room temperature. Volatiles were evaporated and the residue was suspended in dichloromethane . To the suspension was added 5% CuSO 4 aq. The mixture was stirred for 10 min and the orange powder was filtered and washed with water. Toluene was added to the orange powder and evaporated. This is repeated twice to remove residual water as an azeotropic mixture. After drying in vacuo, Ll was obtained as an orange powder (1.62 g, 74% yield) .

[00121] 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d 6 ) : δ = 3.68 (s, 6 H), 7.21

(s, 2 H), 7.48-7.52 (m, 2H), 7.63 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 4H), 7.87- 7.93 (m, IH), 8.03 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 4H), 8.83-8.86 (m, 2H), 13.1 (brs, 2H) ; 13 C NMR (150 MHz, 80 0 C, DMSO-Cf 6 ) : δ = 125.54, 125.72, 126.05, 130.00, 130.61, 132.67, 138.50, 141.55, 153.13

(NHC carbon), 166.57, methyl carbon peak substituted on nitrogen (-40 ppm) was overlapped by residual peak of DMSO; 13 C CP/MAS solid state NMR (75 M Hz) : δ = 42.15, 125.00, 129.27, 142.18, 153.28 (NHC carbon), 172.74; IR (KBr, cm "1 ) v = 549, 594, 673, 692, 769, 825, 862, 920, 1012, 1078, 1109, 1176, 1290, 1386, 1444, 1606, 1685(s), 2546, 2663, 3448; ESI-TOF-MS

(anion mode) [M-pyridine-H] ~ C 23 Hi 7 I 2 N 2 O 4 Pd " m/ z = 744 and isotopic patterns were well-matched to simulated ones.; Elemental analysis: C 28 H 23 I 2 N 3 O 4 Pd Calcd. C, 40.73; H, 2.81; N, 5.09%, Found: C, 40.22; H, 2.91; N, 5.20%.

[00122] L2 : To a suspension of Ll (-80 mg) in 5 mL chloroform was added quinoline (0.2 mL) . The mixture was stirred for 1 h at room temperature. Volatiles were evaporated and the residue was suspended in chloroform and filtered off to collect L2 as an orange powder, which was used as a reference compound for digestion studies.

[00123] IRMOF-76: A solid mixture of LO (47 mg, 0.1 mmol) , Zn (BF 4 ) 2 hydrate (72 mg, 0.3 mmol), KPF 6 (186 mg, 1 mmol) was dissolved in N, Λf-dimethylformamide (DMF, 15 mL) in a capped vial. The reaction was heated to 100 0 C for 24-48 h yielding block crystals on the wall of the vial. The vial was then removed from the oven and allowed to cool to room temperature naturally. After opening and removal of mother liquor from the mixture, colorless crystals were collected and rinsed with DMF

(3 x 4 mL) . Powder and single X-ray diffractions for this material were measured immediately. The sample dried in vacuo after solvent exchange with chloroform was used for CP/MAS NMR and IR measurements .

[00124] Analytical data for IRMOF-76: 19 F NMR of digested IRMOF-76 in DCl/DMSO-d 6 (1/20) . Presence of BF 4 " (-149.2 ppm, s) and PF 6 " (—71.1 ppm, d, J PF = 707 Hz) was confirmed. IR (KBr, cm "1 ) v = 557, 715, 783, 843, 1012, 1406, 1544, 1608

(S), 3421

13 C CP/MAS solid state NMR (75 MHz) 36.10 (methyl) , 129.06*,

138.69*, 143.60 (C2 of benzimidazole) , 174.11

(Cθ2Zn) . *broadened overlapped peaks in aromatic regions.

[00125] ICP analysis. Measured elemental ratio:

C 69 H 54 . 5 B 0 . 53 P 1 . 89 F 10 . 9 N 6-I Zn 4 . 3 . Estimated formula:

Zn 4 O (C 23 Hi 7 N 2 O 5 ) 3 (BF 4 ) 0.5 (PF 6 ) i. 6 (OH) 0.9 = C 69 H 5 I -9 B 0-5 PLeFiI -6 N 6 Oi 7-9 Zn 4 [00126] Neither potassium (K) nor iodine (I) were detected in more than trace amount.

[00127] Following examined postsynthetic generations of NHC from IRMOF-76 were not successful:

- Treatment with Brδnsted base (Potasssium/sodium/lithium tert-butoxide, DBU, Et 3 N)

- Treatment with Ag 2 O or Ag 2 CO 3

- Formation of CN /CCl 3 /alkoxide adduct for thermal α- elimination

[00128] IRMOF-77: A solid mixture of Ll (16.6 mg, 0.02 mmol) and Zn (NO 3 ) 2 6H 2 O (18 mg, 0.06 mmol) was dissolved in N, N- diethylformamide (DEF, 1.5 mL) and pyridine (0.02 mL) in a capped vial. The reaction was heated to 100 0 C for 24-36 h yielding block crystals on the bottom of the vial. The vial was then removed from the oven and allowed to cool to room temperature naturally. After opening and removal of mother liquor from the mixture, light orange crystals were collected and rinsed with DEF (3 x 4 mL) . Powder and single X-ray diffractions for this material were measured immediately. [00129] Any impurities were separated using the difference in the crystal densities. After decanting the mother liquor, DMF and CHBr 3 (1:2 ratio) were added to crystals. Floating orange crystals were collected and used.

[00130] Activation of IRMOF-77: IRMOF-77 was activated on a Tousimis Samdri PVT-3D critical point dryer. Prior to drying, the solvated MOF samples were soaked in dry acetone, replacing the soaking solution for three days, during which the activation solvent was decanted and freshly replenished three times. Acetone-exchanged samples were placed in the chamber and acetone was completely exchanged with liquid CO 2 over a period of 2.5 h. During this time the liquid CO 2 was renewed every 30 min . After the final exchange the chamber was heated up around 40 0 C, which brought the chamber pressure to around

1300 psi (above the critical point of CO 2 ) . The chamber was held under supercritical condition for 2.5 h, and CO 2 was slowly vented from the chamber over the course of 1-2 h. The dried samples were placed in a quartz adsorption tube and tested for porosity. Solid state CP/MAS NMR, IR and elemental analysis were also recorded.

[00131] Analytical data for IRMOF-77 :

Elemental analysis

Zn 4 O (C 28 H 21 I 2 N 3 O 4 Pd) 3 (H 2 O) 4

Calcd. : C, 35.77; H, 2.54; I, 26.99; N, 4.47; Pd, 11.32; Zn,

9.28

Found: C, 35.04; H, 2.62; I, 26.92; N, 4.71; Pd, 9.67; Zn,

9.32.

IR (KBr, cm "1 )

V= 597, 673, 694, 719, 756, 783, 846, 1012, 1070, 1176, 12215, 1386 (S), 1446, 1541, 1604 (s) , 3396 1 3 C CP/MAS solid state NMR (75 MHz)

IRMOF-77: 40.36 (methyl) , 125.97*, 130.47*, 140.86 (pyridine), 154.10 (NHC carbon), 175.37 (CO 2 Zn) .

Link Ll: 42.15 (methyl) , 125.03*, 129.31*, 142.20 (pyridine), 153.29 (NHC carbon), 173.00 (CO 2 H) *broadened overlapped peaks in aromatic regions. [00132] Postsynthetic ligand exchange of IRMOF-77: Crystals of IRMOF-77 were immersed in 4% v/v quinoline/DMF solution in a 20-mL vial, capped, and let stand for one day. The quinoline solution was decanted and the crystals were rinsed with DMF (3 x 4 mL) after which the PXRD pattern was immediately measured. After exchange with chloroform for one day, the solvent was evacuated overnight at room temperature. Solid state CP/MAS NMR spectra were recorded using the dried compound. [00133] 13 C CP/MAS solid state NMR (75 MHz) for quinoline- exchanged IRMOF-77 :

MOF: 39.63 (methyl), 128.81*, 140.19*, 146.19 (quinoline) , 152.86 (NHC carbon), 174.38 (CO 2 Zn) .

Link L2: 40.14 and 43.43 (non-equivalent methyl), 128.16*, 143.14*, 146.32 (quinoline), 153.59 (NHC carbon), 173.42 (CO 2 H)

*broadened overlapped peaks in aromatic regions. [00134] Single Crystal X-ray Diffraction Data Collection, Structure Solution and Refinement Procedures for IRMOF-76 and IRMOF-77. Initial scans of each specimen were performed to obtain preliminary unit cell parameters and to assess the mosaicity (breadth of spots between frames) of the crystal to select the required frame width for data collection. In every case frame widths of 0.5° were judged to be appropriate and full hemispheres of data were collected using the Bruker APEX2 11 software suite to carry out overlapping φ and ω scans at two different detector (2Θ) settings (2Θ = 28, 60°) . Following data collection, reflections were sampled from all regions of the Ewald sphere to redetermine unit cell parameters for data integration and to check for rotational twinning using CELL_NOW. Following exhaustive review of the collected frames the resolution of the dataset was judged. Data were integrated using Bruker APEX2 V 2.1 software with a narrow frame algorithm and a 0.400 fractional lower limit of average intensity. Data were subsequently corrected for absorption by the program SADABS. The space group determinations and tests for merohedral twinning were carried out using XPREP. [00135] All structures were solved by direct methods and refined using the SHELXTL 97 software suite. Atoms were located from iterative examination of difference F-maps following least-squares refinements of the earlier models. Final models were refined anisotropically (if the number of data permitted and stable refinement could be reached) until full convergence was achieved. Hydrogen atoms were placed in calculated positions and included as riding atoms with isotropic displacement parameters 1.2 - 1.5 times U eq of the attached carbon atoms.

[00136] IRMOF-76: A colorless block-shaped crystal (0.60 * 0.60 x 0.40 mm) of IRMOF-76 was placed in a 1.0 mm diameter borosilicate capillary containing a small amount of mother liquor to prevent desolvation during data collection. The capillary was flame sealed and mounted on a SMART APEXII three circle diffractometer equipped with a CCD area detector and operated at 1200 W power (40 kV, 30 mA) to generate Cu Ka radiation (λ = 1.5418 A) while being cooled to 258(2) K in a liquid N 2 cooled stream of nitrogen, and data were collected at this temperature.

[00137] Full hemispheres of data were collected using the Bruker APEX2 software suite to carry out overlapping φ and ω scans at two different detector (2Θ) settings (2Θ = 28, 60°) . A total of 96360 reflections were collected, of which 1260 were unique and 913 of these were greater than 2σ(J) . The range of θ was from 1.78° to 40.06°. Analysis of the data showed negligible decay during collection. The program scale was performed to minimize differences between symmetry-related or repeatedly measured reflections.

[00138] The structure was solved in the cubic Fm3m space group with Z = 8. All non-hydrogen atoms except C8, C9, Nl are refined anisotropically . Others are not possible because of crystal grade and stable isotropical refinement was achieved. Atoms in the dimethylimidazolium ring (C8, C9, and Nl) are found to be disordered, and they are refined as half occupancy in each component. Hydrogen atoms were placed in calculated positions and included as riding atoms with isotropic displacement parameters 1.2-1.5 times U eq of the attached C atoms. The structures were examined using the Adsym subroutine of PLATON 10 to assure that no additional symmetry could be applied to the models.

[00139] Modeling of electron density within the voids of the frameworks did not lead to identification of guest entities in this structure due to the disordered contents of the large pores in the frameworks. Diffuse scattering from the highly disordered solvent in the void space within the crystal and from the capillary used to set to mount the crystal contributes to the background noise and the 'washing out' of high angle data. Solvents were not modeled in the crystal structure. Constraints were used for the dimethylimidazolium ring (bond lengths of C7-N1, C8-N1 and C9-N1 were fixed) . Considering the poor data, the structure was expected to have elevated reliability factors. Some atoms showed high U 1SO due to low quality of the diffraction data. Poor lengths and angles are due to insufficient constraints and the esd' s are also high .

[00140] The structure has been reported to display the framework of IRMOF-76 as isolated in the crystalline form. The structure is a primitive cubic framework. To prove the correctness of the atomic positions in the framework, the application of the SQUEEZE 5 routine of A. Spek has been performed. However atomic co-ordinates for the "non-SQUEEZE" structures are also presented. No absorption correction was performed. Final full matrix least-squares refinement on F 2 converged to .Ri = 0.0549 (F >2c (F) ) and wR 2 = 0.2166 (all data) with GOF = 0.912 For the structure where the SQUEEZE program has not been employed, final full matrix least-squares refinement on F 2 converged to R 1 = 0.1465 (F >2a (F) ) and wR 2 = 0.4378 (all data) with GOF = 1.941. For this structure the elevated R-values are commonly encountered in MOF crystallography, for the reasons expressed above, by us and other research groups.

[00141] IRMOF-77: A light orange block-shaped crystal (0.30 x 0.30 x 0.20 mm) of IRMOF-77 was placed in a 0.4 mm diameter borosilicate capillary containing a small amount of mother liquor to prevent desolvation during data collection. The capillary was flame sealed and mounted on a SMART APEXII three circle diffractometer equipped with a CCD area detector and operated at 1200 W power (40 kV, 30 mA) to generate Cu Ka radiation (λ = 1.5418 A) while being cooled to 258(2) K in a liquid N 2 cooled stream of nitrogen, and data were collected at this temperature.

[00142] Full hemispheres of data were collected using the Bruker APEX2 software suite to carry out overlapping φ and ω scans at two different detector (2Θ) settings (2Θ = 28, 60°) . A total of 51319 reflections were collected, of which 3946 were unique and 2238 of these were greater than 2σ(J) . The range of θ was from 2.06° to 39.74°. Analysis of the data showed negligible decay during collection. The program scale was performed to minimize differences between symmetry-related or repeatedly measured reflections.

[00143] The structure was solved by direct method and refined using the SHELXTL 97 software suite. Atoms were located from iterative examination of difference F-maps following least squares refinements of the earlier models. The structure was solved in the trigonal R3 C space group with Z = 12. All zinc atoms (ZnI, Zn2), palladium atom (PdI), iodine atoms (II, 12) and other non-hydrogen atoms on backbones of the framework (except for C6, C12, C17) are refined anisotropically with hydrogen atoms generated as spheres riding the coordinates of their parent atoms. Others are not possible because of crystal grade and stable isotropical refinement was achieved. Hydrogen atoms were placed in calculated positions and included as riding atoms with isotropic displacement parameters 1.2-1.5 times U eq of the attached C atoms. The structures were examined using the Adsym subroutine of PLATON to assure that no additional symmetry could be applied to the models.

[00144] Modeling of electron density within the voids of the frameworks did not lead to identification of guest entities in this structure due to the disordered contents of the large pores in the frameworks. High esd's make it impossible to determine accurate positions for solvent molecules. Thus, first several unidentified peaks within void spaces which could not be assigned to any definite entity were modeled as isolated oxygen atoms .

[00145] The structure has been reported to display the framework of IRMOF-77 as isolated in the crystalline form. The structure is a two-fold interpenetrating cubic framework. To prove the correctness of the atomic positions in the framework, the application of the SQUEEZE routine of A. Spek has been performed. However atomic co-ordinates for the "non- SQUEEZE" structures are also presented. Thus the structure reported after SQUEEZE does not include any solvents. No absorption correction was performed. Final full matrix least- squares refinement on F 2 converged to R 1 = 0.0560 (F >2σ(F)) and wR 2 = 0.1389 (all data) with GOF = 0.950 For the structure where the SQUEEZE program has not been employed, final full matrix least-squares refinement on F 2 converged to R 1 = 0.1039 [F >2σ{F)) and wR 2 = 0.3399 (all data) with GOF = 1.141. A final ratio of 12.0 for reflections to parameters was achieved. For this structure the elevated R-values are commonly encountered in MOF crystallography, for the reasons expressed above, by us and other research groups.

Table 3. Crystal data and structure refinement for IRMOF-76

Empirical formula C 69 H 45 N 6 Oi 3 Zn 4

Formula weight 1427.59

Temperature 258(2) K

Wavelength 1.54178 A

Crystal system Cubic

Space group Fm3m

Unit cell dimensions a = 42.9245(2) A α = 90.00° b = 42.9245 (2) A β = 90.00° c = 42.9245 (2) A γ = 90.00°

Volume 79088.9(6)

Z 8

Density (calculated) 0.240 Mg/m 3

Absorption coefficient 0.368 mm '1

F(OOO) 5800

Crystal size 0.60 x 0.60 x 0.40 mm 3

Theta range for data collection 1.78-40.06°

Index ranges -35<=h<=35, -34<=k<=35, -34<=1<=31

Reflections collected 96360

Independent reflections 1260 [R(int)= 0.0707]

Completeness to theta = 40.06° 99.7%

Absorption correction None

Refinement method Full-matrix least-squares on F 2 Data / restraints / parameters 1260 / 3 / 56

Goodness-of-fit on F 2 1.941

Final R indices [I>2sigma (I) ] R 1 = 0.1465, wR 2 = 0.4135

R indices (all data) R 1 = 0.1669, wR 2 = 0.4378

Largest diff. peak and hole 0.450 and -0.278 e.A "3

Table 4. Crystal data and structure refinement for IRMOF-76

(SQUEEZE) .

Empirical formula Cg 9 H 45 N 6 Oi 3 Zn 4 Formula weight 1427.59 Temperature 258 (2) K Wavelength 1.5417 8 A Crystal system Cubic

Space group Fm 3 m

Unit cell dimensions aa == 4422..99224455((22)) A α = 90.00 c b = 42.9245 (2) A β = 90 .00° c = 42.9245 (2) A Y = 90 .00°

Volume 79088. 9 (6)

Z Q

O

Density (calculated) 0.240 Mg/m 3

Absorption coefficient 0.368 mm '1

F(OOO) 5800

Crystal size 0.60 * 0.60 * 0.40 mm 3

Theta range for data collection 1.78-40.06°

Index ranges -35<=h<=35, -34<=k<=35, -34<=1<=31

Reflections collected 96360

Independent reflections 1260 [R(int)= 0.0597]

Completeness to theta = 40.06° 99.7%

Absorption correction None

Refinement method Full-matrix least-squares on F 2

Data / restraints / parameters 1260 / 3 / 56

Goodness-of-fit on F 2 0.912

Final R indices [I>2sigma (I) ] R 1 = 0.0549, wR 2 = 0.1954

R indices (all data) R 1 = 0.0698, wR 2 = 0.2166

Largest diff. peak and hole 0.120 and -0.316 e.A "3

Table 5 . Crystal data and structure refinement for IRMOF-77

Empirical formula C 84 H 63 I 6 N 9 Oi4 Pd 3 Zn 16(0) Formula weight 3020.51 Temperature 258(2) K Wavelength 1.54178 A Crystal system Trigonal

Space group R3c

Unit cell dimensions a = 31.0845 (4) A α = 90.00' b = 31.0845 (4) A β = 90.00° c = 71.018 (2) A Y = 120.00°

Volume 59427 (2)

Z 12

Density (calculated) 1.013 Mg/m 3

Absorption coefficient 10.364 mm "1

F(OOO) 17352

Crystal size 0.30 x 0.30 0.20 mm

Theta range for data collection 2.06-39.74°

Index ranges -25<=h<=24, -25<=k<=25, -55<=1<=58

Reflections collected 51319

Independent reflections 3946 [R(int)= 0.1843]

Completeness to theta = 39.74° 99.8%

Absorption correction None

Refinement method Full-matrix least-squares on F 2

Data / restraints / parameters 3946 / 0 / 327

Goodness-of-fit on F 2 1.141

Final R indices [I>2sigma (I) ] R 1 = 0 . 1033, wR 2 = 0 . 2897

R indices (all data) R 1 = 0 . 1754 , wR 2 = 0 . 3399

Largest diff. peak and hole 0 . 987 and -0 . 706 e . A "3

Table 6. Crystal data and structure refinement for IRMOF-77

(SQUEEZE)

Empirical formula C 84 H 63 I 6 N 9 0i 3 Pd 3 Zn 4

Formula weight 2748.51

Temperature 258(2) K

Wavelength 1.54178 A

Crystal system Trigonal

Space group R3c

Unit cell dimensions a = 31.0845(4) A α = 90.00° b = 31.0845 (4) A β = 90.00° c = 71.018 (2) A γ = 120.00°

Volume 59427(2)

Z 12

Density (calculated) 0.922 Mg/m 3

Absorption coefficient 10.259 mm '1

F(OOO) 15720

Crystal size 0.30 * 0.30 * 0.20 mm 3

Theta range for data collection 2.06-39.74°

Index ranges -25<=h<=24, -25<=k<=25, -55<=1<=58

Reflections collected 51319

Independent reflections 3946 [R(int)= 0.1455]

Completeness to theta = 39.74° 99.8%

Absorption correction None

Refinement method Full-matrix least-squares on F 2

Data / restraints / parameters 3946 / 0 / 333

Goodness-of-fit on F 2 0.950

Final R indices [I>2σ(I)] R 1 = 0.0560, wR 2 = 0.1239

R indices (all data) R 1 = 0.1070, wR 2 = 0.1389

Largest diff. peak and hole 0.958 and -0.350 e.A "3

[00146] The successful isoreticular covalent transformation followed by metalation as demonstrated herein opens a route for incorporating metal ions into a wide range of frameworks. Fundamentally, it expands the reaction space that can be carried out within MOFs .

[00147] Synthetic procedure for Zr-aminoterephalate MOF: 40 mg (ZrCl 4 ) with 2-aminoterephalic acid lOOmg was placed in a glass vial with 40ml of DMF. The reaction was heated at 85 0 C for three days. The powder was filtered exchanged in chloroform 3x40ml.

[00148] Experimental and Simulated Powder X-Ray Diffraction Patterns. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data were collected using a Bruker D8-Discover Θ-2Θ diffractometer in reflectance Bragg-Brentano geometry. Cu Kαi radiation (λ = 1.5406 A; 1600 W, 40 kV, 40 mA) was focused using a planar Gobel Mirror riding the Ka line. A 0.6 mm divergence slit was used for all measurements. Diffracted radiation was detected using a Vantec line detector (Bruker AXS, 6° 2Θ sampling width) equipped with a Ni monochromator . All samples were mounted on a glass slide fixed on a sample holder by dropping crystals and then leveling the sample surface with a wide blade spatula. The best counting statistics were achieved by using a 0.02° 2Θ step scan from 2 - 50° with an exposure time of 0.4 s per step .

[00149] Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) Data for IRMOF- 76, 77. All samples were run on a TA Instruments Q-500 series thermal gravimetric analyzer with samples held in platinum pan in a continuous flow nitrogen atmosphere. Samples were heated at a constant rate of 5 °C/min during all TGA experiments.

[00150] Porosity Measurements for IRMOF-77. Low pressure gas adsorption isotherms were measured volumetrically on an Autosorb-1 analyzer (Quantachrome Instruments) . A liquid N 2 bath (77 K) was used for N 2 isotherm measurements. The N 2 and He gases used were UHP grade (99.999%) . For the calculation of surface areas, the Langmuir and BET methods were applied using the adsorption branches of the N 2 isotherms assuming a N 2 cross-sectional area of 16.2 A 2 /molecule. The Langmuir and BET surface areas are estimated to be 1610 and 1590 m 2 g "1 , respectively. The pore volume was determined using the Dubinin-Raduskavich (DR) method with the assumption that the adsorbate is in the liquid state and the adsorption involves a pore-filling process. Given the bulk density of IRMOF-77

(0.922 g cm "3 ), calculated pore volume (0.57 cm 3 g "1 ) corresponds to 0.53 cm 3 cm "3 .

[00151] This example targeted a structure based on the well- known primitive cubic MOF-5 and utilized a linear ditopic carboxylate link that could accommodate an NHC-metal complex or its precursor. The disclosure demonstrates a convergent synthetic route for new links utilizing cross-coupling reactions as the key step to combine the imidazolium core with the carboxylate modules (Scheme 2, above) . [00152] The synthesis of 4, 7-bis (4-carboxylphenyl) -1, 3- dimethylbenzimidazium tetrafluoroborate (LO) starts from the known 4, 7-dibromobenzthiaziazole (1) . Cobalt-catalyzed reduction with sodium borohydride followed by acid-catalyzed condensation with triethylorthoformate converted thiaziazole to benzimidazole . Successive ZV-methylation produced a dibromobenzimidazole core (2) . Pd (0) -catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling between 2 and 4-(tert- butoxycarbonyl) phenylpinacolborane (3) resulted in the diester-terminated linear terphenyl strut (4) .

[00153] In particular, for the synthesis of LO, the module possessing a tert-butyl ester as a masked carboxylic acid was selected because of improved solubility and feasible late- stage unmasking of carboxylic acid. Treatment with an excess of methyl iodide produced 5, possessing the N, N'- dimethylbenzimidazolium moiety. LO was then obtained by deprotection of two tert-butyl esters using HBF 4 concomitant with counteranion substitution from I " to BF 4 " . All conversions were feasible on a gram scale.

[00154] The synthesis of IRMOF-76 was carried out using a mixture of three equivalents of Zn (BF 4 ) 2 -χH 2 0, ten equivalents of KPF 6 and LO in N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) . The mixture was heated at 100 0 C for 36 h, whereupon colorless crystals of IRMOF-76 (Zn 4 O(C 23 Hi 5 N 2 O 4 ) (X) 3 (X = BF 4 , PF 6 , OH)) were obtained. [00155] Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that IRMOF-76 is isoreticular with MOF-5. Here, Zn 4 O units are connected to six LO links to form a cubic framework of pcu topology (Figure 6a) . IRMOF-76 is a non-interpenetrated cationic MOF possessing imidazolium moieties (NHC precursors) on each link. The ICP analysis and 19 F NMR spectrum of digested IRMOF-76 reveal that both BF 4 " and PF 6 " are included as counter- anions of the imidazolium moieties.

[00156] A strategy using a link possessing a metal-NHC complex was developed. The metal-NHC bond is generally stable even under mild acidic conditions, and chemoselective NHC- coordination avoids undesired reactions with metal sources in the construction of secondary building units (SBUs) , which, in many cases, relies on oxygen-metal coordination. In the specific example described herein, [4, 7-bis (4-carboxylphenyl) - 1, 3-dimethylbenzimidazole-2-ylidene] (pyridyl) palladium (II) iodide (Ll, Scheme 2) was used, which is potentially attractive as a catalyst homologous to known homogeneous catalyst systems.

[00157] Ll was prepared from intermediate 5 (Scheme 2) . The benzimidazolium moiety of 5 was converted to the NHC-PdI 2 (py) complex when refluxed in pyridine with a Pd(II) source, a base (K 2 CO 3 ), and an iodide source (NaI) . Deprotection of the fcerfc- butyl esters was achieved with trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf) . The covalently formed Pd(II)-NHC bond was surprisingly stable even under the strongly Lewis acidic conditions for deprotection. However, the pyridine co-ligand was removed to form dimeric complexes. Adding pyridine as a ligand was necessary to produce Ll possessing a monomeric NHC-PdI 2 (py) moiety. [00158] The synthesis of IRMOF-77 was conducted using Zn (NO 3 ) 2 ' 6H 2 O of three equivalents to Ll in a solvent mixture of N, ZV-diethylformamide (DEF) and pyridine (75/1) . The mixture was heated at 100 0 C for 30 h, whereupon orange crystals of IRMOF-77 (Zn 4 O(C 28 H 21 I 2 N 3 O 4 Pd) 3 ) were obtained.

[00159] X-ray single crystal structure analysis reveals that IRMOF-77 is also isoreticular with MOF-5. The X-ray crystal structure verifies the presence of the NHC-PdI 2 (py) moiety (Figure 6b) . The Zn ions used for the construction of the framework are not involved in binding with the metal-NHC moiety. Measured elemental compositions in accordance with the expected values confirm the absence of undesired metal exchange on NHC. The observed Pd-C distance (1.925 A) and coordination geometry match well with those found in the Cambridge Structural Database for NHC-PdX 2 (py) (X = halide) complexes. The presence of the Pd(II)-NHC bond was further confirmed by the solid state 13 C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectrum (δ = 154.1 ppm for N-Cr-N) . NHC- Pd(II) moieties are positioned on every face of the cubic cage within the framework. Two interwoven frameworks were formed with ca. 7 A offset distance (Figure 6c), presumably to mitigate the interference of the metal-NHC moieties with each other, with 4.06 A shortest distances between two methyl carbons from two frameworks. As a result, the catenation is different from that of IRMOF-15, whose link length is the same as Ll. Due to the interwoven nature of the structure, the pore aperture is ca . 5 A x 10 A. All immobilized Pd(II) centers protrude into the pores without blocking each other. [00160] To confirm the presence of void space and the architectural stability of IRMOF-77, the permanent porosity was demonstrated by the N 2 adsorption isotherm of the guest- free samples. The isotherm shows steep N 2 uptake in the low- pressure region, which indicates that the material is microporous (Figure 7) . The Langmuir and BET surface areas of activated IRMOF-77 are calculated to be 1,610 and 1,590 m 2 g "1 , respectively. The amount of N 2 uptake in the pores [PfP 0 = 0.9) corresponds to 46 N 2 molecules per formula unit or 552 per unit cell.

[00161] To examine the reactivity of the immobilized Pd(II) centers of IRMOF-77, ligand exchange experiments were carried out by immersing as-synthesized crystals of IRMOF-77 in 4 v/v% quinoline/DMF solution for one day at room temperature. A comparison between the powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns before and after exchange reveals that the framework remains intact during the exchange process (Figure 8) . No signal from the pyridine protons is observed in the 1 H NMR spectrum of the digested MOF after ligand exchange. Only the signals from quinoline are observed with the expected molar stoichiometry (carboxylate link : quinoline = 1:1) . Retention of the NHC-Pd bond is confirmed by the 13 C CP/MAS solid state NMR spectrum (before: 154.1 ppm, after: 152.9 ppm) . These results indicate the presence of NHC-PdI 2 (quinoline) complex after ligand exchange. [00162] The structures of IRMOF-76 and 77 demonstrate the successful application of the methods of the disclosure to immobilize Pd(II)-NHC organometallic complex in MOFs without losing the MOF' s porosity and its structural order. [00163] A number of embodiments of the invention have been described. Nevertheless, it will be understood that various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, other embodiments are within the scope of the following claims.