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Title:
PERACETIC TEAT DIP
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2008/088873
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A teat dip formula is disclosed for use on dairy animals with the objective of reducing or preventing mastitis. The teat dip formula preferably includes up to about 2% of peracetic acid in solution made by mixing acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and from up to about 5% by weight of composition of a thickening agent. Other constituents of the formula may include effective amounts of a skin conditioning agent or agents, a surfactant or surfactants and urea. A method of preparing and applying the formula is disclosed.

Inventors:
DEE, Alejandro, O. (2808 Willow Bend Way, San Ramon, CA, 94582, US)
STEVENSON, Randal, D. (612 Cottage Court, Cottage Grove, WI, 53527, US)
GRADLE, Charles, D. (1100 S. Grove Avenue, Oak Park, IL, 60304, US)
Application Number:
US2008/000682
Publication Date:
July 24, 2008
Filing Date:
January 18, 2008
Export Citation:
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Assignee:
WESTFALIASURGE, INC. (1880 Contry Farm Drive, Naperville, IL, 60563, US)
DEE, Alejandro, O. (2808 Willow Bend Way, San Ramon, CA, 94582, US)
STEVENSON, Randal, D. (612 Cottage Court, Cottage Grove, WI, 53527, US)
GRADLE, Charles, D. (1100 S. Grove Avenue, Oak Park, IL, 60304, US)
International Classes:
A61K31/21
Foreign References:
US6284719B12001-09-04
US6211237B12001-04-03
US20060177518A12006-08-10
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SMITH, Jeffry, W. (Smith Law Office, 440 Science Drive Suite 30, Madison WI, 53711, US)
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Claims:

CLAIMS

1. An aqueous teat dip composition for use with dairy animals, comprising: acetic acid; hydrogen peroxide; and peracetic acid in an amout up to about 2% by weight of the composition.

2. The composition of claim 1, wherein the peracetic acid is produced via an in situ chemical reaction of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, and a sulfuric acid catalyst.

3. The composition of claim 1, and further comprising: a thickening agent in an amount up to about 5% by weight of composition.

4. The composition of claim 1, and further comprising a skin-conditioning agent in an amount up to about 75% by weight of composition.

5. The composition of claim 4, wherein the skin-conditioning agent comprises a moisturizer.

6. The composition of claim 4, wherein the skin-conditioning agent is glycerin.

7. The composition of claim 1, and further comprising: a surfactant in an amount up to about 2.0% by weight of composition.

8. The composition of claim 1, and further comprising urea in an amount up to about 1.0% by weight of composition.

9. The composition of claim 1, wherein the acetic acid is in an amount up to about 5.0% by weight of composition and the hydrogen peroxide is in an amount from about 0.1% to about 5.0% by weight of the composition.

10. The composition of claim 1, and further comprising up to about 5% of a thickening agent by weight of composition, and the thickening agent is selected from the group consisting of: polyvinyl pyrollidone, xanthan gum, guar gum, clay, methylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, anionic carboxyvinyl polymers, hydroxymethylcellulose, and combinations thereof.

11. A method of preparing a peracetic teat dip composition, comprising the steps of: mixing acetic acid with hydrogen peroxide; and adding a thickening agent in an amount up to about 5% by weight of composition, and the thickening agent is selected from the group consisting of: polyvinyl pyrollidone, xanthan gum, guar gum, clay, N methylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, anionic carboxyvinyl polymers, hydroxymethylcellulose, and combinations thereof.

12. The method of claim 11, wherein peracetic acid is produced via an in situ chemical reaction of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. 13. The method of claim 11, wherein the acetic acid is in an amount up to about 5.0% by weight of composition and the hydrogen peroxide is in an amount up to about 5.0% by weight of composition and the method further comprising the step of: adding water to form an aqueous solution. 14. The method of claim 11, wherein the step of adding a catalyst comprises: the step of adding sulfuric acid.

15. The method of claim 11, and further comprising the step of: adding glycerin in an amount up to about 75% by weight of the composition.

16. The method of claim 11, and further comprising the step of: adding surfactant in an amount up to about 2.0% by weight of the composition.

17. The method of claim 11, and further comprising the step of: adding urea in an amount up to about 1.0% by weight of the composition.

18. The method of claim 11, and further comprising the step of: adding up to about 5% by weight of composition of a thickening agent selected from the group consisting of: polyvinyl pyrollidone, xanthan gum, guar gum, clay, methylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, anionic carboxyvinyl polymers, hydroxymethylcellulose, and combinations thereof. 19. A method of reducing mastitis in a dairy animal, comprising the step of: topically applying an antimicrobial composition to the teats of the animal, the composition comprising peracetic acid in an amount of about 2% by weight of the composition.

20. The method of claim 19, wherein the composition is prepared by a method comprising the step of: forming the peracetic acid in situ with a mixture of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

21. The method of claim 20, wherein the peracetic acid is produced via an in situ chemical reaction of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a catalyst.

22. The method according to claim 20, wherein the acetic acid is added in an amount up to about 5.0% by weight of the composition.

23. The method according to claim 20, wherein the hydrogen peroxide is added in an amount up to about 5.0% by weight of the composition. 24. The method according to claim 20, wherein the method of preparing the composition further comprises the step of: adding a skin conditioning agent in an amount of up to about 75% by weight of the composition.

25. The method according to claim 20, wherein the method of preparing the composition further comprises the step of: adding a surfactant in an amount of from about 0.2% to about 2.0% by weight of the composition.

26. The method according to claim 20, wherein the method of preparing the composition further comprises the step of: adding urea in an amount of up to about 1.0% by weight of the composition.

27. The method of claim 21, and further wherein the catalyst is sulfuric acid.

28. The method of claim 19, wherein the applying step is performed before milking of the animal. 29. The method of claim 19, wherein the applying step is performed after milking of the animal.

Description:

PERACETIC TEAT DIP

[0001] This application is a continuation-in-part of Application No. 11/051,501 filed February 4, 2005, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present invention is related to formulations and methods directed to the prevention of new intra-mammary infections in dairy cows. More particularly, the present invention is related to a teat dip formulation and method. Even more specifically, the present invention includes a method for the formulation of an in situ reaction of acetic acid with hydrogen peroxide in a teat dip formulation.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] The treatment and prevention of mastitis in dairy cows continues to be of primary importance to the dairy industry. Mastitis is caused by an infection of the milk-producing mammary glands by a broad spectrum of pathogenic microorganisms. These could include such organisms as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Mycoplasma bovis. In particular, when the milk-producing glands and surrounding

tissues in the udder become infected, the tissues may become inflamed with cellular infiltrates and associated toxic substances.

[0004] The cellular infiltrates and associated toxins, along with the infecting organisms themselves, can cause a dramatic reduction in the quality of milk produced by the animal. The infiltrates, toxins, and organisms can also affect the quantity of milk produced by the animal. Occasionally, the infection can spread systemically to other organ and tissue sites via the blood or lymphatic systems. The spreading infection can, in extreme cases, seriously debilitate or kill the infected animal. [0005] The most common method used to combat the problem involves treating the infected animals with antibiotics. In some cases, where the disease is chronic or the animal seriously debilitated, the animal may be permanently removed or "culled" from the herd. Antibiotics are usually administered directly into the mammary gland via the teat orifice but can also be administered systemically from other body sites.

[0006] A secondary problem of antibiotic treatment is the potential for antibiotic residue in the treated animals and their milk products. Antibiotic-contaminated milk cannot be sold within many nations, which can constitute a loss of income to the dairy producer. Overuse of antibiotics can promote the development of resistant strains of mastitis-causing pathogens, which are then more difficult and costly to control. Additionally, public opposition over the use of antibiotics and the presence of antibiotics residues in meat and milk products has severely limited their market. [0007] As an alternative to treatment with antibiotics after infection, products have been designed to prevent mastitis by killing the pathogenic organisms that might otherwise infect and invade the teat and udder tissues before the organisms enter the

teat canal. Proactive topical antiseptics commonly known as a teat (or udder) dips, washes, foams, sprays, or wipes, for example are applied to the teat and udder area of the dairy cow or other milk-producing animal before and/or after milking as part of a process of general dairy hygiene. Teat dips are intended to kill or reduce in number the mastitis-causing microorganisms on the surface of the teat before the microorganisms have had a chance to migrate or be propelled (during milking) into the teat canal, or to enter the teat via injuries or lesions. The various methods for applying a teat sanitation formulation are well known, and include dipping, spraying, foaming, wiping, and so on. [0008] Although the wide-spread use of topical antiseptics in the last 30 years has greatly decreased the incidence of mastitis, many of the products presently used as teat dips, washes, sprays or wipes having broad-spectrum chemical germicides such as chlorinated compounds, iodophors or chlorhexidines are known to irritate the animals' skin. Irritation is even more likely when a cow is subjected to repeated applications of the product, two or three times a day, before and/or after milking, and over a period of years. Additionally, there is concern among regulatory agencies, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, about the presence of germicide residues, such as iodine or chlorhexidine, in milk products. [0009] Chemical germicides such as chlorine, iodine, and chlorhexidine compounds also lack a high degree of stability. These chemical germicides can become inactivated over time as a result of the instability, or can become inactivated by substances (such as water or organic materials), which may contaminate, react with or dilute the germicide after it has been applied to the teat.

[0010] One suggested substitute for the chlorinated compounds, iodophors and chlorhexidines presently used as teat dips, are the fatty acids and their derivatives. The antimicrobial or germicidal properties of short to medium-chain fatty acids (C 6 to Ci 4 ) and their derivatives (such as esters) have been known for some time. See U.S. Pat. No. 6,699,907 to Dee et al., U.S. Pat. No. 4,406,884 to Fawzi and U.S.

Pat. No. 5,208,257 to Kabara; Viegas, et al., Inhibition of Yeast Growth by octanoic and Decanoic Acids Produced during Ethanolic Fermentation, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, January 1989; J. J. Kabara, Toxicological, Bactericidal and Fungicidal Properties of Fatty Acids and Some Derivatives, Journal of American Oil Chemists' Society, November 1979; J. Fay and R. Farias, Inhibitory Action of a Non-Metabolizable Fatty Acid on the Growth of Escherichia coli: Role of Metabolism and Outer Membrane Integrity, Journal of Bacteriology, December 1977; and J. J. Kabara, Antimicrobial Lipids: Natural and Synthetic Fatty Acids and Monoglycerides, Lipids, March 1977. Fatty acids have been included in the class of lipophilic weak acids, which are generally considered to be an important class of antimicrobial agents. See Thomas R. Corner, Synergism in the Inhibition of Bacillus subtilin by Combinations of Lipophilic Weak Acids and Fatty Alcohols, Journal of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, pp. 1082-85 (June 1981). [0011] Highly bactericidal and undiluted fatty acids are irritating to the skin and they may even be corrosive to dairy equipment. Fortunately, it has been found that dilute concentrations of fatty acids have antimicrobial efficacy. Hence, a significant amount of work has been done to prepare antimicrobial compositions using a fatty acid diluted, for example, with water.

[0012] Preparing such a composition diluted with water is complicated because short to medium-chain fatty acids are, at best, only slightly soluble in water. One solution to the relative insolubility of fatty acids has been to add hydrotropes to compositions containing low concentrations (0.1% to 5.0% by weight of composition) of a mixture of fatty acids (C 6 to Ci 2 ) to solubilize the fatty acids. In such a composition, the shorter-chained fatty acids (C 6 to C9) may actually assist the action of the hydrotrope by helping to solubilize the longer species, and thereby improve the longer species' antimicrobial efficacy. See U.S. Pat. No. 4,404,040 to Wang, et al. [0013] To maintain the antimicrobial action of the fatty acids in solution with water, however, the pH of the composition must be sufficiently low (below about 4.0) to allow the acids to remain in their active free acid form. A strong organic or inorganic acid must be added to lower the pH so that the fatty acid can remain in its active form. [0014] Alternatively, U.S. Pat. No. 4,406,884 to Fawzi et al. teaches away from solubilizing the fatty acids in water, and instead, teaches that the antimicrobial efficacy of the fatty acids may be enhanced by supersaturating the aqueous phase of an aqueous lotion or gel with low concentrations of a mixture of short and medium- chain fatty acids. According to Fawzi et al., the supersaturated aqueous phase combined with the lipophilicity of the fatty acids provides the increased antimicrobial action, without resort to either a hydrotrope or solubilizer to maintain the fatty acids in solution with the water.

[0015] Surfactant liquids and applicators are well known for use as bovine teat dips, and typical publications concerning these applicators are found in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,713,423 and 4,305,346. Publications concerning bovine teat dips include U.S.

Pat. Nos. 5,534,266 and 5,720,984 the latter patent disclosing a non-ionic, laureth (11-16) carboxylic acid surfactant teat dip and hand foam, which is highly suitable for use in this invention. Publications concerning bovine teat dip formulations include U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,728,449; 4,012,504; 4,049,830; 4,759,931; 5,641,498; 5,368,868; 5,534,266; 5,616,348; 5,651,977; and 5,720,984. Polyethenoxy detergents and I 2 are disclosed in an article by Benjamin Carroll in the Journal of Bacteriology, 69: 413-417, (1955). A PVP surfactant for a teat dips is also suitable, and so is one sold by Norman Fox & Co. under the trade name of NORPOX N-P9, and listed in "McCutcheon's Emulsifiers and Detergents", 1989 (incorporated by reference herein) specifically for use with iodophors. U.S. Pat. No. 5,616,348, supra, discloses a polyethoxylated polyoxypropylene block copolymer (Poloxamer) and iodine, which is suitable as a bovine teat dip.

[0016] So, it can be seen that an effective, safe, and simple method and composition for treating bovine teat tissue and the like is an important, yet elusive goal in the industry. It would be highly desirable, therefore, to provide a teat dip formulation that provides an effective, safe, and simple reduction or elimination of a broad spectrum of mastitis causing bacteria, and that is also sufficiently stable and safe to mix and use. The demand for such a formulation is met by the present invention.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION [0017] Peracetic acid (also referred to as peroxyacetic acid) has been found to be an effective antimicrobial in a variety of applications, including when used as a topical anti-microbial. Peracetic acid, as a strong oxidizer, is very reactive at high concentrations and potentially explosive. It is also hard to handle due to its high degree of irritation to the skin and respiratory tract of humans as well as animals. [0018] Its byproducts are acetic acid, oxygen and water, so it is friendly to the

environment and does not produce residues on the teat. It works well under high organic loads and at a variety of temperatures and water hardness levels. Drawbacks are that it can be hard to handle at high concentrations, it has a pungent odor, and it works best when its pH is below 7.0. [0019] Peracetic acid is produced commercially in concentrations ranging from 4.0% to 15%. It is made by combining acetic acid with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a sulfuric acid catalyst. This produces an equilibrium quantity of peracetic acid plus water. The stoichiometric relationship is:

CH 3 C(O)OH + HOOH = CH 3 C(O)OOH + H 2 O So when the first two components, acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are combined, equilibrium is established with the production of peracetic acid and water. As the peracetic acid is used up, more is produced to maintain the equilibrium. See FMC Corporation. 2003. VigorOx R Liquid Sanitizer and Disinfectant: Technical Brochure. FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA. Since only acetic acid and peroxide are necessary in making the product, there is no need for a manufacturer to handle peracetic acid during manufacture. The peracetic acid is produced within the product in effectively low enough concentrations to be efficacious while not generating the hazards associated with higher levels.

[0020] One solution is to formulate a teat dip that produces peracetic acid in a small enough quantity to be safe to handle and not be irritating while maintaining considerable bactericidal efficacy. It is also desirable to maintain this concentration of peracetic acid in equilibrium over an extended period of time to produce an acceptable shelf-life. The present invention can achieve these goals through the continual and controlled production of peracetic acid via an in situ reaction. [0021] In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, a teat dip formula is provided for treating dairy animals with the objective of reducing the amount of

mastitis-causing organisms. The teat dip formula includes up to about 5000 parts- per-million ("ppm") of peracetic acid in solution, and preferably has at least 1.0 ppm of acetic acid, with 26ppm being a preferred lower end concentration and with 200 ppm being a more preferred lower end of the concentration range. [0022] In other embodiments of the present invention, the solution may be aqueous. The composition may include skin conditioning agents in a concentration of up to about seventy-five percent (75%) by weight of the composition. The skin- conditioning agents may be moisturizers and it may contain glycerin, sorbitol, propane diol, and/or lanolin. The composition may further include from about 0.1% to 8.0% by weight of a surfactant. The composition may further include up to about 1.0% by weight of urea.

[0023] In yet another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided of reducing mastitis in a dairy animal, including preparing a teat dip composition, comprising up to about 5000 ppm of peracetic acid in an aqueous solution and applying the teat dip composition topically to the teats of the animal. In other embodiments of the present invention, the application may be performed before and/or after milking of the animal.

[0024] In yet another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for preparing a teat dip composition, including combining up to about 5.0% acetic acid and up to about 5.0% hydrogen peroxide with the balance of the formulation being water where peracetic acid is formed in situ as an aqueous solution. In other embodiments, the composition is mixed in situ to enhance efficacy while maintaining stability. [0025] In other embodiments of the present invention, the method may further include adding up to about 75% glycerin, sorbitol, propane diol, and/or lanolin.

The method may fUrther include adding about 0.1% to 8.0% of a surfactant to the solution and/or adding up to 1.0% urea to the solution.

[0026] In still other embodiments of the present invention, the method may further include up to about 5% by weight of composition of a thickening agent with a preferred range of between .05% and about 1% of a thickening agent. This thickening agent may consist of polyvinylpyrrolidone, xanthan gum, guar gum, clay, methylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, anionic carboxyvinyl polymers, or hydroxymethylcellulose, or combinations thereof. [0027] The embodiments of the teat dip formula described herein overcome many of the disadvantages of prior teat dip formulas in a unique formulation, which is both safe to use and effective.

DISCLOSURE OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION [0028] The present invention relates to a teat dip composition, a method of forming the composition, and a method for reducing or preventing mastitis in dairy animals. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, a stable solution of peracetic acid in an effective concentration is prepared by combining in water, acetic acid and excess hydrogen peroxide. The concentration of peracetic acid formed is preferably in the range of up to about 5000 ppm. Peracetic acid concentrations of as little as 1.0 ppm will be present shortly after mixing the acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, and should be considered within the scope of the present invention. The concentration of peracetic acid may vary; over time as ambient conditions change; and relative with concentrations of other ingredients in the formulation.

EXAMPLES

[0029] A teat dip formula including peracetic acid can be produced via an in situ chemical reaction of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The quantity of peracetic acid produced in this manner is safe, stable, and effective for reducing new intra- mammary infections of dairy animals.

[0030] The quantity of peracetic acid can be produced stoicheiometrically by controlling the reactants, acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, in accordance with the chemical formulation below:

CH 3 COOH + H 2 O 2 <=> CH 3 COOOH + H 2 O

[0031] Exemplary results of the above stoicheiometry are illustrated by one preferred embodiment of the present invention detailed in Tables 1 and 2:

TABLE 1

INGREDIENT PERCENTAGE BY WEIGHT

WATER 90 80

ACETIC ACID 1 60

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, 35% 3 00

SKIN CONDITIONING AGENT 5 00

SURFACTANT 025

UREA 005

Suspension Assay 50% milk soil

TREATMENT CFU/ml" % SURVIVAL % KILL

Staph aureus ATCC#6538 Negative Control 3 6O x IO 6 DX 397-9 d - e 270 x 10" 075% 9925% Allstar Udder Wash c 0 0 100%

TREATMENT CFU/ml" % SURVIVAL % KILL

E colt ATCC #25922 Negative Control 5 75 x 10 7 DX 397-6 de 1 19 x 10" 0021% 9998%

Allstar Udder Wash 0 15 0 100%

AU test samples tested straight unless otherwise indicated. a CFU/ml = colony-forming units per ml. d Peracetic acid low-drip teat dip. " 1 : 1 dilution with whole milk.

[0032] The peracetic acid concentrations resulting from the composition of Table 1 will stabilize in a range of about 800 ppm to about 1200 ppm over a four month period under laboratory conditions. Of course, concentrations will vary depending upon ambient conditions, storage time, and skin conditioning concentrations, for example. Peracetic acid concentrations in the ranges recited herein can be achieved to obtain a safe, stable, and non-irritating teat dip composition. [0033] The skin conditioning agents include, for example, moisturizers and barriers. Moisturizers or humectants are additives that attract moisture to the outer layers of skin to keep it moist and supple. The preferred skin conditioning agent is a glycerin moisturizer (also referred to as glycerol). Other moisturizers include propylene glycol, sorbitol and aloe, for example. Barriers prevent the loss of moisture already present in the skin, e.g., lanolin or lanolin-derivatives, petrolatum, and mineral oil. Other skin conditioning agents contemplated by the invention include additives, such as vitamins, anti-oxidants and other skin health compounds. [0034] Surfactants in the composition may include one or more of the following types of non-ionic surfactants: nonylphenol ethoxylates, alcohol ethoxylates, alcohol alkylates, sorbitan ester ethoxylates, ethoxylated alkyl-polyglucosides, alkyl ether carboxylates, and ethylene oxide-propylene oxide copolymers. It is contemplated that other surfactants may be used in combination with the present invention as would be understood by those with skill in the art.

[0035]Testing in the field has confirmed that the above composition is stable at the range of temperatures generally experienced on dairy farms. In-vitro lab testing for

skin irritation, using the "Irritection" ™ Assay System, has demonstrated that the above composition in non-irritating. Significant bactericidal efficacy has been confirmed with laboratory tests as well as controlled field trials done at a university. [0036] In one study, germicidal levels, prevention of new intramammary infections (IMFs), and affects on teat condition were assessed using the composition of Table 3 below.

TABLE 2

INGREDIENT PERCENTAGE BY WEIGHT

SOFT WATER 80 85

ACETIC ACID, 80% 2 00

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, 35% 3 75

GLYCERIN 5 00

SURFONIC L 2 4-9 0 25

UREA 0 05

YELLOW #5 007

PRE-MIX (9 2 3% PROPYLENE GLYCOL, 7 7% RHODOPOL)

PROPYLENE GLYCOL 646

RHODOPOL 23 (xanthan gum) 0 54

SULFURIC ACID 030

ALLANTOIN 001

LANOLIN 01

PROPYLENE GLYCOL 01

GLYCERIN 49

ALOE VERA 003

DOWICIL 75 01

WATER 488

TABLE 3

INGREDIENT PERCENTAGE BY WEIGHT

SOFT WATER 80 85 ACETIC ACID, 80% 2 00 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, 35% 3 75 GLYCERIN 5 00 SURFONIC L 24-9 0 25

UREA 0 05

YELLOW #5 007 PRE-MIX (92 3% PROPYLENE GLYCOL, 7 7% RHODOPOL)

PROPYLENE GLYCOL 646

RHODOPOL 23 (xanthan gum) 054

SULFURIC ACID 0 30

ALLANTOIN 001

LANOLIN 01

PROPYLENE GLYCOL 01

GLYCERIN 49

ALOE VERA 003

DOWICIL 75 01

WATER 4 88

[0037] This in-situ-based peroxide product proved to be effective in preventing new IMFs vs. Staph aureus and Strep, agalactiae. Additionally, there were no differences between treated and control quarters in teat skin and teat end conditions. The product also was proven to be efficacious versus several mastitis pathogens in laboratory assays measuring germicidal efficacy. These results demonstrate that the present invention is a viable alternative for dairy farmers who would prefer not to use iodine teat dips, yet are displeased with issues such as effectiveness or the lack of convenience (such as premixing two-part systems) in the use of several other non- iodine teat dips now on the market.

[0038] This study was conducted as per National Mastitis Counsel guidelines. See Hogan JS, DM Galton, RJ Harmon, SC Nickerson, SP Oliver, JW Pankey. 1990. Protocols for Evaluating Efficacy of Post-Milking Teat Dips. J Dairy Sci. 73:2580. One hundred pastured cows were utilized. All cows were pre-dipped with a 0.5% iodine teat dip, fore-stripped and dried with a paper towel before attachment of milking units. Cow teats were dipped with bacteria suspension and the left front and rear right teats with treatment product, once per day, five days per week for

nine weeks. Milk samples were taken weekly and tested for inoculated bacteria. A new IMI was detected when either a clinical sample or three consecutive, nonclinical samples had 100 cfu/ml or greater or two consecutive, non-clinical samples had 500 cfu/ml or greater. Teat skin and teat end conditions were assessed one week prior the start of the trial. Scores were determined on a scale of from 1 to 5 using the method of Goldberg. See Goldberg JJ, PA Murdough, AB Howard, JW Pankey, GA ledbetter, LL Day. 1994. Winter evaluation of postmilking powdered teat dip. J Dairy Sci. 77:748. [0039] In this composition, sulfuric acid is added as a catalyst to improve the reaction rate, without causing undue skin irritation. Sulfuric acid can be added in the amount up to about 1.0% by weight of composition with a preferred range of about .05% to about 1% by weight and a more preferred amount of about .1% by weight of composition. [0040] The data below indicate that the peroxyacetic acid teat dip treated quarters had significantly less new IMI's than quarters that were not dipped. A 0.5% iodine teat dip was used as a positive control, which showed no significant reduction in EMI's over this period. The results also show that the peracetic acid had no significant negative effects on the teat skin and teat ends. In fact, these quarters seemed to have less negative effect on the skin condition than either the 0.5% iodine or the undipped controls. These results indicate that the peracetic acid in the product is at high enough levels to be effective in preventing new IMI's, but not so high as to cause irritation to the teat skin. A peracetic acid teat dip may, therefore be an effective alternative to iodine while providing a greater margin of safety to the environment, animals and people.

Table 4. Experimental Challenge: Efficacy Data versus Staphylococcus aureus and Strep, agalactiae

Treatment Formula Eligible quarters New IMI'S Percent Reduction vs. control

Undipped Control 100 13

Peracetic acid teat dip formula 100 4 692% "

Undipped Control 100 9

0 5% iodine teat dip 100 8 11 1%

' P > 005

Table 5. Teat Skin and Teat End Condition Scores

Treatment Formula " Teat Skin Teat End

Undipped Control-initial 1 20 1 52

Undipped Control-final 1 27 1 75

Peracetic acid formula-initial 1 20 1 53

Peracetic acid formula-final 1 19 1 66

Undipped Control-initial 1 1 1 1 52

Undipped Control-final 1 26 ' 1 85 "

05% iodine-initial 1 13 1 50

0 5% iodine-final 1 22 " 1 80 "

' P > 005, final vs initial

[0041] While generically referred to as a teat dip, it will be understood that the compositions disclosed herein may be sprayed, foamed, or wiped, for example, or applied by any known suitable method. Furthermore, the composition formed may be applied pre-milking and/or post-milking. In addition, it will be understood that the present invention is not limited to the composition of the preferred embodiment, but may contain other constituents for providing antimicrobial action and/or skin conditioning and related benefits.

[0042] To prolong contact time of the dip with an animal, it may be desirable to add thickeners to reduce dripping of the dip from a teat. The dip may therefore include up to about 5% by weight of composition of a thickening agent with a

preferred range of between .05% and about 1% of a thickening agent. This thickening agent may include polyvinylpyrrolidone, xanthan gum, guar gum, clay, methylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, anionic carboxyvinyl polymers, or hydroxymethylcellulose, or combinations thereof.

[0043] The invention has been described with reference to preferred embodiments. Modifications and alterations will occur to others upon a reading and understanding of the detailed description. It is intended that the invention be construed as including all such modifications and alterations.