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Title:
PELLETED AND COMPRESSED SORGHUM COMPOSITIONS RICH IN DRIED DISTILLERS GRAINS (DDGS)
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2014/197694
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The invention provides for compressed compositions, such as pellets and lick tubs, wherein the compressed composition comprises 30% to 60% by weight DDGS; 30% to 60% by weight sorghum; and 1% to 10% by weight oil, wherein the sum of the DDGS and the sorghum do not exceed 99% by weight. Furthermore, methods of making such compressed compositions are disclosed, as our methods of providing a service and reducing mycotoxins in DDGS used in such compressed compositions. The compressed compositions are made by subjecting the mixture to approximately 200 °F and either extruding the mixture to make a pellet, or subjecting the mixture in a vessel to a pressure exceeding at least 2000 psi for 15-20 minutes.

Inventors:
STAGGENBORG, Scott, A. (6402 C.R. 7430, Lubbock, TX, 79424, US)
THOMAS, Michael, R. (453 Angels Crossing Drive, Saint Clair, MO, 63077, US)
STEFFENS, John, C. (1826 North Lakeshore Drive, Chapel Hill, NC, 27514, US)
ZINKL, Gregory, M. (Chromatin Inc, 10 South Lasalle Street Suite 210, Chicago IL, 60603, US)
Application Number:
US2014/041092
Publication Date:
December 11, 2014
Filing Date:
June 05, 2014
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CHROMATIN, INC. (10 South Lasalle Street, Chicago, IL, 60603, US)
International Classes:
A23K1/00; A23K1/06; A23K1/12; A23K1/14; A23K1/16; A23K1/165; A23K1/18; A23K3/00; A23L1/00
Domestic Patent References:
WO2013036647A12013-03-14
Other References:
T. R. WHITNEY ET AL: "Evaluating percentage of roughage in lamb finishing diets containing 40% dried distillers grains: Growth, serum urea nitrogen, nonesterified fatty acids, and insulin growth factor-1 concentrations and wool, carcass, and fatty acid characteristics", JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE, vol. 88, no. 9, 21 May 2010 (2010-05-21), pages 3030 - 3040, XP055132660, ISSN: 0021-8812, DOI: 10.2527/jas.2010-2875
KELLY MARIE SOTAK ET AL: "The evaluation of sorghum dried distiller's grains with solubles in nursery pig diets, on finishing pig performance and meat quality, and on lactating sow performance", 1 January 2012 (2012-01-01), pages 1 - 68, XP055132863, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20140801]
A. CERISUELO ET AL: "Effects of inclusion of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets for growing and finishing pigs", SPANISH JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, vol. 10, no. 4, 28 November 2012 (2012-11-28), pages 1016, XP055132649, ISSN: 1695-971X, DOI: 10.5424/sjar/2012104-520-11
"A guide to Distiller`s Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS)", 1 January 2012 (2012-01-01), pages 1 - 8, XP055132843, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20140801]
C FEOLI ET AL: "EFFECTS OF ADDING SATURATED FAT TO DIETS WITH SORGHUM-BASED DRIED DISTILLERS GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS IN FINISHING PIGS", SWINE DAY, 1 January 2008 (2008-01-01), pages 1 - 6, XP055132785, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20140801]
ANONYMOUS: "Use of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Swine Diets - Pig Articles from The Pig Site - The Pig Site", 10 March 2009 (2009-03-10), pages 1 - 8, XP055132672, Retrieved from the Internet [retrieved on 20140731]
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SINTICH, Sharon, M. et al. (Marshall, Gerstein & Borun LLP233 S. Wacker Drive,6300 Willis Towe, Chicago IL, 60606-6357, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
CLAIMS

We claim:

1. A compressed composition comprising:

a. 30% to 60% by weight DDGS;

b. 30% to 60% by weight sorghum; and

c. 1% to 10% by weight oil,

wherein the sum of the DDGS and the sorghum do not exceed 99% by weight.

2. The compressed composition of claim 1, comprising:

a. 45% to 47% by weight dried distiller grain (DDGS);

b. 45% to 47% by weight sorghum; and

c. 6% to 10% by weight oil.

3. The compressed composition of claim 1, wherein the DDGS result from the manufacture of ethanol.

4. The compressed composition of claim 1, wherein the DDGS comprise corn, sorghum, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat DDGS.

5. The compressed composition of claim 1, wherein the sorghum is a forage, sweet, or a grain sorghum, or combinations thereof.

6. The compressed composition of claim 1 wherein the sorghum is engineered to express at least one enzyme.

7. The compressed composition of claim 1, wherein the sorghum is processed before being

comprised into the compressed composition.

8. The compressed composition of claim 7, wherein the pre-processing comprises extracting juice from the sorghum or cutting, chopping, grinding, or adding to the sorghum at least one enzyme, an organic agent, an inorganic agent, a microbe, or an engineered microbe to the sorghum.

9. The compressed composition of claim 7, wherein the sorghum comprises bagasse or stover.

10. The compressed composition of claim 1, wherein the oil comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of corn, canola, sorghum, olive, flax, cottonseed, peanut, safflower, sesame, soy, palm, fish, soy, canola, sunflower, palm, nut, and vegetable oils; animal fat and restaurant grease.

11. The compressed composition of claim 1, further comprising at least one selected from the group consisting of a pharmaceutical, a micronutrient, a mineral, a vitamin, plant material, grains, oilseed meals, milk products, wheat middlings, wheat bran, rice bran, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, molasses, rice mill byproduct, amino acids, antioxidants, tocochromanols, tocopherols, coccidostats, feed additives, yeasts, buffers, organic acids, mycotoxin inhibitors, clays, and alumina.

12. The compressed composition of claim 1, wherein: a. the DDGS comprise 47% by weight;

b. the sorghum comprises 47% by weight; and

c. the oil comprises 6% by weight.

13. The compressed composition of claim 12, wherein the DDGS comprise corn DDGS, and the oil comprises corn oil.

14. The compressed composition of claim 12, wherein the DDGS comprise grain sorghum DDGS, and the oil comprises grain sorghum oil.

15. The compressed composition of claim 1, wherein the composition is a pellet or a lick tub.

16. The compressed composition of claim 1, made by mixing the DDGS, sorghum and oil, heating the mixture to approximately 200 °F and either extruding the mixture to make a pellet, or subjecting the mixture in a vessel to a pressure exceeding at least 2000 psi for 15-20 minutes.

17. A method of making a compressed composition, the composition comprising: a. 30% to 60% by weight DDGS;

b. 30% to 60% by weight sorghum; and

c. 1% to 10% by weight oil,

wherein the sum of the DDGS and the sorghum do not exceed 99% by weight, made by mixing the DDGS, sorghum and oil, heating the mixture to approximately 200 °F and either extruding the mixture to make a pellet, or subjecting the mixture in a vessel to a pressure exceeding at least 2000 psi for 15-20 minutes.

18. The method of making the compressed composition of claim 17, wherein the composition comprises: a. 45% to 47% by weight DDGS

b. 45% to 47% by weight sorghum; and

c. 6% to 10% by weight oil.

19. The method of making the compressed composition of claim 17, wherein the DDGS result from the manufacture of ethanol.

20. The method of making the compressed composition of claim 17, wherein the DDGS comprise corn, sorghum, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat DDGS.

21. The method of making the compressed composition of claim 17, wherein the sorghum is a forage, sweet, or a grain sorghum, or combinations thereof.

22. The method of making the compressed composition of claim 17, wherein the sorghum is

engineered to express at least one enzyme.

23. The method of making the compressed composition of claim 17, wherein the sorghum is

processed before being comprised into the compressed composition.

24. The method of making the compressed composition of claim 22, wherein the pre-processing comprises extracting juice from the sorghum or cutting, chopping, grinding, or adding to the sorghum at least one enzyme, an organic agent, an inorganic agent, a microbe, or an engineered microbe to the sorghum.

25. The method of making the compressed composition of claim 22, wherein the sorghum

comprises bagasse or stover.

26. The method of making the compressed composition of claim 17, wherein the oil comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of corn, canola, sorghum (from grain), olive, flax, cottonseed, peanut, safflower, sesame, soy, palm, fish, soy, canola, sunflower, palm, nut, and vegetable oils; animal fat and restaurant grease.

27. The method of making the compressed composition of claim 17, further comprising at least one selected from the group consisting of a pharmaceutical, a micronutrient, a mineral, a vitamin, plant material, grains, oilseed meals, milk products, wheat middlings, wheat bran, rice bran, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, molasses, rice mill byproduct, amino acids, antioxidants, tocochromanols, tocopherols, coccidostats, feed additives, yeasts, buffers, organic acids, mycotoxin inhibitors, clays, and alumina.

28. The method of making the compressed composition of claim 17, wherein: a. the DDGS comprise 47% by weight;

b. the sorghum comprises 47% by weight; and

c. the oil comprises 6% by weight.

29. The method of making the compressed composition of claim 28, wherein the DDGS comprise corn DDGS, and the oil comprises corn oil.

30. The method of making the compressed composition of claim 28, wherein the DDGS comprise grain sorghum DDGS, and the oil comprises grain sorghum oil.

31. The method of making the compressed composition of claim 17, wherein the composition is a pellet or a lick tub.

32. A pellet made by the method of claim 17.

33. A lick tub made by the method of claim 17.

34. A pellet or lick tub comprising: a. 30% to 60% by weight DDGS;

b. 30% to 60% by weight sorghum; and

c. 1% to 10% by weight oil,

wherein the sum of the DDGS and the sorghum do not exceed 99% by weight.

35. The pellet or lick tub of claim 34, comprising:

a. 45% to 47% by weight dried distiller grain (DDGS);

b. 45% to 47% by weight sorghum; and

c. 6% to 10% by weight oil.

36. The pellet or lick tub of claim 34, wherein the DDGS result from the manufacture of ethanol.

37. The pellet or lick tub of claim 34, wherein the DDGS comprise corn, sorghum, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat DDGS.

38. The pellet or lick tub of claim 34, wherein the sorghum is a forage, sweet, or a grain sorghum, or combinations thereof.

39. The pellet or lick tub of claim 34 wherein the sorghum is engineered to express at least one enzyme.

40. The pellet or lick tub of claim 34, wherein the sorghum is processed before being comprised into the pellet or lick tub.

41. The pellet or lick tub of claim 40, wherein the pre-processing comprises extracting juice from the sorghum or cutting, chopping, grinding, or adding to the sorghum at least one enzyme, an organic agent, an inorganic agent, a microbe, or an engineered microbe to the sorghum.

42. The pellet or lick tub of claim 40, wherein the sorghum comprises bagasse or stover.

43. The pellet or lick tub of claim 34, wherein the oil comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of corn, canola, sorghum, olive, flax, cottonseed, peanut, safflower, sesame, soy, palm, fish, soy, canola, sunflower, palm, nut, and vegetable oils; animal fat and restaurant grease.

44. The pellet or lick tub of claim 34, further comprising at least one selected from the group

consisting of a pharmaceutical, a micronutrient, a mineral, a vitamin, plant material, grains, oilseed meals, milk products, wheat middlings, wheat bran, rice bran, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, molasses, rice mill byproduct, amino acids, antioxidants, tocochromanols, tocopherols, coccidostats, feed additives, yeasts, buffers, organic acids, mycotoxin inhibitors, clays, and alumina.

45. The pellet or lick tub of claim 34, wherein: a. the DDGS comprise 47% by weight;

b. the sorghum comprises 47% by weight; and

c. the oil comprises 6% by weight.

46. The pellet or lick tub of claim 45, wherein the DDGS comprise corn DDGS, and the oil comprises corn oil.

47. The pellet or lick tub of claim 45, wherein the DDGS comprise grain sorghum DDGS, and the oil comprises grain sorghum oil.

48. The pellet or lick tub of claim 40, wherein the composition is a pellet or a lick tub.

49. The pellet or lick tub of claim 40, made by mixing the DDGS, sorghum and oil, heating the mixture to approximately 200 °F and either extruding the mixture to make a pellet, or subjecting the mixture in a vessel to a pressure exceeding at least 2000 psi for 15-20 minutes.

50. A method of making a pellet or lick tub, comprising a. 30% to 60% by weight DDGS;

b. 30% to 60% by weight sorghum; and

c. 1% to 10% by weight oil, wherein the sum of the DDGS and the sorghum do not exceed 99% by weight,

made by mixing the DDGS, sorghum and oil, heating the mixture to approximately 200 °F and either extruding the mixture to make a pellet, or subjecting the mixture in a vessel to a pressure exceeding at least 2000 psi for 15-20 minutes.

51. The method of making the pellet or lick tub of claim 50, wherein the composition comprises: a. 45% to 47% by weight DDGS

b. 45% to 47% by weight sorghum; and

c. 6% to 10% by weight oil.

52. The method of making the pellet or lick tub of claim 50, wherein the DDGS result from the

manufacture of ethanol.

53. The method of making the pellet or lick tub of claim 50, wherein the DDGS comprise corn, sorghum, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat DDGS.

54. The method of making the pellet or lick tub of claim 50, wherein the sorghum is a forage, sweet, or a grain sorghum, or combinations thereof.

55. The method of making the pellet or lick tub of claim 50, wherein the sorghum is engineered to express at least one enzyme.

56. The method of making the pellet or lick tub of claim 50, wherein the sorghum is processed before being comprised into the pellet or lick tub.

57. The method of making the pellet or lick tub of claim 56, wherein the pre-processing comprises extracting juice from the sorghum or cutting, chopping, grinding, or adding to the sorghum at least one enzyme, an organic agent, an inorganic agent, a microbe, or an engineered microbe to the sorghum.

58. The method of making the pellet or lick tub of claim 56, wherein the sorghum comprises

bagasse or stover.

59. The method of making the pellet or lick tub of claim 50, wherein the oil comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of corn, canola, sorghum (from grain), olive, flax, cottonseed, peanut, safflower, sesame, soy, palm, fish, soy, canola, sunflower, palm, nut, and vegetable oils; animal fat and restaurant grease.

60. The method of making the pellet or lick tub of claim 50, further comprising at least one selected from the group consisting of a pharmaceutical, a micronutrient, a mineral, a vitamin, plant material, grains, oilseed meals, milk products, wheat middlings, wheat bran, rice bran, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, molasses, rice mill byproduct, amino acids, antioxidants, tocochromanols, tocopherols, coccidostats, feed additives, yeasts, buffers, organic acids, mycotoxin inhibitors, clays, and alumina.

61. The method of making the pellet or lick tub of claim 50, wherein: a. the DDGS comprise 47% by weight;

b. the sorghum comprises 47% by weight; and

c. the oil comprises 6% by weight.

62. The method of making the pellet or lick tub of claim 61, wherein the DDGS comprise corn DDGS, and the oil comprises corn oil.

63. The method of making the pellet or lick tub of claim 61, wherein the DDGS comprise grain sorghum DDGS, and the oil comprises grain sorghum oil.

64. The method of making the pellet or lick tub of claim 50, wherein the composition is a pellet or a lick tub.

65. The pellet made by the method of claim 50.

66. The lick tub made by the method of claim 50.

67. The method of feeding livestock, comprising feeding the livestock a compressed composition comprising: a. 30% to 60% by weight DDGS;

b. 30% to 60% by weight sorghum; and

c. 1% to 10% by weight oil,

wherein the sum of the DDGS and the sorghum do not exceed 99% by weight.

68. The method of feeding livestock of claim 67, wherein the composition comprises: a. 45% to 47% by weight DDGS

b. 45% to 47% by weight sorghum; and

c. 6% to 10% by weight oil.

69. The method of feeding livestock of claim 67, wherein the DDGS result from the manufacture of ethanol.

70. The method of feeding livestock of claim 67, wherein the DDGS comprise corn, sorghum, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat DDGS.

71. The method of feeding livestock of claim 67, wherein the sorghum is a forage, sweet, or a grain sorghum, or combinations thereof.

72. The method of feeding livestock of claim 67, wherein the sorghum is engineered to express at least one enzyme.

73. The method of feeding livestock of claim 67, wherein the sorghum is processed before being comprised into the pellet or lick tub.

74. The method of feeding livestock of claim 73, wherein the pre-processing comprises extracting juice from the sorghum or cutting, chopping, grinding, or adding to the sorghum at least one enzyme, an organic agent, an inorganic agent, a microbe, or an engineered microbe to the sorghum.

75. The method of feeding livestock of claim 73, wherein the sorghum comprises bagasse or stover.

76. The method of feeding livestock of claim 67, wherein the oil comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of corn, canola, sorghum (from grain), olive, flax, cottonseed, peanut, safflower, sesame, soy, palm, fish, soy, canola, sunflower, palm, nut, and vegetable oils; animal fat and restaurant grease.

77. The method of feeding livestock of claim 67, further comprising at least one selected from the group consisting of a pharmaceutical, a micronutrient, a mineral, a vitamin, plant material, grains, oilseed meals, milk products, wheat middlings, wheat bran, rice bran, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, molasses, rice mill byproduct, amino acids, antioxidants, tocochromanols, tocopherols, coccidostats, feed additives, yeasts, buffers, organic acids, mycotoxin inhibitors, clays, and alumina.

78. The method of feeding livestock of claim 67, wherein: the DDGS comprise 47% by weight;

the sorghum comprises 47% by weight;

the oil comprises 6% by weight.

79. The method of feeding livestock of claim 78, wherein the DDGS comprise corn DDGS, and the oil comprises corn oil.

80. The method of feeding livestock of claim 78, wherein the DDGS comprise grain sorghum DDGS, and the oil comprises grain sorghum oil.

81. The method of feeding livestock of claim 67, wherein the composition is a pellet or a lick tub.

82. A method for providing a service, comprising

a. making a compressed composition comprising at least i. 30% by weight DDGS;

ii. 30% by weight sorghum; and

iii. 1% by weight oil, wherein the sum of the DDGS and the sorghum do not exceed 99% by weight, and b. receiving a fee for the service, wherein the fee is one selected from the group consisting of (i) a royalty payment, (ii) a fee based on a sale of the pellet or lick tub, (iii) a fee based on a license for the pellet or lick tub, and (iv) a fee based on receipt of a product or service comprising making the pellet or lick tub.

83. The method of providing a service of claim 82, wherein the composition comprises: a. 45% to 47% by weight DDGS

b. 45% to 47% by weight sorghum; and

c. 6% to 10% by weight oil.

84. The method of providing a service of claim 82, wherein the DDGS result from the manufacture of ethanol.

85. The method of providing a service of claim 82, wherein the DDGS comprise corn, sorghum, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat DDGS.

86. The method of providing a service of claim 82, wherein the sorghum is a forage, sweet, or a grain sorghum, or combinations thereof.

87. The method of providing a service of claim 82, wherein the sorghum is engineered to express at least one enzyme.

88. The method of providing a service of claim 82, wherein the sorghum is processed before being comprised into the pellet or lick tub.

89. The method of providing a service of claim 88, wherein the pre-processing comprises extracting juice from the sorghum or cutting, chopping, grinding, or adding to the sorghum at least one enzyme, an organic agent, an inorganic agent, a microbe, or an engineered microbe to the sorghum.

90. The method of providing a service of claim 88, wherein the sorghum comprises bagasse or stover.

91. The method of providing a service of claim 82, wherein the oil comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of corn, canola, sorghum (from grain), olive, flax, cottonseed, peanut, safflower, sesame, soy, palm, fish, soy, canola, sunflower, palm, nut, and vegetable oils; animal fat and restaurant grease.

92. The method of providing a service of claim 82, further comprising at least one selected from the group consisting of a pharmaceutical, a micronutrient, a mineral, a vitamin, plant material, grains, oilseed meals, milk products, wheat middlings, wheat bran, rice bran, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, molasses, rice mill byproduct, amino acids, antioxidants, tocochromanols, tocopherols, coccidostats, feed additives, yeasts, buffers, organic acids, mycotoxin inhibitors, clays, and alumina.

93. The method of providing a service of claim 82, wherein: a. the DDGS comprise 47% by weight;

b. the sorghum comprises 47% by weight; and

c. the oil comprises 6% by weight.

94. The method of providing a service of claim 93, wherein the DDGS comprise corn DDGS, and the oil comprises corn oil.

95. The method of providing a service of claim 93, wherein the DDGS comprise grain sorghum

DDGS, and the oil comprises grain sorghum oil.

96. The method of providing a service of claim 82, wherein the composition is a pellet or a lick tub.

97. The method of providing a service of claim 82, wherein the composition is customized to a third party's specifications.

98. A method of decreasing mycotoxin in DDGS, comprising making a compressed

composition comprising at least: a. 30% by weight DDGS;

b. 30% by weight sorghum; and

c. 1% by weight oil,

wherein the sum of the DDGS and the sorghum do not exceed 99% by weight and the mycotoxing level is reduced in the compressed compositionas when compared to the DDGS alone.

99. The method of claim 98, wherein:

a. the DDGS comprise 47% by weight;

b. the sorghum comprises 47% by weight; and

c. the oil comprises 6% by weight.

100. The method of claim 98, wherein the DDGS result from the manufacture of ethanol.

101. The method of claim 98, wherein the DDGS comprise corn, sorghum, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat DDGS.

102. The method of claim 98, wherein the sorghum is a forage, sweet, or a grain sorghum, or combinations thereof.

103. The method of claim 98 wherein the sorghum is engineered to express at least one enzyme.

104. The method of claim 98, wherein the sorghum is processed before being comprised into the compressed composition.

105. The method of claim 104, wherein the pre-processing comprises extracting juice from the sorghum or cutting, chopping, grinding, or adding to the sorghum at least one enzyme, an organic agent, an inorganic agent, a microbe, or an engineered microbe to the sorghum.

106. The method of claim 104, wherein the sorghum comprises bagasse or stover.

107. The method of claim 98, wherein the oil comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of corn, canola, sorghum (from grain), olive, flax, cottonseed, peanut, safflower, sesame, soy, palm, fish, soy, canola, sunflower, palm, nut, and vegetable oils; animal fat and restaurant grease.

108. The method of claim 98, further comprising at least one selected from the group

consisting of a pharmaceutical, a micronutrient, a mineral, a vitamin, plant material, grains, oilseed meals, milk products, wheat middlings, wheat bran, rice bran, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, molasses, rice mill byproduct, amino acids, antioxidants, tocochromanols, tocopherols, coccidostats, feed additives, yeasts, buffers, organic acids, mycotoxin inhibitors, clays, and alumina.

109. The method of claim 98, wherein: a. the DDGS comprise 47% by weight;

b. the sorghum comprises 47% by weight; and

c. the oil comprises 6% by weight.

110. The method of claim 109, wherein the DDGS comprise corn DDGS, and the oil comprises corn oil.

111. The method of claim 109, wherein the DDGS comprise grain sorghum DDGS, and the oil comprises grain sorghum oil.

112. The method of claim 98, wherein the composition is a pellet or a lick tub.

113. The method of claim 98, made by mixing the DDGS, sorghum and oil, heating the

mixture to approximately 200 °F and either extruding the mixture to make a pellet, or subjecting the mixture in a vessel to a pressure exceeding at least 2000 psi for 15-20 minutes.

Description:
PELLETED AND COMPRESSED SORGHUM COMPOSITIONS RICH IN DRIED DISTILLERS GRAINS

(DDGS)

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

[0001] This application claims priority to Staggenborg, S.A., et al., U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/831,680, "PELLETED AND COMPRESSED SORGHUM COMPOSITIONS RICH IN DRIED DISTILLERS GRAINS (DDGS)," filed June 6, 2013 and is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present invention is related to the field of compressed compositions using dried distiller grains (DDGS), such as pellets, including feed pellets for livestock, and lick tubs.

GOVERNMENT SUPPORT

[0003] Not applicable.

COMPACT DISC FOR SEQUENCE LISTINGS AND TABLES

[0004] Not applicable.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0005] All citations are incorporated herein by reference. [0006] Animal feed pellets

[0007] There is limited market availability for feed pellets or cubes containing a near complete ration of energy, protein, nutrients, and roughage. Traditionally, such feed is made from alfalfa and offered in pellets, cubes, and licks. Feed pelletizing is conventionally an extrusion type thermoplastic molding operation in which finely divided particles of a feed ration are formed into compact, easily handled and transported pellets.

[0008] DDGS and challenges to making DDGS-rich compressed compositions

[0009] Dried distillers grain (DDGS) is a by-product of ethanol production. For example, DDGS results from the process of converting corn into ethanol. DDGS may be used for a variety of purposes, such as fodder for livestock because of its high nutritional value. But DDGS have some properties that make them less than desirable as a livestock feed. First, non-pelletized DDGS risk spoilage when spread on the ground as feed and exposed to the weather. Second, DDGS transportation of loose granular DDGS is difficult because of caking that occurs as a result of moisture adsorption on the particle surface, or due to variability in the proportions of wet DG and condensed distillers solubles mixed prior to drying. [0010] Sorghum

[0011] Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a tropical grass that can be grouped into three basic types: (i) grain, (ii) forage, and (iii) sweet sorghum (Monk, 1980). Over 22,000 varieties of sorghum exist throughout the world (Jackson and al, 1980). Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids are intermediate in plant size between sorghum and sudangrass. Yield is generally less than for forage sorghums but similar to slightly higher than sudangrass. It can be used for hay, haylage, green-chop, and pasture. Sudangrass grows from 4 - 7 feet tall, has leaves about 1/2 inch wide and stems about 1/4 inch in diameter. It can be harvested as pasture, green chop, hay, or silage. The smaller stems give it better drying characteristics than other sorghums for hay making. Hybrids are available that are slightly larger and higher yielding (Undersander and Lane, 2001). Sorghum is indigenous to Africa.

[0012] Sorghum has many advantageous biological characteristics, including a high photosynthetic rate and high drought tolerance. Sorghum can grow under intense light and heat. In addition, sorghum plants have a waxy surface which reduces internal moisture loss and facilitates drought resistance.

[0013] Forage sorghum, non-grain portions of grain sorghum plants (stover), and sweet sorghum bagasse (created through the removal of sugar-containing fluids from sorghum) contain considerable quantities of ligno-cellulosic residue.

[0014] Sorghum can be made into pellets (Swanson, 2010). For example, dehydrated sorghum meal can be mixed with molasses as a binder, in proportions of 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% molasses, where it was found that 30% was optimal for producing a dry feed that was not sticky or pack together (Swanson, 2010). Proteins can also be added to such pellets, which are usually a half inch or less in thickness (Swanson, 2010).

[0015] Sorghum for feed (Undersander and Lane, 2001)

[0016] Sorghums, sorghum-sudangrass hybrids and sudangrasses grown for forage are most appropriately compared with corn silage in feed value. Table 1 lists representative feed values for the various classes of sorghum and sudangrass forages. Corn silage is also included in this table for reference. Table 2 shows the values of Table 1 as a percentage of corn silage.

[0017] While generally similar to corn silage for beef cattle and sheep, there are some interesting differences. Sudangrass grazed in its early vegetative stage contains as much available energy as corn silage and considerably more protein. Mature sudangrasses and most sorghum and sudangrass silages are 15-20% lower in available energy than corn silage. Crude protein levels are similar to corn silage, but they are variable and depend in part on available nitrogen. [0018] Calcium and phosphorus levels are higher than corn silage, and the calcium-phosphorus ratio is more optimal. Sorghum and sudangrass contain relatively high levels of potassium. Brown mid-rib (bmr) sorghums are considered to be more digestible.

[0019] Pellets and cubes are ideal for feedlot applications because their density and durability allow them to be handled with existing equipment used to handle ground livestock feed. The higher densities lower transportation and handling costs compared with loose DDGS. Product density and durability for range animal feeding are important as these products are used to supplement grazing animals. The ability to deliver a pellet that can withstand increased handling and transport is important. Lick tubs are desired because they not only deliver the higher quality feed, but are self- regulating in terms of animal intake based on their density. Because of this, tubs can be distributed throughout a pasture and animals will self-feed until the material is exhausted.

[0020] DDGS have been pelletized. In some conventional methods, the pellets or range cubes are formed by compressing dried grains with the addition of binder materials or supplements that help the resulting pellet become dense and cohesive.

[0021] A number of attempts have been made to pellet DDGS. For example, Scott Landers, "PELLET M ILL DI E AND PELLETIZI NG PROCESS" (U.S. Patent Publication No. 20080290548), discusses pelleting 100% DDGS material. US Patent No. 8,287,268, "DISTI LLER GRAI N PELLET PRODUCTION DEVICES," discloses a pelleting device that can be used to make DGG pellets.

[0022] U.S. Pat. No. 4,996,065, "MOLASSES-FREE CHEMICALLY REACTIVE BIN DER FOR AN IMAL FEED," discusses a feed pellet composition with binders to replace molasses binders. The use of corn cob, DDGS and dried distillers grains with solubles are mentioned as examples for possible pellet ingredients.

[0023] US Patent Application No. 20120301598, "COMPOSITION OF FEED PELLET AN D METHODS FOR PRODUCTION" discusses composition and production of feed pellets from biomass, which may include corn cobs and corn stover in (substantially) equal proportions, or may include a minimum of about 20% corn cobs. The biomass, dried distiller's grains with solubles, distillers solubles, and binders are mixed. In some embodiments, the ratio of ingredients is, on a w/w dry matter basis,: about 30-50% milled biomass, about 45-65% dried distillers grains, less than about 6% distillers solubles, and about less than around 2.5% binder (such as molasses, lignin sulfate, and sodium bentonite). Once mixed, the ingredients may be conditioned using steam and extruded through a die of between 1/4 and 3.5 inches in size. Neither oil nor sorghum is disclosed as a component of such pellets. TABLE 1

Forage Composition of Sorghum Types (expressed as 100% dry matter basis) (Undersander and Lane, 2001)

DM 1 TDN 2 N EG 3 N EM 4 CP 5 EE 6 Ca P K N DF 7 ADF 8

Grain Sorghum - silage 30 50 1.31 0.74 7.5 3.0 0.35 0.21 1.37 n/a 38

Forage Sorghum - sorgo 27 58 1.24 0.68 6.2 2.5 0.34 0.17 1.12 n/a n/a

Sudan grass - fresh, early vegetative 18 70 1.63 1.03 16.8 3.9 0.43 0.41 2.14 55 29

Sudan grass - fresh, mid-bloom 23 63 1.41 0.83 8.8 1.8 0.43 0.36 2.14 65 40

Sudan grass-hay, sun-cured 91 56 1.18 0.61 8.0 1.8 0.55 0.30 1.87 68 42

Sudan grass-silage 28 55 1.14 0.58 10.8 2.8 0.46 0.21 2.25 n/a 42

Corn - silage (well-eared) 33 70 1.63 1.03 8.1 3.1 0.23 0.22 0.96 51 28

Dry Matter Net Energy for Maintenance 7 Neutral detergent fiber (measure of

2 Total Digestible Nutrient 5 Crude Protein digestibility)

3Net Energy for Gain 6 Ether Extract (measure of lipid 8 Acid detergent fiber (measure of cellulose and lignin)

TABLE 2

Forage Composition of Sorghum Types Expressed as Percentage of Corn Silage (derived from Table 1)

DM TDN N EG N EM CP EE Ca P K N DF ADF

Grain Sorghum - silage 90.91 71.43 80.34 71.84 92.59 96.77 152.17 95.45 142.71 n/a 135.71

Forage Sorghum - sorgo 81.82 82.86 76.07 66.02 76.54 80.65 147.83 77.27 116.67 n/a n/a

Sudan grass - fresh, early vegetative 54.55 100 100 100 207.41 125.81 186.96 186.36 222.92 107.84 103.57

Sudan grass - fresh, mid-bloom 69.70 90 86.50 80.58 108.64 58.06 186.96 163.63 222.92 127.45 142.86

Sudan grass-hay, sun-cured 275.76 80 72.39 59.22 98.77 58.06 239.13 136.36 194.79 133.33 150

Sudan grass-silage 84.85 78.57 69.94 56.31 133.33 90.32 200 95.45 234.38 n/a 150

[0024] Pelletizing sorghum plant material has not been well explored as a feed, although some cases exist in making fuel "pellets." US Patent No. 4,613,339 discloses methods for preparing and using a combustible fuel product using sweet sorghum is disclosed. In the disclosed methods, a sorghum variety high in sugar, high in biomass, and low in nitrogen is first processed to remove a majority of sugars. The remaining ligno-cellulosic residue, the bagasse, is converted into combustible pellets or alternatively stored for future pelletization. Storage is accomplished by first piling the bagasse on a hard surface. The bagasse is then compressed to form a compacted mass. Compression frees trapped air in the pile, hindering oxidative degradation by bacteria and other microorganisms. However, these methods are directed at storing the bagasse and making loose, large "pellets." For example, "pellets" are prepared from piles of bagasse that are 10 to 20 feet high, and pressure is applied at 35 psi to 60 psi. In more traditional pellets more suitable for transport and use as fuel, US Patent No. 4,236,897 discloses high heating value, fuel pellets comprising from about 50 to about 99% by weight natural cellulosic material and from about 1 to about 50% by weight synthetic polymeric thermoplastic material. The synthetic thermoplastic material is uniformly distributed throughout the fuel pellet. The thermoplastic material is solid at room temperature and has an injection molding temperature of at least 200 °F. Such a pellet can be prepared in a pelletizer where the temperature of the pellet as it emerges from the die is from about 150 to about 250 °F. However, such methods and pellets have the disadvantage of requiring a thermoplastic material, such as polystyrene, polyethylene, polypropylene, acrylonitrile- butadienestyrene, acetal copolymer, acetal homopolymer, acrylic, polybutylene, and combinations thereof, which are often derived from petroleum, and can be toxic to handle at different stages of processing and unsuitable for animal feed.

[0025] WO2013036647 discloses pellets comprising a sorghum material, such as a sweet sorghum material; the pellets are highly combustible and comprise woody materials in addition to the sorghum materials. US Patent Application Publication No. 20070084385 discloses methods and devices for pelletizing unprocessed cellulosic fibrous material, such as sweet sorghum bagasse, into combustible fuel pellets.

[0026] Thus there is a need in the art for a method of making sorghum and DDGS-enriched compressed compositions suitable for animal feed. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0027] In a first aspect, the invention is directed to a compressed composition comprising 30% to 60% by weight DDGS; 30% to 60% by weight sorghum; and 1% to 10% by weight oil, wherein the sum of the DDGS and the sorghum do not exceed 99% by weight. In such aspects, the compressed composition comprises 45% to 47% by weight dried distiller grain (DDGS); 45% to 47% by weight sorghum; and 6% to 10% by weight oil. The DDGS can result from the manufacture of ethanol. The DDGS may be from corn, sorghum, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat DDGS. The sorghum can be a forage, sweet, or a grain sorghum, or combinations thereof. The sorghum can be engineered to express at least one enzyme. The sorghum can be processed before being comprised into such compositions, wherein such preprocessing comprises extracting juice from the sorghum or cutting, chopping, grinding, or adding to the sorghum at least one enzyme, an organic agent, an inorganic agent, a microbe, or an engineered microbe to the sorghum. The sorghum can comprise bagasse or stover. The oil can comprise at least one selected from the group consisting of corn, canola, sorghum, olive, flax, cottonseed, peanut, safflower, sesame, soy, palm, fish, soy, canola, sunflower, palm, nut, and vegetable oils; animal fat and restaurant grease. Furthermore, the compressed composition can further comprise at least one selected from the group consisting of a pharmaceutical, a micronutrient, a mineral, a vitamin, plant material, grains, oilseed meals, milk products, wheat middlings, wheat bran, rice bran, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, molasses, rice mill byproduct, amino acids, antioxidants, tocochromanols, tocopherols, coccidostats, feed additives, yeasts, buffers, organic acids, mycotoxin inhibitors, clays, and alumina. Furthermore, in such compositions, the DDGS comprise 47% by weight; the sorghum comprises 47% by weight; and the oil comprises 6% by weight; the DDGS can comprise corn DDGS, and the oil can comprise corn oil; or, the DDGS can comprise sorghum DDGS, and the oil can comprise grain sorghum oil. Such compressed compositions can be in the form of pellets or lick tubs. Such compressed compositions can be made by mixing the DDGS, sorghum and oil, heating the mixture to approximately 200 °F and either extruding the mixture to make a pellet, or subjecting the mixture in a vessel to a pressure exceeding at least 2000 psi for 15-20 minutes.

[0028] In a second aspect, the invention is directed to methods of making compressed compositions, wherein the compressed composition comprises 30% to 60% by weight DDGS; 30% to 60% by weight sorghum; and 1% to 10% by weight oil, wherein the sum of the DDGS and the sorghum do not exceed 99% by weight. In such methods, the compressed composition comprises 45% to 47% by weight dried distiller grain (DDGS); 45% to 47% by weight sorghum; and 6% to 10% by weight oil. The DDGS can result from the manufacture of ethanol. The DDGS may be from corn, sorghum, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat DDGS. The sorghum can be a forage, sweet, or a grain sorghum, or combinations thereof. The sorghum can be engineered to express at least one enzyme. The sorghum can be processed before being comprised into such methods, wherein such preprocessing comprises extracting juice from the sorghum or cutting, chopping, grinding, or adding to the sorghum at least one enzyme, an organic agent, an inorganic agent, a microbe, or an engineered microbe to the sorghum. The sorghum can comprise bagasse or stover. The oil can comprise at least one selected from the group consisting of corn, canola, sorghum, olive, flax, cottonseed, peanut, safflower, sesame, soy, palm, fish, soy, canola, sunflower, palm, nut, and vegetable oils; animal fat and restaurant grease. Furthermore, the compressed composition can further comprise at least one selected from the group consisting of a pharmaceutical, a micronutrient, a mineral, a vitamin, plant material, grains, oilseed meals, milk products, wheat middlings, wheat bran, rice bran, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, molasses, rice mill byproduct, amino acids, antioxidants, tocochromanols, tocopherols, coccidostats, feed additives, yeasts, buffers, organic acids, mycotoxin inhibitors, clays, and alumina. Furthermore, in such methods, the DDGS comprise 47% by weight; the sorghum comprises 47% by weight; and the oil comprises 6% by weight; the DDGS can comprise corn DDGS, and the oil can comprise corn oil; or, the DDGS can comprise sorghum DDGS, and the oil can comprise grain sorghum oil. Such compressed compositions can be in the form of pellets or lick tubs. Such compressed compositions can be made by mixing the DDGS, sorghum and oil, heating the mixture to approximately 200 °F and either extruding the mixture to make a pellet, or subjecting the mixture in a vessel to a pressure exceeding at least 2000 psi for 15-20 minutes.

[0029] In a third aspect, the invention is directed to a pellet or lick tub comprising 30% to 60% by weight DDGS; 30% to 60% by weight sorghum; and 1% to 10% by weight oil, wherein the sum of the DDGS and the sorghum do not exceed 99% by weight. In such aspects, the pellet or lick tub comprises 45% to 47% by weight dried distiller grain (DDGS); 45% to 47% by weight sorghum; and 6% to 10% by weight oil. The DDGS can result from the manufacture of ethanol. The DDGS may be from corn, sorghum, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat DDGS. The sorghum can be a forage, sweet, or a grain sorghum, or combinations thereof. The sorghum can be engineered to express at least one enzyme. The sorghum can be processed before being comprised into such compositions, wherein such preprocessing comprises extracting juice from the sorghum or cutting, chopping, grinding, or adding to the sorghum at least one enzyme, an organic agent, an inorganic agent, a microbe, or an engineered microbe to the sorghum. The sorghum can comprise bagasse or stover. The oil can comprise at least one selected from the group consisting of corn, canola, sorghum, olive, flax, cottonseed, peanut, safflower, sesame, soy, palm, fish, soy, canola, sunflower, palm, nut, and vegetable oils; animal fat and restaurant grease.

Furthermore, the pellet or lick tub can further comprise at least one selected from the group consisting of a pharmaceutical, a micronutrient, a mineral, a vitamin, plant material, grains, oilseed meals, milk products, wheat middlings, wheat bran, rice bran, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, molasses, rice mill byproduct, amino acids, antioxidants, tocochromanols, tocopherols, coccidostats, feed additives, yeasts, buffers, organic acids, mycotoxin inhibitors, clays, and alumina. Furthermore, in such compositions, the DDGS comprise 47% by weight; the sorghum comprises 47% by weight; and the oil comprises 6% by weight; the DDGS can comprise corn DDGS, and the oil can comprise corn oil; or, the DDGS can comprise sorghum DDGS, and the oil can comprise grain sorghum oilSuch pellets or lick tubs can be made by mixing the DDGS, sorghum and oil, heating the mixture to approximately 200 °F and either extruding the mixture to make a pellet, or subjecting the mixture in a vessel to a pressure exceeding at least 2000 psi for 15-20 minutes.

[0030] In a fourth aspect, the invention is directed to methods of making a pellet or lick tub, wherein the pellet or lick tub comprises 30% to 60% by weight DDGS; 30% to 60% by weight sorghum; and 1% to 10% by weight oil, wherein the sum of the DDGS and the sorghum do not exceed 99% by weight. In such methods, the pellet or lick tub comprises 45% to 47% by weight dried distiller grain (DDGS); 45% to 47% by weight sorghum; and 6% to 10% by weight oil. The DDGS can result from the manufacture of ethanol. The DDGS may be from corn, sorghum, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat DDGS. The sorghum can be a forage, sweet, or a grain sorghum, or combinations thereof. The sorghum can be engineered to express at least one enzyme. The sorghum can be processed before being comprised into such compositions, wherein such preprocessing comprises extracting juice from the sorghum or cutting, chopping, grinding, or adding to the sorghum at least one enzyme, an organic agent, an inorganic agent, a microbe, or an engineered microbe to the sorghum. The sorghum can comprise bagasse or stover. The oil can comprise at least one selected from the group consisting of corn, canola, sorghum, olive, flax, cottonseed, peanut, safflower, sesame, soy, palm, fish, soy, canola, sunflower, palm, nut, and vegetable oils; animal fat and restaurant grease. Furthermore, the pellet or lick tub can further comprise at least one selected from the group consisting of a pharmaceutical, a micronutrient, a mineral, a vitamin, plant material, grains, oilseed meals, milk products, wheat middlings, wheat bran, rice bran, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, molasses, rice mill byproduct, amino acids, antioxidants, tocochromanols, tocopherols, coccidostats, feed additives, yeasts, buffers, organic acids, mycotoxin inhibitors, clays, and alumina. Furthermore, in such methods, the DDGS comprise 47% by weight; the sorghum comprises 47% by weight; and the oil comprises 6% by weight; the DDGS can comprise corn DDGS, and the oil can comprise corn oil; or, the DDGS can comprise sorghum DDGS, and the oil can comprise grain sorghum oil. Such pellets or lick tubs can be made by mixing the DDGS, sorghum and oil, heating the mixture to approximately 200 °F and either extruding the mixture to make a pellet, or subjecting the mixture in a vessel to a pressure exceeding at least 2000 psi for 15-20 minutes.

[0031] In yet another aspect, the invention is directed to methods of feeding livestock, comprising feeding the livestock a compressed composition comprising 30% to 60% by weight DDGS; 30% to 60% by weight sorghum; and 1% to 10% by weight oil, wherein the sum of the DDGS and the sorghum do not exceed 99% by weight. In such methods, the compressed composition comprises 45% to 47% by weight dried distiller grain (DDGS); 45% to 47% by weight sorghum; and 6% to 10% by weight oil. The DDGS can result from the manufacture of ethanol. The DDGS may be from corn, sorghum, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat DDGS. The sorghum can be a forage, sweet, or a grain sorghum, or combinations thereof. The sorghum can be engineered to express at least one enzyme. The sorghum can be processed before being comprised into such methods, wherein such preprocessing comprises extracting juice from the sorghum or cutting, chopping, grinding, or adding to the sorghum at least one enzyme, an organic agent, an inorganic agent, a microbe, or an engineered microbe to the sorghum. The sorghum can comprise bagasse or stover. The oil can comprise at least one selected from the group consisting of corn, canola, sorghum, olive, flax, cottonseed, peanut, safflower, sesame, soy, palm, fish, soy, canola, sunflower, palm, nut, and vegetable oils; animal fat and restaurant grease. Furthermore, the compressed composition can further comprise at least one selected from the group consisting of a pharmaceutical, a micronutrient, a mineral, a vitamin, plant material, grains, oilseed meals, milk products, wheat middlings, wheat bran, rice bran, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, molasses, rice mill byproduct, amino acids, antioxidants, tocochromanols, tocopherols, coccidostats, feed additives, yeasts, buffers, organic acids, mycotoxin inhibitors, clays, and alumina. Furthermore, in such methods, the DDGS comprise 47% by weight; the sorghum comprises 47% by weight; and the oil comprises 6% by weight; the DDGS can comprise corn DDGS, and the oil can comprise corn oil; or, the DDGS can comprise sorghum DDGS, and the oil can comprise grain sorghum oil. Such compressed compositions can be in the form of pellets or lick tubs. Such compressed compositions can be made by mixing the DDGS, sorghum and oil, heating the mixture to approximately 200 °F and either extruding the mixture to make a pellet, or subjecting the mixture in a vessel to a pressure exceeding at least 2000 psi for 15-20 minutes. [0032] In a sixth aspect, the invention is directed to methods of providing a service, comprising making a compressed composition comprising at least 30% by weight DDGS; 30% by weight sorghum; andl% by weight oil, wherein the sum of the DDGS and the sorghum do not exceed 99% by weight, and receiving a fee for the service, wherein the fee is one selected from the group consisting of (i) a royalty payment, (ii) a fee based on a sale of the pellet or lick tub, (iii) a fee based on a license for the pellet or lick tub, and (iv) a fee based on receipt of a product or service comprising making the pellet or lick tub. In such methods, the compressed composition comprises 45% to 47% by weight dried distiller grain (DDGS); 45% to 47% by weight sorghum; and 6% to 10% by weight oil. The DDGS can result from the

manufacture of ethanol. The DDGS may be from corn, sorghum, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat DDGS. The sorghum can be a forage, sweet, or a grain sorghum, or combinations thereof. The sorghum can be engineered to express at least one enzyme. The sorghum can be processed before being comprised into such methods, wherein such preprocessing comprises extracting juice from the sorghum or cutting, chopping, grinding, or adding to the sorghum at least one enzyme, an organic agent, an inorganic agent, a microbe, or an engineered microbe to the sorghum. The sorghum can comprise bagasse or stover. The oil can comprise at least one selected from the group consisting of corn, canola, sorghum, olive, flax, cottonseed, peanut, safflower, sesame, soy, palm, fish, soy, canola, sunflower, palm, nut, and vegetable oils; animal fat and restaurant grease. Furthermore, the compressed composition can further comprise at least one selected from the group consisting of a pharmaceutical, a micronutrient, a mineral, a vitamin, plant material, grains, oilseed meals, milk products, wheat middlings, wheat bran, rice bran, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, molasses, rice mill byproduct, amino acids, antioxidants, tocochromanols, tocopherols, coccidostats, feed additives, yeasts, buffers, organic acids, mycotoxin inhibitors, clays, and alumina. Furthermore, in such methods, the DDGS comprise 47% by weight; the sorghum comprises 47% by weight; and the oil comprises 6% by weight; the DDGS can comprise corn DDGS, and the oil can comprise corn oil; or, the DDGS can comprise sorghum DDGS, and the oil can comprise grain sorghum oil. Such compressed compositions can be in the form of pellets or lick tubs. Such compressed compositions can be made by mixing the DDGS, sorghum and oil, heating the mixture to approximately 200 °F and either extruding the mixture to make a pellet, or subjecting the mixture in a vessel to a pressure exceeding at least 2000 psi for 15-20 minutes. The method can further comprise providing a compressed composition, such as a pellet or lick tub, that is customized to a third party's specifications.

[0033] In a seventh aspect, the invention is directed to methods of decreasing mycotoxin in DDGS, comprising making a compressed composition comprising at least 30% by weight DDGS; 30% by weight sorghum; and 1% by weight oil, wherein the sum of the DDGS and the sorghum do not exceed 99% by weight, and the mycotoxing level is reduced in the compressed compositionas when compared to the DDGS alone. In such methods, the compressed composition comprises 45% to 47% by weight dried distiller grain (DDGS); 45% to 47% by weight sorghum; and 6% to 10% by weight oil. The DDGS can result from the manufacture of ethanol. The DDGS may be from corn, sorghum, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat DDGS. The sorghum can be a forage, sweet, or a grain sorghum, or combinations thereof. The sorghum can be engineered to express at least one enzyme. The sorghum can be processed before being comprised into such methods, wherein such preprocessing comprises extracting juice from the sorghum or cutting, chopping, grinding, or adding to the sorghum at least one enzyme, an organic agent, an inorganic agent, a microbe, or an engineered microbe to the sorghum. The sorghum can comprise bagasse or stover. The oil can comprise at least one selected from the group consisting of corn, canola, sorghum, olive, flax, cottonseed, peanut, safflower, sesame, soy, palm, fish, soy, canola, sunflower, palm, nut, and vegetable oils; animal fat and restaurant grease. Furthermore, the compressed composition can further comprise at least one selected from the group consisting of a pharmaceutical, a micronutrient, a mineral, a vitamin, plant material, grains, oilseed meals, milk products, wheat middlings, wheat bran, rice bran, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, molasses, rice mill byproduct, amino acids, antioxidants, tocochromanols, tocopherols, coccidostats, feed additives, yeasts, buffers, organic acids, mycotoxin inhibitors, clays, and alumina. Furthermore, in such methods, the DDGS comprise 47% by weight; the sorghum comprises 47% by weight; and the oil comprises 6% by weight; the DDGS can comprise corn DDGS, and the oil can comprise corn oil; or, the DDGS can comprise sorghum DDGS, and the oil can comprise grain sorghum oil. Such compressed compositions can be in the form of pellets or lick tubs. Such compressed compositions can be made by mixing the DDGS, sorghum and oil, heating the mixture to approximately 200 °F and either extruding the mixture to make a pellet, or subjecting the mixture in a vessel to a pressure exceeding at least 2000 psi for 15-20 minutes.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS

[0034] FIG. 1 shows a schematic of a process suitable for making a compressed sorghum composition enriched in DDGS. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0035] I. INTRODUCTION

[0036] DDGS-enriched compressed compositions

[0037] The invention solves the problem of making DDGS-enriched compositions suitable for animal feed in the form of sorghum-containing pellets and animal feeding tubs. In such compositions DDGS, sorghum and oil pellets are produced either via an extrusion process that involves heating the mixture to approximately 180° F to approximately 200° F and extruding the material for pellets; or, in the case of animal feeding or "lick" buckets, the same mixture is compressed into plastic tubs using pressure in excess of 2000 psi for a period of time. The process creates a high value livestock feed that is easily handled and transported.

[0038] Through these methods, the inventors are able to overcome technical limitations associated with compressing DDGs into pellets and lick tubs. This technology also allows the inventors to develop new feed products and increase revenues associated with DDGS and with sorghum, as well as provide a multitude of services associated with DDGS and sorghum. This technology also affords the ability to perform services for third parties (entities that request a service from another party) based on DDGS and sorghum.

[0039] II. MAKING AND USING THE INVENTION (Note: Definitions are found at the end of the Detailed Description, before the Examples; a table of abbreviations is found after the Examples.)

[0040] Components

[0041] DDGS

[0042] Dried Distillers Grains are Wet Distiller's Grains (WDGs) that have been dried to 10-12 per cent moisture. DDGS are produced during ethanol production from grain, such as from corn, sorghum grain, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat. As an example, in commercial corn ethanol production, corn is ground, mixed with water and recycled stillage to create a slurry, liquefied, fermented, and the resulting ethanol distilled. The remaining grains and liquid effluent, known as "whole stillage," is fractionated by centrifugation. The supernatant comprises "thin stillage", which can be evaporated to produce

"Condensed Distillers Grains" (CDGs). The pellet comprises coarse solids and is known as WDGs, which, when dried to 10-12% moisture, produce DDGS. DDGS with Solubles (DDGS) are produced when DDGS are combined with CDGs (Council, 2012). [0043] The thin stillage can also provide a source of oil. Before drying thin stillage to make CDGs, oil is extracted by one of two methods. The most common in the US, "Step 1" extraction, thin stillage is heated, and the oil is extracted by a centrifugation. Often, the thin stillage is heated to facilitate extraction (Council, 2012).

[0044] In the "Step 2" process, there is an additional extraction process, where the wet cake of the whole stillage is "washed" to liberate oil in the cake before centrifugation of the wet grains and thin stillage. This additional step dramatically increases the yield of oil in corn systems (Council, 2012).

[0045] By percent weight at standard product moistures, DDGS may be present in the compositions of the invention from about 30% to about 60%, including 45%-47%, and 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, and 59 percent and any increment thereof. DDGS may be from any source, including corn, sorghum grain, wheat, rye, barley, quinoa, or oat.

[0046] Sorghum

[0047] Sorghum means Sorghum bicolor (primary cultivated species), Sorghum almum, Sorghum amplum, Sorghum angustum, Sorghum rundinaceum, Sorghum brachypodum, Sorghum bulbosum, Sorghum burmahicum, Sorghum controversum, Sorghum drummondii, Sorghum carinatum, Sorghum exstans, Sorghum grande, Sorghum halepense, Sorghum interjectum, Sorghum intrans, Sorghum laxiflorum, Sorghum leiocladum, Sorghum macrospermum, Sorghum matarankense, Sorghum miliaceum, Sorghum nigrum, Sorghum nitidum, Sorghum plumosum, Sorghum propinquum, Sorghum purpureosericeum, Sorghum stipoideum, Sorghum timorense, Sorghum trichocladum, Sorghum versicolor, Sorghum virgatum, and Sorghum vulgare (including but not limited to the variety Sorghum vulgare var. sudanens also known as Sorghum sudanens, or sudangrassj and hybrids thereof. Hybrids of with other members of the Family Poaceae are also of interest in the invention.

[0048] In embodiments of the invention, the leafy and stem material is most useful. Thus forage sorghums, stover from grain and dual purpose sorghum, sudan grass and sudan grass-sorghum hybrids are most useful, although it is not necessary to remove any grain from the sorghum material. The sorghum component in the compositions of the invention may be processed, including having juice extracted (creating bagasse), or cutting, chopping, grinding, or drying, or any combination. Especially attractive for feeding livestock are brown mid-rib (bmr) forage sorghum types.

[0049] Useful in the invention are commercially available sorghum from Monsanto Co. (St. Louis, MO; USA), Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. (Johnston, IA; USA), Advanta (Amarillo, TX; USA), Chromatin, Inc. (Chicago, IL; USA - including the SORGHUM PARTNERS ® brand), Golden Acres (Waco, TX; USA), Dow AgroSciences LLC (Indianapolis, IN; USA - TRIUMPH ® and MYCOGEN ® brands), and other providers. SORGHUM PARTNERS ® brand sorghum, sudangrass, and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids are especially useful in the invention and are shown in Table 3. Especially useful is 12SU9004.

TABLE 3

SORGHUM PARTNERS ® Brand Sorghum (Chromatin, Inc.)

Product Relative Maturity 1 Silage Maturity 1,2 Yield (tonnage) 3 % grain in forage Hybrid Sorghums

NK300 Med. Early 100-110 3 15-20

HIKANE II Med. 110-120 3 10-15

Sucrosorgo 304 Med. Full 115-120 2 10-15

Sucrosorgo 405 Full 120-125 2 5-15

1990 Full 120-125+ 1 n/a

Hybrid Sorghum x Sudan grass

Sordan 79 n/a n/a 3 n/a

Sordan Headless n/a n/a 2 n/a

Hybrid Sudangrass

Trudan 8 n/a n/a 3 n/a

Trudan Headless n/a n/a 2 n/a

Grain Sorghum

251 Early

KS310 Early

SP3303 Med. Early

SP3425 Med. Early

K35-Y5 Med. Early

NK4420 Med. Early

NK5418 Med.

KS585 Med.

NK6638 Med.

SP6929 Med. Full K73-J6 Med. Full

KS735 Med. Full

NK7633 Med. Full

SP7868 Med. Full

NK7829 Med. Full

NK8416 Full

NK9916 Full

1 n/a, not applicable

2 Dough Stage from Emergence

3 Numerical Rating: 1 to 9 (1 = Excellent, 5

[0050] By percent weight at standard product moistures, the sorghum component may be present in the compositions of the invention from about 30% to about 60%, including 45%-47%, and including 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, and 59 percent and any increment thereof. The sorghum may be chemically pre-treated, such as described by US Patent Application Publication No. 20080220125, which discloses hydrolyzing fiber with inorganic agents, such as calcium hydroxide. Organic agents may also be used, as well as engineered organisms, such as disclosed in US Patent Application Publication No. 20110165635, "METHODS AND MATERIALS FOR PROCESSING A FEEDSTOCK," and enzymes, such as cellulases. Furthermore, the sorghum may be engineered to express one or more proteins, such as enzymes.

[0051] Oil

[0052] In embodiments of the invention, any edible oil is suitable. Examples include corn, canola, sorghum (from grain), olive, flax, soy, palm, fish, soy, canola, sunflower, palm, nut, and vegetable oil, and mixtures thereof. Other fats and oils may be used if an appropriate viscosity can be attained during pelleting; for example, by mixing with another oil. For example, sorghum wax can be dissolved in another liquid oil, such as corn oil. Furthermore, more solid oils and fats, including animal fat and restaurant grease, can also be heated to provide a suitably viscous material. The oil can act as a binder, as well as aiding flow of the components during pelleting.

[0053] By percent weight, the oil component may be present in the compositions of the invention from about 1% to about 10%, including 6%-10%, and including 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9% and any increment thereof. [0054] Other components

[0055] The pellets of the invention can be made more complete feed for an intended livestock by adding additional components, including, for example, vitamins, minerals, other plant material (for example, corn silage or alfalfa), etc. Additional exemplary additional feed ingredients may include ingredients such as grains (i.e., corn, wheat, barley), oilseed meals (i.e., soybean meal, cottonseed meal, flaxseed meal, canola meal), byproducts (i.e., wheat middlings, wheat bran, rice bran, brewers grains, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, molasses, rice mill byproduct), milk products (i.e., casein, whey proteins), vitamin and minerals, amino acids, antioxidants, tocochromanols, tocopherols, coccidostats, feed additives, yeasts, buffers (i.e., sodium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide), organic acids (i.e., propionic acids, acetic acids, blends thereof), mycotoxin inhibitors, clays, alumina, and the like, and combinations thereof.

[0056] Further exemplary additional components include feed enzymes, including cellulases, glucanases, xylanases, and ferulic acid esterases. Other enzymes, preferably thermotolerant enzymes, can be incorporated pre-pelleting. Non-thermotolerant, or any enzyme, can be applied to the surface of the pellets, such as by spraying. Examples of nutrition components includes (in forms that are physiologically available to the intended recipient) calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and cobalt.

[0057] Furthermore, the pellets of the invention can be used as a vehicle to administer pharmaceutical compositions. Such pharmaceuticals may be co-compressed with the pellet or lick, or may be applied to the pellets or lick after peptization or lick formation, such as through a spray, emulsion, powder, etc. Dosage can be controlled by pellet size or tub density to attain a target animal consumption rate (lbs/day) and dosage. These variables can be used to determine the appropriate pharmaceutical rates to be added during the production process. One of skill in the art will understand how to incorporate such pharmaceuticals into the compositions of the invention.

[0058] Pharmaceutical compositions can comprise pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. The term "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" means a non-toxic, inert solid, semi-solid or liquid filler, diluent, encapsulating material or formulation auxiliary of any type. Some examples of materials which can serve as pharmaceutically acceptable carriers are sugars such as lactose, glucose and sucrose; starches such as corn starch and potato starch; cellulose and its derivatives such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate; powdered tragacanth; malt; gelatin; talc; excipients such as cocoa butter and suppository waxes; oils such as peanut oil, cottonseed oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, olive oil, corn oil and soybean oil; glycols, such a propylene glycol; esters, such as ethyl oleate and ethyl laurate; agar; buffering agents such as magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide; alginic acid; pyrogen-free water; isotonic saline; Ringer's solution; ethyl alcohol, and phosphate buffer solutions, as well as other non-toxic compatible lubricants such as sodium lauryl sulfate and magnesium stearate, as well as coloring agents, releasing agents, coating agents, sweetening, flavoring and perfuming agents, preservatives and antioxidants can also be present in the composition, according to the judgment of the formulator.

[0059] Solid dosage forms for oral administration include capsules, tablets, and pills, (these may be incorporated into the pelleting mix by grinding, chopping, or dissolving); powders and granules. In such solid dosage forms, the active compound may be mixed with at least one inert, pharmaceutically acceptable excipient or carrier, such as sodium citrate or di calcium phosphate and/or (a) fillers or extenders such as starches, lactose, sucrose, glucose, mannitol and silicic acid; (b) binders such as carboxymethylcellulose, alginates, gelatin, polyvinylpyrrolidone, sucrose and acacia; (c) humectants such as glycerol; (d) disintegrating agents such as agar-agar, calcium carbonate, potato or tapioca starch, alginic acid, certain silicates and sodium carbonate; (e) solution retarding agents such as paraffin; (f) absorption accelerators such as quaternary ammonium compounds; (g) wetting agents such as cetyl alcohol and glycerol monostearate; (h) absorbents such as kaolin and bentonite clay; and (i) lubricants such as talc, calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, solid polyethylene glycols, sodium lauryl sulfate and mixtures thereof. In the case of capsules, tablets and pills, the dosage form may also comprise buffering agents.

[0060] The solid dosage forms of tablets, dragees, capsules, pills and granules can be prepared with coatings and shells such as enteric coatings and other coatings well-known in the pharmaceutical formulating art. They may optionally contain opacifying agents and may also be of a composition such that they release the active ingredient(s) only, or preferentially, in a certain part of the intestinal tract, optionally, in a delayed manner. Examples of embedding compositions which can be used include polymeric substances and waxes.

[0061] The active compounds can also be in micro-encapsulated form, if appropriate, with one or more of the above-mentioned carriers or as known to those of skill in the art.

[0062] One of skill in the art will understand how to formulate pellets the comprise components in addition to forage sorghum or sorghum stover, oil and DDGS. [0063] Method of making

[0064] FIG. 1 shows schematically an overview of some of the methods of the invention, using corn DDGS and forage sorghum to exemplify the invention. Corn is produced (1), harvested and delivered to a ethanol bioprocessor, who produces ethanol (3), and, as described previously, DDGS (5). Forage sorghum, such as a forage sorghum selected from Table 3, is grown (7), harvested (9), dried to a standard moisture content (e.g., 12%), and as necessary, preprocessed to reduce particle size using standard methods (to e.g., ½ inch or less; (11)). The DDGS, forage sorghum particles and oil ((13); such as corn oil) are combined and mixed together, for example by an extruder without a die in place (15), further homogenizing the mixture and further reducing particle size of the different components. The mixture is then extruded (17) at approximately 180° F to approximately 200° F, producing pellets or cubes. Alternatively, the mixture, preferably after mixing with an extruder, is compressed into feed buckets at 1800 psi (not shown).

[0065] Pelleting methods

[0066] Pelleting methods that can be used in the methods of the invention to make the compositions of the invention are those that 180° F to approximately 200° F and about 2,000 psi (in the case of lick tubs). For example, US Patent No. 8,287,268 discloses devices and methods suitable for embodiments of the present invention. Briefly, the DDGS-sorghum forage mixture is forced through a first die orifice located at the entrance of die by the pressure applied to the treated material due to the rotation of a profile extruder. This first die orifice generally has across section area that is less than the cross sectional area defined by the circumference of the inside wall of the outlet of the profile extruder. The die is configured such that the DDGS-sorghum forage mixture is compressed parallel to its axis of transport and it is also compressed in a direction transverse to the direction of transport as it passes though.

[0067] Due to the process of creating pressure in the compression enclosure, the moisture (mainly oil) in the DDGS-sorghum forage mixture, in this example, is forced to the outside walls of the extrudate after exiting a second die orifice. Thus, the mixture of heated liquid and vapor from the oil and water in the distiller grain migrates to and collects on the outer surfaces of the treated DDGS-sorghum forage mixture to for a lubrication layer. The oil functions as a lubricant between outer surface of the distiller in and the inner wall of a die extremity tube and helps the DDGS-sorghum forage mixture to pass through the die extremity. The treated DDGS-sorghum forage mixture is still in a relatively modulus state when it is directed into a die extremity tube. The modulus state of the treated material enables it to easily deform elastically and conform to the shape of the die extremity tube. The diameter and shape of the die extremity tube can be selected according to the desired shape and size of the final product. Some examples of the different kinds of cross sections of the die extremity tube may include round, square, rectangular, star shaped, triangular etc.

[0068] As the treated DDGS-sorghum forage mixture is pushed through the die extremity tubes, the DDGS-sorghum forage mixture may be cooled in a heat exchanger assembly.

[0069] Revenue generation

[0070] The present invention allows for providing a service to a third party. The service includes customizing the components of the pellets of the invention for a particular application (e.g., a targeted livestock, or feeding livestock application), such as selectively choosing the sorghum, Sudan grass, Sudan grass-sorghum material, the oil, and the amount of DDGS, as well as any other components, such as vitamins, minerals, or pharmaceuticals. The pellets are then produced.

[0071] This method can be used to increase the revenues generated from DDGS and/or sorghum, Sudan grass, and Sudan grass-sorghum, as well as from pellets comprising these components. In this regard, the desirable characteristics can be chosen so that the resultant pellets are more valuable. "More valuable" can have a variety of meanings. In one aspect, it means more revenue is generated by DDGS and/or sorghum, Sudan grass, and Sudan grass-sorghum than either product alone may generate on the market. The term can also mean that costs associated with, for example, feeding livestock, are reduced. In this regard, the composition of the pellets can be made more nutritious through the addition of, for example, vitamins, minerals, and the like, or the addition of pharmaceutical compositions.

[0072] A variety of mechanisms can be used as a method of receiving a fee for the pellets of the invention. Such methods can include a license fee and a royalty payment. A royalty can be charged either as a one-time payment, a fixed fee paid on a regular basis, or a portion of the sales, or any combination thereof. For example, the invention is licensed to a third party. The third party may sell pellets to a farmer or other commercial entity for a set price, and the fee is set as a portion of the sales price. For example, a fee of 1% of the sales of the pellets can be charged as the fee. A variety of mechanisms can be used to meet the step of receiving a fee. Essentially, all that is required is that value is received.

[0073] A variety of business methods can be accommodated by the present invention. In part, these methods are due to the ability to produce the pellets of the invention and even customize them. [0074] In addition, methods of generating revenue can include, without limitation: selling pellets, possibly for specific fields of use or exclusive use; developing pellets per customer specifications;

designing pellets to enhance feeding values, and producing high value pellets the deliver nutrition as well as non-nutritive substances, such as pharmaceuticals.

[0075] DEFINITIONS

[0076] "About" or "approximately" when referring to any numerical value are intended to mean a value of plus or minus 10% of the stated value.

[0077] "Dried Distillers Grain" (DDGS) are a cereal byproduct of the distillation process. There are two common types of distillers grains. Wet Distillers Grains (WDG) contain primarily unfermented grain residues (protein, fiber, fat and up to 70% moisture). Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS) is WDG that has been dried with the concentrated thin stillage to 10-12 per cent moisture. DDGS may be obtained from any grain used in ethanol production.

[0078] "Pellet" is understood as generally understood by one of skill in the art. Pellets are most often cylindrical, and can have a range of diameters and lengths. Typically, pellets are ¼ to 11/64 inches or larger, including ¼, 5/8, ¾, 3/16, and 11/64 inches in diameter. Pellets can be cast as having different lengths, typically from 1 ¾ inches to 5 inches, including 1 3/8, 1 ¾, 2 ½, 2 ¾, 4, and 5 inches or longer. Often, pellets will be produced or break that are shorter than the die used to cast them; for the purposes of the invention, length uniformity is unnecessary. While most practical to form cylindrical pellets, pellets can be in any suitable configuration, such as a cube. For the pellets of the invention, those having a diameter of ¾" or greater are preferred.

[0079] "Standard Product Moisture" means, when referring to DDGS, 10-12%; standard product moisture, when referring to sorghum forage or stover, means approximately less than 15%.

[0080] EXAMPLES

[0081] The following examples are meant to only exemplify the invention, not to limit it in any way. One of skill in the art can envision many variations and methods to practice the invention.

[0082] Example 1 - DDGS- and sorghum-rich Pellets

[0083] The DDGS-Sorghum pellets were produced by mixing DDGS, Forage Sorghum (12SU9004 Sorghum Partners; New Deal, Texas, USA) in equal parts. Prior to mixing, the forage sorghum was ground into particles of ½ inch or less using a standard forage grinder. The forage sorghum was at approximately 12% moisture when ground. Corn oil was added to the sorghum DDGS mixture at a rate of approximately 6% by weight. This mixture was further ground by passing through an extruder without a die in place. This pass was conducted to further reduce the size of the materials and further homogenize the mixture. No heat was applied during this homogenization step. The mixture was then passed through an extruder with temperatures near 180°F and passed through dies to produce pellets that were approximately 7/8" in diameter.

[0084] Example 2 - DDGS-rich Lick tubs

[0085] The DDGS-Sorghum lick tubs were produced by mixing DDGS, Forage Sorghum (12SU9004 Sorghum Partners; New Deal, Texas, USA) in equal parts. Prior to mixing, the forage sorghum was ground into particles of ½ inch or less using a standard forage grinder. The forage sorghum was at approximately 12% moisture when ground. Corn oil was added to the sorghum DDGS mixture at a rate of approximately 6% by weight. This mixture was further ground by passing through an extruder without a die in place. This pass was conducted to further reduce the size of the materials and further homogenize the mixture. No heat was applied during this homogenization step. The mixture was then placed into plastic tubs approximately 2001 bs of material. The material was then pressed for 20 minutes in a press at pressures in excess of 1800 psi.

[0086] Example 3- composition analyses

[0087] The pellets of Example 1 were subjected to standard analysis to determine the composition of the novel pellets. The results are shown in Table 4.

[0088] The results in Table 4 show that the novel pellets are highly enriched, when compared to forage sorghum only, in total digestible nutrient (TDN) (30%), crude protein (360%), fat (1071%), sulfur (309%), phosphorous (189%), and magnesium (130%), and less so for potassium (17%). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were decreased (34% and 23%, respectively). Thus the novel pellets are more easily digested and increased in nutrients, especially protein and fat, as well as micronutrients, such as sulfur, phosphorous and magnesium. TABLE 4

Compositional analysis of the compositions of Examples 1 and 2

TDN CP Fat Ca P K S Mg NDF ADF

DDGS only 85.1 29.9 12.2 0.03 0.87 1.17 0.74 0.39 23.0 23.7

Forage sorghum only 64.0 4.2 1.4 0.26 0.19 1.49 0.11 0.13 56.7 36.8 Pellets 83.0 19.5 16.4 0.22 0.55 1.74 0.45 0.30 37.4 28.2

TABLE 5

Abbreviations

Abbreviation Term Abbreviation Term

ADF Acid Detergent Fiber DM Dry Matter

bmr brown mid-rib EE Ether Extract

CDG Condensed Distillers Grains NDF Neutral Detergent Fiber

CP Crude Protein NEG Net Energy for Gain

DDGS Dried Distillers Grain NEM Net Energy for Maintenance

DDGS Dried Distillers Grain with TDN Total Digestible Nutrient

Solubles

WDG Wet Distillers Grain

[0089] REFERENCES

[0090] Council, U.S.G. 2012. A guide to distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). U.S. Grains Council, Washington, D.C. 406 pp.

[0091] Jackson, D., and e. al. 1980. Development of Sweet Sorghum as an Energy Crop, Volume 1: Agricultural Task. Battelle Laboratories Columbus Division.

[0092] Monk, R.L. 1980. Improvements of Sorghum for Energy Production.

[0093] Swanson, A. 2010. Making pellets of forage sorghum. In Yearbook of agriculture series.

Library4science.com, LLC.

[0094] Undersander, D., and W. Lane. 2001. Sorghums, sudangrasses, and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids. University of Wisconsin - Extension Cooperative Extension.