Login| Sign Up| Help| Contact|

Patent Searching and Data


Title:
PISTON ENGINE WITH MOVABLE CYLINDER WALLS
Document Type and Number:
WIPO Patent Application WO/2011/119061
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The patent refers to the driving engine with changeable media under pressure on the operating area of the operating pistons. The patent solves the device construction which enables the drive of different devices, whereby the operation of the patent is achieved by the effect of the compressed air, vacuum or water pressure from a corresponding tank with the column of water, all of which affect the pistons (10) and (11) in such a way that they move in the cylinders (1) and (2), thus creating useful energy. This is made possible in such a way that the operating areas of the operating pistons (10) and (11), as well as the volumes of the cylinders (1) and (2) are changing so that the operating pistons (10) and (11), which are adverse constructed the main crankshaft (14) and which move driven by different media, reach the position where different pressures are formed, depending on the operating volumes of the cylinders (1) and (2), which causes them to strive for equilibrium. Thereby, cost-efficient energy is created, the energy which can further be used from the engine outlet for different purposes. The very fact is that within the changes in the volume of cylinders (1) and (2), medium under pressure is passing from the cylinder (1) to cylinder (2), and the other way around (medium flow under pressure), through the pipes (3), it is obvious that the amount of medium under pressure remains unaffected as the driving force, and that no friction losses are detected through the watertight parts of the pistons (16) and (17), and movable walls (0); however, these losses could be easily restored by external compensation of the new medium under pressure, using the pump (6). All these mentioned above lead to the obvious conclusion that we have the case of permanent motor operation here, with initially filling of the medium under pressure, which has not been achieved, in today's state of technique for the pneumatic motors yet.

Inventors:
TOMOV, Mitko (Kneza Milosa 26a, Kaludjerica, RS-11130, RS)
Application Number:
RS2011/000004
Publication Date:
September 29, 2011
Filing Date:
March 15, 2011
Export Citation:
Click for automatic bibliography generation   Help
Assignee:
TOMOV, Mitko (Kneza Milosa 26a, Kaludjerica, RS-11130, RS)
International Classes:
F01B17/02; F01B1/06; F01B1/08; F01B19/00; F01B19/02; F01B29/02; F03C1/03; F03C7/00
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
VLAHOVIC, Slobodan (Radoja Dakica 35/32, Belgrade, RS-11070, RS)
Download PDF:
Claims:
Claims

1. A driving engine of changeable media under pressure on the operating area of the operating pistons, is characterized in, the engine, which uses compressed air to drive the operating cylinders, consists of at least one pair of identical adverse constructed operating cylinders (1) and (2), of changing volume and changing operating area of the operating pistons (10) and (1 1), which are connected by connecting tubes (3) and (4) to the tank (5) which contains high-pressured air produced by the compressor (6) and assemblies for the synchronization of the movement of movable walls (9) of the cylinders, as well as assemblies for elimination of the negative effects of the device operation when the pistons (10) and (1 1) are in the extreme upper and lower points of the operating stroke, that is, the losses produced by the friction of the movable elements of the device.

2. A driving engine of changeable media under pressure on the operating area of the operating pistons, is characterized in, the engine, which uses vacuum to drive the operating cylinders, consists of at least one pair of identical adverse constructed operating cylinders (1) and (2), of changing volume and changing operating area of operating pistons (10) and (1 1), which are connected by connecting tubes (47), (48) and (49) to the tank (50) which contains vacuum or the well-known Torricelli emptiness produced by the vacuum pump (51) and assemblies for the synchronization of the movement of movable walls (9) of the cylinders, as well as assemblies for elimination of the negative effects of the device operation when the pistons (10) and (1 1) are in the extreme upper and lower points of the operating stroke, that is, the losses produced by the friction of the movable elements of the device.

3. A driving engine of changeable media under pressure on the operating area of the operating pistons, is characterized in, the engine, which uses water pressure from a column of water, consists of at least one pair of identical adverse constructed operating cylinders (1) and (2), of changing volume and changing operating area of operating pistons (10) and (1 1), which are connected by connecting tubes (52) and (53) to the water tank (54) which contains water, and assemblies for the synchronization of the movement of movable walls (9) of the cylinders, as well as assemblies for elimination of the negative effects of the device operation when the pistons (10) and (1 1) are in the extreme upper and lower points of the operating stroke, that is, the losses produced by the friction of the movable elements of the device.

4. A driving engine of changeable media under pressure on the operating area of the operating pistons, is characterized in, the assembly for the synchronization of the movement of movable walls (9) of the cylinders is comprised of the system of levers (31), (32) and (33), mutually connected in such a way that the horizontal movement of the lever (31) causes the movement of the U shank (39) to which the parts (40) are radially fastened, the parts over whose segment braces a little wheel (30) moves, thus enabling, by way of lever (24) and the joint (45) born in the bearing (29), a synchronized movement of the movable walls (9) of the cylinders (1) and (2).

5. A driving engine of changeable media under pressure on the operating area of the operating pistons, is characterized in, the mutually equal cylinders (1) and (2) constructed in such a way that they change their shapes and volumes in a synchronised manner by moving the movable walls (9), whereby this movement is simultaneously followed by a change in the operating area of the operating pistons (10) and (1 1).

6. A driving engine of changeable media under pressure on the operating area of the operating pistons, according to the demand 5, is characterized in, the pistons (10) and (1 1) are derived from segments (16) and (17), whereby the upper area of the wedged segment (16) is positioned slantwise as well as the top inner side of the fitting segment (17), which is analogous to it.

7. A driving engine of changeable media under pressure on the operating area of the operating pistons, according to the demand 5, is characterized in, the tightness of the pistons (10) and (11), that is, the movable segments (16) and (17) is performed by the movable levers (18) and (19) with spring mechanisms (20), while the tightness of the movable wall (9) of the cylinder is performed by the movable lever (56) and the spring mechanism (57).

8. A driving engine of changeable media under pressure on the operating area of the operating pistons, is characterized in, the correction of the losses made by the friction and overcoming the extreme points of the operating strokes is performed by the corrective assembly comprised of yokes (41) and (42) over the bearing (46) connected to the crankshaft (14), whereby the lever (41) is connected by axial joint (60) to the horizontal lever (31) which is, by U shank (39), parts (40), segments (44) and the lever (24) movably born into the bearing (29), connected to the movable wall (9) of the cylinder.

9. Drive motor of variable media under pressure on the surface of operating motor clips, is characterized in, with a fly (23) on a rotating shaft (14) for the synchronization of the entire device operation and additional drive motor PEM installed on a shaft (14) using electrical power from the cell B, constantly operating, and thus their hybrid operation prevents the motor stoppage when pressures of forces on crankshafts get equal with the fly wheel where inertia is expressed and for motor drive-energy produced by dynamo machine operation 22.

Description:
PISTON ENGINE WITH MOVABLE CYLINDER WALLS

Technical Field

The patent, generally speaking, belongs to the area of mechanical engineering, that is, to the area of cost-efficient machines, or more closely defined - to the area of driving machines with operating cylinders, positioned adverse to the main crankshaft, thereby, no matter what kind of driving medium is used, the volumes of these cylinders and the operating areas of their pistons are changeable during the work cycle of the device.

According to the International Classification of Patents (IPC 7 ), the patent is labelled by the basic classification symbol F 01 B 15/00, which refers to machines or driving machines with an alternating piston with movable cylinders, as well as by the secondary classification symbol F 01 B 21/08 which refers to „machines" or driving machines with alternating pistons and cylinders positioned adverse to the main crankshaft.

Since the patent also refers to a technical solution in which the effect caused by the vacuum is used as the driving unit, it can also additionally be labelled by another secondary classification symbol, F 01 B 29/00, which defines driving machines with atmospheric pressure, i.e. those in which atmospheric pressure works against the vacuum.

Technical Problem

A technical problem solved by the patent can be defined in this manner: How to design an engine - a driving device, which will use different driving media, so that, during its operation through alternating changes in volumes of the cylinders and the operating areas of their pistons, one can produce useful energy that can be used to drive another machine, to operate another device, or do some other work, whereby the amount of the used medium is only insignificantly decreased, and the construction of the device makes it simple, reliable, long-lasting, easy to maintain and independent of the energetic resources of the area where it is installed.

Background Art

The aspiration to construct more cost-efficient, simpler and more ecologically-acceptable engines has lasted since the beginning of the first driving devices used for all kinds of different purposes. Driving machines, from the conventional to the cutting-edge ones, have gone through so many changes that it would be hard to count them even in their most basic elements, but what is mutual to all of them is that at the same time while striving to realise a better functionality of the devices themselves, experts were striving to find the optimum driving fuel, both from the aspect of the power and the cost-efficiency of the device and, especially lately, from the aspect of the least negative influence on the surroundings. It is also significant that during the past few years operational expenses for many kinds of widely used driving mechanisms have shown a tendency of constant increase. The most distinguishing for this claim is the example of the constant increase in the prices of fuel for internal combustion engines. It was exactly this state of affairs that led to serious attempts to develop alternative sources of energy in order to eliminate negative effects of the shortage in conventional fuels, the instability of their supply, a constant increase in prices of the energy sources, and above all the harmul effects of the side-products of burning, which are more and more often sanctioned due to permanent increase in the strictness of the ecological criteria which driving devices have to fulfil during the process of certification for obtaining use licences.

A potentially attractive alternative has appeared in the area of pneumatic driving engines; however, as is well-known from the state of technics so far, there have been two serious drawbacks that made it impossible for them to be widely used, namely: they are not efficient enough and they use a large amount of air which is released under pressure into the atmosphere and which has to be compensated for by consuming expensive fuel.

It was exactly solving problems relating to the operation of pneumatic engines that represented the initial idea to try constructing those driving devices that would, apart from the principles used in pneumatic engines to obtain more cost-efficient work, also operate on the principle that they use the atmospheric pressure against the vacuum, or alternatively, to use the potential water energy in the water tower, on which the realisation of the idea of this patent is based.

This inventor demonstrated in the American patent N° 4452126 the solution to the problem of constructing a driving engine which operates using compressed air, whereby theoretically 80% of useful work is realised. The patent represents a further goal of the author to construct an engine with at least one pair of cylinders which has an increased degree of useful operation, so that its theoretical useful work amounts to approximately 100%.

Even after a careful research into the available domestic and international patent documentation and reference books in the area, no technical solution has been found that would be comparable to the suggested solution in the patent registration.

Disclosure of the Invention

The patent completely solves the technical problem that was defined above.

The essence of the patent is in the engine construction which can successfully be applied when one can equally efficiently use high-pressured air, water from the column of water, or vacuum, i.e. the principle of Torricelli emptiness as the driving means to start the pistons.

According to the patent, the device has two equal, most optimally prismatic cylinders connected adverse to the main crankshaft and constructed in such a way that during the work cycles their volumes constantly alternate with the simultaneous change in the operating areas of the pistons that move inside them. These changes in the volumes of the operating cylinders and the operating areas of the operating pistons begin and end during the final operating and restoring strokes. The device, according to this patent, operates by expanding one operating cylinder and simultaneously increasing its operating volume, while at the same time the other operating cylinder contracts and decreases its operating volume. This was accomplished due to radial movement of a side wall of the cylinder in both directions, whereby the increase in the volume of an operating cylinder also increases the operating area of its piston, and vice versa.

The novelty of the patent is also the fact that a separate assembly is constructed to move the movable walls of the cylinders, the assembly which uses a part of the energy obtained by the movement of the pistons for its operation, whereby the operation of this assembly is based on the influence of two specially constructed yokes that enable pressure equilisation at the movable sides, in a way that ensures the equilibrium of the system. The changes in the volumes of the operating cylinders and the operating areas of their pistons also cause changes in the pressure force of the medium or vacuum on the walls of the cylinders and the pistons, whose piston rods transfer mechanical work to the main crankshaft.

Operating pistons during the movement towards the increase in their own "useful" area give out energy to the main crankshaft, while during the restoring stroke the "useful" area of the pistons decreases to the so-called "useless" area, after which the work cycles of the engine alternate.

The useful energy in the device, according to the patent, is obtained as a difference in the pressures of the media (pressured air, column of water or vacuum), realised on the pistons of the driving engines with changeable media, during their movement from one to another dead point. The amount of this useful energy is stipulated by the quality of the structure of the driving engine, especially by the efficacy of pistons tightness and of the movable wall of the cylinder. The useful energy obtained this way can be used to drive machines or devices used for all kinds of different purposes. The prerequisite for the realisation of this useful energy is to make sure that during the device operation as little of the medium as possible leaves the cylinders (the medium which has to be compensated for by the operation of special pumps), or in case of the device using vacuum to make sure that as little air enters the device, the air that has to be additionally permanently pumped out, which is achieved by the use of the vacuum pump. In engines initialised by water from the column of water, the water lost during the device operation is compensated for by supplying water from the surounding natural resources, as a rule without the use of pumps, or if it were not possible, by using pumps to refill water in the water tower from a special tank.

The advantages with respect to similar technical solutions applied today are numerous, but the most significant is the fact that the device is cost-efficient and applicable even in those situations where there are high ecological criteria.

What should especially be stressed is that the device could efficiently be used even at those places where so far there have not been any conditions to produce energy (away from the mines, rivers, etc.).

The patent with respect to technical solutions given so far, in which different kinds of alternative energies are used to create work, has more advanteges, namely:

- The device is completely ecologically clean and it has no harmful effect on the surroundings, which makes it especially significant and up-to-date;

- The energy obtained by the patent engine is extremely cost-efficient;

- The device is simple to produce and maintain; - The device can be applied in submarines, ships, spacecrafts (except the water-driven devices), practically at those places where other machines cannot create useful work (the vacuum device needs to have an air chamber with the pressure of 1 Bar);

Silent and noiseless engine operation.

A short description of thedrawings

In order to understand the nature of the patent more easily, as well as to demonstrate how the patent can be realised in practice the author, for example's sake, refers to the attached drafts relating to the patent registration, where:

- Figure 1 represents a scheme of the device at the moment when the upper piston is at its highest point in the cylinder in compressed-air engines when the cylinder 1 is in the initial operating stroke;

- Figure 2 represents a scheme of the device at the moment when the upper piston is at its lowest point in the cylinder in compressed-air engines when the cylinder 1 is in the final operating stroke;

- Figure 3 represents a scheme of the assembly that enables moving the walls of the cylinder 2 in the position when they are spaced most in compressed-air engines;

- Figure 4 represents a scheme of the assembly that enables moving the walls of the cylinder 1 in the position when they are spaced least in compressed-air engines;

- Figure 5 represents a scheme of the device at the moment when the upper piston is at its lowest point in the cylinder in vacuum-driven engines;

- Figure 6 represents a scheme of the device at the moment when the upper piston is at its highest point in the cylinder in vacuum-driven engines.

- Figure 7 represents a scheme of the device at the moment when the upper piston is at its highest point in the cylinder in engines with the water tower, in the initial operating stroke in the cylinder 1 ;

- Figure 8 represents a scheme of the device at the moment when the upper piston is at its lowest point in the cylinder in engines with the water tower, in the final operating stroke in the cylinder 1 ;

- Figure 9 represents a scheme of the assembly that enables moving the walls of the cylinder 2 in the position when they are spaced most in the water-tower engines;

- Figure 10 represents a scheme of the assembly that enables moving the walls of the cylinder in the position when they are spaced least in the water-tower engines;

- Figure 11. represents a scheme of connecting more water-tower engines;

- Figure 12. represents a scheme of connecting the engine which uses the potential energy of the column of water with the water from the river or a man-made lake.

- Figure 13. represents simple performance of assembly 39, 41 and 42 with additional lever „DP" that maintains an extended arm 39 in the shown position in the movement.

A detailed disclosure of the Invention

Example 1.

A driving engine using compressed air as the medium which moves the operating pistons

By observing Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the attached draft, one can easily notice that the device is, according to the patent, comprised of two identical operating cylinders 1 and 2 with changing volumes, which are connected, via connecting tubes 3 and 4, to the tank 5 which contains high-pressured air maintained by the compressor 6. The tank 5 and the compressor 6 are standard-made and well-known in the state of technique; therefore, their operation, in order to simplify the description, is not necessary to explain any further. Cylinders 1 and 2 are identical, formed as the most optimally empty parallelopipeds of rectangular cross-section, on the upper side covered by the lids 7 which are integrally connected to a pair of immovable vertical walls 8, whereas the other pair of the vertical lateral walls 9 is movable in both directions so that it enables changes in the volume content of the cylinders 1 and 2 and changes in their cross dimensions. A change in volume of the operating cylinders 1 and 2 is followed by a simultaneous change in the operating area of the operating pistons 10 and 11 which are, by way of piston rods 12 and 13, connected to the crankshaft 14.

The description of the patent displays a device which has a pair of adverse constructed cylinders 1 and 2; however, the engine which uses compressed air as the medium, according to the idea of the author, can be produced with more pairs of cylinders, whereby the tank 5, the compressor 6, and the assembly for moving walls are mutual for all cylinders which are all, as well, connected to the crankshaft 14 the same way. The way of connecting is performed according to the particular working conditions based on the suggestions of the corresponding experts in the subject area. According to the idea of the author, connecting is most optimally performed by connecting movable walls by way of the particular levers or simply the connection of more engines can be performed by axially movable joints 61 and 59.

Two-part pistons 10 and 1 1 are constructed in such a way that their operating area, due to segments 16 and 17, can be changed anywhere from the defined minimum (the so-called "useless" area) to a certain maximum (the so-called "greatest useful" area). The changeability of the operating area of the pistons 10 and 11, can be realised in many ways, however, bearing in mind the feasibility of the patent, as one can observe in the figures of the attached draft, such solution is given according to which the top area of the wedged segment 16 is constructed slantwise the same way as the top inner side of the fitting segment 17, which is analogous to it. This way of constructing segments 16 and 17 enables good tightness which is very important for the efficient operation of the device. Adherence of segments 16 and 17 of the pistons 10 and 1 1 to the immovable walls 8 and movable walls 9 of the cylinder is realised by levers 18 and 19, which are constantly strained by spring mechanisms 20 and which, in order to be axially moved more easily through cylinders 1 and 2, have at their ends fastened little wheels 21, while the adherence and tightness of the movable wall 9 to the lid 7 is performed by levers 56 with spring mechanism 57 at whose end there is a little wheel 58.

The mechanism which enables changes in volume of the operating cylinders is comprised of three subassemblies connected to the crankshaft 14, out of which the first subassembly by levers 31, 32, 33, 34 and 35 enables movement of the movable sides 9 of the cylinder. This subassembly is connected to the next subassembly axially by joint 61 and is comprised of the levers 39, 41 and 42 which enable equilibrium of the pressure force on the movable sides. The third subassembly is comprised of levers 26, 27 and 24 which enable maintenance of the state of equilibrium of forces during the movement of pistons 1 and 2, and through it one can indirectly affect obtainment of the useful energy. Further in the text on patent description, a precise description of the operation of each subassembly individually and their mutual connections, i.e. effects on the global effective operation of the engine is given. By observing figures 1, 2, 3 and 4, one can easily notice that cylinders 1 and 2 are positioned adverse to the main crankshaft 14, whereby the piston rods 12 and 13 are tightened the usual way to the segments 16 and 17 of the pistons 10 and 1 1. Air pressure in this case affects the pistons 10 and 1 1 from the inner side in such a way that they move from the upper to the lower dead point and vice versa, which causes the movement of the crankshaft 14 that is, in order to obtain a larger number of runs on the switching machines like, for example, generator 22, directly connected to the reductive cam wheel 15. Even with the good tightness, a loss of part of the air from the cylinders 1 and 2 which are under pressure can hardly be stopped, so that it is important to constantly add the pressured medium to the tank 5 by the compressor 6, which requires minimum consumption of the energy.

In order to eliminate the stoppage in the device operation, in cases when the pistons 10 and 1 1 are in extreme upper and lower points, there is a balance wheel 23 on the crankshaft 14 which, in a way well-known in the state of technique, contributes to a synchronized operation of the complete device. In the extreme final operating and restoring strokes of the pistons, at the moment when one of the pistons is expanding and the other one is contracting, there is equilibrium of the pressure forces and the energy equals zero. Thus the effect of the balance wheel 23 is demonstrated.

Maintenance of the equilibrium of the force which works on the walls 9 is achieved by moving levers 24 over joints 45 connected to the corrective levers 26 and 27 that are via crank 28 jointed by universal bridge to the crank of the main crankshaft 14. One end of levers 24 is connected by joint to the centre of the narrower "U" profile 29 of the mechanism for moving walls 9 of the cylinder, whereas on the other end there is a little wheel 30 whose motion is induced by the motion of the corrective levers 26 and 27. The tank 5 of the high-pressured air is constructed in such a way that by tubes 3 and 4 it is connected to both cylinders 1 and 2 and it serves to supply these cylinders with air. At the moment when, for any reason, the cylinders are empty (reparation), the valve 63 opens, thus enabling air supply into the cylinders. The valve 63 also serves as the starting valve and it affects the speed at which the engine operates (the engine can be fast or slow).

Synchronization of the movement of the walls is most optimally realized by the assembly comprised of the system of levers 31, 32 and 33, whereby one end of the lever 33 is jointed to the universal bridge 34 and connected to the crankshaft 14. The other end of the shank 33 carries slides 64, with the wheel installed between 65, upon lever shank 35, maintains the stability through the movement of the lever 33.

During the movement of the lever 33 upwards and downwards, the lever 32 is moved so that its opposing end by axial joint 59, the end which is connected to the horizontal lever 31 , moves left and right. This movement is calculated in such a manner that maximum deviations from the "0" position correspond to the movement of the pistons 10 and 1 1 of the cylinders 1 and 2 between their extreme points. It is easy to perceive that minimum movement of the lever 35 enables maximum movement of the lever 31, which affects the movement of the operating areas of the pistons in extreme points of the final operating and restoring strokes. Horizontal movement of the lever 31, and with it the extended "U" shank 39, is performed by the joint lever comprised of the shanks 41 and 42, whereby the centre part of the lever 42 is born in the bearing "L" 46, so that, during the rotation of the main crankshaft 14, it moves left and right without restraint, which affects the movement of the shank 41 connected to it by axial joint 43. The shank 41 which has a gudgeon 60 in the centre is movement jointed by gudgeon 61 to the corrective lever 31 , whose movement in one or other direction affects the movement of the U shank 39 with radically fixed parts 40 over whose segment braces 44 the little wheel 30 moves axially constructed at the end of the lever 24. Segment braces 44 are chosen because of the fact that they enable regular conveyance of the pressures to the lever 24 which in its turn, by the joint 45 born in the "U" bearing 29 enables a synchronized movement of the movable wall 9 of the cylinders 1 and 2 of the engine. The function of parts 40 can be seen in the fact that the path of the little wheel 30 is much shorter on the inner side of the U shank 39 than on its outer side, which is important because it reduces the losses in energy during the movement of the walls 9 of the cylinders 1 and 2 of the engine.

The role of a part number is reflected in the path of the little wheels 30 upon the inner side of the segment 44, which is much shorter than the prospective path upon the inner side of 1 handheld supporter 39, is considered to be significant, resulting in friction and energy losses during the pressure force balance of the movable walls 9.

By observing the figures in the attached draft, one can easily see that equalising of the pressure forces on the movable walls 9 of the pistons 10 and 11 is realized when the little wheels 30 are at the lowest segments 44 of the parts 40, with the maximum pressure stress of the walls 9, i.e. during the final operating stroke of the first cylinder 1 and the final restoring operating stroke of its adverse cylinder 2.

The pressures are then equal at both shanks of the lever 31. During the further movement of the pistons 10 and 1 1, the pressure on the movable walls 9 is decreased down to minimum pressure stress, whereby the little wheels 30 are at the extreme segments 44 (lower and upper) of the U shank 39 of the part 40. That way this lever system maintains the equilibrium of forces, which represents the basis of the fact that cylinders 1 and 2 can theoretically expand using inconsiderable energy, with the losses that take place only because of the friction, as well as that operating pistons 10 and 1 1 can change their operating areas from minimum to maximum, in operating and restoring strokes, which finally theoretically results in the useful energy which can further be used to drive different machines and devices. This way of connecting the movable walls 9 with the parts used to synchronies their movement enables the equilibrium of forces,

Which is the starting basis for the obtainment of the useful operation of the engine. The equilibrium of forces is maintained at every moment and every position where the pistons are during their movement in the cylinders.

In order to eliminate the negative effects of the device operation in cases when the pistons 10 and 1 1 are in the extreme upper and lower points, on the crankshaft 14 there is a balance wheel 23 used to synchronies the operation of the device.

The theory of the engine operation, according to this patent, lies in the changeability of the operating areas of the pistons 10 and 1 1 inside operating cylinders 1 and 2 which also change their volumes during a cycle consisting of the initial, operating, final and restoring strokes of the operating pistons 10 and 11. Operating pistons 10 and 1 1 under the influence of the compressed air pressure produce a theoretically useful energy which can further be used outside the device as a permanent source of the driving energy.

The restoring stroke of the piston with a smaller front area, under the influence of the pressured medium, is realized by the energy created by the adverse cylinder which is in that case in its operating stroke. In other words, the forces necessary to move the piston with a smaller area from the initial restoring stroke to the final stroke, are drastically lower than the useful forces created during the stroke of the operating piston with a bigger front area, that is, the piston with the bigger front area during the operating stroke moves the adverse piston with a smaller front area as well, since it has a bigger energy value of the medium under pressure. Apart from driving the piston with a smaller operating area, the piston with a bigger operating area also has enough energy to make up for all the losses that are created by the friction of the elements of the device in operation, so that the effects of the useless areas are always annulled.

We should also note that, as one can see in the figures of the attached draft, the shanks F, G and Gl of the levers 41 identical in length and that the length of Gl is equal to the length of G. This way the total length G + Gl equals a double length of the shank F of the lever. Such relationship is chosen in order to ensure the balance needed within the movable walls 9 of the cylinders 1 and 2.

It is necessary to stress that in the patent description the device displayed has a single pair of the adverse constructed cylinders 1 and 2; however, the engine initialized by high- pressured air, according to the idea of the author, can be produced with more pairs of cylinders as well, whereby the air under pressure is connected by a network of tubes to every single pair of cylinders the same way as if it were a two-cylinder engine, while the assemblies for synchronization are also in this case connected to the mutual crankshaft 14. During the operating stroke of the pistons, the medium pressure decreases at certain times, and increases with the changes in the volume of the operating cylinders.

The fall or rise of the medium under pressure does not mean that the loss of balance occurs, equilibrium of forces, respectively, within the lids consisted of levers 39, 41 and 42. The equilibrium of forces is being maintained and established regardless of the fall or rise of the medium under pressure, as well as the surface size of the movable walls 9, , due to the fact that, according to Boyle-Marriot's law gas principles within closed system, stating that the volume of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure applied in it.

Example 2

A driving engine with the vacuum as the driving force which moves the operating pistons.

As one can easily notice in the Figures 5 and 6 in the attached draft of the engine, in this example it is comprised of two identical operating cylinders 1 and 2, with changing volumes, which are by connecting tubes 47, 48 and 49 connected to the vacuum tank 50, in which there is vacuum or the well-known Torricelli emptiness, and which is obtained by the operation of the vacuum pump 51. The vacuum tank 50 and the vacuum pump 51 are standard-made and well- known in the state of technique; therefore, their operation, in order to simplify the description, is not necessary to explain any further. Both cylinders 1 and 2 are, just like in the first example of constructing, positioned adverse to the main crankshaft 14 and constructed in such a way that during the work cycles their volumes and the operating areas of their pistons constantly alternate. For that purpose, the operating cylinders 1 and 2 are on one side connected to the closed vacuum vessel - the tank 50, whose volume is significantly greater than the operating volumes of both operating cylinders. The volumes of the operating cylinders 1 and 2 and the operating areas of the operating pistons 10 and 1 1 change in the point of the final operating and final restoring strokes.

The operation of the engine assemblies in this example is completely identical to the operation of the engine in the first example, except the fact that in this case in cylinders 1 and 2 there is a reversed process of the effect of the medium on their walls and the operating areas of the pistons 10 and 1 1. Namely, instead of the effect of the compressed air which affected the pistons 10 and 11 by repressing them, in this case, the vacuum attracts them; therefore, the wheel 30 on the lever 24 is constructed in such a way that it moves on the outer side of the U shank 39.

From the aspect of the force, it is clear that the vacuum represents the force which corresponds to the air pressure of 1 Bar over seam 2 . The air pressure of 1 Bar in that case equals the force of gravity. In order to successfully use the vacuum force in this engine, and transfer it into useful energy, it is necessary not only to set up the vacuum in the cylinders, but also to have it permanently maintained during the entire engine operation. Maintaining the vacuum on a constant level is realised by the vacuum pump 51. The power of this pump certainly depends on the degree of tightness of the operating cylinders 1 and 2, the operating pistons 10 and 1 1 , or the amount of air that enters the vacuum space. Since in this case it is the air pressure of 1 Bar, one can say that it is absolutely possible to maintain the air pressure at almost the zero level.

The function of the vacuum tank is to supply the vacuum to the operating cylinders when they are filled with air of 1 Bar (in case of reparation of the caulkering parts of the pistons and cylinders). By opening the valve 63 the air in cylinders becomes "diluted" in the vacuum tank, which creates the effect of the vacuum in the operating system. An additional increase in the vacuum is realised by the vacuum pump.

Since, apart from the above mentioned, the operation of all other assemblies of the device for the synchronisation of movement of the movable walls of the cylinder segments 16 and 17 of the pistons is equal to those in the first example, in order to simplify this description no repeated detailed explanation is necessary.

What should be stressed once again is that the vacuum vessel, the vacuum pump and other subassemblies that move the movable walls and the two-part pistons are identical to the system with the pneumatic drive, and that the connecting of more pairs of cylinders is performed over the main crankshaft 14.

Example 3

A driving engine driven by a difference in water pressures as the driving force which moves the operating pistons.

As one can easily notice in the Figures 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 of the attached draft, the engine is, according to this example of constructing, comprised of two identical operating cylinders 1 and 2 with changing volumes, which are by connecting tubes 52 and 53 connected to the water tank 54 in the form of a high water tower.

By observing the attached figures, one can notice that the cylinders 1 and 2 are connected to the opening constructed at the bottom of the vertical water tower 54, whose volume is significantly greater than the volumes of the operating cylinders 1 and 2. Engine operates in the identical way as in the first two examples, except the fact that in this case in order to obtain the useful energy, we use water pressure from the column of water, which according to the principle of communicating vessels affects the walls 8 and 9 and the pistons 10 and 1 1 of the cylinders 1 and 2. What characterizes this engine, in which the amount of the useful energy is affected by the construction of the engine itself in the sense of good tightness of the cylinders 1 and 2, is that the insignificant losses in water are simply compensated for by adding the water lost into the tank of the water tower 54.

It is especially emphasized that in the patent description the device displayed only has one pair of adverse constructed cylinders 1 and 2; however, the engine driven by the water pressure from the water tower 54, in cases when it is necessary to do so in order to increase the engine power, can operate with more pairs, even tens of the pairs of cylinders in the same way as if it were a two-cylinder engine. The assemblies for the synchronization of the engine operation, the correction of movement of the walls 9 of the cylinders and the change in the operating area of the operating pistons 1 1 and 12 are also connected to each pair of the operating cylinders 1 and 2 in the same manner as if it were a two-cylinder engine. One water tower can be connected to more devices displayed in the Figure 11 in order to use the water to the maximum.

The advantage of the caulk ring in water engines is in the fact that there are no problems in refilling water by any kinds of pumps that would be consumers of part of the produced energy, because natural water resources are used. In engines driven by the water under pressure of the column of water, the caulkering represents a significantly smaller problem, which arises from the fact that the ratio of the water viscosity towards air viscosity is 1 :1000, which makes tightness more easily solvable technically. It should be stressed that the level of water in the tower in this case insignificantly changes, so that the changes in the cylinders take place with only the losses caused by friction. Something similar happens with pneumatic engines, where the air pressure falls during the operating strokes of the pistons and rises with the changes in volumes of the cylinders with some friction losses as well. One water tower can be connected to more water engines and electric generators so that the usefulness is multiple in relation to the effluent hydroelectric power plants whose production depends on the flow of water falling onto the water turbine, which is subject to meteorological effects. One should take into account the fact that the patent water engines can be placed near the lakes used for the effluent hydroelectric power plants with multiple positive effects, and minimal expenses of the building of the pipeline from the lake to the water tower.

Ways of industrial production of the invention

Industrial production of the patent is absolutely possible in the factories for the production of driving devices based on the workshop documents which experts in the subject area can make by using the draft and the descriptions given in the patent registration.

The patent is convenient for batch production, and its application is recommended for the production of driving devices which have to fulfil high ecologic criteria.