|1.||Oscillatingrotor engine, consisting of stator and rotor, wherein, in one of the possible embodiments, Fig. 9, it consists of stator (10) with stator body (11) at the inner surface of which there are firmly fixed the upper stator partition (13) and the lower stator partition (14), and the oscillating rotor (30) between them, with the rotor right arm (32) and the rotor left arm (33) with either solid axle (36) or hollow axle (37); between the stator partitions and the rotor arms there are the upper right chamber (23), the lower right chamber (24), the lower left chamber (25) and the upper left chamber (26) with the upper right stagnation point (19), the lower right stagnation point (20), the lower left stagnation point (21) and the upper left stagnation point (22), reached by the rotor arms in their movement in the chambers.|
|2.||The oscillatingrotor engine as claimed in the Claim 1, w h e r e i n the stator may consist of one or more stator partitions whereas the oscillating rotor may consist of one or more rotor arms, the statorpartition and the rotorarm numbers being equal, and the number of the chambers always being double the number of the stator partitions.|
|3.||The oscillatingrotor engine as claimed in the Claims 1 and 2, w h e r e i n with four stroke engine, at its stator body (11) and all statorpartition left and right lateral surfaces (13.1), (13.2), (14.1) and (14.2) or at the inner stator surfaces there are suction (15), exhaust (16) and sparkplug or injector (17) openings; with twostroke engines, the said openings are made in the very stator body (11).|
|4.||The oscillatingrotor engine as claimed in the Claims 1,2 and 3, w h e r e i n in the singlestator, fourstroke engine embodiment, within one working cycles, in one movement of the oscillating rotor there occur as many strokes as there are chambers; whereas in a singlestator, twostroke engine embodiment, within one working cycles, in one movement of the rotor both strokes occur in chambers simultaneously.|
|5.||The oscillatingrotor engine as claimed in the Claims 1 to 4, w h e r e i n to one solid axle (36) and one hollow axle (37) there may be firmly fixed one or more oscillating rotors (30) that are on an axle in the same phase, reaching the same stagnation point in stator chambers simultaneously ; at combining stators into an engine block, the solid axle may be passed through the hollow axle so that oscillating rotors may be in the same phase or phase shifted; engine block may consist of one or more stators; the number of stators in a block is unlimited.|
|6.||The oscillatingrotor engine as claimed in the Claims 1 to 5, w h e r e i n transforming of alternate movements of the oscillating rotor (30) to constant rotary movement of the crankshaft may be achieved by a transmitting mechanism consisting of a twoarm hinged lever (50), or of a singlearm hinged lever (53), or of a singlearm flat lever (56) and one or two piston rods (51) connected to the crankshaft.|
In the International Patent Classification it is classified as Section F-Mechanical Engineering; F 02-Combustion Engines; F 02B-Internal-combustion piston engines; F 02 B 53/00-Internal-combustion aspects of rotary-piston or oscillating-piston engines.
2. TECHNICAL PROBLEM The technical problem is designing of four-stroke or two-stroke internal-combustion engines consisting of rotor and stator instead of piston and cylinder. In the stator chambers, in one working cycles, there are possible as many simultaneously running strokes as there are chambers.
With these engines, simultaneously and in one stator there could run as many strokes as there are chambers.
Combining of several stators into a single block increases the engine power. Construction of such an engine would be simpler, with lesser sliding surfaces, lesser energy losses and better degree of efficiency.
3. STATE OF THE ART By their construction, the present internal-combustion engines can be divided into piston engines and rotary engines, and by fueling to petrol (Otto) and oil (Diesel) fueled engines.
Basic parts of a single-cylinder engine are cylinder and piston.
On the top of the cylinder there is a cover with at least two openings. These are intake and outlet openings.
With petrol engines, at the interior side of the cylinder top, usually between the valve openings, there is spark-plug that produces electric spark. With oil engines, there is injector.
At the lower end of the piston, there is piston rod that connects the piston and the crankshaft. The piston rod transforms the linear, up and down, motion of the piston into the rotary motion of the crankshaft.
The lowest point that a piston may reach at its moving through the cylinder is known as the bottom dead centre, and the highest point as the top dead centre.
A piston stroke is the piston motion from the bottom dead centre to the top dead centre and vice-versa.
Operation of such single-cylinder, four-stroke, engines consists of four engine strokes that make one working cycles performed within a certain period of time. In the course of the four strokes, four processes take place in the cylinder: the first stroke-suction of fuel-air mixture, the second stroke-compression of the fuel-air mixture and its incineration and combustion, the third stroke-combustion producing pressure and expansion, and the fourth stroke-exhaustion. Only the third stroke (expansion) is a powering stroke.
The other three strokes, necessary for correct working of the engine, consume the produced energy (i. e., lose it to friction and compression).
Obtaining correct utilisation of four-stroke engines required construction of an engine block consisting of at least four cylinders.
This way, in a four-cylinder bock, there is a combustion-expansion stroke going on at every moment in at least one cylinder. This results in constant transformation of heat energy into mechanical energy.
The energy produced in such an engine block suffers losses while being transmitted from the piston to the crankshaft and from the crankshaft by means of piston rods to other pistons.
The two-stroke, single-cylinder engines differ from the four-stroke ones only in not containing valves, and intake and outlet openings being placed at the cylinder side walls.
They are opened and closed by the very piston. They operate two strokes: the first stroke - compression, ignition and combustion in cylinder and suction in the housing, and the second stroke-combustion, expansion and exhaust (the powering stroke), compression of air in the housing.
The Wankel rotary engine consists of a fixed stator (housing) of epitrochoid interior, a rotor (a triangular rotary piston) and a crankshaft. The rotor and the stator make three chambers that enlarge and reduce during rotation of the piston. The rotor moves in the stator circularly planetarly, its points constantly touching the stator inside wall. The interior gears of the rotor engage into a smaller motionless gear-wheel fixed to the stator which results in planetary circular rotation of the rotor.
This way, the volume of each chamber increases from the minimum to the maximum, to decrease again to the minimum, and in the expansion stroke again to the maximum. In the end, volumes of each chamber decrease one by one once again.
4. DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION The essence of the invention is construction of an internal-combustion engine consisting of stator with one or more stator partitions and of oscillating rotor with one or more rotor arms that oscillate between the stator partitions. The space between lateral surfaces of the stator partitions and lateral surfaces of the rotor arms are known as chambers. The numbers of the stator partitions and of the rotor arms are the same, whereas the number of chambers is two times larger than the number of the stator partitions. In such an engine there can simultaneously run as many strokes as there are chambers. Sequences of strokes in chambers are known as working cycles.
It results from the above described invention essence that, in the ideal case, in a two- stroke engine that consists of one stator, one stator partition, two chambers and one single-arm oscillating rotor, in one working cycles both strokes will run in each of the two chambers. In a four-stroke engine consisting of one stator, two stator partitions, four chambers and one two-arm oscillating rotor, in one working cycles four strokes will run simultaneously in all four chambers.
Within working cycles there are several ways of running of strokes by chambers. This invention describes only one of such several ways of running of strokes by chambers.
The heat energy produced by combustion of compressed air-fuel mixture in chambers exercises pressure against lateral surfaces of the rotor arms that, therefore, oscillate in turns. The alternative oscillation of the rotor axle is transformed into rotary motion of the crankshaft.
The oscillating rotors have solid and hollow axes that enable mutual connection of several stators into engine blocks, this increasing the engine power. A solid axle passes through a hollow axle and they move simultaneously in the same or in different directions, depending on the planned phase shift. On one solid or hollow axle there can be several oscillating rotors. All rotors that are fixed to one solid or hollow axle move in the same direction. In this case, such rotors are in the like phase, i. e. they simultaneously reach the same stagnation points in the chamber.
5. ILLUSTRATION DESCRIPTIONS In order to enable easier understanding of engine principles, the stator and rotor descriptions use the following expressions, as related to Fig. 9: left and right rotor arm; upper and lower stator partition; upper right, lower right, upper left and lower left stagnation points; upper right, lower right, upper left and lower left chambers.
Figure 1 shows front view of the stator.
Figure 2 shows top view of the stator.
Figure 3 shows section A-A in Fig. 2 of the stator.
Figure 4 shows section B-B in Fig. 2 of the stator.
Figure 5 shows front view of the oscillating rotor.
Figure 6 shows top view of the oscillating rotor.
Figure 7 shows front view of the stator with the rotor inserted.
Figure 8 shows top view of the stator with the rotor inserted.
Figure 9 shows front view of the oscillating rotor in the stator, in the neutral position.
Figure 10 shows the rotor in its upper right and lower left stagnation points.
Figure 11 shows the rotor in its lower right and upper left stagnation points.
Figure 12 shows suction, exhaust and spark-plug (injector) openings at stator partitions.
Figure 13 shows suction, exhaust and spark-plug (injector) openings at the left surface of the upper stator partition.
Figure 14 shows suction, exhaust and spark-plug (injector) openings at the left surface of the lower stator partition.
Figure 15 shows rotor position and strokes of the FIRST WORKING CYCLES.
Figure 16 shows rotor position and strokes of the SECOND WORKING CYCLES.
Figure 17 shows rotor position and strokes of the THIRD WORKING CYCLES.
Figure 18 shows rotor position and strokes of the FOURTH WORKING CYCLES.
Figure 19 shows connection into a single block of a stator with solid-axle rotor with a stator with hollow-axle rotor.
Figure 20 shows a solid-axle stator.
Figure 21 shows a hollow-axle stator.
Figure 22 shows a two-stator engine block with transmission mechanism that transforms alternating oscillating motion of the rotor into circular motion of the crankshaft.
Figure 23 shows connecting into a single block of two stators on a solid axle and two stators on a hollow axle.
Figure 24 shows two stators on a solid axle.
Figure 25 shows two stators on a hollow axle.
Figure 26 shows a four-stator engine block.
Figure 27 shows a stator on a solid axle.
Figure 28 shows a stator on a hollow axle.
Figure 29 shows a stator on a wider hollow axle.
Figure 30 shows a three-stator engine block with transmission mechanism that transforms alternating oscillating motion of the rotor into circular motion of the crankshaft, with phase shift.
Figure 31 shows two stators on a solid axle.
Figure 32 shows two stators on a hollow axle.
Figure 33 shows two stators on a wider hollow axle.
Figure 34 shows a six-stator engine block, two stators being on a full, two on a hollow and two on a wider hollow axle.
Figure 35 a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h, shows transmission mechanism with a two-arm hinged lever and two piston rods-the oscillating-rotor axle and the crankshaft being in the same centreline.
Figure 36 a and b shows front and side views of a piston rod.
Figure 37 a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h, shows transmission mechanism with a single-arm hinged lever and one piston rod-the oscillating-rotor axle and the crankshaft being in the same centreline.
Figure 38 shows double transmission mechanism with a two-arm flat lever and two piston rods to transmit circular motion to two crankshafts.
Figure 39 shows single transmission mechanism with a single-arm flat lever and one piston rod-the oscillating-rotor axle and the crankshaft being in different centrelines.
Figure 40 shows a two-stroke oscillating-rotor engine with two stator partitions.
Figure 41 shows a two-stroke oscillating-rotor engine shown in Fig. 40.
Figure 42 shows a two-stroke engine with one stator partition and a single-arm rotor.
Figure 43 shows a two-stroke engine with one stator partition shown in Fig. 42.
Key to the marks used in figures: 10-stator 11-stator body 12. 1-right inner surface of the stator body 12. 2-left inner surface of the stator body 13-stator upper partition 13. 1-right lateral surface of the stator upper partition 13. 2.-left lateral surface of the stator upper partition 13. 3-inner surface of the stator upper partition 14-stator lower partition 14. 1-right lateral surface of the stator lower partition 14. 2.-left lateral surface of the stator lower partition 14. 3-inner surface of the stator lower partition 15-suction opening 16-exhaust opening 17-spark plug (injector in oil engines) opening 19-upper right stagnation point 20-lower right stagnation point 21-upper left stagnation point 22-lower left stagnation point 23-upper right chamber 24-lower right chamber 25-lower left chamber 26-upper left chamber 27-rotor axle opening 30-oscillating rotor 31-rotor body 31. 1-upper outer surface of the rotor body 31. 2-lower outer surface of the rotor body 32-rotor right arm 32. 1-upper lateral surface of the rotor right arm 32. 2-lower lateral surface of the rotor right arm 32. 3-outer surface of the rotor right arm 33-rotor left arm 32. 1-upper lateral surface of the rotor left arm 32. 2-lower lateral surface of the rotor left arm 32. 3-outer surface of the rotor left arm 36-solid axle 37-hollow axle 38-phase shift 50-two-arm hinged lever 51-piston rod 52-two-bracket crankshaft 53-single-arm hinged lever 54-single-bracket crankshaft 55-two-arm flat lever 56-single-arm flat lever I-first stroke II-second stroke III-third stroke IV-fourth stroke F1-solid-axle oscillating-rotor force F2-hollow-axle oscillating-rotor force 6. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION EMBODIMENT The oscillating-rotor engine is an internal combustion engine comprising of the stator 10 and the oscillating rotor 30.
The stator 10 may consist of one or more stator partitions and, as shown in Fig. 3, it consists of the stator body 11 and two stator partitions: the stator upper partition 13 and the stator lower partition 14. The stator partitions are fixed to the inner surfaces of the stator body 12.1 and 12.2. The stator upper partition 13 has the right lateral surface 13.1, the left lateral surface 13.2 and the inner surface 13.3. The stator lower partition 14 has the right lateral surface 14.1, the left lateral surface 14.2 and the inner surface 14.3. At all stator-partition lateral surfaces (Figs. 12,13 and 14) there are provided openings with valves, at least one opening for air or air-fuel mixture suction 15 and at least one opening for combustion gases exhaust 16, as well as the spark-plug opening 17 with petrol engines or injector opening with oil engines. In engines consisting of one-stator and two- stator partitions, there should be at least eight openings: four suction and four exhaust ones.
The suction and exhaust openings with their valves may also be placed at the stator-body inner surfaces. In the stator-body centre there is an opening for passing the rotor axle 27.
The oscillating rotor 30 may have one or more rotor arms and, as shown in Figs. 5 and 6, the oscillating rotor 30 has the body 31 with two arms: the rotor right arm 32 and the rotor left arm 33. The rotor right arm 32 has the upper lateral surface 32.1 and the lower lateral surface 32.2, and the outer surface 32.3. The rotor left arm 33 has the upper lateral surface 33.1 and the lower lateral surface 33.2, and the outer surface 33.3.
Through the rotor body centre 31 there is fixed the solid axle 36 or the hollow axle 37, that transmit power from the oscillating rotor 30 to the crankshaft 52 or 54 and connect several stators with the oscillating rotor making thus engine blocks.
The oscillating-rotor outer surfaces 31.1 and 31.2 are, because of rotation, Fig. 9, adjusted to the inner curved surfaces 13.3 and 14.3 at the stator partitions. The rotor-arm outer surfaces 32.3 and 33.3 are, because of rotation, adjusted to the inner circular surfaces 12.1 and 12.2 at the stator body 11.
When the oscillating rotor 30, Fig. 9, is in neutral position in the stator body 11, the space between the rotor arms 32 and 33 and the stator partitions 13 and 14, are known as chambers: the upper right chamber 23, the lower right chamber 24, the left lower chamber 25 and the left upper chamber 26.
The rotor arms 32 and 33 must not hit stator partitions 13 and 14 while rotating. Positions in which the rotor-arm lateral surfaces stop at every pass through chambers are known as stagnation points. These points must be calculated in the very designing of the engine, and are conditioned by the transmission mechanism. Since the oscillating rotor 30 consists of two rotor arms 32 and 33, each of them with two lateral surfaces, there are four stagnation points. As shown in Figs. 10 and 11, the stagnation points in chambers in which the rotor right-arm 32 lateral surfaces stop are known as upper right stagnation point 19 and the lower right stagnation point 20, and those in which the rotor left-arm 33 stop as the lower left stagnation point 21 and the upper left stagnation point 22.
The oscillating rotor 30 oscillates in the stator 10 so that at the same time the rotor right arm 32 moves between the upper right stagnation point 19, Fig. 10, and the lower right stagnation point 20, Fig. 22, and the rotor left arm 33 moves between the lower left stagnation point 21, Fig. 10, and the upper left stagnation point 22, Fig. 11.
Since, in the described case, the rotor right arm 32 moves from the upper stator partition 13 (Fig. 10) to the lower stator partition 14 (fig. 11) and vice-versa, while at the same time the rotor left arm 33 moves from the lower stator partition 14 (Fig. 10) to the upper stator partition 13 (Fig. 11), it is evident that such rotor movement is not rotary but oscillating, such rotor being known as an oscillating rotor.
Oscillating-rotor engine function principle Operation of this four-stroke engine consists of four movements of the oscillating rotor, that is of four working cycles of four strokes each cycles, of which one stroke can always be a powering stroke, whereas all four strokes can run in the stator chambers simultaneously. Figures 15,16, 17 and 18 show a possible version of engine operation in four working cycles of four strokes each, sixteen strokes in total.
Strokes in this four-stroke engine chambers are: STROKE ONE-suction of mixture of pure air; STROKE TWO-compression of mixture of air, ignition and combustion of mixture or injection of fuel by injector and its ignition and combustion; STROKE THREE-combustion with constant pressure and expansion; STROKE FOUR-exhaust.
The described oscillating-rotor engine has four chambers. Provided that the engine ignition is performed clockwise, one chamber after the other, this is what happens in particular working cycles : WORKING CYCLES ONE (Figure 15): In the upper right chamber 23 there occurs stroke one-suction. Simultaneously, in the lower right chamber 24 occurs stroke four-exhaust. Oscillating movement of the rotor 30 initiates stroke three-expansion, in the lower left chamber 25. In the upper left chamber 26 occurs stroke two-compression.
WORKING CYCLES TWO (Figure 16): Strokes shift in the chambers. The oscillating rotor initiates stroke three-expansion, in the upper left chamber 26. In the upper right chamber 23 occurs stroke two- compression. In the lower right chamber 24 occurs stroke one-suction. In the lower left chamber 25 occurs section four-exhaust.
WORKING CYCLES THREE (Figure 17): Following stroke shift in chambers, stroke three-expansion, occurs in the upper right chamber 23 now. In the lower right chamber 24 occurs stroke two-compression. In the lower left chamber 25 occurs stroke one-suction. Stroke four-exhaust, occurs in the upper left chamber now.
WORKING CYCLES FOUR (Figure 18): There is another stroke shift in chambers. The rotor is moved by stroke three- expansion, in the lower right chamber 24. In the upper right chamber 23 occurs stroke four exhaust. In the upper left chamber 26 simultaneously occurs stroke one-suction, and in the lower left chamber 25 occurs stroke two-compression.
Following another stroke shift in chambers, the working cycles one is repeated and the engine operates accordingly.
An oil-powered engine is stopped by interrupting fuel supply into the stator chambers, whereas a petrol engine is stopped by interrupting electricity supply to the spark plug.
The working cycles sequence in chambers can be adjusted in a few other ways as well, but the operating cycles get disturbed then.
It is evident from the invention description that the stator-partition and the rotor-arm numbers must be the same, whereas the number of chambers equals double the number of the stator partitions. In this engine there may occur simultaneously as many strokes as there are chambers. Therefore, in the ideal case, in a two-stroke engine consisting of one stator, one stator partition, two chambers and a single-arm oscillating rotor, in one working cycles both strokes will be running in each of the two chambers. In a four-stroke engine consisting of one stator, two stator partitions, four chambers and a two-arm oscillating rotor, in one working cycles all four strokes will be running simultaneously in all chambers.
Each chamber volume is measured at the moment when the suction stroke or the exhaust stroke end in it, that is, when the rotor-arm lateral surface is positioned farthest from the stator-partition lateral surface in a particular chamber, which is the moment when that chamber's volume is the larges. This is visible in Figures 10 and 11, showing all four chambers with their largest and smallest volumes.
At calculating the entire stator total volume, it is to be taken into consideration that it (in this embodiment) has four mutually identical chambers.
Sealing The oscillating-rotor engine sealing must be well done. A possible way of sealing is by inserting gaskets between connecting and mobile elements.
In sealing an oscillating rotor, it is important that the first outer gaskets border the very edge of the oscillating-rotor body, in order to prevent mixture from leaking from one chamber into another due to high pressure from and the engine volume.
Engine blocks Connecting of several stators into a block is performed to increase the engine power.
Stators can be combined into blocks by connecting a stator equipped with a solid axle with a stator equipped with a hollow axle, as shown in Fig. 19, by passing the solid axle 36 through the hollow axle 37. This produces a two-stator engine block. The same is shown in Figs. 20,21 and 22. On a solid axle 36 and a hollow axle 37 there can be fixed two or more oscillating rotors 30, their combining resulting in a multi-stator engine block.
Figures 23,24, 25 and 26 show building of a four-stator engine block.
Figures 27,28 and 29 show building of an engine block consisting of three stators with solid, hollow and wider hollow axes.
Figures 31,32 and 33 show building of a six-stator engine block.
By combining of several stators into an engine block, there can also be obtained a phase shift 38 (Figs. 30 and 34). This requires use of a pump and one or more hollow axes. To the same axle, solid or hollow, there are firmly fixed only those oscillating rotors that operate in the same phase, that is, rotors that reach the same stagnation points at the same time.
Numbers of the stators and the phases are arbitrary.
Transmission mechanism Alternating movement of the oscillating rotor is to be transformed into rotary movement of the engine crankshaft. One of transmission mechanisms that enables this is piston rod, as shown in Figs. 35,37, 38 and 39, as well as in Figs. 22 and 30.
As shown in Figs. 35 a, b, c and d, the two-arm hinged lever 50 is fixed firmly to the part of the axle 36 that protrudes from the engine stator, so that the lever takes its oscillating movement transmitting it on by the piston rods 51 to the two-crank crankshaft 52 placed in the same perpendicular centreline as the solid axle 36. The piston rod 51 is shown in the Figs. 36 a and b. The piston rod and the crankshaft are commonly designed engine elements.
Figs. 35 e, f, g and h show transmission mechanism with rotor arms in various positions in stator chambers, as related to upper and lower stagnation points.
It is to be pointed out here that it is this mechanism that determines the oscillating-rotor arm stagnation points in stator chambers.
Figure 37 shows transmission mechanism with one crankshaft centreline being positioned exactly below the axle centreline, and oscillating movement of the single-arm hinged lever 53 is transmitted to the single-crank crankshaft by one piston rod 51.
Other possible oscillating-rotor engine embodiments The oscillating-rotor engine can be easily modified into a two-stroke engine. In this case, intake and exhaust openings are made in the stator body 11, Figs. 40,41, 42 and 43. The oscillating rotor 30 opens and closes intake and exhaust openings, that let air or mixture into the chamber or combustion gases out of it, by its arms 32 and 33. In a stator consisting of two stator partitions 13 and 14, Figs. 40 and 41, there occur simultaneously the first two and the last two strokes: stroke one-compression, ignition and combustion; stroke two-combustion, expansion and exhaust as well as suction-the powering stroke.
Figure 40 shows distribution of strokes in chambers at the moment when the rotor right arm 32 reaches the upper stagnation point 19. In the upper right chamber 23 and the lower left chamber 25 occurs stroke one, whereas stroke two occurs in the lower right chamber 24 and the upper left chamber 26. After this, the rotor arm 33 moves to the upper left stagnation point 22, Fig. 41, and strokes in chambers change: stroke one in the lower right chamber 24 and the upper left chamber 26, and stroke two in the upper right chamber 23 and the lower left chamber 25.
Embodiment of oscillating-rotor engine with one arm 33 and one stator partition 14 and two chambers is shown in Figs. 42 and 43.
Figure 42 shows situation in the engine when the oscillating rotor 30 reaches the lower left stagnation point 21. Then, stroke one is in the left and stroke two is in the right chamber.
Oscillating rotor then moves to the lower right stagnation point 20, when stroke one is in the right and stroke two in the left chamber (Fig. 43).
7. INVENTION APPLICATION Internal combustion engine with oscillating rotor, two-or four-stroke, with one, two or more stator partitions, with one, two or more rotor arms, may be applied in all situations where the presently known two-or four-stroke engines are being applied, that is, for powering vehicles, craft and vessels, agricultural and building machines and, thanks to its low power consumption, for powering electricity generators too.