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Title:
OXYGEN CARRYING MATERIALS WITH SURFACE MODIFICATION FOR REDOX-BASED CATALYSIS AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USES THEREOF
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2018/232133
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Redox catalysts having surface medication, methods of making redox catalysts with surface modification, and uses of the surface modified redox catalysts are provided. In some aspects, the redox catalysts include a core oxygen carrier region such as CaMnO3, BaMnO3-δ, SrMnO3-δ, Mn2SiO4, Mn2MgO4-δ, La0.8Sr0.2O3-δ, La0.8Sr0.2FeO3-δ, Ca9Ti0.1Mn0.9O3-δ, Pr6O11-δ, manganese ore, or a combination thereof; and an outer shell having an average thickness of about 1-100 monolayers surrounding the outer surface of the core region. The outer shell can include, for example a salt selected such as Li2WO4, Na2WO4, K2WO4, SrWO4, Li2MoO4, Na2MoO4, K2MoO4, CsMoO4, Li2CO3, Na2CO3, K2CO3, or a combination thereof.

Inventors:
LI, Fanxing (1021 Main Campus Drive 2nd Floo, Raleigh North Carolina, 27606, US)
NEAL, Luke Michael (1021 Main Campus Drive 2nd Floo, Raleigh North Carolina, 27606, US)
GAO, Yunfei (1021 Main Campus Drive 2nd Floo, Raleigh North Carolina, 27606, US)
Application Number:
US2018/037570
Publication Date:
December 20, 2018
Filing Date:
June 14, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY (Office of Technology Commercialization & New Ventures, 1021 Main Campus Drive 2nd Floo, Raleigh North Carolina, 27606, US)
International Classes:
B01J23/02; B01J23/10; B01J23/16; B01J23/34; B01J23/83; B01J35/10; C07C4/06; C07C5/48; C07C15/46; C07C47/052; H01M4/90
Domestic Patent References:
WO2006063230A12006-06-15
Foreign References:
US20170050178A12017-02-23
US7803972B22010-09-28
US20150065333A12015-03-05
Other References:
SHAFIEFARHOOD A: "Core-Shell Redox Catalyst for Partial Oxidation of Methane with Active Lattice Oxygen", 2016, pages ii-xv, 1 - 202, XP055574346, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20181009]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SEARS, John S. (THOMAS HORSTEMEYER LLP, 3200 Windy Hill Road SESuite 1600, Atlanta Georgia, 30339, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
We claim:

1 . A redox catalyst comprising:

(a) a core region having an outer surface, the core region comprising an oxygen carrier selected from the group consisting of

, manganese ore, and a combination thereof; and

(b) an outer shell having an average thickness of about 1 -100 monolayers surrounding the outer surface of the core region, the outer shell comprising a salt selected from the group consisting of

and a combination thereof.

2. A redox catalyst comprising:

(a) a core region having an outer surface, the core region comprising an oxygen carrier, and

(b) an outer shell having an average thickness of about 1 -100 monolayers surrounding the outer surface of the core region, the outer shell comprising a metal salt.

3. The redox catalyst according to claim 2, wherein the metal salt is selected from the group consisting of metal carbonates, metal phosphates, metal tungstates, metal molybdates, metal vanadates, metal halides, and a combination thereof.

4. The redox catalyst according to claim 2, wherein the outer shell comprises an alkali metal tungstate selected from the group consisting of tungstates having a formula BW04, B2W05, B3WOs, and a combination thereof, where B is selected from the group consisting of Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba.

5. The redox catalyst according to claim 2, wherein the outer shell comprises an alkali metal tungstate selected from the group consisting of and a

combination thereof.

6. The redox catalyst according to claim 2, wherein the outer shell comprises a tungstate salt of an alkali metal selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Cs, and a combination thereof.

7. The redox catalyst according to claim 2, wherein the outer shell comprises a tungstate salt of a rare earth metal selected from the group consisting of Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, other rare earth metals, and a combination thereof.

8. The redox catalyst according to claim 2, wherein the outer shell comprises a halide salt having a formula AX,

where A is Na, K, Li, Rb, or Cs, and

where X is F, CI, Br, or I .

9. The redox catalyst according to claim 2, wherein the outer shell comprises a molybdate salt having a formula A2M0O4,

where A is Li, Na, K, or Cs.

10. The redox catalyst according to claim 2, wherein the outer shell comprises a molybdate salt having a formula

where B is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, a transition metals such as Fe or Mn, or a rare earth oxide.

1 1 . The redox catalyst according to claim 2, wherein the shell comprises a metal carbonate, metal phosphate, metal vanadate, metal sulfate, a combination thereof, or a combination thereof with one or more other mixed oxides.

12. The redox catalyst according to claim 2, wherein the shell comprises Ca, Sr, and/or Ba added to the shell as a tungstate or as an oxide in conjunction with an alkali tungstate.

13. The redox catalyst according to any one of ciaims 2-12, wherein the oxygen carrier comprises a perovskites of the form AMn04 or AFe03 were A may be Ca, Sr, Ba, La, other lanthanides or combination thereof.

14. The redox catalyst according to claim 13, wherein the A and B sites of the perovskite (ABOs) are partially substituted with dopants including but not limited to materials of the form

, or

15. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 2-12, wherein the oxygen carrier is a nonstoichiometric perovskite including the Ruddlesden-Popper phases of the form

where A is one more multiple A~site materials listed in claim 13.

16. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 2-12, wherein the oxygen carrier is a nonstoichiometric perovskite including Brownmillerite (A2B2O5), Spinel AB204, and cubic

Ί where A is one more multiple A-site materials listed in claim 13.

17. The redox catalyst according to any one of ciaims 2-12 with an oxygen carrier according to any one of claims 13-18 in which shell layer is protected from destructive interactions with the oxygen carrier during redox cycling by stabilizing the oxygen carrier phase through one or both of:

a.) limiting a temperature of cycling for pretreatment and operation to the range of 500- 800°C; and

b) using A and B site substituents/dopants such as those in claim 14 to stabilize the perovskite or related material.

18. The redox caiaiyst according to any one of claims 2-12, wherein the low-temperature oxygen carrier comprises perovskites of the form Mo and V oxides and mixed oxides.

19. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 2-12, wherein the low-temperature oxygen carrier comprises a perovskites or other material containing Dy, Pb, Bi, or Pr and or Ferriies that exhibit low temperature (<750 °C) oxygen donation or uncoupling materials,

20. The redox catalyst according to claim 19, wherein the low-temperature oxygen carrier comprises Dy203, PrOx, BiOx, or a combination thereof.

21 . The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 2-12, wherein the core comprises a perovskite of the form AMn04 where A may be Ca, Sr, La, and/or Ba, and

wherein the shell comprises an alkali or alkaline earth metal tungstate shell.

22. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 2-12, wherein the oxygen carrier comprises Mn02 , Mn203 , Mn304 and or MnO; and optionally an oxide containing one or more of manganese (Mn), lithium (Li), Sodium (Na) boron (B), and magnesium (Mg), preferably NaB2

and non-crystalline mixtures of these elements.

23. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 2-12, wherein the oxygen carrier comprises mixed manganese silica oxides, preferably synthesized in such a way that a substantial portion of the Mn and Si exist in a mixed MnxSiyOz phase such as giving improved redox kinetics and/or oxygen capacity over a Si02 supported MnOx phase.

24. The redox catalyst according to claim 23, wherein the mixed manganese silica oxides comprises Mn loading of >30 % so that the Mn7SiOi2 formed in oxygenated environments rather than on a silica phase such as a-crisabalite giving highly improved usable oxygen

capacity.

25. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 2-12, wherein the oxygen carrier comprises monometallic or mixed metal oxides containing first row transition metals including Cu, HI, Co, Fe, Mn and mixtures thereof,

26. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 2-12, wherein the oxygen carrier comprises bulk oxides IVlnFe2Q4 and mixed oxides or oxide mixtures of the general form(s)

27. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 2-12, wherein the oxygen carrier comprises manganese ores containing substantial portions of

28. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 2-12, wherein the oxygen carrier comprises manganese ores containing significant amounts of the minerals pyrolusite (Mn02), braunite, psilomelane

Birnessite

29. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 2-12, wherein the oxygen carrier comprises bulk oxides including M2.xSi04 structured materials (commonly known as Olivines) where M may be Mn, Fe, Mg, or a mixture thereof, to enhance the physical strength of the redox catalyst particles and, in some, instance provide additional oxygen carrying capacity and/or catalyze thermal naphtha cracking.

30. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 1 -12, wherein the shell has a substantially different composition than the core,

31 . The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 1 -12, wherein the shell is in the form of a molten or solid shell or surface decorations fully or partially covering the core.

32. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 1-12, wherein the shell encapsulates the entire outer surface,

33. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 1 -12, wherein the oxygen carrier is active for oxidative dehydrogenation of methane, ethane, or propane at a temperature of about 500°C to about 850°C.

34. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 1 -12, wherein the core is composed of a bulk oxygen storage-donation at a low temperatures phase and a promoted surface with substantially different compositions in the form of a molten or solid shell or surface decoration that fully or partially covers the core while maintaining significant activity for hydrogen combustion or direct ODH catalysis.

35. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 1 -12, wherein the oxygen carrier has a redox activity at 500-825 °C.

38. The redox catalyst according to any one of claims 1 -12, wherein a ratio of cation to anion in the shell is about ¼ to 4 times a stoichiometric cation to anion ratio.

37. A method of making a redox catalyst according to any one of claims 1 -36, the method comprising

(a) making a core comprising an oxygen carrier, and

(b) impregnating or precipitating a metal salt onto an outer surface of the core to form an outer shell having an average thickness of about 1 -100 monolayers.

38. The method according to claim 37, wherein the oxygen carrier is selected from the group consisting of C

manganese ore, and a combination thereof; and wherein the metal salt is selected from the group consisting of

and a combination thereof,

39. The method according to claim 36, wherein the metal salt is selected from the group consisting of metal carbonates, metal phosphates, metal tungsfates, metal moiybdates, metal vanadates, metal halides, and a combination thereof.

40. The method according to any one of claims 37-39 wherein making the core comprises one or more methods selected from the group consisting of solid state reactions (SSR), precipitation, spray drying, Pechini method, sol-gels, and freeze granulation, optionally including calcining/annealing to obtain the core region containing the oxygen carrier.

41 . A method of making a redox catalyst according to any one of claims 1 -36, the method comprising

(a) forming a precursor comprising the oxygen carrier and the salt, wherein the salt comprises an alkaline or rare earth tungstate selected from the group consisting of BW04, B2W05, and B3W06 where B is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, or a rare earth element; and wherein wherein the oxygen carrier is substantially free of alkali metals and metal oxides;

(b) heating the precursor to an elevated temperature above a Tamman temperature of the salt to allow facile surface transport and "wetting" of the salt to form the shell on the surface of the core.

42. The method according to claim 41 , wherein the resulting tungsten containing phase is selected to melt at reaction conditions to optimize its mechanical, chemical, and hydrodynamic properties.

43. The method according to any one of claims 37-42, wherein a ratio of alkali or alkali earth metal ions to tungsten is varied from 4:1 to 1 :4 to tune the performance of the catalysis.

44. The method according to any one of claims 37-43, wherein the shell is layered onto the outer surface of the core via one or more of the following steps:

(a) high temperature annealing,

(b) addition of a molten alkali salt or alkaline earth salt such a lithium chloride or strontium chloride that either acts a flux during heating, or forms a molten phase at elevated temperatures that dissolves the a molybdate, vanadate, phosphate, sulfate, alkali earth or rare either tungstate in the salt to form the shell; and

(c) Annealing under reducing, oxidizing, and/or redox conditions..

45. The method according to claim 44, further comprising in step (b) washing the molten alkali salt or alkaline earth salt from the shell after heating , or the salt is removed in a non- molten state though evaporation at annealing temperature .

46. The method according to claim 44, wherein washing the molten alkali salt from the shell after heating leaves a non-molten salt or salt selective mixed metal oxide shell.

47. The method according to any one of claims 36-45, wherein the shell comprises a combination of a first alkali salt and a second non-alkali salt, wherein the first alkali salt is selected such that the first alkali salt melts and dissolves the second non-alkali salt at elevated temperatures to wet the outer surface of the core.

48. The method according to any one of claims 36-47, wherein the shell is a eutectic mixture of salts, and

wherein the method comprises creating a melt of the mixture at a temperature lower than the melting point of the salt in the mixture of salts that has the highest melting points in the mixture of salts.

49. A method of producing an unsaturated hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting a gas comprising a saturated CrC5 hydrocarbon with a redox catalyst according to any one of claims 1 -35 to produce the unsaturated hydrocarbon.

50. The method according to claim 49, wherein the unsaturated hydrocarbon comprises ethylene, 1 ,3-butadiene, or a combination thereof.

51 . The method according to claim 49, wherein the contacting step comprises a cyclic redox scheme such as chemical looping oxidative dehydrogenation.

52. The method according to claim 49, wherein the gas comprises ethane that is converted to a product stream containing ethylene and water by the redox catalyst giving up lattice oxygen.

53. The method according to claim 49, wherein the conversion proceeds by direct catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation.

54. The method according to claim 49, wherein the conversion proceeds by sequential thermal cracking and selective hydrogen combustion.

55. The method according to any one of claims 49-54, further comprising regenerating the lattice oxygen of the redox catalyst particles in air or other suitable oxidant (e.g. C02).

56. The method according to any one of claims 49-54, wherein the redox catalyst is used in conjunction with a non-oxidative dehydrogenation catalyst so that they consume hydrogen produced by catalytic dehydrogenation performed by a separate phase.

57. The meihod according to claim 56, wherein the non-oxidative dehydrogenaiion catalyst is selected from the group consisting of supported chrome oxides and platinum group metals such that the redox catalyst shell layer does not deactivate the dehydrogenaiion catalyst and that a high conversion of paraffins and hydrogen (>50%) is obtained at low temperatures (<750 °C).

58. The method according to claim 58, wherein the non-oxidative dehydrogenaiion catalyst is selected from the group consisting of zeolites doped with alkali earth, transition metal, phosphorus, sulfur, or gallium such that the redox catalyst shell layer does not deactivate the zeolite catalyst and that a high conversion of paraffins and hydrogen (>50%) is obtained at low temperatures (<75Q °C).

59. The method according to any one of claims 49-58, wherein the redox catalyst is in a circulating fiuidized bed reactor, and the method further comprises injecting air, partial depleted air, or oxygen into a standpipe leading to the reactor.

60. The method according to claim 59, wherein presence of oxygen at high temperatures (>750°C) prevents partial reduction of the redox catalyst during purge and hence a change in oxidation state, oxygen capacity, or flow properties.

61 . The method according to claim 59 or claim 60, wherein suppression of reduction in the standpipe makes the redox catalyst more active, possessing higher oxygen capacity when it is circulated into the reactor.

62. The method according to any one of claims 49-61 , wherein a fully or mostly oxidized redox catalyst releases gaseous oxygen.

63. The method according to claim 62, wherein the oxygen release increases activity towards selective ODH.

84. The method according to claim 62 or claim 63, wherein the oxygen release increases activity towards activation of methane in the feed from either impurities or intentional injection leading to lower amounts of undesirable methane in the feed and heat and/or an increased amount in C2+ products such as ethylene.

65. The method according to any one of claims 49-64, wherein the oxygen release decreases a heat requirement in the ODH step.

66. The method according to any one of claims 49-85, further comprising co-feeding oxygen, air and/or C02 into the ODH reactor to increase conversion of ethane, consume methane from impurities or recycle, such that performance is improved.

67. The method according to claim 66, wherein the supply of oxygen from the reduction of the redox catalyst make the net reaction heat neutral or endofhermic.

68. The method according to any one of claims 49-67, wherein the oxygen carrier comprises enhanced oxygen release/decomposition properties to allow significantly reduced (>10%), near neutral, or exothermic heat of reaction in the ODH step.

89. The method according to any one of claims 49-68, further comprising use of C02 as a regeneration gas to improve selectivity of the catalyst.

70. The method according to any one of claims 49-68, further comprising use of methane as a lift gas in the ODH reactor, contacting the high temperature, highly oxidized redox catalyst.

71 . The method according to claim 70, wherein a portion of the methane is converted via oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) to C2+ hydrocarbons.

72. The method according to claim 70 or claim 71 , wherein excess gaseous oxygen formed by oxygen release from the redox catalyst is consumed, improving the activity of the ODH reaction.

73. The method according to any one of claims 70-72, wherein additional steam and/or C02 is produced before contact with the ethane or heavier feeds, suppressing the formation of coke on the reactor and catalyst particles.

74. The method according to any one of claims 51-73, wherein methane and oxygen are co- fed into the lift portion of the OCM reactor.

75. The method according to any one of claims 49-74, wherein an inert, inexpensive heat transport carrier such as α-ΑΙ203 or silicon carbide is cycled with the oxygen carriers so that thermal sufficiency of the reactor can be maintained.

76. The method according to claim 75, wherein the oxygen carrier has oxygen release properties and provides gaseous oxygen to the ODH step via decomposition.

77. The method according to claim 75, wherein the inert heat transport material exhibits phase transitions, allowing for storage of heat beyond the heat capacity of the material. This can enhance heat transfer and allowing less temperature difference between ODH and redox regeneration temperatures.

78. The method according to claim 76 or claim 77, wherein the heat transfer agent and redox catalyst are combined into a composite particle allowing a single type of circulating particle.

79. The method according to any one of claims 49-78, wherein coke formation on reactor wail is suppressed by injection of steam and or carbon dioxide, and/or gaseous sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide into the ODH reactor.

80. The method according to any one of claims 49-79, wherein coke formation in the ODH reactor and transport riser's walls is suppressed by steam injection via wail-membranes.

81 . A method of using a catalyst according to any one of claims 1 -36, the method comprising an oxidative dehydrogenation step they convert ethane to ethylene and water by using lattice oxygen of the redox catalyst/oxygen carrier.

82. The method according to claim 81 , wherein the method proceeds by either direct surface catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation or sequential thermal cracking-selective hydrogen combustion.

83. The method according to claim 81 or claim 82, further comprising, in a separate step, the lattice oxygen of the redox catalyst particles is subsequently regenerated in a suitable oxidizing atmosphere (including C02 Air, or 02) producing heat that substantially offsets the net- endothermic reaction(s) in the ODH/oxy-cracking step.

84. A method of using a catalyst according to any one of claims 1-36, the method comprising use of the catalyst for the low temperature < 825 °C oxidative dehydrogenation ethane or heavier hydrocarbons to olefins including C3-C5 hydrocarbons, and naphthalene and its constituents (typically hydrocarbons that boil between, approximately, 30-200 °C comprised substantially of saturated C5-C12 hydrocarbons such as n-heptane, their cyclic analogs such as cyciohexane, and aromatics such as benzene and toluene)

85. A method of using a catalyst according to any one of claims 1 -36, the method comprising use of the catalyst for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylene to styrene.

88. A method of using a catalyst according to any one of claims 1 -36, the method comprising use of the catalyst for selective oxidation of methanol.

87. A method of using a catalyst according to any one of claims 1 -36, the method comprising combining the catalyst with a high voltage bias creating a low plasma or microwaves, significantly enhancing gas phase cracking chemistry at low temperature (<650).

88. A solid oxide fuel cell comprising a cathode comprising a redox catalyst according to any one of claims 1 -36.

89. The solid oxide fuel cell according to claim 88, further comprising a zeolite or doped zeolite catalyst capable of catalyzing endothermic cracking of C5-C12 aikane, wherein the cracking od the C5-C12 aikane produces hydrogen that is selectively combusted by the redox catalyst.

Description:
OXYGEN CARRYING MATERIALS WITH SURFACE MODIFICATION FOR REDOX-BASED CATALYSIS AND METHODS OF IVIAK!NG AND USES THEREOF

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority to, and the benefit of, co-pending U.S. provisional application entitled OXYGEN CARRYING MATERIALS WITH SURFACE MODIFICATION FOR REDGX-BASED OXIDATIVE CRACKING OF HYDROCARBONS" having serial no. 62/520, 109, filed June 15, 2017 and co-pending U.S. provisional application entitled "REDOX CATALYSTS FOR CHEMICAL LOOPING-BASED OXIDATIVE DEHYDROGENATION OF LIGHT OLEFINS AND SELECTIVE HYDROGEN COMBUSTION" having serial no. 62/520,092 filed June 15, 2017, the contents of both of which are incorporated by reference in their entirety.

STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT

[0002] This invention was made with government support under grant number 1254351 awarded by the National Science Foundation and grant number DE-ARQ00Q327 awarded by the Department of Energy. The government has certain rights to this invention.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0003] The present disclosure generally relates to redox catalysts and uses thereof.

BACKGROUND

[0004] The world demand for olefins is increasing. This increased demand has led to a desire for technologies that can more efficiently use a broad range of feedstocks including naphtha and stranded natural gas liquids (NGL's).

[0005] Natural gas is an important fuel and chemical feedstock co-produced with petroleum or extracted from gas reservoirs such as geological shale formations. The recent increase in shale gas and oil exploration has led to a rapid increase in the production of natural gas and natural gas liquids. According to documents from U.S. Energy Information Administration, natural gas marketed production has increased from about 20,000,000 million cube feet in 2006 to nearly 30,000,000 million cubic feet in 2015. Natural gas produced from shale is generally "wet" containing high concentrations of ethane, propane and heavier hydrocarbons. These natural gas liquids can be upgraded to olefins and di-olefins such as ethylene, propene, 1 -butene, and 1 ,3- butadiene. These are important feedstocks in petrochemical industry especially in the production of plastics and synthetic rubbers. Ethane is typically converted to ethylene in commercial steam cracker which thermally decomposes ethane to ethylene and hydrogen in highly endothermic, high temperature reactor. This cracking or pyrolysis often requires steam co-injection to inhibit coke formation. Such a process is highly energy-intensive and requires partial combustion of the products or additional fuels to provide heat, leading to the loss of efficiency and concomitant C0 2 and ΝΟχ emissions.

[0006] While naphtha, a low boiling point byproduct of oil refining, is relatively plentiful, it typically produces more emissions, and consumes more energy to convert to olefins than ethane or propane feed stocks. Likewise, while NGUs (C2-C5 hydrocarbons) such as ethane or propane are a preferred feedstock for light olefin production, they are difficult to transport and are often flared or reinjected at remote production locations. Steam cracking, the traditional industrial approach to converting naphtha and NGL's to olefins, consumes large amounts of energy, and is difficult to employ economically on small scales due to the high temperature needed to drive the reaction.

[0007] There remains a need for improved redox catalysts and methods of use thereof that overcome the aforementioned deficiencies.

SUMMARY

[0008] In various aspects redox catalysts, methods of making redox catalysts, and methods of using redox catalysts are provided that overcome one or more of the aforementioned deficiencies. The redox catalysts can include a core region having an outer surface, the core region comprising an oxygen carrier and an outer shell having an average thickness of about 1 -100 monolayers surrounding the outer surface of the core region, the outer shell comprising a metal salt. The salt can modify the surface of the catalysts, in some aspects, a redox catalyst is provided having (a) a core region having an outer surface, the core region including or consisting essentially of an oxygen carrier selected from the group consisting of CalvlnOa, BaMn0 3 -8, SrMn03-o, M^SiCU, manganese ore, and a combination thereof; and (b) an outer shell having an average thickness of about 1 -100 monolayers surrounding the outer surface of the core region, the outer shell including or consisting essentially of a salt selected from the group consisting of LJ2WQ4, Na 2 W04, K2WO4, and a combination thereof.

[0009] In various aspects, the redox catalyst shell includes a metal salt. In some aspects, the outer shell comprises an alkali metal tungstate selected from the group consisting of tungstates having a formula BW0 4 , B 2 W0 5 , BaWOe, and a combination thereof, where B is selected from the group consisting of Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba. in some aspects, the outer shell comprises an alkali metal tungstate selected from the group consisting of Li 2 W0 4 , Na 2 W0 4 , K 2 W0 4 , Cs 2 W0 4 , and a combination thereof, in some aspects, the outer shell comprises a tungstate salt of an alkali metal selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Cs, and a combination thereof. In some aspects, the outer shell comprises a tungstate salt of a rare earth metal selected from the group consisting of Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, other rare earth metals, and a combination thereof, in some aspects, the outer shell comprises a haiide salt having a formula AX, where A is Na, K, Li, Rb, or Cs, and where X is F, CI, Br, or I. in some aspects, the outer shell comprises a mo!ybdate salt having a formula A 2 Mo0 4 , where A is Li, Na, K, or Cs. In some aspects, the outer shell comprises a molybdate salt having a formula BMo0 4 , where B is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, a transition metals such as Fe or Mn, or a rare earth oxide. In some aspects, the shell comprises a metal carbonate, metal phosphate, metal vanadate, metal sulfate, a combination thereof, or a combination thereof with one or more other mixed oxides, in some aspects, the shell comprises Ca, Sr, and/or Ba added to the shell as a tungstate or as an oxide in conjunction with an alkali tungstate.

[0010] The catalysts are demonstrated with a variety of oxygen carrier core materials. For example, in some aspects, the oxygen carrier comprises a perovskites of the form AMn0 4 or

AFe0 3 were A may be Ca, Sr, Ba, La, other lanthanides or combination thereof, in some aspects, the A and B sites of the perovskite (AB0 3 ) are partially substituted with dopants including but not limited to materials of the form where A = Sr, Ba, La, Sm, or Pr and B = Ti, Fe, or Ai. In some aspects, the oxygen carrier is a nonstoichiometric

perovskite including the Rudd!esden-Popper phases of the form A n +i B n 03n+i where A is one more multiple A-site materials listed above such as be Ca, Sr, Ba, La, other lanthanides or combination thereof, in some aspects, the oxygen carrier is a nonstoichiometric perovskite including

Brownmiilerite (A 2 B 2 0 5 ), Spinel AB 2 0 4 , and cubic Αι- χ Β χ 0 2 - , here A is one more multiple A-site materials listed above such as be Ca, Sr, Ba, La, other lanthanides or combination thereof. In some aspects, the shell layer is protected from destructive interactions with the oxygen carrier during redox cycling by stabilizing the oxygen carrier phase through one or both of: a.) limiting a temperature of cycling for pretreatment and operation to the range of 500-800°C; and b) using A and B site substituents/dopanis such as those in claim 14 to stabilize the perovskite or related material. In some aspects, the low-temperature oxygen carrier comprises perovskites of the form Mo and V oxides and mixed oxides. In some aspects, the low-temperature oxygen carrier comprises a perovskites or other material containing Dy, Pb, Bi, or Pr and or Ferrites that exhibit low temperature (<750 °C) oxygen donation or uncoupling materials. In some aspects, the low- temperature oxygen carrier comprises Dy 2 G 3 , PrOx, BiO x , or a combination thereof. In some aspects, the core comprises a perovskite of the form AMnG 4 where A may be Ca, Sr, La, and/or Ba, and the shell comprises an alkali or alkaline earth metal tungstate shell. In some aspects, the oxygen carrier comprises MnO? , Mn 2 0 3 , Mn30 4 and or MnO; and optionally an oxide containing one or more of manganese (Mn), lithium (Li), Sodium (Na) boron (B), and magnesium (Mg), preferably

IVlg 3 (B0 3 ) 2 , and non-crystalline mixtures of these elements, in some aspects, the oxygen carrier comprises mixed manganese silica oxides, preferably synthesized in such a way that a substantial portion of the Mn and Si exist in a mixed Mn x Si y O z phase such as Mn 7 SiOi 2 , giving improved redox kinetics and/or oxygen capacity over a Si0 2 supported MnO x phase. In some aspects, the mixed manganese silica oxides comprises Mn loading of >30 % so that the Mn 7 SiOi 2 formed in oxygenated environments rather than Mn 2 0 3 /Mn 3 0 4 on a silica phase such as a-crisabalite giving highly improved usable oxygen capacity. In some aspects, the oxygen carrier comprises monometallic or mixed metal oxides containing first row transition metals including Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn and mixtures thereof. In some aspects, the oxygen carrier comprises bulk oxides MnFe 2 0 4 and mixed oxides or oxide mixtures of the general form(s) (Mn,Fe) 2 0 3 or (Mn,Fe) 3 Q 4 . In some aspects, the oxygen carrier comprises manganese ores containing substantial portions of Mn 7 SiOi 2 and/or Mn?0 3 . In some aspects, the oxygen carrier comprises manganese ores containing significant amounts of the minerals pyrolusite (Mn0 2 ), braunite, (Mn 2+ Mn 3+ 6)(Si012), psilomelane Birnessite and/or bixbyite (Mn,Fe) 2 0 3 and/or Mn/Fe Spinel (Mn,Fe) 3 0 4 . in some aspects, the oxygen carrier comprises bulk oxides including M 2 . x Si0 4 structured materials (commonly known as Olivines) where M may be Mn, Fe, Mg, or a mixture thereof, to enhance the physical strength of the redox catalyst particles and, in some, instance provide additional oxygen carrying capacity and/or catalyze thermal naphtha cracking.

[0011] Methods of making the redox catalysts are also provided. The methods can include

(a) making a core comprising an oxygen carrier, and (b) impregnating or precipitating a metal salt onto an outer surface of the core to form an outer shell having an average thickness of about 1-100 monolayers. In some aspects, the oxygen carrier is selected from the group consisting of

Ca9Tio.1 Mno.9O3, PreOn , manganese ore, and a combination thereof; and the metal salt is selected from the group consisting of

, and a combination thereof. In some aspects, the metal salt is

selected from the group consisting of metal carbonates, metal phosphates, metal tungstates, metal molybdates, metal vanadates, metal halides, and a combination thereof. In some aspects, making the core comprises one or more methods selected from the group consisting of solid state reactions (SSR), precipitation, spray drying, Pechini method, sol-gels, and freeze granulation, optionally including calcining/annealing to obtain the core region containing the oxygen carrier.

[0012] Various methods of making a redox catalyst are provided including (a) forming a precursor comprising the oxygen carrier and the salt, wherein the salt comprises an alkaline or rare earth tungsfate selected from the group consisting of BW0 4 , B 2 WG 6 , and B 3 W0 6 where B is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, or a rare earth element; and wherein wherein the oxygen carrier is substantially free of alkali metals and metal oxides; (b) heating the precursor to an elevated temperature above a Tamman temperature of the salt to allow facile surface transport and "wetting" of the salt to form the shell on the surface of the core, in some aspects, the resulting tungsten containing phase is selected to melt at reaction conditions to optimize its mechanical, chemical, and hydrodynamic properties, in some aspects, a ratio of alkali or alkali earth metal ions to tungsten is varied from 4: 1 to 1 :4 to tune the performance of the catalysts, in some aspects, the shell is Iayered onto the outer surface of the core via one or more of the following steps: (a) high temperature annealing, (b) addition of a molten alkali salt or alkaline earth salt such a lithium chloride or strontium chloride that either acts a flux during heating, or forms a molten phase at elevated temperatures that dissolves the a moiybdate, vanadate, phosphate, sulfate, alkali earth or rare either tungstate in the salt to form the shell; and (c) Annealing under reducing, oxidizing, and/or redox conditions. In some aspects, the methods further include in step (b) washing the molten alkali salt or alkaline earth salt from the shell after heating, or the salt is removed in a non-molten state though evaporation at annealing temperature, in some aspects, washing the molten alkali salt from the shell after heating leaves a non-molten salt or salt selective mixed metal oxide shell, in some aspects, the shell comprises a combination of a first alkali salt and a second non-alkali salt, wherein the first alkali salt is selected such that the first alkali salt melts and dissolves the second non-alkali salt at elevated temperatures to wet the outer surface of the core. In at least some aspects, the shell is a eutectic mixture of salts, and the method comprises creating a melt of the mixture at a temperature lower than the melting point of the salt in the mixture of salts that has the highest melting points in the mixture of salts.

[0013] Methods of producing an unsaturated hydrocarbon are also provided. The methods can include contacting a gas comprising a saturated Ci-C 5 hydrocarbon with a redox catalyst described herein to produce the unsaturated hydrocarbon. The unsaturated hydrocarbon can include ethylene, 1 ,3-butadiene, or a combination thereof. The contacting step can include a cyclic redox scheme such as chemical looping oxidative dehydrogenation. The gas can include ethane that is converted to a product stream containing ethylene and water by the redox catalyst giving up lattice oxygen. The conversion can, in some aspects, proceed by direct catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation. in some aspects, the conversion proceeds by sequential thermal cracking and selective hydrogen combustion. The methods can further include regenerating the lattice oxygen of the redox catalyst particles in air or other suitable oxidant (e.g. C0 2 ), The redox catalyst can be used in conjunction with a non-oxidative dehydrogenation catalyst so that they consume hydrogen produced by catalytic dehydrogenation performed by a separate phase. Solid oxide fuel cells including the catalysts, in some aspects including a zeolite or doped zeolite structure, are also provided,

[0014] Other systems, methods, features, and advantages of redox catalysts and methods of use thereof will be or become apparent to one with skill in the art upon examination of the following drawings and detailed description, it is intended that ail such additional systems, methods, features, and advantages be included within this description, be within the scope of the present disclosure, and be protected by the accompanying claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0015] Further aspects of the present disclosure will be readily appreciated upon review of the detailed description of its various embodiments, described below, when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

[0016] FIGS. 1A-1 B are exemplary schematic redox catalyst specifications depicting (FIG. 1A) complete surface coverage and (FSG. 1 B) partial surface coverage for oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH), light-hydrocarbons are either thermally cracked with hydrogen being selectively combusted and/or they are substantially converted to olefins via C-H surface activation.

[0017] FIG. 2 is a graph of the low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) results using He + as detection source and Ar f as sputtering source: [0018] FIG. 3 is a graph of the evolution profiles of C 2 H S and C0 2 at 650°C over calcium manganite. Reaction conditions: yc2H6,iniei=0.05, g.

[0019] FIG. 4 is a graph of the evolution profiles of C 2 H 4 and C0 2 at 650°C over CMO. Reaction conditions:

[0020] FIGS. 5A-5B are graphs of the flow rates (FIG. 5A) and argon carrier-normalized water (mass 18) evolution profile (Fig 5B) for ethane dehydrogenation in a dual bed reactor at 650°C (first bed is 0.15 g ½0 3 /ΑΙ 2 0 3 and second bed is Q.5 g Na2W04-CMO). Reaction condition:

[0021] FIG. 6 is a diagram of a circulating fluidized bed configuration for chemical looping- oxidative dehydrogenation (CL-ODH) / oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) / oxy-cracking.

[0022] FIGS. 7A-7C are diagrams of (FIG. 7A) an exemplary packed bed reactor battery (FIG. 7B) an exemplary packed bed low temperature oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) (I) integrated into a modular system with oligomerizer for gasoline production (II), and a gas engine for power production (III), and (FIG. 7C) an exemplary configuration of catalyst beds composed of mixed non-oxidative dehydrogenation/coupling catalyst and selective hydrogen combustion redox catalyst.

[0023] FIGS. 8A-8B are diagrams of (FIG. 8A) an exemplary chemical iooping-oxidative dehydrogenation (CL-ODH) with plasma enhanced cracking and selective hydrogen combustion (SHC), and (FIG. 8B) an exemplary chemical looping (CL)-oxy-cracking with microwave enhanced cracking and selective hydrogen combustion (SHC).

[0024] FIG. 9 is a graph of the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern of Mg 2 Si0 4 /Mn 2 Mg04 with significant reflections of Mg 2 Si0 4 (PDF # 01 -084-1402) and Mn 2 Mg0 4 (PDF # 00-023-0392) shown.

[0025] FIGS. 10A-10C are diagrams of potential hydrocarbon reactor configurations. (FIG. 10A) One configuration in which air is used as a fiuidization gas in the standpipe to keep the redox catalyst highly oxidized, steam in the L-valve conveys the particles into the lift section while preventing air from slipping into the ODH reactor; (FIG. 10B) The catalyst is lifted into the ODH/OCM reactor using a methane lift/fluff gas for aeration. The contact of methane with the hot, highly oxidized particles produced heat, CO, C0 2 , and C 2 H 4 , providing heat to drive the C2-C5 dehydrogenation/cracking while boosting olefin yield; (FIG. 10C) A substantial amount of steam is used as lift/fluff gas for aeration to suppress coke formation in the reactor. 2 or more aspects of these configurations may be combined.

[0026] FIG. 11 is X-Ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for redox catalysts in the Na 2 W0 4 /CaMn0 3 system.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0027] The technology describe herein addresses the aforementioned issues. In various aspects, redox catalysts are provided. The redox catalysts include a core oxygen carrier region having an outer surface and a shell/surface layer surrounding the outer surface, the shell/surface layer including a promoter material. Methods of using redox catalysts are provided for performing various redox reactions, for example for chemical looping-oxidative cracking (CL-oxy-cracking) and chemical looping oxidative ethane dehydrogenation (CL-GDH).

[0028] In chemical looping-oxidative cracking (CL-oxy-cracking), the methods can include using a structured oxygen carrier (also known as a redox-cataiyst) that combines a low temperature (550-825 °C) oxygen carrier with a surface modification that suppresses deep oxidation of hydrocarbons, while permitting facile combustion of hydrogen or selective oxidative dehydrogenation. in this CL-oxy-cracking approach, saturated hydrocarbons can be thermally or catalyticaily dehydrogenated, and the hydrogen can be selectively combusted by the oxygen carrier. In a separate regeneration step the oxygen carrier can then be replenished with air or other suitable oxidizing gas such as C0 2 or steam. In various aspects, layer-structured oxygen carriers are provided with similar designs that can selectively combust hydrogen over low boiling point hydrocarbons at much lower temperatures (550 °C to 825 °C) than in traditional steam crackers (up to 1200 °C). In various aspects, additional methods of using catalysts described herein are provided, for example by extending this technology to other selective oxidations such as oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol and oxidative coupling of methane by following the same catalyst design principles with different surface/bulk modifications.

[0029] In chemical looping oxidative ethane dehydrogenation (CL-ODH), saturated hydrocarbons are converted into olefins and the hydrogen co-produced is selectively combusted by an oxygen carrier (also known as a redox catalyst) in a reactor called reducer (also known as ODH reactor). The oxygen carrier can then be replenished with air or other suitable oxidizing gases such as C0 2 or steam in a second reactor called oxidizer (also known as regenerator). Also described herein are a series of oxygen carriers as well as reducer/oxidizer reactor designs. The oxygen carriers for this process can possess a layered structure: the bulk material that can facileiy supply lattice oxygen between 800 °C and 950 °C and the properties of these oxygen species are modified by addition of different materials onto the surface to enable high olefin selectivity.

[0030] Before the present disclosure is described in greater detail, it is to be understood that this disclosure is not limited to particular embodiments described, and as such may, of course, vary, it is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to be limiting. The skilled artisan will recognize many variants and adaptations of the embodiments described herein. These variants and adaptations are intended to be included in the teachings of this disclosure and to be encompassed by the claims herein.

[0031] All publications and patents cited in this specification are cited to disclose and describe the methods and/or materials in connection with which the publications are cited. Ail such publications and patents are herein incorporated by references as if each individual publication or patent were specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference. Such incorporation by reference is expressly limited to the methods and/or materials described in the cited publications and patents and does not extend to any lexicographical definitions from the cited publications and patents. Any lexicographical definition in the publications and patents cited that is not also expressly repeated in the instant specification should not be treated as such and should not be read as defining any terms appearing in the accompanying claims. The citation of any publication is for its disclosure prior to the filing date and should not be construed as an admission that the present disclosure is not entitled to antedate such publication by virtue of prior disclosure. Further, the dates of publication provided could be different from the actual publication dates that may need to be independently confirmed.

[0032] Although any methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can also be used in the practice or testing of the present disclosure, the preferred methods and materials are now described. Functions or constructions well-known in the art may not be described in detail for brevity and/or clarity. Embodiments of the present disclosure will employ, unless otherwise indicated, techniques of nanotechnoiogy, organic chemistry, material science and engineering and the like, which are within the skill of the art. Such techniques are explained fully in the literature.

[0033] It should be noted that ratios, concentrations, amounts, and other numerical data can be expressed herein in a range format. It is to be understood that such a range format is used for convenience and brevity, and thus, should be interpreted in a flexible manner to include not only the numerical values explicitly recited as the limits of the range, but also to include ail the individual numerical values or sub-ranges encompassed within that range as if each numerical value and sub-range is explicitly recited. To illustrate, a numerical range of "about 0.1 % to about 5%" should be interpreted to include not only the explicitly recited values of about 0.1 % to about 5%, but also include individual values (e.g., 1 %, 2%, 3%, and 4%) and the sub-ranges (e.g., 0.5%, 1 .1 %, 2.2%, 3.3%, and 4.4%) within the indicated range. Where the stated range includes one or both of the limits, ranges excluding either or both of those included limits are also included in the disclosure, e.g. the phrase "x to y" includes the range from 'x' to y as well as the range greater than 'x' and less than y■ The range can also be expressed as an upper limit, e.g. 'about x, y, z, or less' and should be interpreted to include the specific ranges of 'about x', 'about y', and 'about z' as well as the ranges of 'less than x\ less than y ! , and less than z'. Likewise, the phrase 'about x, y, z, or greater' should be interpreted to include the specific ranges of 'about x', 'about y', and 'about z' as well as the ranges of 'greater than x', greater than y', and 'greater than z'. In some embodiments, the term "about" can include traditional rounding according to significant figures of the numerical value, in addition, the phrase "about 'x' to 'γ" ' , where 'x' and y are numerical values, includes "about 'x' to about 'y"\

Definitions

[0034] Unless defined otherwise, ail technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this disclosure belongs. It will be further understood that terms, such as those defined in commonly used dictionaries, should be interpreted as having a meaning that is consistent with their meaning in the context of the specification and relevant art and should not be interpreted in an idealized or overly formal sense unless expressly defined herein.

[0035] The articles "a" and "an," as used herein, mean one or more when applied to any feature in embodiments of the present invention described in the specification and claims. The use of "a" and "an" does not limit the meaning to a single feature unless such a limit is specifically stated. The article "the" preceding singular or plural nouns or noun phrases denotes a particular specified feature or particular specified features and may have a singular or plural connotation depending upon the context in which it is used. Redox Catalysts

[0038] A variety of redox catalysts are provided that overcome the aforementioned deficiencies. In some aspects, the redox catalyst includes a core region made from an oxygen carrier material and an outer shell material that includes a metal salt providing for improved reactivity, selectivity, and/or stability of the redox catalyst. In some aspects, the redox catalyst include a core region having an outer surface, the core region including an oxygen carrier; and an outer shell having an average thickness of about 1 -100 monolayers surrounding the outer surface of the core region, the outer shell including one or more metal salts.

[0037] As an example, in some aspects, a redox catalyst is provided having (a) a core region having an outer surface, the core region composed of an oxygen carrier selected from the group consisting of

manganese ore, and a combination thereof; and (b) an

outer shell having an average thickness of about 1 -100 monolayers surrounding the outer surface of the core region, the outer shell composed of a salt selected from the group consisting of LS2WO4, and a

combination thereof.

[0038] In some aspects, the shell has a substantially different composition than the core. The shell can be, for example, in the form of a molten or solid shell or surface decorations fully or partially covering the core, in some aspects, the shell encapsulates the entire outer surface. The shell can be a salt having a non-stoichiometric ratio of the cation to the anion in the salt, e.g. a ratio of cation to anion in the shell can be about ¼ to 4 times a stoichiometric cation to anion ratio.

[0039] In some aspects, the metal salt is selected from the group consisting of metal carbonates, metal phosphates, metal tungstates, metal molybdates, metal vanadates, metal halides, and a combination thereof. For example, the shell can include an alkali metal tungstate selected from the group consisting of tungstates having a formula BWO4 , B2WO5, B 3 W0 6 , and a combination thereof, where B is selected from the group consisting of Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba. The shell can include an alkali metal tungstate selected from the group consisting of Li 2 W0 4 , Na2vV0 4 , K2WO4, CS2WO4, and a combination thereof. The shell can include a tungstate salt of an alkali metal selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Cs, and a combination thereof. The shell can include a tungstate salt of a rare earth metal selected from the group consisting of Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, other rare earth metals, and a combination thereof. [0040] In some aspects, the shell includes a metal halide salt. For example, the shell can include a halide salt having a formula AX, where A is Na, K, Li, Rb, or Cs, and where X is F, CI, Br, or I. The shell can include a a molybdate salt having a formula A 2 M0O 4 , where A is Li, Na, K, or Cs. The shell can include a a molybdate salt having a formula BMGCM, where B is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, a transition metals such as Fe or Mn, or a rare earth oxide.

[0041] The redox catalysts can include a low temperature oxygen carrying bulk material, active in the range of 500-825 °C, and a fully or partially covered surface (or "surface layer" or "shell") material. While the bulk material donates lattice oxygen (O * ) to the surface, the "shell" material modifies its surface chemistry, making it selective for oxidative cracking/reaction, as illustrated in FIGS. 1A-1 B.

[0042] In some aspects, the redox catalysts contains an oxygen-carrying core material as described in such as Cal\/ln0 3 and a tungstafe or molybdate salt shell material. They conduct ODH at low temperature (600 - 825 °C). At these temperature, naphtha is thermally cracked into olefins and hydrogen is selectively burned by the redox catalysts. To prevent over-reduction of the redox catalysts, which may cause coke formation and catalyst deactivation, a short gas-solid contact time is required (5 - 120 s). A circulating fluidized bed is then preferred to operate such ODH or oxidative cracking process (FIG. 6). Using the redox catalysts described, low temperature ethane chemical looping ODH (<825 °C) or oxidative cracking is conducted in a packed bed. The ODH step may, for example, operate at 750 °C. Such a temperature is sufficient for both thermal cracking of hydrocarbons and facile oxygen donation from the oxygen carriers described herein. In this ODH step, hydrocarbons such n-hexane, n-heptane, and cyclohexane, are thermally cracked into olefins and hydrogen. The redox catalyst is circulated to a separate reactor in which it is regenerated in air producing process heat.

[0043] In another aspect, the redox catalysts include core materials of the perovskite with a low shell material loading (5 wt. % to 20 wt.%), these core materials are active and selective for hydrogen combustion over hydrocarbons at low temperature (800 -750 °C). The shell materials include tungstate and molybdate salts. As coke formation from radical reactions is not significant at these temperature, a packed bed embodiment is preferred for these SHC redox catalysts, in a relative embodiment, core material such as SrMn0 3 are synthesized via a modified Pechini method. Precursors for SrMn0 3 (usually nitrate salts) are mixed in one solution followed with a gel formation. Then it is sintered at 900 °C - 1200 °C for phase formation. Shell materials such as tungstate or mo!ybdate salts are then wet-impregnated onto the core material and sintered again to form final products.

[0044] The oxygen carrier can be a perovskite. In some aspects, the oxygen carrier is composed of a perovskites of the form AMnQ 4 or AFe0 3 were A may be Ca, Sr, Ba, La, other lanthanides or combination thereof. The A and B sites of the perovskite (ABO3) can be partially substituted with dopants including but not limited to materials of the form Ca x Ai- x lvlnyBi-y03- i where A = Sr, Ba, La, Sm, or Pr and Mo, Ce, or Al. The oxygen carrier can be a

nonstoichiometric perovskite including the Ruddlesden-Popper phases of the form A n +i B n 03n+i where A is one more multiple A-site materials. In some aspects, the oxygen carrier is a nonstoichiometric perovskite including Brownmillerite (A 2 B 2 0 5 ), Spinel AB 2 0 4 , and cubic Ai- x B x 0 2 - i where A is one more multiple A-site materials, in some aspects, the low-temperature oxygen carrier comprises perovskites of the form Mo and V oxides and mixed oxides. The low- temperature oxygen carrier can include a perovskites or other material containing Dy, Pb, Bi, or Pr and or Ferrites that exhibit low temperature (<700 °C) oxygen donation or uncoupling materials. The low-temperature oxygen carrier can include Dy 2 0 3 , PrOx, BiO x , or a combination thereof. In some aspects, the core includes a perovskite of the form AMn0 4 where A may be Ca, Sr, La, and/or Ba, and wherein the shell comprises an alkali or alkaline earth metal fungstate shell.

[0045] In some aspects, the oxygen carrier includes Mn0 2 , Mn 2 0 3 , Mn 3 0 4 and/or MnO; and optionally an oxide containing one or more of manganese (Mn), lithium (Li), Sodium (Na) boron (B), and magnesium (Mg), preferably

and non-crystalline mixtures of these elements. In some

aspects, the oxygen carrier includes mixed manganese silica oxides, preferably synthesized in such a way that a substantial portion of the Mn and Si exist in a mixed Mn x Si y O z phase such as Mn 7 SiOi 2 , giving improved redox kinetics and/or oxygen capacity over a Si0 2 supported MnO x phase, in some aspects, the mixed manganese silica oxides comprise Mn loading of >30 % so that the Mn 7 SiG 12 formed in oxygenated environments rather than Mn 2 0 3 /Mn 3 0 4 on a silica phase such as a-crisabalite giving highly improved usable oxygen capacity.

[0046] In some aspects, the oxygen carrier includes monometallic or mixed metal oxides containing first row transition metals including Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn and mixtures thereof. In some aspects, the oxygen carrier comprises bulk oxides MnFe 2 0 4 and mixed oxides or oxide mixtures of the general form(s) ( .The oxygen carrier can include manganese ores containing substantial portions of Mn 7 SiOi 2 and/or Mn 2 0 3 . The manganese ores can contain significant amounts of the minerals pyrolusite (Mn0 2 ), braunite, (Mn 2+ Mn 3+ 6 )(Si012), psilomelane Bimessite and/or Mn/Fe Spinel (Mn,Fe)304,

[0047] In some aspects, the oxygen carrier includes bulk oxides including M 2 .. x SiQ 4 structured materials (commonly known as Olivines) where M may be Mn, Fe, Mg, or a mixture thereof, to enhance the physical strength of the redox catalyst particles and, in some instance provide additional oxygen carrying capacity,

[0048] In some aspects, the oxygen carrier is active for oxidative dehydrogenation of methane, ethane, or propane at a temperature of about 500°C to about 825°C. In some aspects, the core is composed of a bulk oxygen storage-donation at a low temperatures phase and a promoted surface with substantially different compositions in the form of a molten or solid shell or surface decoration that fully or partially covers the core while maintaining significant activity for hydrogen combustion or direct ODH catalysis.

Methods of Making Catalysts

[0049] Various methods are provided for making the redox catalysis described herein. In some aspects, the catalysts are made by a method including first forming a core including the oxygen carrier material and then impregnating or precipitating a metal salt onto an outer surface of the core, in yet other aspects, a precursor is prepared including the oxygen carrier material and the salt and the precursor is heated to form the redox catalyst.

[0050] In some aspects, the method includes making a core comprising an oxygen carrier, and impregnating or precipitating a metal salt onto an outer surface of the core to form an outer shell having an average thickness of about 1 -100 monolayers. In some aspescts, the oxygen carrier is selected from the group consisting of

, manganese ore, and a combination thereof; andthe metal salt is selected from the group consisting of

and a combination thereof.

[0051 ] Methods of making the core materials are generally know and can include one or more methods selected from the group consisting of SSR, precipitation, spray drying, Pechini method, sol-gels, and freeze granulation, optionally including calcining/annealing to obtain the core region containing the oxygen carrier. [0052] In some aspects, the methods include forming a precursor comprising the oxygen carrier and the salt, wherein the salt comprises an alkaline or rare earth tungstate selected from the group consisting of BW0 4 , B2WO5, and B 3 W0 6 where B is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, or a rare earth element; and wherein wherein the oxygen carrier is substantially free of alkali metals and metal oxides; and then heating the precursor to an elevated temperature above a Tamman temperature of the salt to allow facile surface transport and "wetting" of the salt to form the shell on the surface of the core. The resulting tungsten containing phase can be selected to melt at reaction conditions to optimize its mechanical, chemical, and hydrodynamic properties. A ratio of alkali or alkali earth metal ions to tungsten can be varied from 4:1 to 1 :4 to tune the performance of the catalysts.

[0053] In some aspects, the core is formed and the shell is then subsequently formed or layered onto the core. For example, the shell can be layered onto the outer surface of the core via one or more of the following steps: (a) high temperature annealing, (b) addition of a molten alkali salt such a lithium chloride that either acts a flux during heating, or forms a molten phase at elevated temperatures that dissolves the a molybdate, vanadate, phosphate, sulfate, alkali earth or rare either tungstate in the salt to form the shell; and (c) annealing under reducing, oxidizing, and/or redox conditions. The molten alkali salt can be subsequently washed away after heating.

[0054] In some aspects, the shell includes combination of a first alkali salt and a second non- alkali salt, wherein the first alkali salt is selected such that the first alkali salt melts and dissolves the second non-alkali salt at elevated temperatures to wet the outer surface of the core, in some aspects, the shell is a eutectic mixture of salts, and the method comprises creating a melt of the mixture at a temperature lower than the melting point of the salt in the mixture of salts that has the highest melting points in the mixture of salts.

Methods of Using Cafa!!ysts

[0055] FIG. 1A depicts an exemplary parallel cracking and selective hydrogen combustion, where the hydrocarbon (e.g. hexane or ethane) crack in the gas phase to produce olefins and hydrogen, the surface layer (e.g. Na 2 W0 4 or SrW0 4 substantially or entirely covering the bulk oxygen carrier) allows the product hydrogen to be selectively combusted (SHC) by bulk lattice oxygen (O * ) while suppressing hydrocarbon combustion;

[0056] FIG. 1 B depicts an exemplary surface catalyzed ODH/OCM, where the surface activates the hydrocarbon (such as methane ethane or propane) at low temperatures (<650 °C) while the bulk provides oxygen for the reaction. [0057] These proposed catalyst specifications are evidenced by extensive research findings. While the catalytic performance tests are given in a number of examples (see Example Section), the layered structures are determined by surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques (e.g. LEIS and XPS,) and microscopic imaging (e.g. TEM). Several key research findings are listed below:

[0058] Low-energy ion scattering (LEIS): LEIS is a highly surface-sensitive technique which can defect the outermost surface layer of the redox catalysts. LEIS was conducted on a model compound using He * as detection source and Ar* as sputtering source. were tested. Depth profiles on this samples showed that the top few first layers were enriched with K and W, respectively. The significant difference between surface elemental composition and bulk composition shows a layered structure: on K 2 W0 4 /CalV]n03, the surface is covered with tungsfate salt. For example, FUG. 2 depicts the LEIS results using He* as detection source and Ar* as sputtering source for

[0059] X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) will show similar trends: a tendency for enrichment on the surface in excess of the surface modifier's bulk concentration; typically in the order of a 3-10 fold enrichment. Less apparent surface enrichment is seen in XPS than the more surface sensitive LEIS, This is because XPS can probe 5-100 monolayers deep and the effect is consistent with the thin nature of much of the surface modifying layer on the order of 1 -20 monolayers, which allows facile oxygen transport.

[0060] These redox active metal oxides can be used in a wide variety of dehydrogenation reactions to enhance single-pass conversion, decreasing the product separation load (by selectively burning H 2 to H 2 0), and/or balancing the heat of reaction via SHC under a redox mode. Sample reactions include thermal cracking of hydrocarbons, propane catalytic dehydrogenation, dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene, methane non-oxidative coupling, methane aromatization, bufane/butene dehydrogenation, etc. These reactions are summarized below:

[0067] Dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene to styrene:

[0068] Butane/butene dehydrogenations:

[0069] Methane aromatization:

[0070] FIGS, 7A-7C Schematic of (FIG, 7 A), Packed bed reactor battery (FIG. 7B). The packed bed low temperature ODH (I) integrated into a modular system with oligomerizer for gasoline production (II), and a gas engine for power production (ill), and (FIG. 7C) potential configuration of catalyst beds composed of mixed non-oxidative dehydrogenation/coupiing catalyst and selective hydrogen combustion redox catalyst.

[0071] A packed bed scheme may be used for modular ODH or ethane and/or propane. A redox catalyst bed is contacted with ethane or propane producing propylene or ethylene along with water. The reactor is briefly purged with steam, followed by a regeneration step in which replenishes the oxygen carriers oxygen with air or other suitable oxidizing gas such as C0 2 or steam. At lower temperatures (<700 °C) where thermal decomposition of ethane is low, over catalyst may be supplemented by a non-oxidative dehydrogenation catalyst by either sequential packing or a mixed packed bed. This configuration may be used in conjunction with a modular oligomerization units to produce liquid fuels.

[0072] A redox catalyst such as those described herein may be used in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor. The redox catalyst particles are circulated between a hydrocarbon reactor (i.e ODH/OCM/Oxy-cracking) reactor and an air-reactor/regenerator. In the hydrocarbon reactor the oxidized redox catalyst is contacted with a hydrocarbon feed such as ethane or hexane. At sufficiently high temperate the ethane or hexane is heated to produce significant gas phase cracking in an endothermic reaction, the product hydrogen is then selectively burned with lattice oxygen of the redox catalyst particles. The oxygen depleted particle are then circulated into the regenerator were they are contacted with an oxidant such as air. The exothermic reactor heats the catalyst particles, which, when circulated back info the ODH reactor provides heat for the net endothermic operation of the reactor.

[0073] An SHC catalyst such as Na 2 W0 4 doped SrlVlnOa is contacted with ethane at 600 °C. A high DC bias is applied across the reactor so that a plasma forms, initiating rapid gas phase cracking reaction. Alternatively a microwave source may be used for cracking activation. EXAMPLES

[0074] Now having described the embodiments of the present disclosure, in general, the following Examples describe some additionai embodiments of the present disclosure. While embodiments of the present disclosure are described in connection with the following examples and the corresponding text and figures, there is no intent to limit embodiments of the present disclosure to this description. On the contrary, the intent is to cover all alternatives, modifications, and equivalents included within the spirit and scope of embodiments of the present disclosure.

Example 1 Direct surface activation GL-ODH:

[0075] Na 2 W0 4 promoted Pr s On can be used as a redox catalyst for direct ethane CL-ODH. While pure Pr 6 On further oxidizes ethane and ethylene to C0 2 and leads to poor selectivity, very small amount of Na 2 WG 4 promotion (less than 0.1 wt%) can significantly increase ethylene selectivity. Bulk Pr 6 Qn was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich as a model compound. The synthetic of Na 2 W0 4 promoted Pr 6 Oi ! follows a wet-impregnation method. Na?WQ 4 precursor was dissolved in water and impregnated onto commercial Pr 6 On . It is then dried at 80 °C and sintered at 900 °C for 8 h, CL-ODH of ethane was conducted at 700 °C, where thermal conversion of ethane is negligible. Redox catalysts were exposed to 10% of ethane (Ar balanced, GHSV = 7500 fr 1 ) in a 1 -min pulse. The product species were mainly ethylene and H 2> confirmed by GC and mass spectroscopy. The results are shown in Table 1 .

Example 2, Selective hydrogen combustion catalysts

[0076] In another set of experiments CalVlnOs and SrMn0 3 perovskite oxides were prepared by a modified Pechins method. Calcination was done at 1000°C for 12 h to form the perovskite phase. The resulting material was sieved into the 250-425 μηι size range for reaction testing a portion of each perovskite sample was doped with 20 wt. % Na 2 W0 4 . Preparation of the promoted material was done with incipient wetness impregnation by dissolving sodium tungstate dihydrate in water, adding the solution dropwise to the perovskite oxide powder, stirring until homogeneous, and drying overnight at 120°C. The promoted perovskite oxide materials were sieved into the 250-425 μηη size range for testing.

[0077] The metal oxide materials were evaluated for selective hydrogen combustion (SHC) performance using a combination of temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) tests and isothermal experiments implementing a cyclic redox scheme. Ethylene and H 2 were used as the reducing gases in both cases to simulate the products of ethane dehydrogenation. TPR runs used a gas composition of 2.5% H 2 , 2.5% C2H4, and Ar the balance/carrier gas, with a total flowrate of 100 ml/min; ramping rate was 5°C/min. Redox cycles used 40% H 2 , 40% C 2 H 4 , and 20% Ar in the reduction step, in pulses of 10 s at 100 ml/min. The oxidation step used 16.7% 0 2 and balance Ar for 3 minutes' duration. Pure Ar was flowed for 5 minutes between reduction and oxidation to purge the system.

[0078] Reactor testing as described above was carried out in a quartz U-tuber reactor (I D = 1 /8 in) into which 100 mg of catalyst material was loaded. The remaining volume of the U-tube reactor was filled with quartz wool and alumina grit. The U-tube was heated by a tube furnace controlled by a temperature controller and utilizing a K-type thermocouple. Gas flowrates were controlled by a panel of mass flow controllers. Results were analyzed by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography.

Table 3, SHC performance of SrMn0 3 -based redox catalysts.

-based redox catalysts,

Table 5 Experimental oxygen capacity data of SCH redox carrier at Sow temperature

Example 3, Na 2 W0 4 /Ca!¥iri03 for Parallel Cracking and SHC

[0079] Alkali tungstate (A 2 W0 4 , where A=Li, Na, K, and/or Cs) can be used as the shell material in selective ODH catalysts. As an example, CaMn03 is selected as the oxygen carrier core material. Other type perovskites in the form of AMn0 4 or AFe0 3 are also synthesized and tested, where A can be Ca, Sr, La, and/or Ba. The catalyst synthetic procedLfres follow a modified Pechins method and a following wet-impregnation approach. Precursors for CaMn0 3 (usually nitrate salts) are mixed in one solution followed with a gel formation. Then it is sintered at 800 °C - 1300 °C to allow phase formation. Precursors for Na2W0 4 are then dissolved in one solution and impregnated onto the as-obtained CaMn0 3 . Na 2 W04 loading from 20 wt.% and 40 wt.% are used, it is then sinter again at to form the desired phases for a core-shell structure.

[0080] These redox catalysts can be used as ODH catalysts under the temperature of 800 °C to 850 °C, in the space velocity of 2000 - 20000 h "1 . Ethylene yields from 50% - >65% are achieved, with ethylene selectivity ranging from 75% to >90% and ethane conversion >65%. H 2 by-product are converted efficiently and provide additional heat to the reaction. The H 2 conversions range from 50% to 95%. Table 2 shows catalytic performance of a representative Na 2 W0 4 /CalVSn0 3 ODH catalysts at 4500 IT 1 and 850 °C.

Example 4. Parallel Cracking and SHC for Hexane/Maphtha oxy-cracking

[0081] To illustrate the ability of the SHC catalyst particles as described here in to achieve the abovementioned advantages, SHC catalyst enhancement of n~hexane cracking reaction is illustrated below. The promoted perovskite materials possess good activity towards the n-hexane CL oxy-cracking reaction and selectivity towards olefins as well as in situ SHC. Table 7 and Table 8 show the n-hexane cracking performance of Na 2 W04-doped SrMn0 3 and CaMn0 3 .

Table 7, n-Hexane Oxy~craeking performance of 20 wt.% Na 2 W0 4 ~doped Sr!VlnOs redox catalyst.

[0082] The NaW promoted CaMn0 3 may also be used for oxidative cracking of naphtha:

Table 8. n-Hexane Oxy-cracking performance of Ca!VlnOs redox catalyst

Example 5, Catalytic dehydrogenation with Selective hydrogen combustion

[0083] The rate of ethane and ethylene combustion over CalvlnO (CMO) at 650°, is low, but tends toward deep oxidation of ethylene (FIG. 3 and FIG. 4). Doped perovskite (Na 2 W04-CMO) shows significantly suppressed hydrocarbon combustion activity. At 650 °C, C0 2 flowrate at the outlet of reactor is negligible when feeding ethane or ethylene to the reactor. The flowrate of ethane at the outlet of reactor is equal to that at the inlet of reactor (Fig 3), showing no dehydrogenation activity and deep oxidation of ethylene is insignificant (Fig. 4). This indicates that SHC catalyst cannot catalyze ethane or ethylene reactions. However, the catalyst has significant activity for selective hydrogen combustions

[0084] For the dual-bed mode where the first bed is DH catalyst (Cr 2 G 3 /AI 2 0 3 ) and second bed is the SHC catalyst (Na 2 WQ 4 -CMO), product evolution profiles {FIGS. 5A-5B) are very different. In FIG. 5A and SB. The hydrogen flowrate is much lower with NaW/CM than without NaW/CM and water is produced. The ability to remove hydrogen from the DH product stream indicates that the SHC catalyst can be used to effectively: a. selectively burn H 2 for energy balance; b. shift the equilibrium for ethylene formation to increase the olefin yield.

Example 6, Molybdate redox catalyst

[0085] An Alkali moiybdate (A 2 M0O 4 , where A=Li, Na, K, and/or Cs) can be used as the shell material in selective SHC catalysts. As an example, CaMn0 3 is selected as the oxygen carrier core material. Other type perovskites in the form of Al\/in0 4 or AFe0 3 are also synthesized and tested, where A can be Ca, Sr, La, and/or Ba. The catalyst synthetic procedures follow a modified Pechini method and a following wet-impregnation approach. Precursors for CaMn0 3 (usually nitrate salts) are mixed in one solution followed with a gel formation. Then it is sintered at 9Q0 °C- 1200 °C to allow phase formation. Precursors for Na 2 Mo0 4 are then dissolved in one solution and impregnated onto the as-obtained CaMn0 3 . Na 2 IVloQ 4 loading from 2 wt. % and 25 wt. % are used. It is then sinter again at 900 °C - 1200 °C to form the desired phases for a core-shell structure. These as-obtained redox catalysts are good for SHC. At the presence of both hydrogen and ethylene, the catalysis can achieve selectivities from 75% to 95% and hydrogen conversion from 85 % to 99% under the temperature from 600 °C to 800 °C. As an example, at T = 700 °C and space velocity = 8000 lr 1 , 20 wt% can achieve 87.3% SHC selectivity and

97% H 2 conversion.

Example 7. SrWCVMgeMnOs

[0086] An alkaline earth tungstafe (BWO 4 , where B=Mg, Ca, Sr, and/or Ba) can be used as the surface promoter material in selective ODH catalysts. As an example, MgelvlnOs is selected as the oxygen carrier bulk material. Mg 6 IVinOs is synthesized first via an incipient wet-impregnation or a solid state reaction method. Precursors for Mg 6 Mn0 8 are nitrate salts or metal oxides. It is then sintered at 900 °C - 1200 °C to allow the formation of the desired phase. Surface promoter material such as SrW0 4 is then impregnated on the as-synthesized bulk material. Precursors for

SrW0 4 are dissolved in one solution and impregnated onto MgelvlnOs. SrW0 4 loading from 1 wt.% and 40 wt.% are used. It is then sintered again at 900 °C - 1200 °C to form the desired phases for a layered structure. Ethylene single-pass yields from 50% - 70% are achieved, with ethylene selectivity ranging from 80% to 95% and ethane conversion from 60% to 75%. H 2 by-product are converted efficiently and provide additional heat to the reaction. The H 2 conversions range from 55% to 85%. Table 9 shows catalytic performance of representative ODH catalyst at 4500 h -1 and 850 °C.

[0088] The produci distribution (Table 10) is a complex mixture of ethylene, ethane, hydrogen, CO, C0 2 , as well as other hydrocarbons formed in parallel and subsequent cracking reactions; of particular note are methane, acetylene and 1 ,3~butadiene.

Table 10, Breakdown of CL-ODH product compositions from SrW04 doped fVSg s !VlnOs

[0089] An alkali molybdate (A 2 M0O 4 , where A=Li, Na, K, and/or Cs) can be used as the surface promoter material in selective ODH catalysts. The catalytic performance is similar to using tungsfate salts as surface promoter materials. As an example, Mg 6 Mn0 8 is selected as the oxygen carrier bulk material, Mg 6 Mn0 8 is synthesized first via an incipient wet-impregnation or a solid state reaction. Precursors for IV! g 6 MnOs are nitrate salts or metal oxides. It is then sintered at 900 °C - 1200 °C to allow phase formation. Surface promoter material such as Na 2 Mo0 4 is then constructed on the as-synthesized bulk material. Precursors for Na 2 Mo04 are dissolved in one solution and impregnated onto Mg 6 Mn0 8 . Na 2 Mo04 loading from 2 wt. % and 40 wt. % are used, it is then sintered again at 900 °C - 1200 °C to form the desired phases and structure. [0090] These as-obtained redox catalysts are active and selective for ODH. It is efficient in combusting H 2 , providing additional heat to the reactions. Table 1 1 shows catalytic performance of one representative ODH catalyst at

Example 9. Na 2 W04/{IVin,Si}Ox

[0091] A layered ODH catalyst, various forms of mixed Mn-Si oxides such as MnSi0 2 , Μη5!θ 3 , Mn 2 Si04, and Mn 7 SiOi 2 can be used as oxygen carrying bulk material and Na 2 WG 4 is used as surface promoter material to maintain a high ethylene selectivity, in catalyst preparation, IVlnSi0 2 , MnSi0 3l Mn 2 Si0 4 , and or Mn 7 SiOi 2 is synthesized first via an incipient wet-irnpregnaiion or a solid state reaction method. Precursors for MnSi0 2 are nitrate salts or metal oxides. Mn:Si precursor mass ratio can be tuned from 90:20 to 05:95. It is then sintered at 900 °C - 1300 °C to allow phase formation. Surface promoter material is then impregnated onto the as-obtained Mn 7 Si0i 2 and or lvlnSi0 2 , MnSi0 3 , Mn 2 Si0 4 . As an example, precursors for Na 2 WQ 4 are dissolved in one solution and impregnated onto MnSi0 2 . Na 2 W0 4 loading from 2 wt.% and 40 wt.% are used. It is then sintered again at 900 °C - 1300 °C to form the desired phases for the desired structure. The finaiiy obtained catalyst is active and selective for ODH of ethane. Table 12 shows catalytic performance of several representative ODH catalysts at 4500 rr 1 and 850 °C.

Tab!!e 12. Performance of Na 2 W04 Doped fVSn/Si Mixed Oxides.

[0092] These catalyst specifications described herein are evidenced by extensive research findings. While the catalytic performance tests are given in a number of examples (see Example Section), the layered structures are determined by surface-sensitive spectroscopic techniques (e.g. LEIS, XPS, in-situ DRI FTS, Raman) and microscopic imaging (e.g. TEM). Several key research findings are listed below:

[0093] XPS of the surface of promoted Mn 7 SiOi 2 based catalyst shows the inclusion of tungsten salt of sodium is enriched on the surface blocking out Mn ions. This enrichment persists for cycled samples. Such a Na enrichment shows a significantly different surface composition than bulk composition on Na tungstate promoted Mn:Si oxides (nominally Mn 7 SiOi 2 ). XPS of a cycled sample was taken with an aluminum anode. At 10 wt. % percent an enrichment of surface promoters on the order of 4x is observed (Table 13). This is consistent with a thin coating that is less than 50 monolayers deep achieved in this example permitting facile oxygen transport. This enrichment in a thin (1 -20 monolayers) becomes more apparent at lower Na 2 W0 4 (3.5 wt. %) loadings. (~7~9x Table 13)

Table 13 Near Surface metal atomic ratio for cycled Na 2 WO 4 /IVIIrKSii~70:30 from XPS vs

Theoretical bulk distribution.

[0094] Low-energy ion scattering (LEIS): LEIS is a highly surface-sensitive technique which can defect the outermost surface layer of the redox catalysts. The top few layers are usually crucial in determining a catalyst's reactivity. As described herein, LEIS can be conducted on sodium tungsfate doped as detection source and Ar* as sputtering source. The

significant difference between surface elemental composition and bulk composition shows a layered structure on the surface is covered with tungstate salt. Because LEIS is surface sensitive to the fop mono layer a much larger enrichment will be noted. This is consistent with the thin nature (-1 -20 monolayers) of the surface modification layer achieved in this example.

Example 10, Na 2 W04/IVIanganese ores

[0095] To prove the general applicability of the promoters towards various metal oxides with lattice oxygen carrying/donation properties, promotion of manganese ores is demonstrated. Low- cost manganese containing ores can also be used as the bulk material for oxygen carrier. In this case, tungstate and/or mo!ybdate salts can be impregnated on its surface to improve the selectivity for ODH reaction. As an example, commercial Gloria ore is purchased and used as the oxygen carrier bulk material and Na 2 W0 4 is used as the surface promoter material. The catalyst synthetic procedure follows a wet-impregnation approach. Precursors for Na 2 W0 4 are dissolved in the solution and impregnated onto commercial Gloria ore. It is then sintered at 900 °C - 1200 °C to form the desired phases for a layered structure. The as-obtained redox catalysts can be used as ODH catalysts under the temperature of 800 °C to 850 °C, at gas hourly space velocity of 2000 - 20000 lr 1 . For example, 10 wt.% Na 2 W0 4 on Gloria ore achieved good ODH performance (shown in Table 14).

Table 14. Ethane ODH over doped !VSn ores.

Table 15 reported composition of Buritirama and Gloria Ores: 1

Example 11. Produced via a LiCI fVSelt

[0098] Mn0 2 , Si0 2 (in the form of colloidal silica), and MgO in a ratio of 4:1 :1 .9 by weight, were sequentially dispersed into dispersed into water. The resulting mixture was ball milled and dried overnight. After calcination at 900-1200 °C a mixture consisting primarily of Mg 2 Si0 4 and Mn 2 Mg0 4 phases ,as shown by XRD Figure 2) and nonstoichiometric and co-doped mixtures thereof. Cycling the sample between 5-20 ml injections of ethane (80% ethane balance argon) of ethane and regeneration in 20% oxygen at a space velocity of 4500 h "1 and 850 °C (Table 16) in a 1/8" i.D. U-tube reactor, shows that this bulk material is a highly active oxygen carrier, but is not selective. This material is subsequently impregnated with an aqueous solution of U 2 WO4 equivalent to a 2,5-40 wt. % loading of WO3. An aqueous solution of LiCI and SrCI 2 is added to the mixture so that there is a 1 : 1 :(1 to 10) molar ratio of The mixture is allowed to set and then dried so that SrW0 4 and LiCI are left impregnated on the sample. The sample is heated to 600-1 100 °C so that the LiCI melts and dissolves SrW0 4 . After cooling to precipitate out the SrW0 4 onto the surface, the sample is washed repeatedly in hot water to remove the LiCI phase. The resulting catalyst is significantly more selective to ethylene while maintaining high hydrogen conversion (Table 16).

3

[0097] Other Mn-based bulk materials have also been tested. As an example, BaMn0 3 is used as bulk material. BaMn0 3 could be synthesized from a solution-based method by using metal nitrates as precursors or a solid-state method by using metal oxide as precursors. 10 wt. % of Na 2 W0 4 is impregnated onto Balvln0 3 bulk as a shell material, in these tests, both 0 2 and C0 2 have been used as regenerating gas. 0 2 regeneration results in a fully oxidized redox catalyst and C0 2 regeneration results in a partially oxidized redox catalyst. As is shown in Table 17, the 0 2 regeneration leads to high C0 2 selectivity and low ethylene yield while C0 2 regeneration leads to low C0 2 selectivity and high ethylene yield.

Example 13. NaW enhance* d

[0098] Bulk materials beyond Mn-containing mixed oxides have also been demonstrated. As an example, a lanthanum strontium iron oxide (LSF) material is used as the bulk material. LSF could be synthesized via a solution-based method by using metal nitrates as precursors or a solid-state method by using metal oxide as precursors. Na 2 W04 is impregnated onto LSF bulk as a shell material. The loading of Na 2 W0 4 is varied from 10 wt.% to 40 wt.%. The reduction pulse time is varied from 5 s to 15 s.

[0099] In these tests, it was found that the ethylene selectivity increases with the amount of fMa 2 W0 4 loading. While ethane conversion and H 2 conversion drops with increasing amount of Na 2 W04 loading, the CO x selectivity is also decreased. These results are shown in Table 18.

Example 14. Zeolite cracking/non-oxidative dehydrogenation catalyst with SHC redox catalyst.

[01 Θ0] A composite or sequential bed of doped zeolite and surface-promoted mixed metal oxide can be used as a redox catalyst for chemical looping-based oxidative hexane catalytic cracking. The doped zeolite catalyzes the endothermic hexane cracking reaction and the surface-promoted mixed metal oxide can achieve selective hydrogen combustion at the same time, benefiting heat integration with the exothermic hydrogen combusting reaction. Combustion of hydrogen also shifts the equilibrium to the product side. Commercial NH 4 -ZSM-5 was purchased from Zeolyst. It is treated at 650 °C for 3 hours under air to form undoped H-ZSM5. Doped ZSM-5 are synthesized from H-ZSIV1-5 using an ion exchange method. For example, Sr-ZSM-5 are synthesized by ion- exchanging H-ZSM-5 with 1 M Sr(N0 3 )2 for 24 h at 50 °C. Then it is sintered again at 650 °C for 3 h to form doped Sr-ZSM-5. Na 2 W0 4 promoted CaMnG 3 is used as a model compound for selective hydrogen combustion, as was described in Example 2. Redox catalyst/Zeolite composite/physical mixtures were exposed to 10% of hexane (Ar balanced, GHSV = 9000 hr 1 ) in a pulse. The product distributions are measured by downstream GC. Results of Sr-ZSM-5, composite of Sr-ZSM-5 and Na 2 VV04/CaMn03 (500 and 200 mg respectively packed into a 1/8" i.D.) quartz tube) are shown in Table 19 through Table 21 , respectively. Moreover, other systems Pr-ZSM-5 with a sodium pyrophosphate can give selective conversion of hydrogen with enhance hexane conversion at low temperatures. The results are shown in Table 22.

Table 21. Detained product selectivity distribution from Sr~ZSiVi-5 + NaaWO^Ca!VlnOs composite

[0101] U2CO3 with or without Li 2 0 impregnated onto Lao. 8 Sr 0 . 2 Fe0 3 (LSF) can be used as a low temperature redox catalyst for ethane oxidative conversion to ethylene and butane at temperatures from 550-700 °C. While pure LSF deeply oxidizes ethane into C0 2 , Li 2 C0 3 impregnation can greatly increase the selectivity to ethylene. On these types of catalysts, high temperature (650-700 °C) favors ethane conversion to ethylene and low temperature (550-600 °C) favors ethane conversion to butane, both of which have added value comparing to ethane. The results from downstream MS and GC are shown and Table 23, with GHSV = 300-1000 fv 1 in a 3-4 min ethane step balanced with Ar. These catalysts are synthesized via wet-impregnating U 2 CO3 onto surface of LSF. Commercial LSF is used. LSF can also be synthesized via a solid- state or a modified Pechini method. In solid-state method, solid precursors such as LaO, SrO and Fe 2 0 3 are mixed thoroughly in a ball mill and sintered at 900 - 1300 °C to form the correct phase, in modified Pechini method, precursors for LSF (usually nitrate salts) are mixed in one solution followed with a gel formation. Then it is sintered at 800 °C - 1300 °C to form the correct phase. For select samples 20 wt% Li 2 C0 3 was deposited on LSF surface via a wet-impregnation method. It is then further sintered at 800 °C to form the desired catalyst.

Table 23. Ethane conversion and detailed products selectivity distribution at 7ΘΘ °C and

Example 16. CLOU/CLC active Perovskites for n-Hexane Oxy-Cracking

[0102] Perovskite oxide redox catalysts AMn0 3 (A = Ca, Sr) were prepared via a modified Pechini method. These materials are typically used for complete combustion of carbonation fuel. By proper synthesis and tuning of formulations, a stable surface layer can be formed on the material making it active for selective oxidation. Stoichiometric amounts of Mn(N03)2 and A(NQ 3 ) 2 (A = Sr, Ca) were dissolved in deionized water and stirred at 40°C and 500 rpm. Citric acid was added to solution at 2.5: 1 ratio to metal ions and stirred for 30 min, followed by ethylene glycol (as a chelating agent) in a 15: 1 ratio with citric acid. Upon formation of a viscous gel, the sample was dried at 80°C and sintered at 450°C for 3 h; and finally at 1000°C for 12 h. Resulting redox catalyst particles were ground and sieved into the size range 250-850 μηι for reaction testing.

[01 03] 20 wt.% alkali tungstate-promoted perovskite oxide redox catalysts ( were prepared by wet impregnation using the previously synthesized

perovskites Al\/in0 3 as the base material. For M = Li or Na, M 2 W0 4 was dissolved in deionized water. For M = K, a mixture of KOH and ammonium meta-tungstate was dissolved in deionized water. Each resulting solution was added dropwise to the base perovskite oxide, moved to an oven at 80°C, and stirred every 15 min until dry. XRD was employed for phase identification of as-prepared and cycled redox catalysi samples. Perovskite (AMn0 3 ; A = Ca, Sr) and alkali tungsfate (M 2 WO 4 ; M = Li, Na, and/or K) were confirmed using XRD for both the unpromoted and promoted samples as-prepared. Samples were then sintered at 900°C for 6 h to stabilize the promoter phase on the perovskite oxide. Redox catalysts were evaluated for n-hexane oxy- cracking in a microtubular reactor at two GHSV (4500 h 1 , 9000 IT 1 ) and a range of temperatures (625°C to 800°C). Each experiment used 500 mg catalyst. Thermal background yields were obtained using a bed of inert AI 2 O3 grit. Gaseous n-hexane was introduced into the reactor by flowing Ar through a stainless steel bubbler filled with liquid n-hexane at 20°C, resulting in a nominal concentration of 13% n-hexane by volume, injection duration was varied between different GHSV to keep a consistent injection volume (6.5 mL). Following reduction of the redox catalyst, a regeneration step with 16.7% 0 2 for 3 min was used to re-oxidize the material. Products were quantified using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FI D).

[01 04] Table 24shows low-temperature /7-hexane oxy-cracking results achieved with a 20 wt.% redox catalyst pre-treated at 750°C, with olefin yields significantly in excess of the thermal background. Table 25 shows similar results achieved at higher temperatures by a 20 redox catalyst pre-treated at 900°C, also greater than the background. For each condition, more than 75% of the resulting H 2 is combusted via oxygen donation. All experiments used 9000 "1 GHSV with a 20 s injection. Table 24. n-Hexane oxy-craeking results for Na 2 W0 4 /CalV!n03 at 9000 h _1 . Italicized rows indicate data are from a thermal background test.

Table 25. n-Hexane oxy-cracking results for IS3a2WG4/Srl¥lnG3 at 9ΘΘ0 h "1 . Italicized rows indicate data are from a thermal background test.

Example 17. Stabilize surface promotion of CLOU/CLC active Perovskites for n~Hexane

Oxy-Craeking

[0105] Pre-treatment conditions can be adjusted to form the surface layer. M 2 WG 4 ~prornoted samples pre-treafed at 900°C and 4500 lr 1 were found to undergo promoter-support interactions, resulting in a less selective rare earth tungstate phase (AW0 4 and/or Α 3 ν\Ό 6 ; A = Ca, Sr) and the loss of the alkali metal. For Na 2 W04/CaMn0 3 , this created an increase towards CO x formation; for NazWO-.f/SrlvlnGa, this resulted in the heavy deposition of coke and carbonates (likely due to exposed Ca), leading to a decrease in olefin yields. However, M 2 W0 4 ~promoted samples pre- treated with five cycles at 750°C (conditions otherwise identical) were seen to preserve the M 2 WO 4 phase even after 25 n-hexane redox cycles at 725°C, resulting in the maintenance of high olefin selectivity. These effects are illustrated in Figure 11 and Table 26. The formation of the Na 2 W0 4 enriched surface layer is induces at the low temperate treatment conditions, Na is largely absent from the high temperature pretreatment.

Table 26. n-Hexane oxy-cracking results at 725°C, 4500 h "1 with varied pre-treatment temperatures.

Table 27. Metal ion near surface composition of surface layer promoted Caiyin0 3 from

XPS cross sections (% expected from bulk stoichiometry)

Example 18. Oxygen earner formulation for stable surface layer promotion

[0106] Furthermore the structural promotion of the CaMn0 3 as shown in Example 17 by substitution of 10% of the Mn with Ti suppresses the formation the alkaline earth tungstate at high temperature. This induces the formation of a stable Na 2 W0 4 surface layer and optimizing the material for high temperature operation. A was made by solid state method (mixing, palletizing, and calcination of CaC03 ; Mn0 2 and Ti0 2 powders). After calcination of the pellets at 1300, crushing and sieving, select parts of the sample were impregnated with 20 wt. % Na 2 W0 4 or U 2 WO 4 . The doped material was shown to have high selectivity at 800+ °C while maintaining selective hydrogen combustion. While the L12WO4 is stable at higher temperatures, the Na 2 W0 4 combined with titanium substitution in the perovskite gives excellent hydrogen conversion with low CO x yields at typical naphtha cracking temperatures.

[0107] It was further shown that the same 1 Mno.9O3 shows excellent low

temperature conversion of ethane to ethylene via ODH. When 500 or 2000 mg of catalyst is run in a u-tube reactor as in Example 10 it can achieve high conversions and ethylene yields that are typically prevented by kinetics/competing reactions. Through selective consumption of hydrogen, the material was capable of achieving near 65%/55% conversion/yields similar to commercial steam cracking at temperatures >100 °C lower than steam cracking operation. When the a low level of oxygen (1 .5%) is kept flowing over the sample until 10 seconds before contact with ethane to keep chemical looping Oxygen uncoupling type oxygen only a minimal increase of CO x is identified (Table 29), while the selective combustion of hydrogen by high chemical potential oxygen provides a significant net exotherm.

Example 19. Perovskites for Low-Temperature Selective Hydrogen Combustion

(SHC)

[0108] Perovskite oxide redox catalysts were also evaluated for selective hydrogen combustion (SHC) in the presence of ethane and ethylene at 650°C and 3000 rr 1 to simulate the effluent of an ethane dehydrogenation process. At 65Q°C, full perovskites AMn0 3 (A = Ca, Sr) were found to phase segregate upon reduction into Ruddiesden-Popper phase A 2 Mn0 4 and an alkaline earth- deficient phase (e.g. AMn 2 0 4 , MnO). At low temperatures (below 7Q0°C), the full perovskite was not regenerated.

[0109] Perovskites AMn0 3 and Ruddiesden-Popper (RP) perovskites A 2 Mn0 4 (A = Ca, Sr) were synthesized on-purpose via a solid-state reaction (SSR) method to evaluate ail relevant phases for SHC. Mn0 2 and AC0 3 (A = Ca, Sr) were mixed in a bail mill, peiletized, sintered at 1200°C for 12 h in a iube furnace, and crushed to the particle size range 250-850 μητ Na 2 W0 4 was added as a promoter to the AMn0 3 redox catalysts via wet impregnation as described previously.

[0110] Ethane, ethylene, hydrogen, and argon were introduced to a fixed bed of 500 mg redox catalyst in the flow ratio 5:5:5:40 mL/min for 10 minutes, with subsequent redox catalyst regeneration by 10 mL/min 0 2 in 50 mL/min Ar. Selectivity towards hydrogen combustion (SH) was calculated by considering the amount of hydrogen combusted along with the amount of C0 2 formed. Table 30 summarizes the properties of six perovskite oxide redox catalysts for SHC at 850°C. Relative to the full perovskite CalvlnQ 3 , the RP phase Ca 2 Mn0 4 was found to possess high selectivity but reduced oxygen donation. Promotion by Na 2 WG 4 resulted in enhanced SH for both CaMn0 3 and SrMn0 3 redox catalysts.

Table 30. Properties of redox catalysts for SHC at 650°C using gas mixture.

Example 20. Fe:IVIn Oxides for Heat neutra!/mid!y-exothermic oxidative ethane dehydrogenation step

[0111] By tuning the oxygen carriers to have a high chemical potential oxygen, the net ethane reaction can be made less endothermic or net exothermic. Mixed Fe/Mn oxides, which have high chemical potential oxygen, were tested as redox catalysts for the CL-ODH of ethane. Three different molar ratios were tested (Fe:Mn): 20:80, 50:50, and 80:40. The base redox catalysts were synthesized through a sol-gel method, iron(lii) nitrate nonahydrate, manganese (IV) nitrate tetrahydrate and citric acid were dissolved in water and heated to 50°C for 30 minutes. Then ethylene glycol was added to the solution and was heated to and kept at 80°C until the majority of the liquid was removed. The sample was dried overnight at 12Q°C and then sintered at 900°C. Some samples were further promoted with sodium tungstate through a wet impregnation method. Sodium tungstate dihydrate was dissolved on water and impregnated onto the already sintered oxygen carriers. The loading on ail catalysts was 1.7wt% Na. XRD characterization showed the presence of manganese (I II) oxide type (Bsxbyite) and iron (H I) oxide type (Hematite) phases. After promotion, the sodium tungsiate phase was also defected.

[0112] The redox catalysts are broken in over 3 redox cycles by reducing the redox catalyst with H 2 for 3 min and then re-oxidizing in oxygen. CL-ODH of ethane was conducted between 800 and 850°C at a GHSV of 4500hr 1 . 5mL of ethane was injected in each full redox cycle and products were analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC). The un-promoted base redox catalysts showed high ethane conversion, but also had a high CO x selectivity. After promotion with sodium tungsiate, the CO x selectivity dropped and the hydrocarbon selectivity increased. Data is shown below in Table 31 -Table 33. An increase in overall conversion and yield vs thermal cracking over inert packing is noted

[0113] It should be noted that careful formulation of the coreshell must be made to take advantage of the net exothermic hydrogen combustion reactions. For example when, CuO or Al 2 0 3 supported CuO is used as bulk material with a loading of Na 2 W0 4 as high as 40 wt. % is used, the sample is very nonselective with CO x selectivities over 50% vs the exothermic 20:80 material the COx selectivity of ~1 .5-3% (Table 32).

[0114] When the 20:80 Fe: Mn material is reacted with 10% hydrogen at 850 °C in the TGA/DSC a net exotherm of 17.8 KJ/mol H 2 over 7.1 % oxygen Wt. loss. This is sufficient to supply >10% of the ethane thermal cracking reaction endotherm. By limiting the redox material reduction to 1 wt. % consistent with bixbyite formation/decomposition to from spinel, an exotherm of 1 14.6 kJ/moi for H 2 consumed provides in excess of 75% the ethane cracking heat of reaction.

[0115] To determine the heat of reduction of each of the redox catalysis, simultaneous TGA/DSC measurements were performed as the redox catalysts underwent H 2 /0 2 redox cycling. Initially the redox catalysts were heated to 850C in 10% 0 2 /Ar. After a short purge of pure Ar, the gas environment was changed to 10%H 2 /Ar and the complete redox cycle was repeated 4 additional times. The heat of reduction values for each of the catalysis were taken from the last redox cycle.

Example 21. Alkali to Tungstate Ratio Variation

[0118] Ratio of the NaW promoters is done by synthesizing NaW promoted MgelVlnOa redox catalysts with different Na:W molar ratios. The molar ratios chosen were, 2: 1 , 1 : 1 and 1 :2. An un- promoted Mg 6 Mn0 8 redox catalyst was also synthesized as a reference. The redox catalysts were synthesized through a wet impregnation method. The loading for all catalysts was a 1 .7wt% Na. First manganese (II) nitrate was mixed with magnesium oxide powder. After drying at 80°C overnight, the catalyst was heated to 200°C to decompose the nitrates. Afterwards, sodium nitrate and either sodium tungstate dihydrate(2: 1 redox catalyst) or ammonium meta tungstate(aii other redox catalysts) was dissolved in Dl water and then mixed with the catalyst and dried overnight at 80°C. The sample was then sintered in air at 450°C for 3 hours and then 900°C for 8 hours. A Na:W = 1 : 1 where the loading was on a 0.85 wt.% Na basis was also synthesized. XRD characterization showed the presence of the Mg 6 Mn0 8 phase on all catalysts. The sodium tungstate phase was detected on all catalysts. The Na:W = 1 :2 also showed additional tungsten oxide phases.

[0117] The redox catalysts are broken in over 3 redox cycles by reducing the redox catalyst with H 2 for 3 minutes and then re-oxidizing in oxygen. CL-ODH of ethane was conducted at 850°C at a GHSV of 4500hr 1 . SmL of ethane was injected in each full redox cycle and products were analyzed using GC. The un-promoted base redox catalysts showed high ethane conversion, but also had a high CO x selectivity. After promotion with sodium tungstate, the CO x selectivity dropped and the hydrocarbon selectivity increased. Data is shown below in Table 34. An increase in overall conversion and yield vs thermal cracking over inert packing is noted.

Example 22. Alkaline earth tungstate's surface layers with salt promotion

[0118] The use of salts with low temperature melting points may be used in conjunction with high temperature melting tungstate's to evenly distribute the phase. A 70:30 of Μη 3 θ 4 :5!θ 2 (by wt.) oxygen carrier was synthesized by impregnation of colloidal silica (Ludox, Grace) onto l\/ln 3 Si0 4 flowed by drying and calcination at 1 100 °C. Various alkaline earth tungstate's and other salts (LiCi, CaCI 2 , Sr 3 PO) were impregnated onto the oxygen carrier and calcined at 650-950 °C. After calcination they were rinsed in methanol to remove excess loading of low melting point salts. They were tested for Ethane ODH in (500 mg in a 1 /8" I. D tube with inert Al 2 0 3 packing). The results are shown in Table 35. Table 35 Salt Promoted Alkaline earth tungstate.

[0119] It should be emphasized that the above-described embodiments of the present disclosure are merely possible examples of implementations, and are set forth only for a clear understanding of the principles of the disclosure. Many variations and modifications may be made to the above- described embodiments of the disclosure without departing substantially from the spirit and principles of the disclosure. All such modifications and variations are intended to be included herein within the scope of this disclosure.