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Title:
PEPTIDOMIMETIC PROTEASOME INHIBITORS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2019/075252
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The compounds of the present invention are represented by the following compounds having Formula (I) and Formula (I'): where the substituents R, R1, R3 R4, R', W, X, Y, Z, k, and m are as defined herein and where the substituents R, R1, R2, R3, R4, X, Y, Z, and m are as defined herein. These compounds are used in the treatment of bacterial infections, parasite infections, fungal infections, cancer, immunologic disorders, autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and disorders, inflammatory disorders, or muscular dystrophy or for providing immunosuppression for transplanted organs or tissues.

Inventors:
LIN, Gang (72-38 Loubet St, Forest Hills, NY, 11375, US)
NATHAN, Carl (5 Edgewood Avenue, Larchmont, NY, 10538, US)
ZHAN, Wenhu (4109 Denman St, 5th FloorElmhurst, NY, 11373, US)
MORGAN, Trevor (6 Teasel Close, Royston, Hertfordshire SG8 9NG, 9NG, GB)
HARA, Ryoma (2-19-10 Higashitamagawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 158-0084, JP)
IMAEDA, Toshihiro (4-26-11-101 Muraoka-Higashi, Fujisawa, 251-0012, JP)
OKAMOTO, Rei (234-1-204 Kawakamicho, Totsuka-kuYokohama, Kanagawa, 244-0805, JP)
SATO, Kenjiro (4-24-4-K-2 Muraoka-Higashi, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 251-0012, JP)
ASO, Kazuyoshi (1-24-21-402 Nakamachidai, Tsuzuki-kuYokohama, Kanagawa, 224-0041, JP)
WONG, Tzu-Tshin (27 High Street, Acton, MA, 01720, US)
FOLEY, Michael A. (300 East 59th Street, Apt. 2101New York, NY, 10022, US)
Application Number:
US2018/055482
Publication Date:
April 18, 2019
Filing Date:
October 11, 2018
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
CORNELL UNIVERSITY (Center for Technology Licensing at, Cornell University395 Pine Tree Road, Suite 31, Ithaca NY, 14850, US)
TRI-INSTITUTIONAL THERAPEUTICS DISCOVERY INSTITUTE (413 East 69th St, New York, NY, 10021, US)
International Classes:
A61P35/04; C07K5/02; C07K5/062
Foreign References:
US8048911B22011-11-01
Other References:
DATABASE Pubchem Compound 23 October 2012 (2012-10-23), XP055592212, retrieved from ncbi Database accession no. 64894495
DATABASE Pubchem Compound 13 September 2017 (2017-09-13), "(2S,3R)-2-Amino-3-hydroxy-N-[2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl]butanamide | C7H15N3O3", XP055592216, retrieved from ncbi Database accession no. 129847054
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
GOLDMAN, Michael L. et al. (LeClairRyan PLLC, 70 Linden Oaks Suite 21, Rochester NY, 14625, US)
Download PDF:
Claims:
WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A compound of Formula (I): (I),

wherein

R is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

R' is H or Ci-6 alkyl; R1 is H or Ci-6 alkyl; or R and R1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form a C3-8 cycloalkyl ring;

R2 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from

s or— (CH2)„C(0) R6R7;

R3 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of H, Cm alkyl,— Boc,— C(0)(CH2)nR5,— (CH2)nC(0)R5,— C(0)OR5,— C(0)(CH2)n R6R7, — S(0)2R5, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle, wherein monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R8;

R4 is H, halogen, H2, NHCOOCi-n alkyl, or C1.12 alkyl;

R5 is selected from the group consisting of C1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C3. 10 cycloalkyl, C3.12 cycloalkylalkyl, C1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle, wherein C1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C3.10 cycloalkyl, C3.12 cycloalkylalkyl, C1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R8;

R6, R7 are each independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6 alkyl, and arylalkyl; or R6 and R7 are taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached to form a piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring, wherein piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R9;

R8 is selected independently at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of halogen, Ci-6 alkyl, C3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl, wherein Ci-6 alkyl, C3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R9;

R9 is selected from the group consisting of H, halogen, Ci-6 alkyl, C3-8 cycloalkyl, and aryl, wherein Ci-6 alkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with halogen;

R is H or arylalkyl;

X is selected from the group consisting of— C(0)- H— , monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle;

Y is optional and, if present, is— (CH2)n

Z is optional and, if present, is aryl or bicyclic heteroaryl; ' is the point of attachment to HR moiety; • |_

*' is the point of attachment to C(O) moiety; k is 1 or 2; m is 0, 1, or 2; and n is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4, with the proviso that R2 is not— CH2C(0) H2,— CH2C(0) HCH2C(CH3)3, or

— (CH2)2C(0) H2, or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodrug thereof.

2. The compound according to claim 1 which has the formula (IA):

The compound according to claim 1 which has the formula (IB):

4. The compound according to claim 1 which has the formula (IC):

5. The compound according to claim 1, wherein R and R1 are taken together

with the carbon to which they are attached to form and wherein

1 is the point of attachment to H; and

•I «— is the point of attachment to X. pound according to claim 1, wherein R3 is

w ere n * s the point of attachment to the corresponding carbon atom of the structure of Formula (I).

7. The compound according to claim 1, wherein R4 is H2 or NHBoc.

8. The compound according to claim 1, wherein X is

wherein

I «— is the point of attachment to C(R 1 )(R 2 ) moiety; is the point of attachment to Y, Z, or R4.

9. The compound according to claim 1, wherein Z is or

wherein ^ is the point of attachment to Y or X; ^ is the point of attachment to R4.

11. The com ound according to claim 1 which has the Formula (Γ):

wherein

R is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

R1 is H or Ci-6 alkyl; or R and R1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form a C3-8 cycloalkyl ring;

R2 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, and— (CH2)nC(0) R6R7, wherein Ci-6 alkyl can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with a substituent selected independently at each occurrence thereof from OH or C(0)OR10;

R3 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of H,— Boc,— C(0)(CH2)nR5,— (CH2)nC(0)R5,— C(0)OR5,— C(0)(CH2)n R6R7,— S(0)2R5, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle, wherein monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with Ci-6 alkyl; R4 is H, Ci-12 alkyl, or halogen;

R5 is selected from the group consisting of C1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C3- 10 cycloalkyl, C3.12 cycloalkylalkyl, C1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle, wherein C1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C3.10 cycloalkyl, C3.12 cycloalkylalkyl, C1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R8;

R6, R7 are each independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6 alkyl, and arylalkyl; or R6 and R7 are taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached to form a piped dine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring, wherein piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R9;

R8 is selected independently at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of halogen, Ci-6 alkyl, C3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl, wherein Ci-6 alkyl, C3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R9;

R9 is selected from the group consisting of H, halogen, Ci-6 alkyl, C3-8 cycloalkyl, and aryl, wherein Ci-6 alkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with halogen; R10 is H or arylalkyl;

X is monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, or monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle;

Y is optional and, if present, is— (CH2)m— ;

Z is optional and, if present, is aryl; m is 0, 1, or 2; and n is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4; or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodrug thereof.

12. The compound according to claim 11 which has the formula (ΓΑ):

wherein

A is NH, N, O, or S.

13. The compoun according to claim 11 which has the formula (ΓΒ):

wherein

= is a single or a double bond; A is NH, N, O, or S; and B is NH, N, O, or S.

14. The compound according to claim 11 which has the formula (I'C):

15. The compound according to claim 11 which has the formula (I'D):

The compound accordin to claim 11 which has the formula (ΓΕ):

The compound accordin to claim 11 which has the formula (I ):

The compound accordin to claim 11 which has the formula (I'G):

The compound according to claim 14 which has the formula (I'C):

The compound accordin to claim 15 which has the formula (I'D'):

The compound according to claim 16 which has the formula (ΓΕ'):

(ΙΈ'). The compound according to claim 17 which has the formula (I '):

The compound according to claim 18 which has the formula (I'G'):

24. The compound according to claims 1 or 11, wherein R1 is H or Me.

25. The compound according to claims 1 or 11, wherein R and R1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form group, and wherein

I is the point of attachment to H; and

1 is the point of attachment to X.

26. The compound according to claims 1 or 11, wherein R2 is selected from the group consisting wherein the point of attachment to the corresponding carbon atom of the structure of Formula (I).

The compound according to claims 1 or 11, wherein R is selected from

wherein the point of attachment to the corresponding carbon atom of the structure of Formula (I).

28. The compound according to claims 1 or 11, wherein R4 is H, Me, or F.

The compound according to claims 1 or 11, wherein X is selected from the

group consisting of , and

wherein

I— 1 2

« is the point of attachment to C(R )(R ) moiety;

^ is the point of attachment to Y, Z, or R4. 30. The compound according to claims 1 or 11, wherein Y is -CH2-.

31. The compound according to claims 1 or 11, wherein Z is , and wherein the point of attachment to Y or X; the point of attachment to R4

32. The compound according to claims 1 or 11, wherein the compound of Formula (Γ) is selected from the group consisting of:

-226 -

-227 -

-228

-230

-231 -

-232 -

-233 -

-234 -

-235 -

-236 -

33. A compound of Formula:

or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodrug thereof.

34. A compound of Formula II):

wherein

R is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

R1 is H or Ci-6 alkyl; or R and R1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form a C3-8 cycloalkyl ring;

R2 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, and— (CH2)nC(0) R6R7, wherein Ci-6 alkyl can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with a substituent selected independently at each occurrence thereof from OH or C(0)OR10;

R3 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of H,— Boc,— C(0)(CH2)nR5,— (CH2)nC(0)R5,— C(0)OR5,— C(0)(CH2)n R6R7,— S(0)2R5, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle, wherein monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with Ci-6 alkyl;

R4 is H, C1-12 alkyl, or halogen;

R5 is selected from the group consisting of C1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C3- 10 cycloalkyl, C3.12 cycloalkylalkyl, C1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle, wherein C1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C3.10 cycloalkyl, C3.12 cycloalkylalkyl, C1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R8;

905187828.2 R6, R7 are each independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci-6 alkyl, and arylalkyl; or R6 and R7 are taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached to form a piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring, wherein piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R9;

R8 is selected independently at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of halogen, Ci-6 alkyl, C3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl, wherein Ci-6 alkyl, C3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R9;

R9 is selected from the group consisting of H, halogen, Ci-6 alkyl, C3-8 cycloalkyl, and aryl, wherein Ci-6 alkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with halogen;

R10 is H or arylalkyl;

X is monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, or monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle;

Y is optional and, if present, is— (CH2)m— ; Z is optional and, if present, is aryl; W is N or CH; m is 0, 1, or 2; and n is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4; or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodrug thereof.

905187828.2

35. A method of treating bacterial infections, parasite infections, fungal infections, cancer, immunologic disorders, autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and disorders, inflammatory disorders, or muscular dystrophy, in a subject or for achieving immunosuppression in transplanted organs or tissues in a subject, said method comprising:

administering to the subject in need thereof the compound according to any one claims 1-34.

36. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a therapeutically effective amount of the compound according to any one of claims 1-34 and a pharmaceutically acceptable

37. The method of claim 35, wherein a bacterial infection is treated, said bacterial infection being Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 38. The method of claim 35, wherein a parasite infection is treated, said parasite infection being malaria, leishmaniasis, river blindness, Chagas disease, or sleeping disease.

39. The method of claim 35, wherein a parasite infection is treated, said parasite infection being cryptosporidiosis, amebiasis, cyclosporiasis, giardiasis, or

toxoplasmosis.

40. The method of claim 35, wherein a parasite infection is treated, said parasite infection being veterinary parasite infection.

41. The method of claim 40, wherein a veterinary parasite infection is caused by protozoan parasites, helminth parasites, arachnids, insects, or custaceans.

42. The method of claim 35, wherein an autoimmune disorder is treated, said autoimmune disorder being selected from the group consisting of arthritis, colitis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, Sjogren Syndrome, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and lupus nephritis, glomerulonephritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis, Crohn's diseases, Psoriasis, and asthma.

905187828.2

43. The method of claim 35, wherein immunosuppression is provided for transplanted organs or tissues, said immunosuppression being used to prevent transplant rejection and graft-verse-host disease. 44. The method of claim 35, wherein an inflammatory disorder is treated, said inflammatory disorder being Crohn's disease.

45. The method of claim 35, wherein cancer is treated, said cancer being selected from the group consisting of neoplastic disorders, hematologic malignances,

lymphocytic malignancies, mantel cell lymphoma, leukemia, Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, metastatic breast cancer, prostate cancer, androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer, renal cancer, metastatic renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular cancer, lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), and adenocarcinoma of the lung, ovarian cancer, progressive epithelial or primary peritoneal cancer, cervical cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, head and neck cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, melanoma, neuroendocrine cancer, metastatic neuroendocrine tumors, brain tumors, glioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, adult glioblastoma multiforme, and adult anaplastic astrocytoma, bone cancer, and soft tissue sarcoma.

46. The method of claim 35, wherein a neurodegenerative disease or disorder is treated, said neurodegenerative disease or disorder being Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). 47. The method of claim 35, wherein a neurodegenerative disease or disorder is treated, said neurodegenerative disease or disorder being Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

48. A method of inhibiting proteasome activity, said method comprising: contacting a proteasome with the compound according to any one of claims 1-34 under conditions effective to inhibit proteasome activity.

905187828.2

Description:
PEPTIDOMIMETIC PROTEASOME INHIBITORS

[0001] This application claims the priority benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application

Serial No. 62/571, 146, filed October 11, 2017, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION [0002] The present invention relates to peptidomimetic proteasome inhibitors.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0003] Proteasomes are highly conserved self-compartmentalizing proteases found in three kingdoms of life. A proteasome is a large, ATP-dependent, multi-subunit, barrel-shaped N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase present in the cytosol and nucleus of eukaryotic cells and is responsible for the degradation of the majority of cellular proteins (Baumeister et al., "The Proteasome: Paradigm of a Self-Compartmentalizing Protease," Cell 92(3):367-380 (1998); Goldberg AL., "Functions of the Proteasome: from Protein Degradation and Immune

Surveillance to Cancer Therapy," Biochem. Soc. Trans. 35(Pt 1): 12-17 (2007)). Through regulated degradation, a proteasome regulates protein homeostasis, the cell cycle, signal transduction, protein trafficking, immune responses, etc, which are important cellular functions. Degradation product oligopeptides are reservoirs of antigenic peptides for MHC class I antigen presentation.

[0004] The 20 S core that is constitutively expressed in most cells (c-20S) is a stack of 4 rings of 14 a and β subunits organized in a αι. 7 β 1^1.701.7 fashion, where 2 copies of each caspase-like βΐ, trypsin-like β2, and chymotrypsin-like β5 active subunits are located in the inner β rings (Baumeister, et al., "The Proteasome: Paradigm of a Self-Compartmentalizing Protease," Cell 92:367-380 (1998)). The chymotrypsin-like β5 active subunits of the 20S have been clinically validated as a target for the treatment of multiple myeloma and certain lymphomas. Presently, there are three proteasome inhibitors that were approved by FDA:

bortezomib, carfilzomib, and ixazomib: bortezomib and ixazomib are reversible peptide boronates and carfilzomib an irreversible peptide epoxyketone (Borissenko et al., "20S

Proteasome and its Inhibitors: Crystallographic Knowledge for Drug Development," Chem. Rev. 107:687-717 (2007); Parlati et al., Haematol-Hematol. J. 94: 148-149 (2009); Huber et al., "Inhibitors for the Immuno- and Constitutive Proteasome: Current and Future Trends in Drug Development," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(35):8708-8720 (2012)).

[0005] Proteasome inhibition interrupts many cellular pathways, particularly, the F-kB activation pathway, the induction of unfolded protein response, and ER stress, while strongly inducing apoptosis. For this reason, highly specific proteasome inhibitors have been approved for the treatment of hematological cancer. Proteasome inhibitors can also markedly limit the overall supply of peptides for MHC class I molecules and, thus, block antigen presentation (Rock et al., "Protein Degradation and the Generation of MHC Class I-Presented Peptides," Adv.

Immunol. 80: 1-70 (2002)). As a result, proteasome inhibitors reduce immune response via multiple routes. Antibody-secreting plasma cells are highly sensitive to proteasome inhibition and BTZ, which inhibits both C-20S and i-20S, has been used in renal transplant recipients to prevent antibody-mediated graft rejection (Aull et al., Clin Transpl 495-498 (2009); Raghavan et al., "Bortezomib in Kidney Transplantation," J. Transplant. 2010: 698594 (2010); Al-Homsi et al., "Effect of Novel Proteasome and Immunoproteasome Inhibitors on Dendritic Cell

Maturation, Function, and Expression of 1Kb and NfKb," Transpl. Immunol. 29: 1-6 (2013); Pai et al., "Treatment of Chronic Graft- Versus-Host Disease with Bortezomib," Blood 124: 1677-1688

(2014) ). BTZ was also reported to be efficacious in patients with refractory systemic lupus erythematosus (Alexander et al., "The Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib Depletes Plasma Cells and Ameliorates Clinical Manifestations of Refractory Systemic Lupus Erythematosus," Ann. Rheum. Dis. 74: 1474-1478 (2015).

[0006] Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum), the most deadly of the human malarias, accounts for nearly 0.5 million deaths a year, primarily in children. The most important current therapies are combinations of artemisinins (ART). The emergence of ART resistant parasites (Ariey et al., "A Molecular Marker of Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria," Nature 505(7481):50-55 (2014); Straimer et al., "K 13 -Propeller Mutations Confer Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium Falciparum Clinical Isolates," Science 347(6220):428-431 (2015); Dogovski et al., "Targeting the Cell Stress Response of Plasmodium Falciparum to Overcome Artemisinin Resistance," PLoS Biol. 13(4):el002132 (2015); Mbengue et al., "A Molecular Mechanism of Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria," Nature

520(7549):683-687 (2015)) highlights the need for new antimalarials with novel targets (Wells TN et al., "Malaria Medicines: a Glass Half Full?" Nat. Rev. DrugDiscov. 14(6):424-442

(2015) ). Upregulation of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is important for survival of artemisinin-resistant parasites and emphasizes the importance of the UPS in parasite survival and its importance as a drug target moving forward (Dogovski et al., "Targeting the Cell Stress Response of Plasmodium Falciparum to Overcome Artemisinin Resistance," PLoSBiol.

13(4):el002132 (2015); Mok et al., "Drug Resistance. Population Transcriptomics of Human Malaria Parasites Reveals the Mechanism of Artemisinin Resistance," Science 347(6220):431- 435(2015)).

[0007] Proteasome inhibitors are known to kill malaria parasites in vitro and are efficacious against multiple parasite stages; peptide epoxyketone inhibitors, a peptide vinyl sulfone inhibitor, and a cyclic peptide inhibitor, have potent anti-malarial activities (Dogovski et al., "Targeting the Cell Stress Response of Plasmodium Falciparum to Overcome Artemisinin Resistance," PLoSBiol. 13(4):el002132 (2015); Featherstone C. "Proteasome Inhibitors in Development for Malaria," Mol. Med. Today 3(9):367 (1997); Gantt et al., "Proteasome

Inhibitors Block Development of Plasmodium Spp," Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.

42(10):2731-2738 (1948); Aminake et al., "The Proteasome of Malaria Parasites: A Multi-Stage Drug Target for Chemotherapeutic Intervention?" Int. J. Parasitol. Drugs Drug Resist. 2: 1-10 (2012); Li et al., "Validation of the Proteasome as a Therapeutic Target in Plasmodium Using an Epoxyketone Inhibitor with Parasite-Specific Toxicity," Chem. Biol. 19(12): 1535-1545 (2012); Tschan et al., "Broad-Spectrum Antimalarial Activity of Peptido Sulfonyl Fluorides, a New Class of Proteasome Inhibitors," Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57(8):3576-8354 (2013); Li et al., "Assessing Subunit Dependency of the Plasmodium Proteasome Using Small Molecule Inhibitors and Active Site Probes," ACS Chem. Biol. 9(8): 1869-1876 (2014); Li et al., "Structure- and Function-Based Design of Plasmodium-Selective Proteasome Inhibitors," Nature

530(7589):233-236 (2016)). Bortezomib (BTZ) and MLN-273 were effective against

Plasmodium in blood and liver stages (Lindenthal et al., "The Proteasome Inhibitor MLN-273 Blocks Exoerythrocytic and Erythrocytic Development of Plasmodium Parasites," Parasitology 131(Pt l):37-44 (2005); Reynolds et al., "Antimalarial Activity of the Anticancer and

Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib and its Analog ZL3B," BMC. Clin. Pharmacol. 7: 13 (2007)); MG-132 against blood stage and gametocytes (Lindenthal et al., "The Proteasome Inhibitor MLN-273 Blocks Exoerythrocytic and Erythrocytic Development of Plasmodium Parasites," Parasitology 131 (Pt l):37-44 (2005); Prudhomme et al., "Marine Actinomycetes: a New Source of Compounds Against the Human Malaria Parasite," PLoS One 3(6):e2335 (2008)); epoxomicin against blood and liver stages and gametocytes (Aminake et al., "Thiostrepton and Derivatives Exhibit Antimalarial And Gametocytocidal Activity by Dually Targeting Parasite Proteasome and Apicoplast," Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55(4): 1338-1348 (2011); Czesny et al., "The Proteasome Inhibitor Epoxomicin Has Potent Plasmodium Falciparum Gametocytocidal

Activity," Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53(10):4080-4085 (2009); Kreidenweiss et al., "Comprehensive Study of Proteasome Inhibitors Against Plasmodium Falciparum Laboratory Strains and Field Isolates From Gabon," Malar. J. 7: 187 (2008); Li et al., "Validation of the Proteasome as a Therapeutic Target in Plasmodium Using an Epoxyketone Inhibitor With Parasite-Specific Toxicity," Chem. Biol. 19(12): 1535-1545 (2012)). These inhibitors are in general not species selective. They are cytotoxic to host cells and unsuitable for treating malaria. There is an urgent need to develop Plasmodium spp. proteasome (PfZOS) selective inhibitors that target parasite proteasomes over human host proteasomes.

[0008] Species selective proteasome inhibitors have been reported (Hu et al., "Structure of the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Proteasome and Mechanism of Inhibition by a Peptidyl Boronate," Mol. Microbiol. 59: 1417-1428 (2006); Li et al., "Structural Basis for the Assembly and Gate Closure Mechanisms of the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis 20S Proteasome," Embo. J. 29:2037-2047 (2010); Lin et al., "N,C-Capped Dipeptides With Selectivity for Mycobacterial Proteasome Over Human Proteasomes: Role of S3 and SI Binding Pockets," J Am. Chem. Soc. 135:9968-9971 (2013); Lin et al., "Mycobacterium Tuberculosis prcBA Genes Encode a Gated Proteasome With Broad Oligopeptide Specificity/' o/. Microbiol. 59: 1405-1416 (2006); Lin et al., "Fellutamide B is a Potent Inhibitor of the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Proteasome/ rc/z. Biochem. Biophys. 501 :214-220 (2010); Lin et al., "Inhibitors Selective for Mycobacterial Versus Human Proteasomes," Nature 461(7264):621-626 (2009); Lin et al., "Distinct

Specificities of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and Mammalian Proteasomes for N- Acetyl Tripeptide Substrates," J. Biol. Chem. 283 :34423-31 (2008)).

[0009] As shown by the above references, the proteasome represents an important target for therapeutic intervention of various disorders. Thus, there is an ongoing need for new and/or improved proteasome inhibitors.

[0010] The present invention is directed to overcoming these and other deficiencies in the art.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION [0011] A first aspect of the present invention relates to a compound of Formula (I): (I).

wherein

R is H or Ci-6 alkyl; R' is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

R 1 is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

or R and R 1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form a C3-8 cycloalkyl ring;

R 2 is inde endently selected at each occurrence thereof from

R 3 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of H, C 1 . 12 alkyl,— Boc,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 5 ,— (CH 2 ) n C(0)R 5 ,— C(0)OR 5 ,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 6 R 7 , — S(0) 2 R 5 , monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle, wherein monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R 8 ;

R 4 is H, halogen, H 2 , NHCOOCm alkyl, or C 1 . 12 alkyl;

R 5 is selected from the group consisting of C 1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3 . 10 cycloalkyl, C 3 . 12 cycloalkylalkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle, wherein C 1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3 . 10 cycloalkyl, C 3 . 12 cycloalkylalkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R 8 ;

R 6 , R 7 are each independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci -6 alkyl, and arylalkyl;

or R 6 and R 7 are taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached to form a piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring, wherein piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 8 is selected independently at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, and aryl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with halogen;

R 10 is H or arylalkyl;

X is selected from the group consisting of— C(0)- H— , monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle;

Y is optional and, if present, is— (CH 2 ) m — ;

Z is optional and, if present, is aryl or bicyclic heteroaryl;

• I '— is the point of attachment to HR moiety;

• |_

*' is the point of attachment to C(O) moiety;

k is 1 or 2;

m is 0, 1, or 2; and

n is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4,

with the proviso that R 2 is not— CH 2 C(0) H 2 ,— CH 2 C(0) HCH 2 C(CH 3 ) 3 , or

— (CH 2 ) 2 C(0) H 2 ,

or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodrug thereof.

[0012] A second aspect of the present invention relates to a method of treating bacterial infections, parasite infections, fungal infections, cancer, immunologic disorders, autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and disorders, inflammatory disorders, or muscular dystrophy, in a subject or for achieving immunosuppression in transplanted organs or tissues in a subject. This method includes administering to the subject in need thereof a compound according to any aspect of the present invention.

[0013] A third aspect of the present invention relates to a method of inhibiting proteasome activity. This method includes contacting a proteasome with a compound according to any aspect of the present invention under conditions effective to inhibit proteasome activity.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0014] A first aspect of the present invention relates to a compound of Formula (I):

wherein

R is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

R' is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

R 1 is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

or R and R 1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form a C3-8 cycloalkyl ring;

R 2 is inde endently selected at each occurrence thereof from

R 3 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of H, C 1 . 12 alkyl,— Boc,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 5 ,— (CH 2 ) n C(0)R 5 ,— C(0)OR 5 ,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 6 R 7 , — S(0) 2 R 5 , monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle, wherein monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R 8 ;

R 4 is H, halogen, H 2 , NHCOOCi-n alkyl, or C 1 . 12 alkyl;

R 5 is selected from the group consisting of C 1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3 . 10 cycloalkyl, C 3 . 12 cycloalkylalkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle, wherein C 1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3 . 10 cycloalkyl, C 3 . 12 cycloalkylalkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R 8 ;

R 6 , R 7 are each independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci -6 alkyl, and arylalkyl;

or R 6 and R 7 are taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached to form a piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring, wherein piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ; R 8 is selected independently at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, and aryl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with halogen;

1 0 is H or arylalkyl;

X is selected from the group consisting of— C(0)- H— , monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle;

Y is optional and, if present, is— (CH 2 ) m — ;

Z is optional and, if present, is aryl or bicyclic heteroaryl; the point of attachment to HR moiety; he point of attachment to C(O) moiety;

k is 1 or 2;

m is 0, 1, or 2; and

n is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4,

with the proviso that R 2 is not— CH 2 C(0) H 2 ,— CH 2 C(0) HCH 2 C(CH 3 ) 3 , or

— (CH 2 ) 2 C(0) H 2 ,

or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodrug thereof.

[0015] As used above, and throughout the description herein, the following terms, unless otherwise indicated, shall be understood to have the following meanings. If not defined otherwise herein, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as is commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this technology belongs. In the event that there is a plurality of definitions for a term herein, those in this section prevail unless stated otherwise.

[0016] The term "alkyl" means an aliphatic hydrocarbon group which may be straight or branched having about 1 to about 12 carbon atoms in the chain. Branched means that one or more lower alkyl groups such as methyl, ethyl or propyl are attached to a linear alkyl chain. Exemplary alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, i-propyl, n-butyl, t-butyl, n-pentyl, and 3-pentyl.

[0017] The term "cycloalkyl" means a non-aromatic mono- or multi cyclic ring system of about 3 to about 12 carbon atoms, preferably of about 3 to about 8 carbon atoms. Exemplary monocyclic cycloalkyls include cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, cycloheptyl, bicyclo[l . l . l]pentyl, and the like.

[0018] The term "cycloalkylalkyl" means a cycloalkyl-alkyl-group in which the cycloalkyl and alkyl are as defined herein. Exemplary cycloalkylalkyl groups include cyclopropylmethyl, cyclobutylmethyl, cyclopentylmethyl, cyclopropylethyl, cyclobutyl ethyl, and cyclopentyl ethyl. The alkyl radical and the cycloalkyl radical may be optionally substituted as defined herein.

[0019] The term "aryl" means an aromatic monocyclic or multicyclic ring system of 6 to about 14 carbon atoms, preferably of 6 to about 10 carbon atoms. Representative aryl groups include phenyl and naphthyl.

[0020] The term "arylalkyl" means an alkyl substituted with one or more aryl groups, wherein the alkyl and aryl groups are as herein described. One particular example is an arylmethyl or arylethyl group, in which a single or a double carbon spacer unit is attached to an aryl group, where the carbon spacer and the aryl group can be optionally substituted as described

herein. Representative arylalkyl groups include

and

[0021] The term "heteroaryl" means an aromatic monocyclic or multicyclic ring system of about 5 to about 14 ring atoms, preferably about 5 to about 10 ring atoms, in which one or more of the atoms in the ring system is/are element(s) other than carbon, for example, nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. In the case of multicyclic ring system, only one of the rings needs to be aromatic for the ring system to be defined as "Heteroaryl". Preferred heteroaryls contain about 5 to 6 ring atoms. The prefix aza, oxa, thia, or thio before heteroaryl means that at least a nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur atom, respectively, is present as a ring atom. A nitrogen atom of a heteroaryl is optionally oxidized to the corresponding N-oxide. Representative heteroaryls include pyridyl, 2- oxo-pyridinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyridazinyl, pyrazinyl, triazinyl, furanyl, pyrrolyl, thiophenyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, triazolyl, oxadiazolyl, thiadiazolyl, tetrazolyl, indolyl, isoindolyl, benzofuranyl, benzothiophenyl, indolinyl, 2- oxoindolinyl, dihydrobenzofuranyl, dihydrobenzothiophenyl, indazolyl, benzimidazolyl, benzooxazolyl, benzothiazolyl, benzoisoxazolyl, benzoisothiazolyl, benzotriazolyl,

benzo[l,3]dioxolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, quinazolinyl, cinnolinyl, pthalazinyl, quinoxalinyl, 2,3-dihydro-benzo[l,4]dioxinyl, benzo[l,2,3]triazinyl, benzo[l,2,4]triazinyl, 4H-chromenyl, indolizinyl, quinolizinyl, 6aH-thieno[2,3-d]imidazolyl, lH-pyrrolo[2,3-£]pyridinyl, imidazo[l,2- ajpyridinyl, pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyridinyl, [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridinyl, [l,2,4]triazolo[l,5- ajpyridinyl, thieno[2,3-£]furanyl, thieno[2,3-£]pyridinyl, thieno[3,2-£]pyridinyl, furo[2,3- £]pyridinyl, furo[3,2-£]pyridinyl, thieno[3,2-<i]pyrimidinyl, furo[3,2-<i]pyrimidinyl, thieno[2,3- £]pyrazinyl, imidazo[l,2-a]pyrazinyl, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroimidazo[l,2-a]pyrazinyl, 6,7-dihydro- 4H-pyrazolo[5, l-c][l,4]oxazinyl, 2-oxo-2,3-dihydrobenzo[<i]oxazolyl, 3,3-dimethyl-2- oxoindolinyl, 2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-lH-pyrrolo[2,3-^]pyridinyl, benzo[c][l,2,5]oxadiazolyl, benzo[c][l,2,5]thiadiazolyl, 3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[£][l,4]oxazinyl, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro- [ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[4,3 -ajpyrazinyl, [ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[4,3 -ajpyrazinyl, 3 -oxo-[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[4,3 - a]pyridin-2(3H)-yl, and the like.

[0022] As used herein, "heterocyclyl" refers to a stable 3- to 18-membered ring (radical) which consists of carbon atoms and from one to five heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. For purposes of this application, the heterocycle may be a monocyclic, or a polycyclic ring system, which may include fused, bridged, or spiro ring systems; and the nitrogen, carbon, or sulfur atoms in the heterocycle may be optionally oxidized; the nitrogen atom may be optionally quaternized; and the ring may be partially or fully saturated. Examples of such heterocycles include, without limitation, azepinyl, azocanyl, pyranyl dioxanyl, dithianyl, 1,3-dioxolanyl, tetrahydrofuryl, dihydropyrrolidinyl, decahydroisoquinolyl, imidazolidinyl, isothiazolidinyl, isoxazolidinyl, morpholinyl, octahydroindolyl,

octahydroisoindolyl, 2-oxopiperazinyl, 2-oxopiperidinyl, 2-oxopyrrolidinyl, 2-oxoazepinyl, oxazolidinyl, oxiranyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, 4-piperidonyl, pyrrolidinyl, pyrazolidinyl, thiazolidinyl, tetrahydropyranyl, thiamorpholinyl, thiamorpholinyl sulfoxide, and

thiamorpholinyl sulfone. Further heterocycles and heteroaryls are described in Katritzky et al., eds., Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry: The Structure, Reactions, Synthesis and Use of Heterocyclic Compounds, Vol. 1-8, Pergamon Press, N.Y. (1984), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0023] The term "non-aromatic heterocycle" means a non-aromatic monocyclic or multi cyclic system containing 3 to 10 atoms, preferably 4 to about 7 carbon atoms, in which one or more of the atoms in the ring system is/are element(s) other than carbon, for example, nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. Representative non-aromatic heterocycle groups include

pyrrolidinyl, 2-oxopyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, 2-oxopiperidinyl, azepanyl, 2-oxoazepanyl, 2- oxooxazolidinyl, morpholino, 3-oxomorpholino, thiomo holino, l, l-dioxothiomo holino, piperazinyl, tetrohydro-2H-oxazinyl, and the like.

[0024] The term "monocyclic" used herein indicates a molecular structure having one ring.

[0025] The term "polycyclic" or "multi-cyclic" used herein indicates a molecular structure having two or more rings, including, but not limited to, fused, bridged, or spiro rings.

[0026] Terminology related to "protecting", "deprotecting," and "protected'

functionalities occurs throughout this application. Such terminology is well understood by persons of skill in the art and is used in the context of processes which involve sequential treatment with a series of reagents. In that context, a protecting group refers to a group which is used to mask a functionality during a process step in which it would otherwise react, but in which reaction is undesirable. The protecting group prevents reaction at that step, but may be subsequently removed to expose the original functionality. The removal or "deprotection" occurs after the completion of the reaction or reactions in which the functionality would interfere. Thus, when a sequence of reagents is specified, as it is in the processes described herein, the person of ordinary skill can readily envision those groups that would be suitable as "protecting groups." Suitable groups for that purpose are discussed in standard textbooks in the field of chemistry, such as Greene, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1991), which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0027] The term "alkoxy" means groups of from 1 to 12 carbon atoms of a straight, branched, or cyclic configuration and combinations thereof attached to the parent structure through an oxygen. Examples include methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, isopropoxy, cyclopropyloxy, cyclohexyloxy, and the like. Lower-alkoxy refers to groups containing one to four carbons. For the purposes of the present patent application, alkoxy also includes methylenedioxy and ethylenedioxy in which each oxygen atom is bonded to the atom, chain, or ring from which the methylenedioxy or ethylenedioxy group is pendant so as to form a ring. Thus, for example,

phenyl substituted by alkoxy may be, for example, or

[0028] A compound with a hydroxy group drawn next to a nitrogen on a heterocycle can exist as the "keto" form. For example, 3-(2-hydroxy-[l,2,4]triazolo[l,5-a]pyridin-6- yl)propanoic acid can exist as 3-(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-[l,2,4]triazolo[l,5-a]pyridin-6-yl)prop anoic acid.

[0029] The term "halogen" means fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo.

[0030] The term "substituted" or "substitution" of an atom means that one or more hydrogen on the designated atom is replaced with a selection from the indicated group, provided that the designated atom's normal valency is not exceeded.

[0031] "Unsubstituted" atoms bear all of the hydrogen atoms dictated by their valency.

When a substituent is keto (i.e., =0), then two hydrogens on the atom are replaced.

Combinations of substituents and/or variables are permissible only if such combinations result in stable compounds; by "stable compound" or "stable structure" is meant a compound that is sufficiently robust to survive isolation to a useful degree of purity from a reaction mixture, and formulation into an efficacious therapeutic agent.

[0032] The term "optionally substituted" is used to indicate that a group may have a substituent at each substitutable atom of the group (including more than one substituent on a single atom), provided that the designated atom's normal valency is not exceeded and the identity of each substituent is independent of the others. Up to three H atoms in each residue are replaced with alkyl, halogen, haloalkyl, hydroxy, loweralkoxy, carboxy, carboalkoxy (also referred to as alkoxycarbonyl), carboxamido (also referred to as alkylaminocarbonyl), cyano, carbonyl, nitro, amino, alkylamino, dialkylamino, mercapto, alkylthio, sulfoxide, sulfone, acylamino, amidino, phenyl, benzyl, heteroaryl, phenoxy, benzyloxy, or heteroaryloxy.

[0033] The term "method of treating" means amelioration or relief from the symptoms and/or effects associated with the disorders described herein. As used herein, reference to "treatment" of a patient is intended to include prophylaxis.

[0034] The term "compounds of the invention", and equivalent expressions, are meant to embrace compounds of general Formula (I), Formula (IA), Formula (IB), Formula (IC), Formula (Γ), Formula (ΓΑ), Formula (ΓΒ), Formula (TC), Formula (I'D), Formula (ΙΈ), Formula (IT), Formula (I'G), Formula (I'C), Formula (I'D'), Formula (ΓΕ'), Formula (IT'), Formula (I'G'), and Formula (II) as hereinbefore described, which expression includes the prodrugs, the

pharmaceutically acceptable salts, and the solvates, e.g. hydrates, where the context so permits. Similarly, reference to intermediates, whether or not they themselves are claimed, is meant to embrace their salts, and solvates, where the context so permits. For the sake of clarity, particular instances when the context so permits are sometimes indicated in the text, but these instances are purely illustrative and it is not intended to exclude other instances when the context so permits. [0035] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" means the relatively non-toxic, inorganic, and organic acid addition salts, and base addition salts, of compounds of the present invention. These salts can be prepared in situ during the final isolation and purification of the compounds. In particular, acid addition salts can be prepared by separately reacting the purified compound in its free base form with a suitable organic or inorganic acid and isolating the salt thus formed. Exemplary acid addition salts include the hydrobromide, hydrochloride, sulfate, bisulfate, phosphate, nitrate, acetate, oxalate, valerate, oleate, palmitate, stearate, laurate, borate, benzoate, lactate, phosphate, tosylate, citrate, maleate, fumarate, succinate, tartrate, naphthylate, mesylate, glucoheptonate, lactiobionate, sulphamates, malonates, salicylates, propionates, methylene-bis-b-hydroxynaphthoates, gentisates, isethionates, di-p-toluoyltartrates, methane- sulphonates, ethanesulphonates, benzenesulphonates, p-toluenesulphonates,

cyclohexylsulphamates and quinateslaurylsulphonate salts, and the like (see, for example, Berge et al., "Pharmaceutical Salts," J. Pharm. Sci., 66: 1-9 (1977) and Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17th ed., Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pa., 1985, p. 1418, which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety). Base addition salts can also be prepared by separately reacting the purified compound in its acid form with a suitable organic or inorganic base and isolating the salt thus formed. Base addition salts include pharmaceutically acceptable metal and amine salts. Suitable metal salts include the sodium, potassium, calcium, barium, zinc, magnesium, and aluminum salts. The sodium and potassium salts are preferred. Suitable inorganic base addition salts are prepared from metal bases which include, for example, sodium hydride, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, aluminium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and zinc hydroxide. Suitable amine base addition salts are prepared from amines which have sufficient basicity to form a stable salt, and preferably include those amines which are frequently used in medicinal chemistry because of their low toxicity and acceptability for medical use, such as ammonia, ethylenediamine, N-methyl- glucamine, lysine, arginine, ornithine, choline, Ν,Ν'-dibenzylethylenediamine, chloroprocaine, diethanolamine, procaine, N-benzylphenethylamine, diethylamine, piperazine,

tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, triethylarnine, dibenzylamine, ephenamine, dehydroabietylamine, N-ethylpiperidine, benzylamine,

tetramethylammonium, tetraethylammonium, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, ethylamine, basic amino acids, e.g., lysine and arginine, dicyclohexylamine, and the like.

[0036] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable prodrugs" as used herein means those prodrugs of the compounds useful according to the present invention which are, within the scope of sound medical judgment, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of humans and lower animals with undue toxicity, irritation, allergic response, and the like, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio, and effective for their intended use, as well as the zwitterionic forms, where possible, of the compounds of the invention. The term "prodrug" means compounds that are rapidly transformed in vivo to yield the parent compound of the above formula, for example by hydrolysis in blood. Functional groups which may be rapidly transformed, by metabolic cleavage, in vivo form a class of groups reactive with the carboxyl group of the compounds of this invention. They include, but are not limited to, such groups as alkanoyl (such as acetyl, propionyl, butyryl, and the like), unsubstituted and substituted aroyl (such as benzoyl and substituted benzoyl), alkoxycarbonyl (such as ethoxycarbonyl), trialkylsilyl (such as trimethyl- and triethysilyl), monoesters formed with dicarboxylic acids (such as succinyl), and the like. Because of the ease with which the metabolically cleavable groups of the compounds useful according to this invention are cleaved in vivo, the compounds bearing such groups act as pro-drugs. The compounds bearing the metabolically cleavable groups have the advantage that they may exhibit improved bioavailability as a result of enhanced solubility and/or rate of absorption conferred upon the parent compound by virtue of the presence of the metabolically cleavable group. A thorough discussion of prodrugs is provided in the following: Design of Prodrugs, H. Bundgaard, ed., Elsevier (1985); Methods in Enzymology, K. Widder et al, Ed., Academic Press, 42, p.309-396 (1985); A Textbook of Drug Design and Development, Krogsgaard-Larsen and H. Bundgaard, ed., Chapter 5; "Design and Applications of Prodrugs" p.113-191 {\99\); Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, H. Bundgard, 8, p.1-38 (1992); J. Pharm. Sci., 77:285 (1988); Nakeya et al, Chem. Pharm. Bull, 32:692 (1984); Higuchi et al., "Pro-drugs as Novel Delivery Systems," Vol. 14 of the A.C.S. Symposium Series, and Bior ever sible Carriers in Drug Design, Edward B. Roche, ed., American Pharmaceutical Association and Pergamon Press (1987), which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Examples of prodrugs include, but are not limited to, acetate, formate, and benzoate derivatives of alcohol and amine functional groups in the compounds of the invention.

[0037] The term "solvate" refers to a compound of Formula (I), Formula (IA), Formula

(IB), Formula (IC), Formula (Γ), Formula (ΓΑ), Formula (ΓΒ), Formula (TC), Formula (I'D), Formula (ΓΕ), Formula (IT), Formula (I'G), Formula (TC), Formula (I'D'), Formula (ΓΕ'), Formula (IT'), Formula (I'G'), and Formula (II) in the solid state, wherein molecules of a suitable solvent are incorporated in the crystal lattice. A suitable solvent for therapeutic administration is physiologically tolerable at the dosage administered. Examples of suitable solvents for therapeutic administration are ethanol and water. When water is the solvent, the solvate is referred to as a hydrate. In general, solvates are formed by dissolving the compound in the appropriate solvent and isolating the solvate by cooling or using an antisolvent. The solvate is typically dried or azeotroped under ambient conditions.

[0038] The term "therapeutically effective amounts" is meant to describe an amount of compound of the present invention effective to produce the desired therapeutic effect. Such amounts generally vary according to a number of factors well within the purview of ordinarily skilled artisans given the description provided herein to determine and account for. These include, without limitation: the particular subject, as well as its age, weight, height, general physical condition, and medical history; the particular compound used, as well as the carrier in which it is formulated and the route of administration selected for it; and, the nature and severity of the condition being treated.

[0039] The term "pharmaceutical composition" means a composition comprising a compound of Formula (I), Formula (IA), Formula (IB), Formula (IC), Formula (Γ), Formula (ΓΑ), Formula (ΓΒ), Formula (I'C), Formula (I'D), Formula (ΙΈ), Formula (IT), Formula (I'G), Formula (I'C), Formula (I'D'), Formula (ΓΕ'), Formula (IT'), Formula (I'G'), and Formula (II) and at least one component comprising pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, diluents, adjuvants, excipients, or vehicles, such as preserving agents, fillers, disintegrating agents, wetting agents, emulsifying agents, suspending agents, sweetening agents, flavoring agents, perfuming agents, antibacterial agents, antifingal agents, lubricating agents and dispensing agents, depending on the nature of the mode of administration and dosage forms. Examples of suspending agents include ethoxylated isostearyl alcohols, polyoxyethylene sorbitol and sorbitan esters, microcrystalline cellulose, aluminum metahydroxide, bentonite, agar— agar and tragacanth, or mixtures of these substances. Prevention of the action of microorganisms can be ensured by various antibacterial and antifungal agents, for example, parabens, chlorobutanol, phenol, sorbic acid, and the like. It may also be desirable to include isotonic agents, for example sugars, sodium chloride, and the like. Prolonged absorption of the injectable pharmaceutical form can be brought about by the use of agents delaying absorption, for example, aluminum monosterate and gelatin. Examples of suitable carriers, diluents, solvents, or vehicles include water, ethanol, polyols, suitable mixtures thereof, vegetable oils (such as olive oil), and injectable organic esters such as ethyl oleate. Examples of excipients include lactose, milk sugar, sodium citrate, calcium carbonate, and dicalcium phosphate. Examples of disintegrating agents include starch, alginic acids, and certain complex silicates. Examples of lubricants include magnesium stearate, sodium lauryl sulphate, talc, as well as high molecular weight polyethylene glycols.

[0040] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable" means it is, within the scope of sound medical judgement, suitable for use in contact with the cells of humans and lower animals without undue toxicity, irritation, allergic response and the like, and are commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio.

[0041] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable dosage forms" means dosage forms of the compound of the invention, and includes, for example, tablets, dragees, powders, elixirs, syrups, liquid preparations, including suspensions, sprays, inhalants tablets, lozenges, emulsions, solutions, granules, capsules, and suppositories, as well as liquid preparations for injections, including liposome preparations. Techniques and formulations generally may be found in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack Publishing Co., Easton, Pa., latest edition.

[0042] Compounds described herein may contain one or more asymmetric centers and may thus give rise to enantiomers, diastereomers, and other stereoisomeric forms. Each chiral center may be defined, in terms of absolute stereochemistry, as (R)- or (S)-. This technology is meant to include all such possible isomers, as well as mixtures thereof, including racemic and optically pure forms. Optically active (R)- and (S)-, (-)- and (+)-, or (D)- and (L)- isomers may be prepared using chiral synthons or chiral reagents, or resolved using conventional techniques. When the compounds described herein contain olefinic double bonds or other centers of geometric asymmetry, and unless specified otherwise, it is intended that the compounds include both E and Z geometric isomers. Likewise, all tautomeric forms are also intended to be included.

[0043] This technology also envisions the "quaternization" of any basic nitrogen- containing groups of the compounds disclosed herein. The basic nitrogen can be quaternized with any agents known to those of ordinary skill in the art including, for example, lower alkyl halides, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl chloride, bromides and iodides; dialkyl sulfates including dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl and diamyl sulfates; long chain halides such as decyl, lauryl, myristyl and stearyl chlorides, bromides and iodides; and aralkyl halides including benzyl and phenethyl bromides. Water or oil-soluble or dispersible products may be obtained by such quaternization.

[0044] In the characterization of some of the substituents, it is recited that certain substituents may combine to form rings. Unless stated otherwise, it is intended that such rings may exhibit various degrees of unsaturation (from fully saturated to fully unsaturated), may include heteroatoms and may be substituted with lower alkyl or alkoxy.

[0045] Compounds of the present invention can be produced according to the general schemes outlined below (Scheme 1, Scheme la, Scheme 2, and Scheme 2a). Scheme 1 i) HATU, HOAt, DIPEA, DMF

ii) EDCI, HOBt, DIPEA, DMF

[0046] Reaction of the carboxylic acid derivative (1) with amine (2) leads to formation of the final product (3). The reaction can be carried out in a variety of solvents, for example in methylene chloride (CH 2 C1 2 ), tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethyltormamide (DMF), or other such solvents or in the mixture of such solvents.

Scheme la

i) HATU, HOAt, DIPEA, DMF

ii) EDCI, HOBt, DIPEA, DMF

[0047] Compounds of Formula (I) wherein W is CHR 2 , k is 1, X is bicyeiie heteroaryl, and Y and Z are absent can be prepared according to Scheme l a. Reaction of the carboxylic acid derivative (la) with amine (2a) leads to formation of the final product (3a). The reaction can be carried out in a variety of solvents, for example in methylene chloride (CH 2 C1 2 ), tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylformamide (DMF), or other such solvents or in the mixture of such solvents.

Scheme 2

4 2 5

i) HATU, HOAt, DIPEA, DMF

ii) EDCI, HOBt, DIPEA, DMF

PG is a protecting group

R' LG is a leaving group

6 8

[0048] Reaction of the carboxylic acid derivative (4) with amine (2) leads to formation of the compound (5). The reaction can be carried out in a variety of solvents, for example in methylene chloride (CH 2 C1 2 ), tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylformamide (DMF), or other such solvents or in the mixture of such solvents. During the reaction process, the non-participating carboxylic acids or amines on the reacting set of amino acids or peptide fragments can be protected by a suitable protecting group (PG) which can be selectively removed at a later time if desired. A detailed description of these groups and their selection and chemistry is contained in "The Peptides, Vol. 3 ", Gross and Meinenhofer, Eds., Academic Press, New York, 1981, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Thus, useful protective groups for the amino group are benzvloxvcarbonyl (Cbz), t-butyl oxycarbonyi (t-BOC), 2,2,2-trichloroethoxycarbonyl (Troc), t-amyloxycarbonyl, 4-methoxybenzyloxycarbonyl, 2-(trichlorosilyl)ethoxycarbonyI, 9- fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc), phthaloyl, acetyl (Ac), formyl, trifluoroacetyl, and the like. Following the deprotection, amine (6) is reacted with R 3 -LG (7) (wherein LG is a suitable leaving group) to form final product (8).

Scheme 2a

[0049] Compounds of Formula (I) wherein W is CFfR 2 , k is 1, X is bi cyclic heteroaryl, and Y and Z are absent can be prepared according to Scheme 2a. Reaction of the carboxylic acid derivative (4a) with amine (2a) leads to formation of the compound (5a). The reaction can be carried out in a variety of solvents, for example in methylene chloride (CH 2 Ci 2 ), tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylformamide (DMF), or other such solvents or in the mixture of such solvents. During the reaction process, the non-participating carboxylic acids or amines on the reacting set of amino acids or peptide fragments can be protected by a suitable protecting group which can be selectively removed at a later time if desired, A detailed description of these groups and their selection and chemistry is contained in "The Peptides, Vol. 3", Gross and Meinenhofer, Eds., Academic Press, New York, 1981 , which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Thus, useful protective groups for the amino group are benzyl oxycarbonyi (Cbz), t- butyloxycarbonyi (t-BOC), 2,2,2-trichloroethoxycarbonyl (Troc), t-amyloxycarbonyl, 4- methoxybenzyl oxycarbonyi, 2-(trichlorosilyl)ethoxycarbonyl, 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl

(Fmoc), phthaloyl, acetyl (Ac), formyl, trifluoroacetyl, and the like. Following the deprotection, amine (6a) is reacted with R 3 -LG (7) (wherein LG is a suitable leaving group) to form final product (8a). [0050] Compounds of the present invention can also be prepared according to the general schemes outlined below (Scheme 3 and Scheme 4).

Scheme 3

i) HATU, HOAt, DIPEA, DMF ii) EDCI, HOBt, DIPEA, DMF

[0051] Compounds of Formula (I) wherein W is CHR , k is 1, X is monocyclic heteroaryl, Y is— (CH 2 ) m — , and Z is aryl can be prepared according to Scheme3. Reaction of the carboxylic acid derivative (la) with amine (2b) leads to formation of the final product (3b). The reaction can be carried out in a variety of solvents, for example in methylene chloride (CH 2 C1 2 ), tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylformamide (DMF), or other such solvents or in the mixture of such solvents.

[0052] Compounds of Formula (I) wherein W is CHR , k is 1, X is monocyclic heteroaryl, Y is— (CH 2 ) m — , and Z is aryl can al so be prepared according to Scheme 4.

Reaction of the carboxylic acid derivative (4a) with amine (2c) leads to formation of the compound (5b). The reaction can be carried out in a variety of solvents, for example in methylene chloride (CH 2 C1 2 ), tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylformamide (DMF), or other such solvents or in the mixture of such solvents. During the reaction process, the non-participating carboxylic acids or amines on the reacting set of amino acids or peptide fragments can be protected by a suitable protecting group which can be selectively removed at a later time if desired. A detailed description of these groups and their selection and chemistry i s contained in "The Peptides, Vol. 3 ", Gross and Meinenhofer, Eds., Academic Press, New York, 1981, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Thus, useful protective groups for the amino group are benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz), t-butyloxycarbonyl (t-BOC), 2,2,2-trichloroethoxycarbonyl (Troc), t-amyloxycarbonyl, 4-methoxybenzyloxycarbonyl, 2-(trichlorosilyl)ethoxycarbonyl, 9- fluorenylrnethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc), phthaloyl, acetyl (Ac), formyl, trifluoroacetyl, and the like. Following the deprotection, amine (6b) is reacted with R 3 -LG (7) (wherein LG is a suitable leaving group) to form final product (8b).

[0053] In one embodiment compound has the Formula (IA):

[0054] In another embodiment compound has the Formula (IB):

[0055] In another embodiment, compound has the Formula (IC):

[0056] One embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (I) where R 1 is H or Me.

[0057] Another embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (I) where R and R 1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form group, and wherein

I is the point of attachment to H; and

•I «— is the point of attachment to X.

[0058] Another embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (I) where R and R 1 are

taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form group, and wherein

I is the point of attachment to NH; and

•I— is the point of attachment to X. [0059] A further embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (I) where R 2 is

wherein the point of attachment to the corresponding carbon atom of the structure of Formula (I).

[0060] Yet another embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (I) where R 3 is

selected from th

wherein * is the point of attachment to the corresponding carbon atom of the structure of Formula (I).

[0061] Another embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (I) where R 4 is H, Me,

F, H 2 , or HBoc.

[0062] Yet another embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (I) where X is

wherein h i s the point of attachment to C(R 1 )(R 2 ) moiety

* 1 5 is the point of attachment to Y, Z, or R 4.

[0063] Yet another embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (I) where Y is

CH 2 -. 0064] A further embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (I) where Z is

the point of attachment to Y or X; is the point of attachment to R 4 .

[0065] Another embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (I) where the compound has a structure selected from the group consisting of:

-34-

-38-

-39-

-40-

-41 -

-42-

-43 -

[0066] In one embodiment compound has the Formula (Γ):

wherein

R is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

R 1 is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

or R and R 1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form a C 3-8 cycloalkyl ring;

R 2 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, and— (CH 2 ) n C(0) R 6 R 7 , wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with a substituent selected independently at each occurrence thereof from OH or C(0)OR 10 ;

R 3 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of H,— Boc,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 5 ,— (CH 2 ) n C(0)R 5 ,— C(0)OR 5 ,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 6 R 7 ,— S(0) 2 R 5 , monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle, wherein monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with Ci- 6 alkyl;

R 4 is H, Cm alkyl, or halogen;

R 5 is selected from the group consisting of C 1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3- io cycloalkyl, C 3 . 12 cycloalkylalkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle, wherein C 1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3 . 10 cycloalkyl, C 3 . 12

cycloalkylalkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R 8 ;

R 6 , R 7 are each independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci -6 alkyl, and arylalkyl;

or R 6 and R 7 are taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached to form a piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring, wherein piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 8 is selected independently at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl, C3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, and aryl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with halogen;

R 10 is H or arylalkyl;

X is monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, or monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle;

Y is optional and, if present, is— (CH 2 ) m — ;

Z is optional and, if present, is aryl;

m is 0, 1, or 2; and

n is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodrug thereof.

[0067] In another embodiment, compound has the Formula (ΓΑ):

wherein

A is NH, N, O, or S.

[0068] In another embodiment, compound has the Formula (ΓΒ):

wherein

= is a single or a double bond;

A is NH, N, O, or S; and

B is NH, N, O, or S.

[0069] In yet another embodiment compound has the Formula (I'C):

[0070] In yet another embodiment, compound has the Formula (I'D):

[0071] In another embodiment compound has the Formula (ΓΕ):

[0072] In yet another embodiment, compound has the Formula (IT):

[0073] In a further embodiment, compound has the Formula (I'G):

[0074] In another embodiment, compound has the Formula (I'C):

[0075] In yet another embodiment, compound has the Formula (I'D'):

[0076] In a further embodiment, compound has the Formula (ΓΕ'):

[0077] In another embodiment, compound has the Formula (I'F')

[0078] In yet another embodiment, compound has the Formula (I'G'):

[0079] One embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (Γ) where R 1 is H or Me.

[0080] Another embodiment relates to the compound of Form (Γ) where R and R 1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form group, ar wherein

I is the point of attachment to H; and

•I «— is the point of attachment to X.

[0081] Another embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (Γ) where R 2

wherein the point of attachment to the corresponding carbon atom of the structure of Formula (I).

[0082] Yet another embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (Γ) where R is

wherein * is the point of attachment to the corresponding carbon atom of the structure of Formula (I).

[0083] Another embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (Γ) where R 4 is H, Me, or F.

[0084] Yet another embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (Γ) where X is

wherein

I i— 1 2

is the point of attachment to C(R )(R ) moiety;

* I 1 is the point of attachment to Y, Z, or R 4.

[0085] Yet another embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (Γ) where Y is -

CH 2 -.

Another embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (Γ) where n Z is

wherein is the point of attachment to Y or X; is the point of attachment to R 4 . [0087] A further embodiment relates to the compound of Formulae (Γ) where the compound has a structure selected from the group consisting of:

 -56-

-57-

- 58 -

-59-

-60-

-61 -

or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodrug thereof.

[0089] In yet another embodiment, compound has the Formula (II):

wherein

R is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

R 1 is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

or R and R 1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form a C 3-8 cycloalkyl ring;

R 2 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, and— (CH 2 ) n C(0) R 6 R 7 , wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with a substituent selected independently at each occurrence thereof from OH or C(0)OR 10 ;

R 3 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of H,— Boc,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 5 ,— (CH 2 ) n C(0)R 5 ,— C(0)OR 5 ,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 6 R 7 ,— S(0) 2 R 5 , monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle, wherein monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with Ci- 6 alkyl;

R 4 is H, Ci-i 2 alkyl, or halogen;

R 5 is selected from the group consisting of Ci-i 2 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3- io cycloalkyl, C 3- i 2 cycloalkylalkyl, Ci-i 2 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle, wherein Ci-i 2 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3- io cycloalkyl, C 3- i 2 cycloalkylalkyl, Ci-i 2 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R 8 ;

R 6 , R 7 are each independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci -6 alkyl, and arylalkyl;

or R 6 and R 7 are taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached to form a piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring, wherein piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 8 is selected independently at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ; R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, and aryl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with halogen;

R 10 is H or arylalkyl;

X is monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, or monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle;

Y is optional and, if present, is— (CH 2 ) m — ;

Z is optional and, if present, is aryl;

W is N or CH;

m is 0, 1, or 2; and

n is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodrug thereof.

[0090] Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method of treating bacterial infections, parasite infections, fungal infections, cancer, immunologic disorders, autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and disorders, inflammatory disorders, or muscular dystrophy, in a subject or for achieving immunosuppression in transplanted organs or tissues in a subject. This method includes administering to the subject in need thereof a compound of Formula (I):

wherein

R is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

R' is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

R 1 is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

or R and R 1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form a C 3-8 cycloalkyl ring;

R 2 is inde endently selected at each occurrence thereof from ^^OH ?

R 3 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of H, Cm alkyl,— Boc,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 5 ,— (CH 2 ) n C(0)R 5 ,— C(0)OR 5 ,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 6 R 7 , — S(0) 2 R 5 , monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle, wherein monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R 8 ;

R 4 is H, halogen, H 2 , NHCOOCi.o alkyl, or Ci-i 2 alkyl;

R 5 is selected from the group consisting of C 1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3- io cycloalkyl, C 3 . 12 cycloalkylalkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle, wherein C 1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3 . 10 cycloalkyl, C 3 . 12 cycloalkylalkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R 8 ;

R 6 , R 7 are each independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci -6 alkyl, and arylalkyl;

or R 6 and R 7 are taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached to form a piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring, wherein piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 8 is selected independently at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, and aryl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with halogen;

1 0 is H or arylalkyl;

X is selected from the group consisting of— C(0)- H— , monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle;

Y is optional and, if present, is— (CH 2 ) m — ;

Z is optional and, if present, is aryl or bicyclic heteroaryl;

» is the point of attachment to HR moiety; is the point of attachment to C(O) moiety;

k is 1 or 2;

m is 0, 1, or 2; and

n is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4,

with the proviso that R 2 is not— CH 2 C(0) H 2 ,— CH 2 C(0) HCH 2 C(CH 3 ) 3 , or

— (CH 2 ) 2 C(0) H 2 ,

or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodrug thereof.

[0091] One embodiment of the present invention relates to a method of treating bacterial infections, parasite infections, fungal infections, cancer, immunologic disorders, autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and disorders, inflammatory disorders, or muscular dystrophy, in a subject or for achieving immunosuppression in transplanted organs or tissues in a subject. This method includes administering to the subject in need thereof a compound of Formula Γ):

wherein

R is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

R 1 is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

or R and R 1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form a C 3-8 cycloalkyl ring;

R 2 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, and— (CH 2 ) n C(0) R 6 R 7 , wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with a substituent selected independently at each occurrence thereof from OH or C(0)OR 10 ;

R 3 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of H,— Boc,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 5 ,— (CH 2 ) n C(0)R 5 ,— C(0)OR 5 ,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 6 R 7 ,— S(0) 2 R 5 , monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle, wherein monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with Ci- 6 alkyl;

R 4 is H, Ci-i 2 alkyl, or halogen; R 5 is selected from the group consisting of C 1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3- 10 cycloalkyl, C 3 . 12 cycloalkylalkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle, wherein C 1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3 . 10 cycloalkyl, C 3 . 12 cycloalkylalkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R 8 ;

R 6 , R 7 are each independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci -6 alkyl, and arylalkyl;

or R 6 and R 7 are taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached to form a piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring, wherein piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 8 is selected independently at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, and aryl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with halogen;

R 10 is H or arylalkyl;

X is monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, or monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle;

Y is optional and, if present, is— (CH 2 ) m — ;

Z is optional and, if present, is aryl;

m is 0, 1, or 2; and

n is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodrug thereof.

[0092] Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method of treating bacterial infections, parasite infections, fungal infections, cancer, immunologic disorders, autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and disorders, inflammatory disorders, or muscular dystrophy, in a subject or for achieving immunosuppression in transplanted organs or tissues in a subject. This method includes administering to the subject in need thereof a compound of Formula:

[0093] Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method of treating bacterial infections, parasite infections, fungal infections, cancer, immunologic disorders, autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and disorders, inflammatory disorders, or muscular dystrophy, in a subject or for achieving immunosuppression in transplanted organs or tissues in a subject. This method includes administering to the subject in need thereof a compound of Formula (II):

wherein

R is H or Ci-e alkyl;

R 1 is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

or R and R 1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form a C 3-8 cycloalkyl ring;

R 2 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, and— (CH 2 ) n C(0) R 6 R 7 , wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with a substituent selected independently at each occurrence thereof from OH or C(0)OR 10 ;

R 3 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of H,— Boc,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 5 ,— (CH 2 ) n C(0)R 5 ,— C(0)OR 5 ,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 6 R 7 ,— S(0) 2 R 5 , monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle, wherein monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with Ci- 6 alkyl;

R 4 is H, Ci-i 2 alkyl, or halogen;

R 5 is selected from the group consisting of Ci-i 2 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3- io cycloalkyl, C 3- i 2 cycloalkylalkyl, Ci-i 2 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle, wherein C 1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3 . 10 cycloalkyl, C 3 . 12 cycloalkylalkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R 8 ;

R 6 , R 7 are each independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci -6 alkyl, and arylalkyl;

or R 6 and R 7 are taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached to form a piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring, wherein piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 8 is selected independently at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl, C3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, and aryl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with halogen;

R 10 is H or arylalkyl;

X is monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, or monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle;

Y is optional and, if present, is— (CH 2 ) m — ;

Z is optional and, if present, is aryl;

W is N or CH;

m is 0, 1, or 2; and

n is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodrug thereof.

[0094] In one embodiment, bacterial infection is treated. The bacterial infection is

Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

[0095] In another embodiment, parasite infection is treated. The parasite infection is selected from, but not limited to, the group consisting of malaria, leishmaniasis, river blindness, Chagas disease, sleeping disease, cryptosporidiosis, amebiasis, cyclosporiasis, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

[0096] In yet another embodiment, parasite infection is veterinary parasite infection. The veterinary parasite infection is caused by protozoan parasites, helminth parasites, arachnids, insects, or custaceans. Exemplary protozoan parasites include, but are not limited to, Babesia divergens, Balantidium coli, Eimeria tenella, Giardia lamblia {Giardia duodenalis), Hammondia hammondi, Histomonas meleagridis, Isospora canis, Leishmania donovani, Leishmania infantum, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichomonas gallinae, Tritrichomonas foetus, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma equiperdum. Exemplary helminth parasites include, but are not limited to, Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris suum, Dicrocoelium dendriticum,

Dictyocaulus viviparus, Dipylidium caninum, Echinococcus granulosus, Fasciola hepatica, Fascioloides magna, Habronema species, Haemonchus contortus, Metastrongylus, Muellerius capillaris, Ostertagia ostertagi, Paragonimus westermani, Schistosoma bovis, Strongyloides species, Strongylus vulgaris, Syngamus trachea (Gapeworm), Taenia pisiformis, Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis, Trichobilharzia regenti,

Trichostrongylus species, and Trichuris suis. Exemplary arachnids, insects, and custaceans include, but are not limited to, Caligus species, Cimex colombarius, Cimex lectularius, Culex pipiens, Culicoides imicola, Demodex bovis, Dermacentor reticulatus, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Haematobia irritans, Hypoderma bovis, Ixodes ricinus, Knemidocoptes mutans, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Lucilia sericata, Musca domestica, Nosema apis, Notoedres cati, Oestrus ovis, Otodectes cynotis, Phlebotomus species, Psoroptes ovis, Pulex irritans, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Sarcoptes equi, Sarcophaga carnaria, Tabanus atratus, Triatoma species,

Ctenocephalides canis, and Ctenocephalides felis.

[0097] In another embodiment, an autoimmune disorder is treated. The autoimmune disorder is selected from the group consisting of arthritis, colitis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, Sjogren Syndrome, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and lupus nephritis, glomerulonephritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis, Crohn's diseases, Psoriasis, and asthma.

[0098] In yet another embodiment, immunosuppression is provided for transplanted organs or tissues. The immunosuppression is used to prevent transplant rejection and graft- verse-host disease.

[0099] In a further embodiment, an inflammatory disorder is treated. The inflammatory disorder is Crohn's disease.

[0100] The compounds and pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention are particularly useful for the treatment of cancer. As used herein, the term "cancer" refers to a cellular disorder characterized by uncontrolled or disregulated cell proliferation, decreased cellular differentiation, inappropriate ability to invade surrounding tissue, and/or ability to establish new growth at ectopic sites. The term "cancer" includes, but is not limited to, solid tumors and bloodborne tumors. The term "cancer" encompasses diseases of skin, tissues, organs, bone, cartilage, blood, and vessels. The term "cancer" further encompasses primary and metastatic cancers.

[0101] Non-limiting examples of solid tumors that can be treated with the disclosed proteasome inhibitors include pancreatic cancer; bladder cancer; colorectal cancer; breast cancer, including metastatic breast cancer; prostate cancer, including androgen-dependent and androgen- independent prostate cancer; renal cancer, including, e.g., metastatic renal cell carcinoma;

hepatocellular cancer; lung cancer, including, e.g., non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), and adenocarcinoma of the lung; ovarian cancer, including, e.g., progressive epithelial or primary peritoneal cancer; cervical cancer; gastric cancer; esophageal cancer; head and neck cancer, including, e.g., squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck; melanoma; neuroendocrine cancer, including metastatic neuroendocrine tumors; brain tumors, including, e.g., glioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, adult glioblastoma multiforme, and adult anaplastic astrocytoma; bone cancer; and soft tissue sarcoma.

[0102] In one embodiment, cancer is treated. The cancer is selected from the group consisting of neoplastic disorders, hematologic malignances, lymphocytic malignancies, mantel cell lymphoma, leukemia, Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, metastatic breast cancer, prostate cancer, androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer, renal cancer, metastatic renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular cancer, lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), and adenocarcinoma of the lung, ovarian cancer, progressive epithelial or primary peritoneal cancer, cervical cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, head and neck cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, melanoma, neuroendocrine cancer, metastatic neuroendocrine tumors, brain tumors, glioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, adult glioblastoma multiforme, and adult anaplastic astrocytoma, bone cancer, and soft tissue sarcoma.

[0103] In another embodiment, a neurodegenerative disease or disorder is treated. The neurodegenerative disease or disorder is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

[0104] Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method of inhibiting proteasome activity. This method includes contacting a proteasome with a compound of Formula (I):

wherein R is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

R' is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

R 1 is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

or R and R 1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form a C 3-8 cycloalkyl ring;

R 2 is inde endently selected at each occurrence thereof from

R 3 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of H, Cm alkyl,— Boc,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 5 ,— (CH 2 ) n C(0)R 5 ,— C(0)OR 5 ,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 6 R 7 , — S(0) 2 R 5 , monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle, wherein monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R 8 ;

R 4 is H, halogen, H 2 , NHCOOCi.o alkyl, or Ci-i 2 alkyl;

R 5 is selected from the group consisting of C 1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3- io cycloalkyl, C 3 . 12 cycloalkylalkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle, wherein C 1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3 . 10 cycloalkyl, C 3 . 12 cycloalkylalkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R 8 ;

R 6 , R 7 are each independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci -6 alkyl, and arylalkyl;

or R 6 and R 7 are taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached to form a piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring, wherein piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 8 is selected independently at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, and aryl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with halogen; R is H or arylalkyl;

X is selected from the group consisting of— C(0)- H— , monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle;

Y is optional and, if present, is— (CH 2 ) m — ;

Z is optional and, if present, is aryl or bicyclic heteroaryl;

' is the point of attachment to HR moiety; the point of attachment to C(O) moiety;

k is l or 2;

m is 0, 1, or 2; and

n is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4,

with the proviso that R 2 is not— CH 2 C(0) H 2 ,— CH 2 C(0) HCH 2 C(CH 3 ) 3 , or

— (CH 2 ) 2 C(0) H 2 ,

or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodrug thereof under conditions effective to inhibit proteasome activity.

[0105] One embodiment of the present invention relates to a method of inhibiting proteasome activity. This method includes contacting a proteasome with a compound of Formula (Γ):

wherein

R is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

R 1 is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

or R and R 1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form a C 3-8 cycloalkyl ring;

R 2 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, and— (CH 2 ) n C(0) R 6 R 7 , wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with a substituent selected independently at each occurrence thereof from OH or C(0)OR 10 ;

R 3 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of H,— Boc,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 5 ,— (CH 2 ) n C(0)R 5 ,— C(0)OR 5 ,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 6 R 7 ,— S(0) 2 R 5 , monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle, wherein monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with Ci- 6 alkyl;

R 4 is H, Ci-i 2 alkyl, or halogen;

R 5 is selected from the group consisting of Ci-i 2 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3- io cycloalkyl, C 3- i 2 cycloalkylalkyl, Ci-i 2 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle, wherein Ci-i 2 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3- i 0 cycloalkyl, C 3- i 2 cycloalkylalkyl, Ci-i 2 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R 8 ;

R 6 , R 7 are each independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci -6 alkyl, and arylalkyl;

or R 6 and R 7 are taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached to form a piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring, wherein piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 8 is selected independently at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, and aryl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with halogen;

R 10 is H or arylalkyl;

X is monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, or monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle;

Y is optional and, if present, is— (CH 2 ) m — ;

Z is optional and, if present, is aryl;

m is 0, 1, or 2; and

n is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4; or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodi thereof under conditions effective to inhibit proteasome activity.

[0106] Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method of inhibiting proteasome activity. This method includes contacting a proteasome with a compound of

Formula

or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodrug thereof under conditions effective to inhibit proteasome activity.

[0107] Another aspect of the present invention relates to a method of inhibiting proteasome activity. This method includes contacting a proteasome with a compound of Formula (II):

wherein

R is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

R 1 is H or Ci-6 alkyl;

or R and R 1 are taken together with the carbon to which they are attached to form a C 3-8 cycloalkyl ring;

R 2 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of Ci-6 alkyl, and— (CH 2 ) n C(0) R 6 R 7 , wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with a substituent selected independently at each occurrence thereof from OH or C(0)OR 10 ;

R 3 is independently selected at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of H,— Boc,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 5 ,— (CH 2 ) n C(0)R 5 ,— C(0)OR 5 ,— C(0)(CH 2 ) n R 6 R 7 ,— S(0) 2 R 5 , monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle, wherein monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with Ci- 6 alkyl;

R 4 is H, Ci-i 2 alkyl, or halogen; R 5 is selected from the group consisting of C 1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3- 10 cycloalkyl, C 3 . 12 cycloalkylalkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non- aromatic heterocycle, wherein C 1-12 alkyl, monocyclic or bicyclic C 3 . 10 cycloalkyl, C 3 . 12 cycloalkylalkyl, C 1-12 alkoxy, monocyclic and bicyclic aryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, and monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle can be optionally substituted from 1 to 3 times with R 8 ;

R 6 , R 7 are each independently selected from the group consisting of H, Ci -6 alkyl, and arylalkyl;

or R 6 and R 7 are taken together with the nitrogen to which they are attached to form a piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring, wherein piperidine, pyrrolidine, azepane, or morpholine ring can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 8 is selected independently at each occurrence thereof from the group consisting of halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, aryl, and arylalkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with R 9 ;

R 9 is selected from the group consisting of H, halogen, Ci- 6 alkyl, C 3-8 cycloalkyl, and aryl, wherein Ci- 6 alkyl can be optionally substituted 1 to 3 times with halogen;

R 10 is H or arylalkyl;

X is monocyclic and bicyclic heteroaryl, monocyclic and bicyclic heterocyclyl, or monocyclic and bicyclic non-aromatic heterocycle;

Y is optional and, if present, is— (CH 2 ) m — ;

Z is optional and, if present, is aryl;

W is N or CH;

m is 0, 1, or 2; and

n is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4;

or an oxide thereof, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, a solvate thereof, or a prodrug thereof under conditions effective to inhibit proteasome activity.

[0108] While it may be possible for compounds of Formula (I), Formula (IA), Formula

(IB), Formula (IC), Formula (Γ), Formula (ΓΑ), Formula (ΓΒ), Formula (I'C), Formula (I'D), Formula (YE), Formula (IT), Formula (I'G), Formula (I'C), Formula (I'D'), Formula (ΓΕ'), Formula (IT'), Formula (I'G'), and Formula (II), to be administered as raw chemicals, it will often be preferable to present them as a part of a pharmaceutical composition. Accordingly, another aspect of the present invention is a pharmaceutical composition containing a

therapeutically effective amount of the compound of Formula (I), Formula (IA), Formula (IB), Formula (IC), Formula (Γ), Formula (ΓΑ), Formula (ΓΒ), Formula (I'C), Formula (I'D), Formula (ΓΕ), Formula (I'F), Formula (I'G), Formula (I'C), Formula (I'D'), Formula (ΓΕ'), Formula (I'F'), Formula (I'G'), and Formula (II), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The carrier must be "acceptable" in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation and not deleterious to the recipient thereof.

[0109] In practicing the method of the present invention, agents suitable for treating a subject can be administered using any method standard in the art. The agents, in their appropriate delivery form, can be administered orally, intradermally, intramuscularly, intraperitoneally, intravenously, subcutaneously, or intranasally. The compositions of the present invention may be administered alone or with suitable pharmaceutical carriers, and can be in solid or liquid form, such as tablets, capsules, powders, solutions, suspensions, or emulsions.

[0110] The agents of the present invention may be orally administered, for example, with an inert diluent, or with an assimilable edible carrier, or it may be enclosed in hard or soft shell capsules, or it may be compressed into tablets, or they may be incorporated directly with the food of the diet. Agents of the present invention may also be administered in a time release manner incorporated within such devices as time-release capsules or nanotubes. Such devices afford flexibility relative to time and dosage. For oral therapeutic administration, the agents of the present invention may be incorporated with excipients and used in the form of tablets, capsules, elixirs, suspensions, syrups, and the like. Such compositions and preparations should contain at least 0.1% of the agent, although lower concentrations may be effective and indeed optimal. The percentage of the agent in these compositions may, of course, be varied and may conveniently be between about 2% to about 60% of the weight of the unit. The amount of an agent of the present invention in such therapeutically useful compositions is such that a suitable dosage will be obtained.

[0111] Also specifically contemplated are oral dosage forms of the agents of the present invention. The agents may be chemically modified so that oral delivery of the derivative is efficacious. Generally, the chemical modification contemplated is the attachment of at least one moiety to the component molecule itself, where said moiety permits (a) inhibition of proteolysis; and (b) uptake into the blood stream from the stomach or intestine. Also desired is the increase in overall stability of the component or components and increase in circulation time in the body. Examples of such moieties include: polyethylene glycol, copolymers of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, carboxymethyl cellulose, dextran, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and polyproline (Abuchowski and Davis, "Soluble Polymer-Enzyme Adducts," In: Enzymes as Drugs, Hocenberg and Roberts, eds., Wiley-Interscience, New York, N.Y., pp. 367-383 (1981), which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety). Other polymers that could be used are poly-l,3-dioxolane and poly-l,3,6-tioxocane. Preferred for pharmaceutical usage, as indicated above, are polyethylene glycol moieties.

[0112] The tablets, capsules, and the like may also contain a binder such as gum tragacanth, acacia, corn starch, or gelatin; excipients such as dicalcium phosphate; a

disintegrating agent such as corn starch, potato starch, alginic acid; a lubricant such as magnesium stearate; and a sweetening agent such as sucrose, lactose, sucrulose, or saccharin. When the dosage unit form is a capsule, it may contain, in addition to materials of the above type, a liquid carrier such as a fatty oil.

[0113] Various other materials may be present as coatings or to modify the physical form of the dosage unit. For instance, tablets may be coated with shellac, sugar, or both. A syrup may contain, in addition to active ingredient, sucrose as a sweetening agent, methyl and

propylparabens as preservatives, a dye, and flavoring such as cherry or orange flavor.

[0114] The agents of the present invention may also be administered parenterally.

Solutions or suspensions of the agent can be prepared in water suitably mixed with a surfactant such as hydroxypropylcellulose. Dispersions can also be prepared in glycerol, liquid

polyethylene glycols, and mixtures thereof in oils. Illustrative oils are those of petroleum, animal, vegetable, or synthetic origin, for example, peanut oil, soybean oil, or mineral oil. In general, water, saline, aqueous dextrose and related sugar solution, and glycols, such as propylene glycol or polyethylene glycol, are preferred liquid carriers, particularly for injectable solutions. Under ordinary conditions of storage and use, these preparations contain a preservative to prevent the growth of microorganisms.

[0115] The pharmaceutical forms suitable for injectable use include sterile aqueous solutions or dispersions and sterile powders for the extemporaneous preparation of sterile injectable solutions or dispersions. In all cases, the form must be sterile and must be fluid to the extent that easy syringability exists. It must be stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage and must be preserved against the contaminating action of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. The carrier can be a solvent or dispersion medium containing, for example, water, ethanol, polyol (e.g., glycerol, propylene glycol, and liquid polyethylene glycol), suitable mixtures thereof, and vegetable oils.

[0116] When it is desirable to deliver the agents of the present invention systemically, they may be formulated for parenteral administration by injection, e.g., by bolus injection or continuous infusion. Formulations for injection may be presented in unit dosage form, e.g., in ampoules or in multi-dose containers, with an added preservative. The compositions may take such forms as suspensions, solutions or emulsions in oily or aqueous vehicles, and may contain formulatory agents such as suspending, stabilizing and/or dispersing agents.

[0117] Intraperitoneal or intrathecal administration of the agents of the present invention can also be achieved using infusion pump devices such as those described by Medtronic, Northridge,CA. Such devices allow continuous infusion of desired compounds avoiding multiple injections and multiple manipulations.

[0118] In addition to the formulations described previously, the agents may also be formulated as a depot preparation. Such long acting formulations may be formulated with suitable polymeric or hydrophobic materials (for example as an emulsion in an acceptable oil) or ion exchange resins, or as sparingly soluble derivatives, for example, as a sparingly soluble salt.

[0119] The agents of the present invention may also be administered directly to the airways in the form of an aerosol. For use as aerosols, the agent of the present invention in solution or suspension may be packaged in a pressurized aerosol container together with suitable propellants, for example, hydrocarbon propellants like propane, butane, or isobutane with conventional adjuvants. The agent of the present invention also may be administered in a non- pressurized form such as in a nebulizer or atomizer.

[0120] Effective doses of the compositions of the present invention, for the treatment of cancer or pathogen infection vary depending upon many different factors, including type and stage of cancer or the type of pathogen infection, means of administration, target site, physiological state of the patient, other medications or therapies administered, and physical state of the patient relative to other medical complications. Treatment dosages need to be titrated to optimize safety and efficacy.

[0121] The percentage of active ingredient in the compositions of the present invention may be varied, it being necessary that it should constitute a proportion such that a suitable dosage shall be obtained. Obviously, several unit dosage forms may be administered at about the same time. The dose employed will be determined by the physician, and depends upon the desired therapeutic effect, the route of administration and the duration of the treatment, and the condition of the patient. In the adult, the doses are generally from about 0.01 to about 100 mg/kg body weight, preferably about 0.01 to about 10 mg/kg body weight per day by inhalation, from about 0.01 to about 100 mg/kg body weight, preferably 0.1 to 70 mg/kg body weight, more especially 0.1 to 10 mg/kg body weight per day by oral administration, and from about 0.01 to about 50 mg/kg body weight, preferably 0.01 to 10 mg/kg body weight per day by intravenous administration. In each particular case, the doses will be determined in accordance with the factors distinctive to the subject to be treated, such as age, weight, general state of health, and other characteristics which can influence the efficacy of the medicinal product.

[0122] The products according to the present invention may be administered as frequently as necessary in order to obtain the desired therapeutic effect. Some patients may respond rapidly to a higher or lower dose and may find much weaker maintenance doses adequate. For other patients, it may be necessary to have long-term treatments at the rate of 1 to 4 doses per day, in accordance with the physiological requirements of each particular patient. Generally, the active product may be administered orally 1 to 4 times per day. It goes without saying that, for other patients, it will be necessary to prescribe not more than one or two doses per day.

EXAMPLES

Example 1 - General Procedure for HATU - Mediated Coupling Reaction

[0123] Carboxylic acid (1.0 eq.), O-(7-azabenzotriazol-l-yl)-N,N,N,N'- tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU) (1.2 eq.), and l-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HO At) (0.6M in DMF) (1.0 eq.) were dissolved in DMF under argon atmosphere. The solution was cooled to 0 °C and amine was added. After stirring for 5 minutes at 0 °C, Hiinig's base (2 - 3 eq.) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 1 hour. After completion of the reaction (1 hour, monitored by LCMS), water (10 mL) was added to the reaction mixture and the mixture was stirred for 30 minutes. Product was isolated by either ethyl acetate extraction or by filtering the precipitate.

Example 2 - General Procedure for Deprotection of Benzyl Group

[0124] The substance was dissolved in methanol. Palladium on carbon (10%) was added carefully. Air in the flask was exchanged with hydrogen. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 - 4 hours under hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrogen balloon. After completion of reaction, the mixture was filtered through Celite. Filtrate was evaporated and dried under vacuum to give the product. Example 3 - General Procedure for N-Sulfonamide Preparation of Amines

[0125] The primary amine (generally TFA salt) was dissolved in dichloromethane. The solution was cooled to 0 °C and triethylamine (2.0 - 3.0 eq.) was added. Sulfonyl chloride (1.5 eq.) was added to the solution in one portion and the reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature (over 15 minutes). After completion of reaction (2 - 3 hours), dichloromethane was evaporated and crude product was isolated by ethyl acetate extraction.

Example 4 - Preparation of tert-Butyl (S)-(l-((2-Amino-3-fluorophenyl)amino)-l- oxopropan-2-yl)carbamate (1-1)

[0126] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of (S)-2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)propanoic acid and 3-fluorobenzene-l,2- diamine on a 2.0 mmol scale. The product (600mg, quant. ESI-MS (m/z): 298.22 (M+H + )) was isolated and used directly in the next step.

Example 5 - Preparation of (S)-l-(4-Fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethan-l-amine (1-2)

[0127] To a solution of tert-butyl (S)-(l-((2-amino-3-fluorophenyl)amino)-l-oxopropan- 2-yl)carbamate (600mg) in EtOH (4ml) was added HC1 (7ml), and the reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 4 hours. Solvent was removed by evaporation to give a gum (400 mg) assumed diHCl salt. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 6.5 min): t R (min): 2.13; ESI-MS (m/z): 180.10 (M+H + ). Example 6 - Preparation of Benzyl (S)-2-((tert-Butoxycarbonyl)amino)-4-((S)-2- ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-4-oxobutanoate (1-3)

[0128] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of (S)-4-(benzyloxy)-3-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)-4-oxobutanoic acid and (S)-2-ethylpiperidine hydrochloride on a 0.7mmol scale, and isolated as a white solid in quant, yield. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 6.5 min): t R (min): 4.58; ESI-MS (m/z): 419.24 (M+H + ).

Example 7 - Preparation of (S)-2-((tert-Butoxycarbonyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-ethylpiperidin-l - yl)-4-oxobutanoic Acid (1-4)

[0129] The title compound was synthesized by following the O-Debenzylation protocol of 1-3 on a 0.7mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 6.5 min): t R (min): 3.64; ESI-MS (m/z): 329.20 (M+H + ).

Preparation of tert-Butyl ((S)-4-((S)-2-ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(4- fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan- 2- yl)carbamate (1-5)

[0130] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of 1-4 and 1-2 on a 0.3mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 6.5 min): t R (min): 3.97; ESI-MS (m/z): 490.22 (M+H + ). Example 9 - Preparation of (S)-2-Amino-4-((S)-2-ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-N-((S)-l-(4-fluoro - lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-oxobutanamide (CEN-1)

[0131] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for Boc- Deprotection protocol of 1-5 on a 0.1 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 3.97; ESI-MS (m/z): 390.22 (M+H + ).

Example 10 - Preparation of (S)-2-(2-Cyclopropylacetamido)-4-((S)-2-ethylpiperidin-l-yl) - N-((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-oxobuta namide (CEN- 2)

[0132] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of CEN-1 and 2-cyclopropylacetic acid on a 0.01 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.41 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 472.26 (M+H + ).

Example 11 - Preparation of N-((S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-4- methylpentanamide (CEN-3)

[0133] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of CEN-1 and 4-methylpentanoic acid on a 0.01 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.97; ESI-MS (m/z): 488.29 (M+H + ). Example 12 - Preparation of (S)-2-(3-(Dimethylamino)propanamido)-4-((S)-2- ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-N-((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol- 2-yl)ethyl)-4- oxobutanamide (CEN-4)

[0134] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of CEN-1 and 3-(dimethylamino)propanoic acid on a 0.01 mmol scale. LC- MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.21 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 489.29 (M+H + ).

Example 13 - Preparation of Isobutyl ((S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(4-fluoro- lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)ca rbamate (CEN-5)

[0135] To a solution of CEN-1 (4mg) in DCM (0.5mL) was added isobutyl

carbonochloridate (1.403 mg) and triethylamine (3.58 μΐ), the reaction solution was stirred at room temperature for 15min, and evaporated. The title product was purified by Prep-HPLC. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.17; ESI-MS (m/z): 490.2 (M+H + ). Example 14 - Preparation of N-((S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-5-me thylisoxazole- 3-carboxamide (CEN-6)

[0136] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of CEN-1 and 5-methylisoxazole-3-carboxylic acid on a 0.01 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.67; ESI-MS (m/z): 499.23 (M+H + ).

Example 15 - Preparation of (S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-N-((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo [d] imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-oxo-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropanamido)butanamide (CEN-7)

[0137] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of CEN-1 and 3,3,3-trifluoropropanoic acid on a 0.01 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.57; ESI-MS (m/z): 500.22 (M+H + ). Example 16 - Preparation of (S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-N-((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-2-((3-isopropyl-l,2,4-oxadiazol -5-yl)amino)-4- oxobutanamide (CEN-8)

[0138] To a solution of CEN-1 (4mg) in DMF (0.5mL) was added 5-chloro-3-isopropyl-

1,2,4-oxadiazole (2mg), and the reaction mixture was stirred at 80 °C for lhour. The title product was purified by Prep-HPLC. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.91 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 500.27 (M+H + ). Example 17 - Preparation of N-((S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-3,3- dimethylcyclobutane-l-carboxamide (CEN-9)

[0139] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of CEN-1 and 3, 3 -dimethyl cyclobutane-l-carboxylic acid on a 0.01 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.49; ESI-MS (/// r): 500.29 (M+H + ). Example 18 - Preparation of N-((S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-2- isopropylcyclopropane-l-carboxamide (CEN-10)

[0140] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of CEN-1 and 2-isopropylcyclopropane-l -carboxylic acid on a 0.01 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.15; ESI-MS (/// r): 500.29 (M+H + ).

Example 19 - Preparation of N-((S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)thiaz ole-5- carboxamide (CEN-11)

[0141] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of CEN-1 and thiazole-5-carboxylic acid on a 0.01 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.91 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 501.2 (M+H + ). Example 20 - Preparation of N-((S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)piper idine-l- carboxamide (CEN-12)

[0142] To a solution of CEN-1 (5mg) in DCM (0.5mL) was added piperidine-l-carbonyl chloride (2mg) and triethylamine (5μ1), the reaction solution was stirred at room temperature for 60 min, and evaporated. The title product was purified by Prep-HPLC. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.82; ESI-MS (m/z): 501.29 (M+H + ). Example 21 - Preparation of N-((S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-4,4- dimethylpentanamide (CEN-13)

[0143] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of CEN-1 and 4,4-dimethylpentanoic acid on a 0.01 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.26; ESI-MS (m/z): 502.31 (M+H + ). Example 22 - Preparation of N-((S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)morph oline-4- carboxamide (CEN-14)

[0144] To a solution of CEN-1 (5mg) in DCM (0.5mL) was added morpholine-4- carbonyl chloride (2mg) and triethylamine (5μ1), the reaction solution was stirred at r.t. for 60 min, and evaporated. The title product was purified by Prep-HPLC. LC-MS (linear gradient 10 → 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.13; ESI-MS (m/z): 503.26 (M+H + ). Example 23 - Preparation of (S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-N-((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-2-(3-isobutyl-3-methylureido)-4 -oxobutanamide (CEN-15)

[0145] To a solution of CEN-1 (5mg) in DCM (0.5mL) was added

isobutyl(methyl)carbamic chloride (2mg) and triethylamine (3μ1), the reaction solution was stirred at room temperature for 20 min, and evaporated. The title product was purified by Prep- HPLC. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.07; ESI-MS (/// r): 503.30 (M+H + ). Example 24 - Preparation of (S)-2-(Benzo[d]oxazol-2-ylamino)-4-((S)-2-ethylpiperidin-l- yl)-N-((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-oxo butanamide (CEN-16)

[0146] To a solution of CEN-1 (3mg) in MP (0.5mL) was added 2- chlorobenzo[d]oxazole (2mg), the reaction solution was stirred at 150°C for 10 min. The title product was purified by Prep-HPLC. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.00; ESI-MS (m/z): 507.24 (M+H + ).

Example 25 - Preparation of N-((S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo [d] imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l ,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)spiro [3.3] heptane-2- carboxamide (CEN-17)

[0147] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of CEN-1 and spiro[3.3]heptane-2-carboxylic acid on a 0.01 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.51 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 512.29 (M+H + ). Example 26 - Preparation of N-((S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-2-me thylthiazole-5- carboxamide (CEN-18)

[0148] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of CEN-1 and 2-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid on a 0.01 mmol scale. LC- MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.03; ESI-MS (m/z):

515.21 (M+H + ). Example 27 - Preparation of (S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-N-((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo [d] imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-2-((6-methylbenzo [d] oxazol-2-yl)amino)-4- oxobutanamide (CEN-19)

[0149] To a solution of CEN-1 (4mg) in MP (0.5mL) was added 2-chloro-6- methylbenzo[d]oxazole (2mg), the reaction solution was stirred at 150°C for 10 min. The title product was purified by Prep-HPLC. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.35; ESI-MS (m/z): 521.25 (M+H + ). Example 28 - Preparation of (S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-N-((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-oxo-2-(3-phenylpropanamido)bu tanamide (CEN-20)

[0150] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of CEN-1 and 3-phenylpropanoic acid on a 0.01 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.98; ESI-MS (m/z): 522.27 (M+H + ).

Example 29 - Preparation of (S)-2-(3-Benzylureido)-4-((S)-2-ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-N-((S)- l- (4-fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-oxobutanamide (CEN-21)

[0151] To a solution of CEN-1 (5mg) in DCM (0.5mL) was added benzylcarbamic chloride (2mg) and triethylamine (3μ1), the reaction solution was stirred at room temperature for 10 min, and evaporated. The title product was purified by Prep-HPLC. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.66; ESI-MS (m/z): 523.27 (M+H + ).

Example 30 - Preparation of (S)-2-(Benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylamino)-4-((S)-2-ethylpiperidin-l- yl)-N-((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-oxo butanamide (CEN-22)

[0152] To a solution of CEN-1 (4mg) in MP (0.5mL) was added 2- chlorobenzo[d]thiazole (2mg), the reaction solution was stirred at 150°C for 10 min. The title product was purified by Prep-HPLC. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.34; ESI-MS (m/z): 523.22 (M+H + ). Example 31 - Preparation of Benzyl ((S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(4-fluoro- lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)ca rbamate (CEN-23)

[0153] To a solution of CEN-1 (5mg) in DCM (0.5mL) was added benzyl

carbonochloridate (2mg) and triethylamine (5μ1), the reaction solution was stirred at room temperature for 10 min, and evaporated. The title product was purified by Prep-HPLC. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.42; ESI-MS (m/z): 524.25 (M+H + ). Example 32 - Preparation of (S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-N-((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo [d] imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-2-((3-methylbutyl)sulfonamido)-4- oxobutanamide (CEN-24)

[0154] The title compound was synthesized by following the general procedure for N-

Sulfonamide formation of CEN-1 with 3-methylbutane-l-sulfonyl chloride on a 0.01 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.21 ; ESI-MS (/// r): 524.26 (M+H + ).

Example33 - Preparation of (lS,2S)-N-((S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(4- fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan- 2-yl)-2- phenylcyclopropane-l-carboxamide (CEN-25)

[0155] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of CEN-1 and (l S,2S)-2-phenylcyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid on a 0.01 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.36; ESI-MS (m/z): 534.27 (M+H + ). Example 34 - Preparation of (S)-2-(3-Benzyl-3-methylureido)-4-((S)-2-ethylpiperidin-l-yl )- N-((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-oxobuta namide (CEN- 26)

[0156] To a solution of CEN-1 (5mg) in DCM (0.5mL) was added

benzyl(methyl)carbamic chloride (3 mg) and triethylamine (5μ1), the reaction solution was stirred at r.t. for 15 min, and evaporated. The title product was purified by Prep-HPLC. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.19; ESI-MS (m/z): 537.29 (M+H + ).

Example 35 - Preparation of (S)-4-((S)-2-Ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-N-((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-2-((3-(4-fluorobenzyl)-l,2,4-ox adiazol-5- yl)amino)-4-oxobutanamide (CEN-27)

[0157] To a solution of CEN-1 (2mg) in MP (0.25mL) was added 5-chloro-3-(4- fluorobenzyl)-l,2,4-oxadiazole (lmg), the reaction solution was stirred at 150°C for 10 min. The title product was purified by Prep-HPLC. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.46; ESI-MS (m/z): 566.26 (M+H + ). Example 36 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-4-

((S)-2-ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-4-methyl pentanamide (CEN- 28)

[0158] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.59; ESI-MS (m/z): 470.30 (M+H + ).

Example 37 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-4- ((S)-2-ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-4,4-dimethy lpentanamide (CEN-29)

[0159] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.93; ESI-MS (m/z): 484.32 (M+H + ).

Example 38 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(4-Fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-2- methylthiazole-5-carboxamide (CEN-30)

[0160] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.75; ESI-MS (m/z): 501.2 (M+H + ).

Example 39 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methyl)amino)-4-((S)-2- methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-4-methylpentanami de (CEN-31)

[0161] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.19; ESI-MS (m/z): 442.27 (M+H + ).

Example 40 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-4- ((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-4-methylpe ntanamide (CEN-32)

[0162] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.15; ESI-MS (m/z): 456.28 (M+H + ).

Example 41 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-4-

((S)-2-methylpyrrolidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-4,4-di methylpentanamide (CEN-33)

[0163] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.16; ESI-MS (m/z): 456.28 (M+H + ).

Example 42 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((R)-l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-4- ((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-4-methylpe ntanamide (CEN-34)

[0164] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.29; ESI-MS (m/z): 456.28 (M+H + ).

Example 43 - Preparation of N-((2S)-l-((l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)- 2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-5-methylisoxazo le-3- carboxamide (CEN-35)

[0165] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.81 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 467.23 (M+H + ). Example 44 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-4- ((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-5-methylis oxazole-3- carboxamide (CEN-36)

[0166] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.83; ESI-MS (m/z): 467.23 (M+H + ).

Example 45 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((R)-l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-4- ((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-4,4-dimeth ylpentanamide (CEN-37)

[0167] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.54; ESI-MS (m/z): 470.30 (M+H + ). Example 46 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(4-Fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-4- methylpentanamide (CEN-38)

[0168] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.67; ESI-MS (m/z): 474.27 (M+H + ).

Example 47 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(4-Fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-3,3- dimethylcyclobutane-l-carboxamide (CEN-39)

[0169] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.18; ESI-MS (m/z): 486.27 (M+H + ).

Example 48 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(4-Fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-2- isopropylcyclopropane-l-carboxamide (CEN-40)

[0170] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.00; ESI-MS (m/z): 486.27 (M+H + ).

Example 49 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(4-Fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-4,4- dimethylpentanamide (CEN-41)

[0171] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.01 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 488.29 (M+H + ).

Example 50 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(4-Fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2- yl)spiro[3.3]heptane-2-carboxamide (CEN-42)

[0172] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.18; ESI-MS (m/z): 498.27 (M+H + ).

Example 51 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(7-Fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-2- oxaspiro [3.3] heptane-6-carboxamide (CEN-43)

[0173] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.72; ESI-MS (m/z): 500.26 (M+H + ). Example 52 - Preparation of (S)-2-(2-(3,3-Dimethylcyclobutyl)acetamido)-N-((R)-l-(4- fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperi din-l-yl)-4- oxobutanamide (CEN-44)

[0174] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.69; ESI-MS (m/z): 500 (M+Ff).

Example 53 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(4,6-Difluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobutan -2-yl)-4- methylpentanamide (CEN-45)

[0175] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.75; ESI-MS (m/z): 506.28 (M+H + ).

Example 54 - Preparation of N-((2S)-l-((l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4- dioxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-3-methylcyc lobutane-l- carboxamide (CEN-46)

[0176] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.48; ESI-MS (m/z): 502.27 (M+H + ).

Example 55 - Preparation of N-((2S)-l-((l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4- dioxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-4-methylpen tanamide (CEN-47)

[0177] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 9 min): t R (min): 5.57; ESI-MS (m/z): 504.28 (M+H + ). Example 56 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4- dioxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-4-methylpen tanamide (CEN-48)

[0178] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.36; ESI-MS (m/z): 504.28 (M+H + ).

Example 57 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((R)-l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4- dioxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-4-methylpen tanamide (CEN-49)

[0179] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.77; ESI-MS (m/z): 504.28 (M+H + ).

Example 58 - Preparation of benzyl ((S)-l-(((S)-l-(4-Fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2- yl)carbamate (CEN-50)

[0180] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-5.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.12; ESI-MS (m/z): 510.24 (M+H + ). Example 59 - Preparation of N-((2S)-4-(2-Cyclopropylpyrrolidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(7-fluoro - lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-2 - oxaspiro[3.3]heptane-6-carboxamide (CEN-51)

[0181] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.80; ESI-MS (m/z): 512.26 (M+H + ).

Example 60 - Preparation of N-((2S)-l-((l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4- dioxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-5-methyliso xazole-3- carboxamide (CEN-52)

[0182] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.37; ESI-MS (m/z): 515.23 (M+H + ). Example 61 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4- dioxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-5-methyliso xazole-3- carboxamide (CEN-53)

[0183] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.28; ESI-MS (m/z): 515.23 (M+H + ).

Example 62 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4- dioxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-4,4-dimethy lpentanamide (CEN-54)

[0184] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.09; ESI-MS (m/z): 518.30 (M+H + ). Example 63 - Preparation of (lS,2S)-N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(4-Fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-2- phenylcyclopropane-l-carboxamide (CEN-55)

[0185] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.10; ESI-MS (m/z): 520.26 (M+H + ).

Example 64 - Preparation of (S)-2-(3-Benzyl-3-methylureido)-N-((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)- 4-oxobutanamide (CEN-56)

[0186] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-15.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.88; ESI-MS (m/z): 523.27 (M+H + ). Example 65 - Preparation of 6,6-Difluoro-N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol- 2-yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobu tan-2- yl)spiro[3.3]heptane-2-carboxamide (CEN-57)

[0187] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 7.07; ESI-MS (m/z): 534.26 (M+H + ).

Example 66 - Preparation of (2S)-N-(l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-2-((3- methylbutyl)sulfonamido)-4-oxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-y l)butanamide (CEN-58)

[0188] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-24.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.67; ESI-MS (m/z): 540.25 (M+H + ). - I l l -

Example 67 - Preparation of (S)-N-((S)-l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-2-((3- methylbutyl)sulfonamido)-4-oxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-y l)butanamide (CEN-59)

[0189] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-24.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.94; ESI-MS (m/z): 540 (M+Ff).

Example 68 - Preparation of (S)-N-((R)-l-(lH-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-2-((3- methylbutyl)sulfonamido)-4-oxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-y l)butanamide (CEN-60)

[0190] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-24.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.76; ESI-MSf(w/z): 540.25 (M+H + ).

Example 69 - Preparation of N-((2S)-4-(2-Cyclopropylpyrrolidin-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(7-fluoro - lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-6 ,6- difluorospiro[3.3]heptane-2-carboxamide (CEN-61)

[0191] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 7.16; ESI-MS (m/z): 546.26 (M+H + ).

Example 70 - Preparation of 6,6-Difluoro-N-((S)-l-((l-(7-fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)cyclopropyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dio xobutan-2- yl)spiro[3.3]heptane-2-carboxamide (CEN-62)

[0192] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 7.32; ESI-MS (m/z): 546.26 (M+H + ). Example 71 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(7-Fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxo-4-((S)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)but an-2-yl)-2- oxaspiro [3.3] heptane-6-carboxamide (CEN-63)

[0193] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.13; ESI-MS (m/z): 548.26 (M+H + ).

Example 72 - Preparation of N-((2S)-4-(2-Cyclopropylpyrrolidin-l-yl)-l-((l-(7-fluoro-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)cyclopropyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl )-6,6- difluorospiro [3.3] heptane-2-carboxamide (CEN-64)

[0194] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 7.40; ESI-MS (m/z): 558.2 (M+H + ). Example 73 - Preparation of 5,5,5-Trifluoro-N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(l-methyl-lH- benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxo-4-((R)-2-phenyl pyrrolidin-l- yl)butan-2-yl)pentanamide (CEN-65)

[0195] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.81 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 558 (M+Ff).

Example 74 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(Benzo[d]oxazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxo - 4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-5,5,5-trifluorope ntanamide (CEN- 66)

[0196] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 7.07; ESI-MS (m/z): 545 (M+Ff).

Example 75 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(Benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-diox o- 4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-5,5,5-trifluorope ntanamide (CEN- 67)

[0197] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 7.24; ESI-MS (m/z): 561 (M+Ff).

Example 76 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(Benzo[d]oxazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxo - 4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-6,6-difluorospiro [3.3]heptane-2- carboxamide (CEN-68)

[0198] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-2.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 7.26; ESI-MS (m/z): 565 (M+Ff).

Example 77 - Preparation of (S)-N 4 -(tert-Butyl)-N 1 -(l-(4-fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)cyclopropyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)succinamide (CEN-69)

[0199] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-24.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 95% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 5 min): t R (min): 3.19; ESI-MS (m/z): 516.40 (M+H + ). Example 78 - Preparation of (S)-N 5 -(tert-Butyl)-N 1 -(l-(4-fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)cyclopropyl)-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)pentanediamid e (CEN-70)

[0200] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-24. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 95% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 5 min): t R (min): 3.17; ESI-MS (m/z): 530.45 (M+H + ).

Example 79 - Preparation of (2S,3R)-N-((S)-l-(7-Fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)- 3-hydroxy-2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)butanamide (CEN-71)

[0201] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-24.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 95% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 5 min): t R (min): 2.66; ESI-MS (m/z): 435.28 (M+H + ). Example 80 - Preparation of (2S,3R)-N-((S)-l-(4-Fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)- 2-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)propanamido)-3-hydroxybutanamide (CEN-72)

[0202] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-24.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 95% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 5 min): t R (min): 2.65; ESI-MS (m/z): 431.34 (M+H + ). Example 81 - Preparation of (S)-N5-(tert-Butyl)-Nl-(l-(7-fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)cyclopropyl)-2-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)propanamido)pentanediam ide (CEN- 73)

[0203] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-24.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 95% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 5 min): t R (min): 3.12; ESI-MS (m/z): 526.45 (M+H + ).

Example 82 - Preparation of Benzyl (S)-(l-Oxo-l-((2-oxo-2-phenylethyl)amino)propan-2- yl)carbamate (2-1)

[0204] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of ((benzyloxy)carbonyl)-L-alanine and 2-amino-l-phenylethan-l-one hydrochloride on a 1.3 mmol scale, and isolated as a white solid in quant, yield. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 6.5 min): t R (min): 3.53; ESI-MS (m/z): 363.13

(M+Na + ).

Example 83 - Preparation of Benzyl (S)-(l-(5-Phenyl-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)carbamate (2- 2)

[0205] To a solution of 2-1 (450mg, 1.32mmol) in AcOH (4 mL) was added ammonium acetate (2.04g, 26.4 mmol), and the reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 2hours. After the reaction was completed, the mixture was poured into H 2 0 (15 mL) and extracted with DCM (10 mL x 3). The combined organic layers were washed with saturated brine (50 mL χ 2), dried over Na 2 S0 4 , and concentrated under vacuum to give title product (400mg) as a gum. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 6.5 min): t R (min): 2.55; ESI-MS (m/z): 322.14 (M+H + ).

Example 84 - Preparation of (S)-l-(5-Phenyl-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethan-l-amine (2-3)

[0206] The title compound was synthesized by following the O-Debenzylation protocol of 2-2 on a 1.0 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 6.5 min): t R (min): 2.12; ESI-MS (m/z): 188.10 (M+H + ). Example 85 - Preparation of (S)-l-(5-(2-Fluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethan-l-amine (2- 4)

[0207] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for 2-3. LC-

MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 6.5 min): t R (min): 2.29; ESI-MS (m/z): 206.1 (M+H + ).

Example 86 - Preparation of (S)-l-(5-(4-Fluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethan-l-amine (2- 5) [0208] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for 2-3. LC-

MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 6.5 min): t R (min): 2.20; ESI-MS (m/z): 206.1 (M+H + ).

Example 87 - Preparation of (S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethan-l-amine

(2-6)

[0209] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for 2-3. LC-

MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 6.5 min): t R (min): 2.35; ESI-MS (m/z): 224.1 (M+H + ).

Example 88 - Preparation of (S)-l-(5-Benzyl-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethan-l-amine (2-7)

[0210] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for 2-3. LC- MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 6.5 min): t R (min): 1.81 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 202.1 (M+H + ).

Example 89 - Preparation of Benzyl (S)-3-((tert-Butoxycarbonyl)amino)-4-(((S)-l-(5-(2- fluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-4-oxobutanoate (2-8)

[0211] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of 2-4 and (S)-4-(benzyloxy)-2-(tert-butoxycarbonylamino)-4-oxobutanoic acid on a 0.7 mmol scale, and isolated as a white solid (160mg). LC-MS (linear gradient 10 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 6.5 min): t R (min): 2.90; ESI-MS (m/z): 511.21 (M+H + ).

Example 90 - Preparation of (S)-3-((tert-Butoxycarbonyl)amino)-4-(((S)-l-(5-(2- fluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-4-oxobutanoic Acid (2-9)

[0212] The title compound was synthesized by following the O-Debenzylation protocol of 2-8 on a 1.0 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 6.5 min): t R (min): 2.51; ESI-MS (m/z): 421.10 (M+H + ).

Example 91 - Preparation of tert-Butyl ((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2-Fluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)but an-2- yl)carbamate (2-10)

[0213] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of 2-9 and (R)-2-phenylpyrrolidine on a 0.1 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 6.5 min): t R (min): 2.83; ESI-MS (m/z): 550.1 (M+H + ).

Example 92 - Preparation of (S)-2-Amino-N-((S)-l-(5-(2-fluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)-4-oxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)butanamide (CEN-74)

[0214] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for Boc-

Deprotection protocol of 2-10 on a 0.05 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.25; ESI-MS (m/z): 450.22 (M+H + ). Example 93 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2-Fluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)but an-2-yl)-5- methylisoxazole-3-carboxamide (CEN-75)

[0215] The title compound was synthesized by following the general protocol for HATU mediated coupling of CEN-74 and 5-methylisoxazole-3-carboxylic acid on a 0.1 mmol scale. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.72; ESI-MS (m/z): 559.20 (M+H + ).

Example 94 - Preparation of (S)-2-Amino-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-4-oxobutanamide (CEN-76)

[0216] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-74.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 3.81 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 420.21 (M+H + ). Example 95 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxo-4-(pyrrolidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-4- methylpentanamide (CEN-77)

[0217] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.30; ESI-MS (m/z): 490.25 (M+H + ).

Example 96 - Preparation of (S)-Nl-((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl )- N4-isopropyl-N4-methyl-2-(4-methylpentanamido)succinamide (CEN-78)

[0218] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 6.5 min): t R (min): 2.77; ESI-MS (m/z): 492.27 (M+H + ).

Example 97 - Preparation of (S)-Nl-((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl )- N4,N4-diethyl-2-(4-methylpentanamido)succinamide (CEN-79)

[0219] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.51 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 492.27 (M+H + ).

Example 98 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxo-4-(pyrrolidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-5-m ethylisoxazole-3- carboxamide (CEN-80)

[0220] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.24; ESI-MS (m/z): 501 (M+Ff).

Example 99 - Preparation of (S)-2-(2-Cyclopropylacetamido)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4- difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpiper idin-l-yl)-4- oxobutanamide (CEN-81)

[0221] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.20; ESI-MS (m/z): 502.25 (M+H + ). Example 100 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2- yl)cyclobutanecarboxamide (CEN-82)

[0222] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.48; ESI-MS (m/z): 502 (M+Ff).

Example 101 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxo-4-(pyrrolidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-4,4 - dimethylpentanamide (CEN-83)

[0223] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.41 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 504.27 (M+H + ).

Example 102 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxo-4-(piperidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-4-me thylpentanamide (CEN-84)

[0224] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.59; ESI-MS (m/z): 504.27 (M+H + ).

Example 103 - Preparation of (S)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl) - 2-((3-methyl-2-oxobutyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl )-4- oxobutanamide (CEN-85)

[0225] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.54; ESI-MS (m/z): 504.27 (M+H + ).

Example 104 - Preparation of (S)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl) - 2-(ethylsulfonamido)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-4-oxobut anamide (CEN- 86)

[0226] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-24.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.88; ESI-MS (m/z): 512.20 (M+H + ). Example 105 - Preparation of (S)-2-(3-Cyclopropylpropanamido)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4- difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpiper idin-l-yl)-4- oxobutanamide (CEN-87)

[0227] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.52; ESI-MS (m/z): 516.27 (M+H + ).

Example 106 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-4- methylpentanamide (CEN-88)

[0228] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.67; ESI-MS (m/z): 518.28 (M+H + ).

Example 107 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpyrrolidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobut an-2-yl)-4,4- dimethylpentanamide (CEN-89)

[0229] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.75; ESI-MS (m/z): 518.28 (M+H + ). Example 108 - Preparation of N-((S)-4-(Azepan-l-yl)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-lH- imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2-yl)-4-methylpent anamide (CEN-90)

[0230] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75. LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.77; ESI-MS (m/z): 518.26 (M+H + ).

Example 109 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((R)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-4- methylpentanamide (CEN-91)

[0231] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.83; ESI-MS (m/z): 518.28 (M+H + ). Example 110 -Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-3-methylmorpholino)-l,4-dioxobutan-2- yl)-4- methylpentanamide (CEN-92)

[0232] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.04; ESI-MS (m,z): 520.26 (M+H + ).

Example 111 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-l- methyl-lH-imidazole-4-carboxamide (CEN-93)

[0233] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.30; ESI-MS (m/z): 528.24 (M+H + ). Example 112 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yi)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-5- methylisoxazole-3-carboxamide (CEN-94)

[0234] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.47; ESI-MS (m∑): 529.22 (M+H + ).

Example 113 - Preparation of (S)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl) - 2-((3-isopropyl-l,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylp iperidin-l-yl)-4- oxobutanamide (CEN-95)

[0235] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-8.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.81 ; ESI-MS (m z): 530.26 (M+H + ). Example 114 -Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-3,3- dimethylcyclobutane-l-carboxamide (CEN-96)

[0236] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.01 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 530.28 (M+H + ).

Example 115 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-2- isopropylcyclopropane-l-carboxamide (CEN-97)

[0237] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.02; ESI-MS (m/z): 530.28 (M+H + ). Example 116 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)thiazole- 5-carboxamide (CEN-98)

[0238] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.81 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 531.19 (M+H + ).

Example 117 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-4,4- dimethylpentanamide (CEN-99)

[0239] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.96; ESI-MS (m/z): 532.30 (M+H + ).

Example 118 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-ethylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobutan -2-yl)-4- methylpentanamide (CEN-100)

[0240] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.16; ESI-MS (m/z): 532.30 (M+H + ).

Example 119 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-2- (4,4-dimethylpentanoyl)-l-(2-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-2- oxoethyl)hydrazine-l-carboxamide (CEN-101)

[0241] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.73; ESI-MS (m/z): 533.3 (M+H + ).

Example 120 - Preparation of (S)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl) - 4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-4-oxo-2-(2-phenylacetamido)bu tanamide (CEN-102)

[0242] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.47; ESI-MS (m/z): 538.25 (M+H + ). Example 121 - Preparation of (S)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl) - 4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-4-oxo-2-((2-oxo-2- phenylethyl)amino)butanamide (CEN-103)

[0243] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-8.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.70; ESI-MS (m/∑): 538.25 (M+H + ).

Example 122 - Preparation of (S)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl) - 4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-2-((2-methylpropyl)sulfonamid o)-4- oxobutanamide (CEN-104)

[0244] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-24.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.83; ESI-MS (m/z): 540 (M+H + ).

Example 123 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyi)amino)-4-((S)-2-niethyipiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobut an-2-yl)-2- methyithiazole-5-carboxamide (CEN-105)

[0245] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.98; ESI-MS (m/z): 545.20 (M+H + ).

Example 124 - Preparation of (S)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl) - 4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-4-oxo-2-(2-(tetrahydro-2H-pyr an-4- yl)acetamido)butanamide (CEN-106)

[0246] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.92; ESI-MS (m/z): 546.28 (M+H + ). Example 125 - Preparation of N-((2S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-(2-isopropylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobutan -2-yl)-4- methylpentanamide (CEN-107)

[0247] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 6.41 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 546.31 (M+H + ).

Example 126 - Preparation of (S)-2-((2-Cyclopropylethyl)sulfonamido)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4- difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpiper idin-l-yl)-4- oxobutanamide (CEN-108)

[0248] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-24.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.78; ESI-MS (m/z): 552.23 (M+H + ).

Example 127 - Preparation of (S)-2-(Benzo[d]oxazol-2-ylamino)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4- difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-((S)-2-methylpiper idin-l-yl)-4- oxobutanamide (CEN-109)

[0249] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-16.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.80; ESI-MS (m/z): 537.23 (M+H + ).

Example 128 - Preparation of (S)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl) - 4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-4-oxo-2-(phenylsulfonamido)bu tanamide (CEN-110)

[0250] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-24.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.54; ESI-MS (m/z): 560.20 (M+H + ).

Example 129 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxo-4-((R)-2-(trifluoromethyl)piperidi n-l-yl)butan-2- yl)-4-methylpentanamide (CEN-111)

[0251] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.17; ESI-MS (m/z): 572.25(M+H + ). Example 130 - Preparation of (S)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl) - 4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-4-oxo-2- ((phenylmethyl)sulfonamido)butanamide (CEN-112)

[0252] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.75; ESI-MS (m/z): 574.22 (M+H + ).

Example 131 - Preparation of (S)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl) - 2-((4-methylphenyl)sulfonamido)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-y l)-4- oxobutanamide (CEN-113)

[0253] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-24.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.81 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 574.22 (M+H + ).

Example 132 - Preparation of (S)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl) - 2-((3-methylbutyl)sulfonamido)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl )-4- oxobutanamide (CEN-114)

[0254] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-24.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.80; ESI-MS (m/z): 554.25 (M+H + ). Example 133 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)but an-2-yl)-5- methylisoxazole-3-carboxamide (CEN-115)

[0255] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75. LC-MS (linear gradient 5→ 95% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 8 min): t R (min): 3.56; ESI-MS (m/z): 577.3 (M+H + ).

Example 134 - Preparation of 5-Methyl-N-((S)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxo-l- (((S)-l-(5-phenyl-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)butan-2-yl)is oxazole-3- carboxamide (CEN-116)

[0256] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.39; ESI-MS (m/z): 493.34 (M+H + ). Example 135 - Preparation of 5-Methyl-N-((2S)-4-(2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxo-l- (((S)-l-(5-phenyl-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)butan-2-yl)is oxazole-3- carboxamide (CEN-117)

[0257] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.37; ESI-MS (m/∑): 493.24 (M+H + ).

Example 136 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(2-Fluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-5- methylisoxazole-3-carboxamide (CEN-118)

[0258] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.36; ESI-MS (m/z): 51 1.23 (M+H + ). Example 137 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-(4-Fluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-l,4-dioxobuta n-2-yl)-5- methylisoxazole-3-carboxamide (CEN-119)

[0259] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.43; ESI-MS (m/z): 51 1.23 (M+H + ).

Example 138 - Preparation of N-((S)-l,4-Dioxo-l-(((S)-l-(5-phenyl-lH-imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-5 - methylisoxazole-3-carboxamide (CEN-120)

[0260] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 5→ 95% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 8 min): t R (min): 3.47; ESI-MS (m/z): 541.5 (M+H + ). Example 139 - Preparation of (S)-N-((S)-l-(5-Benzyl-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-2-(2- cyclopropylacetamido)-4-oxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)b utanamide (CEN-121)

[0261] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.61 ; ESI-MS (m/z): 528.29 (M+H + ).

Example 140 - Preparation of (S)-N-((S)-l-(5-Benzyl-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-((S)-2- methylpiperidin-l-yl)-4-oxo-2-(2-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4- yl)acetamido)butanamide (CEN-122)

[0262] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 4.94; ESI-MS (m/z): 524.31 (M+H + ). Example 141 - Preparation of N-((S)-l-(((S)-l-(5-Benzyl-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)amino)- l,4-dioxo-4-((R)-2-phenylpyrrolidin-l-yl)butan-2-yl)-5-methy lisoxazole-3- carboxamide (CEN-123)

[0263] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.84; ESI-MS (m/z): 555.26 (M+H + ).

Example 142 - Preparation of (S)-N-((S)-l-(5-Benzyl-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-2-(2- cyclopropylacetamido)-4-((S)-2-methylpiperidin-l-yl)-4-oxobu tanamide (CEN-124)

[0264] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-75.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.27; ESI-MS (m/z): 480.29 (M+H + ). Example 143 - Preparation of (S)-2-(benzo[d]oxazol-2-ylamino)-N-((S)-l-(5-(2- fluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-4-oxo-4-((R)-2-phenylp yrrolidin-l- yl)butanamide (CEN-125)

[0265] The title compound was synthesized by the similar method described for CEN-16.

LC-MS (linear gradient 10→ 98% MeCN, 0.1% TFA, 12 min): t R (min): 5.73; ESI-MS (m/z): 567.24 (M+H + ).

[0266] Synthesized compounds are shown in Table 1.

Table 1

Molecular

Formula Structure IUPAC Name

Weight

517.61 N-[(l S)-3-(azepan-l-yl)-l- [[(l S)-l-[5-(2,4-difluorophenyl)- lH-imidazol-2- yl]ethyl]carbamoyl]-3-oxo- propyl]-4-methyl-pentanamide

469.62 N-[(1 S)-1-[[(1 S)-1-(1H- benzimidazol-2- yl)ethyl]carbamoyl]-3-[(2S)-2- ethyl-l-piperidyl]-3-oxo- propyl]-4-methyl-pentanamide

483.65 N-[(1 S)-1-[[(1 S)-1-(1H- benzimidazol-2- yl)ethyl]carbamoyl]-3-[(2S)-2- ethyl-l-piperidyl]-3-oxo- propyl]-4,4-dimethyl- pentanamide

545.66 N-[(l S)-l-[[(l S)-l-[5-(2,4- difluorophenyl)-lH-imidazol-2- yl]ethyl]carbamoyl]-3-(2- i sopropyl - 1 -pip eri dyl )-3 -oxo- propyl]-4-methyl-pentanamide

505.6 N-[(l S)-l-[[(l S)-l-(4,6-difluoro- lH-benzimidazol-2- yl)ethyl]carbamoyl]-3-[(2S)-2- ethyl-l-piperidyl]-3-oxo- propyl]-4-methyl-pentanamide

501.64 N-[(l S)-3-[(2S)-2-ethyl-l- piperidyl]-l-[[(l S)-l-(4-fluoro- lH-benzimidazol-2- yl)ethyl]carbamoyl]-3-oxo- propyl]-4,4-dimethyl- pentanamide Molecular

Formula Structure IUPAC Name

Weight

487.61 N-[(l S)-3-[(2S)-2-ethyl-l- piperidyl]-l-[[(l S)-l-(4-fluoro- lH-benzimidazol-2- yl)ethyl]carbamoyl]-3-oxo- propyl]-4-methyl-pentanamide -, 473.58 N-[( 1 S)- 1 - [[( 1 S)- 1 -(4-fluoro- 1H- benzimidazol-2- yl)ethyl]carbamoyl]-3-[(2S)-2- methyl- 1 -piperidyl]-3 -oxo- propyl]-4-methyl-pentanamide

487.61 N-[( 1 S)- 1 - [[( 1 S)- 1 -(4-fluoro- 1H- benzimidazol-2- yl)ethyl]carbamoyl]-3-[(2S)-2- methyl- 1 -piperidyl]-3 -oxo- propyl]-4,4-dimethyl- pentanamide

523.66 (2S)-4-[(2S)-2-ethyl-l- piperidyl]-N-[(l S)-l-(4-fluoro- lH-benzimidazol-2-yl)ethyl]-2- (i sopentyl sulfonylamino)-4-oxo- butanamide

505.6 N-[(l S)-l-[[(l S)-l-(5,6-difluoro- lH-benzimidazol-2- yl)ethyl]carbamoyl]-3-[(2S)-2- ethyl-l-piperidyl]-3-oxo- propyl]-4-methyl-pentanamide

498.55 N-[(l S)-3-[(2S)-2-ethyl-l- piperidyl]-l-[[(l S)-l-(4-fluoro- lH-benzimidazol-2- yl)ethyl]carbamoyl]-3-oxo- propyl]-5-methyl-isoxazole-3- carboxamide Molecular

Formula Structure IUPAC Name

Weight

506.57 (2 S)-2-( 1 , 3 -b enzoxazol-2- ylamino)-4-[(2S)-2-ethyl-l- piperidyl]-N-[(l S)-l-(4-fluoro- lH-benzimidazol-2-yl)ethyl]-4- oxo-butanamide

488.6 (2S)-2-[3- (dimethylamino)propanoylamino ]-4-[(2S)-2-ethyl-l-piperidyl]-N-

[(l S)-l-(4-fluoro-lH- benzimidazol-2-yl)ethyl]-4-oxo- o - butanamide

520.6 (2S)-4-[(2S)-2-ethyl-l- piperidyl]-N-[(l S)-l-(4-fluoro- lH-benzimidazol-2-yl)ethyl]-2- [(5-methyl-l,3-benzoxazol-2- yl)amino]-4-oxo-butanamide

520.6 (2S)-4-[(2S)-2-ethyl-l- piperidyl]-N-[(l S)-l-(4-fluoro- lH-benzimidazol-2-yl)ethyl]-2- [(6-methyl-l,3-benzoxazol-2- yl)amino]-4-oxo-butanamide

533.65 (l S,2S)-N-((S)-4-((S)-2- ethylpiperidin- 1 -yl)- 1 -(((S)- 1 -(4- fluoro-lH-benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)ethyl)amino)-l,4-dioxobutan- 2-yl)-2-phenylcyclopropane-l- carboxamide

499.62 N-[(l S)-3-[(2S)-2-ethyl-l- piperidyl]-l-[[(l S)-l-(4-fluoro- lH-benzimidazol-2- yl)ethyl]carbamoyl]-3-oxo- propyl] -2-i sopropyl- cy cl opropanecarb ox ami de o, 485.59 N-[( 1 S)- 1 - [[( 1 S)- 1 -(4-fluoro- 1H- benzimidazol-2- yl)ethyl]carbamoyl]-3-[(2S)-2- methyl- 1 -piperidyl]-3 -oxo- propyl] -2-i sopropyl- cy cl opropanecarb ox ami de

HT " butanamide

Example 144 -IC 50 Determination

[0267] Experiments to determine IC 50 values against β5ί and 5c for compounds were carried out in 96-well plates. In brief, 1 μΐ. of compound in a 3x series dilution in DMSO at concentration ranging from 100 μΜ - 0.0017 μΜ were spotted to the bottom of a black 96-well plate with solid bottom. 100 μΐ, of reaction buffer (20 mM HEPES, 0.5 mM EDTA, pH7.5, 0.1% BSA) containing enzyme (final concentration was 0.2 nM for C-20S, and 0.4 nM for i-20S) and substrate (25 μΜ for suc-LLVY-AMC for β5ο and 15 μΜ for Ac-ANW-AMC) were dispensed into each well, and the plate was then spun at lOOOx rpm for 1 minute and then shaked on a shaker for 1 minute. Time course of the hydrolysis of each well was followed by recording the fluorescence of product AMC (Ex 360 nm and Em 460 nm) on a SpectraMax M5 plate reader for 1.5 - 2 hours. Initial reaction velocity of each well was fit to a dose-dependent inhibition equation using PRISM to determine the IC 5 o- IC50S were determined only for β5ί and β5ϋ (Table 2). SDS was used as activator for both enzymes at concentration 0.02%.

Table 2. IC 50 values

- 165 -

] The results of the 20S proteasome inhibitor assays are presented in Table 3. Table 3. IC 50 of Compounds Against Human Constitutive (Hu C-20S) β5 Active Subunit

- 193 -

- 198 -

- 199 -

[0269] Although preferred embodiments have been depicted and described in detail herein, it will be apparent to those skilled in the relevant art that various modifications, additions, substitutions, and the like can be made without departing from the spirit of the invention and these are therefore considered to be within the scope of the invention as defined in the claims which follow.