Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
OZONE-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2017/134048
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The disclosed invention consists of a water oxidation method, comprising the treatment of micropollutants in bromide-containing water with ozone and hydrogen peroxide in an ozonation reactor (1), reaching reproducible low and homogenously distributed ozone concentration in the ozonation reactor. This avoids any residual of ozone in solution and therefore BrO3-formation. This goal is reached by a controlled addition of hydrogen peroxide to the water in a first step. The solution is then introduced in a multiplicity of hollow fiber membranes (20) permeable to gas, extended along the inner space (10) of the ozonation reactor (1). In parallel, ozone is added from the ozone filled inner space (10) of the ozonation reactor (1) with a controlled concentration (partial pressure?) through the hollow fiber membrane walls (200) in a homogenously distributed way without gas bubbles into the fiber compartments (201) carrying the water/hydrogen peroxide solution with an adjustable flow rate all along the entire hollow fiber membrane length (L).

Inventors:
VON GUNTEN, Urs (Dorfstrasse 32, 8712 Stäfa, 8712, CH)
MERLE, Tony (17 Ter Grande Rue, Badevel, 25490, FR)
PRONK, Wouter (Rankstrasse 9, 8703 Erlenbach, 8703, CH)
Application Number:
EP2017/052039
Publication Date:
August 10, 2017
Filing Date:
January 31, 2017
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
EAWAG (Überlandstrasse 133, 8600 Dübendorf, 8600, CH)
International Classes:
C02F1/72; B01D63/02; B01F3/04; C02F1/78
Foreign References:
US6582496B12003-06-24
US20080156191A12008-07-03
US20090321354A12009-12-31
Other References:
P. JANKNECHT ET AL: "Bubble-free Ozone Contacting with Ceramic Membranes for Wet Oxidative Treatment", CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, vol. 23, no. 8, 1 August 2000 (2000-08-01), DE, pages 674 - 677, XP055264379, ISSN: 0930-7516, DOI: 10.1002/1521-4125(200008)23:8<674::AID-CEAT674>3.0.CO;2-9
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SCHNEIDER FELDMANN AG (Beethovenstrasse 49, 8027 Zürich Zürich, 8027, CH)
Download PDF:
Claims:
PATENT CLAIMS

1. Water oxidation method, comprising the treatment of micropollutants of bromide-containing water with ozone and hydrogen peroxide in an ozonation reactor ( 1 ) ,

characterized in

- controlled addition of hydrogen peroxide to water in a first step,

- feeding the mixture of water and hydrogen peroxide through a multiplicity of hollow fiber membranes (20) permeable to gas, extending along the inner space (10) of the ozonation reactor (1), before

- ozone being added from the ozone filled inner space (10) of the ozonation reactor (1) with the actual partial pressure of ozone in the inner space (10) crossing the hollow fiber membrane walls (200) in a homogenously distributed way without gas bubbles into the fiber compartments

(201) carrying the water/hydrogen peroxide

solution with an adjustable flow rate all along the entire hollow fiber membrane length (L) , avoiding residual ozone concentration, while a minimal necessary ozone concentration is reached during the adjusted residence time of water in the hollow fiber membranes (20) .

2. Water oxidation method according to claim 1,

wherein the multiplicity of hollow fiber membranes

(20) forms a bundle of hollow fiber membranes (20) which are arranged non-parallel non-concentric and do not surround or enclose each other. Water oxidation method according to claim 1, wherein the multiplicity of hollow fiber membranes (20) is forming a bundle of hollow fiber membranes (20) which are arranged in parallel and concentric to improve hydrodynamics.

Water oxidation method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the bundle of hollow fiber membranes (20) comprises hollow fiber membranes (20) arranged freely suspended along the fiber length (L) .

Water oxidation method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the water to be cleaned is fed through the bundle of hollow fiber

membranes (20), which is completely running through the inner space (10) of the ozonation reactor (1) between a fluidtight inlet and a fluidtight outlet of the ozonation reactor (1) .

Water oxidation method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the ozone addition is carried out through fiber walls (200) with

thicknesses between 200 pm and 250 pm.

Water oxidation method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the hollow fiber

membranes (20) are made of a thermoplastic

fluoropolymer, in particular made of

polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) .

Water oxidation method according to one of the claims 1, 3, 5 or 6, wherein the hollow fiber membranes (20) are ceramic membranes.

9. Water oxidation method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the ozone addition is carried out through fiber channels (201) of hollow fiber membranes (20) with a ratio (V/D) greater than 50 of fiber channel (201) volume V ( (nd2 )/4) to fiber wall area M (27t(D/2)L). 10. Ozonation reactor (1), comprising an inner space (10), which can be filled with ozone or an ozone/inert gas mixture, where the ozone partial pressure is carefully controllable, having a fluidtight inlet and a fluidtight outlet,

characterized in that,

an H202 injector or generator is placed in the fluid pipe prior the fluidtight inlet and

a bundle of loose hollow fiber membranes (20) permeable to gas, is arranged between the

fluidtight inlet and the fluidtight outlet of the ozonation reactor (1) extending along the inner space (10) of the ozonation reactor (1), wherein the ozone can be added homogenously distributed and without gas bubbles through the hollow fiber membrane walls (200) into fiber compartments (201) in a controlled way by adjustment of the ozone concentration by controlling the partial pressure of ozone in the inner space (10) all along the entire hollow fiber membrane length (L) .

11. Ozonation reactor (1) according to claim 10, wherein the hollow fiber membranes (20) are arranged non-parallel non-concentric and do not surround or enclosing each other.

12. Ozonation reactor (1) according to claim 10, wherein the hollow fiber membranes (20) are arranged in parallel and concentric to improve hydrodynamic .

13. Ozonation reactor (1) according to one of the claims 10 or 11, wherein the hollow fiber membranes (20) are arranged freely suspended along the fiber length (L) in the inner space (10) of the ozonation reactor (1) and the length (L) to hollow fiber membrane diameter (D) ratio (L/D) is greater than or equal to 50.

14. Ozonation reactor (1) according to one of the claims 10 to 13, wherein the wall thicknesses of the hollow fiber membranes (20) were chosen between 200 pm and 250 pm.

Ozonation reactor (1) according to claim 14, wherein the hollow fiber membrane diameters (D) were below 1000 pm and channel diameters (d) were below 500 pm.

Description:
Ozone-based advanced oxidation process

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention describes a water oxidation method, comprising the treatment of micropollutants in bromide-containing water by adding ozone and hydrogen peroxide in an ozonation reactor. It also describes the ozonation reactor, comprising an inner space, which is fed with ozone and a fluidtight inlet and outlet.

STATE OF THE ART

Conventional ozonation and ozone-based advanced oxidation are two interesting processes to remove micropollutants from water, such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals or industrial chemicals and numerous studies already discussed their efficiency. The main interest of ozone-based advanced oxidation treatment is the decomposition of ozone into hydroxyl radicals (ΌΗ), which are extremely powerful oxidants reacting with organic and inorganic species.

Ozone-based advanced oxidation processes are achieved most of the time by combining ozone (O3) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 0 2 ) . This process is today widely used to purify drinking water or wastewater leading to the control of micropollutants in water.

Unfortunately, it is very challenging to control bromate (BrC>3 ~ ) formation in both mentioned ozone treatments due to non-negligible ozone residual. Br0 3 ~ is mainly formed during ozonation of bromide-containing waters according to the simplified pathway presented in Figure la.

The formation of Br0 3 ~ is much lower when H 2 O 2 is added to water since H 2 O 2 reduces HOBr to Br ~ and reduces the lifetime of ozone. The current standard process of the prior art is described in figure lb. In a batch reactor or ozonation reactor, an amount of water containing micropollutants and bromide is treated with a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ozone. In such a conventional O3/H 2 O 2 process (Figure lb) , H 2 0 2 is injected in a first step before the ozonation reactor and dissolved in the water to be cleaned. Ozone is injected in a further step at one or at a few points through ozone diffusors into the ozonation reactor at a later stage. The dissolved ozone concentration is not negligible in some zones of the reactor and Br0 3 ~ formation is favored because ozone is present in sufficient concentrations.

While the removal of micropollutants might be enhanced using (0 3 /H 2 0 2 ) , Br0 3 ~ formation is critical in these processes. However, it is currently impossible to avoid Br0 3 ~ formation in ozone-based advanced oxidation processes due to the simultaneous presence of ozone and hydroxyl radicals. The World Health Organization classifies Br0 3 ~ as a potential human carcinogen. Its concentration in drinking water is regulated to 10 glT 1 in most industrialized countries (European drinking water directive, USEPA Drinking Water Standards list, OSEC ordinance) . Therefore, new ozone-based processes have to be found with minimum bromate formation and still efficient micropollutant abatement.

Accordingly, other approaches were investigated by turning away from ozonation and advanced oxidation processes, reducing the applied ozone doses or using pretreatments of wastewater before ozonation.

UV/H 2 0 2 was identified as a good alternative treatment process to remove micropollutants in bromide-containing water without bromate formation. The main disadvantages of UV/H 2 O 2 is its higher energy demand, which can be up to 20 times higher than for conventional ozonation or the combined process 0 3 /H 2 0 2 .

In 2000, researchers designed a pressurized plug flow reactor in which 0 3 and H 2 0 2 are injected in small quantities at different points in the reactor (US6024882) . This technology helps to reduce the bromate formation but it requires a sophisticated and large system with many valves, which is subject to a lot of maintenance.

In a more recent study, US2013264292, it was shown that the formation of Br0 3 ~ might be controlled if the mixing of 0 3 and H 2 0 2 is optimized. Then, the two chemicals where introduced at the inlet of the reactor but not fully mixed together. Mixers are distributed at various points of the reactor and ozone gas is slowly dissolved by a sequence of static mixers to avoid high local concentrations of ozone at any point along the reaction zone. DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The objective of the present invention is to create a simplified method and setup for the treatment of micropollutants in bromide-containing water with ozone and hydrogen peroxide in an ozonation reactor. In such an ozonation reactor, a low and reproducible ozone dose is homogenously distributed avoiding residual ozone concentration and therefore minimizing bromate formation .

In the presented patent, 0 3 is introduced in water through a porous membrane in which contaminated water and H 2 0 2 are flowing. H 2 0 2 is generated or added prior to the inlet of the reactor. Thanks to this compact setup, the ozone transfer from the gas phase to the liquid phase is bubble free and can be easily optimized to avoid the formation of Br0 3 ~ , while still an efficient abatement of micropollutants can be achieved.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

A preferred exemplary embodiment of the subject matter of the invention is described below in conjunction with the attached drawings.

Figure la shows the well-known mechanism of Br0 3 ~ formation during ozonation and advanced ozonation (0 3 /H 2 0 2 ) of bromide-containing water, while Figure lb shows a schematic of the conventional advanced oxidation O3/H 2 O 2 process in a batch reactor . Figure 2 shows a schematic of the novel

0 3 /H 2 0 2 /membrane process.

Figure 3a shows a picture of the laboratory setup of the ozone membrane system for performing the novel 0 3 /H 2 0 2 /membrane process, while

Figure 3b shows an SEM image of a used hollow fiber membrane, while

Figure 3c shows a detailed SEM image of the inner membrane surface, according to the inset in figure 3b.

Figures 4 shows some experimental results with regard to the removal of p-chlorobenzoic acid ( ozone-resistant model compound) and bromate formation in two natural matrices (Hardwald groundwater (Figure 4a) and Rhine river water (Figure 4b) ) using the conventional 0 3 /H 2 0 2 process and the novel 0 3 /H 2 0 2 /membrane process .

DESCRIPTION

A new ozone-based advanced oxidation process combining O3 injection in a mixture of contaminated water, containing micropollutants , H 2 O 2 and Br ~ for the treatment of micropollutants is described in the following. H 2 O 2 is generated in or added to the mixture of contaminated water with an injector before introducing O3. The H 2 0 2 can be generated directly in the mixture of contaminated water by an electrochemical process at electrodes, which is not depicted in the figures.

The method is carried out in an ozonation reactor 1 with an inner space 10, in which a bundle of hollow fiber membranes 20 is arranged. The ozonation reactor 1 is gastight and the inner space 10 can be fed with ozone respectively with an ozone/inert gas mixture. The ozonation reactor 1 might be a glass container as depicted in figure 3a.

A multiplicity of hollow fiber membranes 20, permeable for gas, forms a loose bundle of hollow fiber membranes 20. This is visible in figure 3a. The hollow fiber membranes 20 are flexible, do not gastight surround or enclosing each other, because they are forming a bundle. It is preferred to arrange the hollow fiber membranes 20 not concentrically without sticking together. The hollow fiber membranes 20 are arranged freely suspended for a fiber length L through the inner space 10 of the ozonation reactor. Although different membrane geometries are possible, we favor the bundle- like form, comprising a multiplicity of hollow fiber membranes 20.

The hollow fiber membrane 20 is made of a fiber wall 200 permeable for gas (in particular to O3) and an inner fiber compartment 201 designed as a channel. For best results, the fiber length L and therewith a unconcealed part of the fiber wall 200 should be maximized. Then, the O3 addition or injection into the fiber channel 201 from the inner space 10 is optimized and can be controlled by the O3 partial pressure in the inner space 10.

Experiments with hollow fiber membrane diameters D below 1000pm (874 pm) and channel diameters d below 500 pm (433 pm) were done and produced good results. This can be seen in figure 3b. Fiber wall thicknesses were chosen between 200 pm and 250 pm, while the fiber channel 201 runs concentrically through the hollow fiber membrane 20. Suitable materials need a certain porosity allowing ozone molecules to diffuse.

The structure of the hollow fiber membrane 20 is polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) but other thermoplastic fluoropolymers or ceramic membranes are suitable .

The length L of hollow fiber membranes 20 is in the range of centimeters, so that the length / hollow fiber membrane diameter (L/D) ratio is greater than or equal to 50. To provide sufficient water flow through the fiber channel 201 and sufficient ozone addition through the fiber wall 200, the ratio of the fiber channel volume V ( (nd 2 ) / 4) / fiber wall area M (27t(D/2)L) has to be greater than 50. The hollow fiber membranes 20 are connected together as a bundle and hold at a fluidtight inlet and outlet in the inner space 10 (Figure 3a) . A solution of water and hydrogen peroxide can be transported in each fiber between the inlet and outlet.

While the mixture of water and hydrogen peroxide solution is flowing through the fiber compartment 201 without contact to the inner space 10 of the ozonation reactor 1, 0 3 diffuses from the inner space 10 through the fiber walls 200 of the bundle of hollow fiber membranes 20 by adjusting the 0 3 partial pressure in the inner space 10 with known means. The described method uses a diffusion driven process for addition of ozone .

In this system micropollutants are efficiently oxidized, while bromate (BrC>3 ~ ) formation is strongly minimized. This can be achieved by maintaining the ozone concentration in water as low as possible but high enough to form sufficient OH radicals (ΌΗ), which can oxidize the undesired micropollutants . This system can be applied to different types of bromide-containing water (e.g., groundwater, surface water, municipal and industrial wastewater, clean water production, process waters) . Similar to the conventional ozone-based advanced oxidation process (0 3 /H 2 0 2 ) , hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) has to be added to the water prior to ozone addition .

In the system described here, hollow fiber membranes 20 are used as diffusors, the ozone gas is added or injected in small portions all along the entire hollow fiber membranes 20 running in the inner space 10 of the ozonation reactor 1. Thereby, ozone can be easily dosed without gas bubbles to reach a minimal dissolved concentration by optimizing the ozone gas concentration and the residence time of water in the hollow fiber membranes 20. The ozone gas concentration in the inner space 10, the flow rate (i.e., the residence time of water in the bundle of hollow fiber membranes 20) and the hydrogen peroxide concentration are the three parameters to be optimized to avoid unnecessary ozone residual and hence bromate formation.

Ozone molecules will react with H 2 0 2 to form hydroxyl radicals as soon as it has been introduced into the aqueous phase. Under these conditions (i.e., minimum necessary ozone concentration with a sufficiently high formation of ΌΗ) , bromate formation is minimized. Figures 4 compares the tests performed with groundwater (Fig. 4a) and surface water (Fig. 4b) using the conventional 0 3 /H 2 0 2 process and the novel 0 3 /H 2 0 2 /membrane system, p-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA) was used as hydroxyl radical probe compound to test the efficiency of the advanced oxidation. The optimum treatment efficiency is achieved if pCBA is fully oxidized while the Br0 3 ~ concentration is close to 0 μgL . For both treatments, 80% removal of pCBA can be achieved without forming more than 2 gLT 1 bromate.

However, if the elimination of pCBA is targeted above 90%, a BrC>3 ~ concentration below 2 gL -1 can be guaranteed only with the 03/H 2 0 2 /membrane system whereas the BrC>3 ~ concentration reaches up to 44 gLT 1 for the conventional O3/H2O2 treatment. For a hydrogen peroxide dose close to the optimum (i.e., 5.7 rnglT 1 ) and a DOC concentration of 0.5 mgC IT 1 in the natural water, two relationships between the residence time (RT, s) and the ozone gas concentration ( [O3] , g/Nm 3 ) can be established for [0 3 ] ranging from 1 to 5 gNirT 3 :

to reach 80% removal of pCBA:

RT > 64.6 [0 3 ] ^1 - 32 (R 2 = 0.948; n = 3) to ensure a concentration of Br0 3 ~ below 10 gLT 1 :

RT < 599.6 [0 3 Γ 2 - 58 (R 2 = 0.967; n = 3) The two treatment objectives given in the above equations can only be achieved if [O3] < 5 gNm ~3 . Above this concentration, the bromate formation will be higher than 10 gLT 1 for a bromide concentration of 170 g/L and an 80% removal of pCBA.

For H 2 O 2 concentration higher than 5.7 mgLT 1 and an ozone gas concentration higher than 5 gNm ~3 , the ozone transfer would be too efficient, leading to significant ozone residual concentrations and hence an enhanced bromate formation. The novel process would have a similar or lower performance than a conventional process (0 3 /H 2 0 2 ) . Removal of p-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA) and bromate formation using the conventional O3/H 2 O 2 process ( [O3] = 0.2 to 2 mg IT 1 ) and the 0 3 /H 2 0 2 /membrane process ([0 3 ] G = 0.5 g NITT 3 - Q L = 0.25 to 1.5 mL min -1 ) with Hardwald groundwater (4a) and Rhine River water (4b) .

Experimental conditions: Hardwald Groundwater: Br ~ = 170 +/- 5 gLT 1 , pH 8.1, DOC = 0.5 mgC IT 1 , alkalinity = 291 mglT 1 as CaC0 3 - Rhine River Water: Br ~ = 205 +/- 5 gLT 1 , pH 8.1, DOC = 1.3 mgC IT 1 , alkalinity = 302 rnglT 1 as CaC0 3 .

The presented method is interesting for the drinking water sector, especially for micropollutant removal in waters with high bromide levels. Applications to enhanced wastewater treatment can also be envisaged, since it has been discovered that bromate formation during ozonation of wastewaters can become a problem.

LIST OF REFERENCE NUMERALS

1 ozonation reactor

10 inner space

2 loose bundle of hollow fiber membranes 20 hollow fiber membrane

D hollow fiber membrane diameter (< lOOOum)

200 fiber wall (permeable to gas)

201 fiber compartment /channel

d channel diameter (< 500um)

L fiber length